Theoretical Studies of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluid Flowthrough Porous Media
Wu, Y.S.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: (1) development of numerical and analytical solutions; (2) theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and (3) applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. Based on this solution, a graphic approach for evaluating non-Newtonian displacement efficiency has been developed. The Buckley-Leverett-Welge theory is extended to flow problems with non-Newtonian fluids. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. The results show that this kind of displacement is a complicated process and is determined by the rheological properties of the non-Newtonian fluids and the flow conditions, in addition to relative permeability data. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. For flow at a constant rate, non-Newtonian flow behavior in a fractured
Dynamic wetting with viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Wei, Y; Rame, E; Walker, L M; Garoff, S
2009-11-18
We examine various aspects of dynamic wetting with viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Rather than concentrating on the mechanisms that relieve the classic contact line stress singularity, we focus on the behavior in the wedge flow near the contact line which has the dominant influence on wetting with these fluids. Our experiments show that a Newtonian polymer melt composed of highly flexible molecules exhibits dynamic wetting behavior described very well by hydrodynamic models that capture the critical properties of the Newtonian wedge flow near the contact line. We find that shear thinning has a strong impact on dynamic wetting, by reducing the drag of the solid on the fluid near the contact line, while the elasticity of a Boger fluid has a weaker impact on dynamic wetting. Finally, we find that other polymeric fluids, nominally Newtonian in rheometric measurements, exhibit deviations from Newtonian dynamic wetting behavior.
Rod-climbing effect in Newtonian fluids.
Bonn, Daniel; Kobylko, Mathias; Bohn, Steffen; Meunier, Jacques; Morozov, Alexander; van Saarloos, Wim
2004-11-19
When a rotating rod is brought into a polymer melt or concentrated polymer solution, the meniscus climbs the rod. This spectacular rod climbing is due to the normal stresses present in the polymer fluid and is thus a purely non-Newtonian effect. A similar rod climbing of an interface between two fluids has therefore been taken as a signature that one of the fluids exhibits normal stress effects. We show here, however, that the effect can occur with simple Newtonian fluids: it occurs when a Taylor-Couette instability happens in the less viscous of the two liquids but not in the more viscous one.
Drop formation in non-Newtonian fluids.
Aytouna, Mounir; Paredes, Jose; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Noushine; Moulinet, Sébastien; Wagner, Christian; Amarouchene, Yacine; Eggers, Jens; Bonn, Daniel
2013-01-18
We study the pinch-off dynamics of droplets of yield stress and shear thinning fluids. To separate the two non-Newtonian effects, we use a yield stress material for which the yield stress can be tuned without changing the shear thinning behavior, and a shear thinning system (without a yield stress) for which the shear thinning can be controlled over a large range, without introducing too much elasticity into the system. We find that the pinch-off remains very similar to that of constant viscosity Newtonian liquids, and consequently thinning in shear flow does not imply a thinning in elongational flow.
Electrokinetics of non-Newtonian fluids: a review.
Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun
2013-12-01
This work presents a comprehensive review of electrokinetics pertaining to non-Newtonian fluids. The topic covers a broad range of non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics, including electroosmosis of non-Newtonian fluids, electrophoresis of particles in non-Newtonian fluids, streaming potential effect of non-Newtonian fluids and other related non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics. Generally, the coupling between non-Newtonian hydrodynamics and electrostatics not only complicates the electrokinetics but also causes the fluid/particle velocity to be nonlinearly dependent on the strength of external electric field and/or the zeta potential. Shear-thinning nature of liquids tends to enhance electrokinetic phenomena, while shear-thickening nature of liquids leads to the reduction of electrokinetic effects. In addition, directions for the future studies are suggested and several theoretical issues in non-Newtonian electrokinetics are highlighted. © 2013.
Undulatory swimming in non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardekani, Arezoo; Li, Gaojin
2015-11-01
Microorganisms often swim in complex fluids exhibiting both elasticity and shear-thinning viscosity. The motion of low Reynolds number swimmers in complex fluids is important for better understanding the migration of sperms and formation of bacterial biofilms. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of non-Newtonian fluid properties, including shear-thinning and elasticity, on the undulatory locomotion. Our results show that elasticity hinders the swimming speed, but a shear-thinning viscosity in the absence of elasticity enhances the speed. The combination of the two effects hinders the swimming speed. The swimming boost in a shear-thinning fluid occurs even for an infinitely long flagellum. The swimming speed has a maximum, whose value depends on the flagellum oscillation amplitude and fluid rheological properties. The power consumption, on the other hand, follows a universal scaling law. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1445955 and Indiana CTSI TR001108.
Saffman-Taylor instability for generalized Newtonian fluids.
Mora, S; Manna, M
2009-07-01
We study theoretically the linear Saffman-Taylor instability for non-Newtonian fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell. After introducing the notion of generalized Newtonian fluid we calculate the associated Darcy's law. We derive the relation governing the growth rate of normal modes for a large class of non-Newtonian flows. For shear-thinning fluids at high shear rate our theory provides Darcy's laws free of the nonphysical divergences appearing in the classical approaches. We characterize fluids which develop instabilities faster than Newtonian fluids under the same hydrodynamical conditions. Another primary result that this paper provides is that for some shear-thickening fluids, all normal modes are stable.
Pressure transient behavior of dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluid composite reservoirs
Okpobiri, G.A.; Ikoku, C.U.
1983-11-01
This study investigates pressure falloff testing in non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluid composite reservoirs. The non-Newtonian fluids of interest exhibit dilatant behavior. Initial water saturation is accounted for. Application of non-Newtonian well test analysis techniques and conventional Horner (Newtonian) techniques is investigated. The effects of different injection times before shut-in, external radii, flow behavior indexes and non-Newtonian fluid consistencies on the pressure transient behavior constitute the salient features of this work. It is shown that early time falloff pressure data can be analyzed by non-Newtonian techniques while the late shut-in data, under certain conditions, can be analyzed by the conventional Horner method. The time when the Newtonian fluid starts influencing the non-Newtonian falloff curves and the location of the non-Newtonian fluid front can be estimated by using the radius of investigation equation for power-law fluids and volumetric balance equation respectively. Rheological consideration is made to illustrate the pressure transient behavior.
Physical-based non-Newtonian fluid animation using SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Hai
Fluids are commonly seen in our daily lives. They exhibit a wide range of motions, which depend on their physical properties, and often result in amazing visual phenomena. Hence, fluid animation is a popular topic in computer graphics. The animation results not only enrich a computer-generated virtual world but have found applications in generating special effects in motion pictures and in computer games. The three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equation is a comprehensive mechanical description of the fluid motions. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a popular particle-based fluid modeling formulation. In physical-based fluid animation, the fluid models are based on the 3D NS equation, which can be solved using SPH based methods. Non-Newtonian fluids form a rich class of fluids. Their physical behavior exhibits a strong and complex stress-strain relationship which falls outside the modeling range of Newtonian fluid mechanics. In physical-based fluid animation, most of the fluid models are based on Newtonian fluids, and hence they cannot realistically animate non-Newtonian fluid motions such as stretching, bending, and bouncing. Based on the 3D NS equation and SPH, three original contributions are presented in this dissertation, which address the following three aspects of fluid animation: (1) particle-based non-Newtonian fluids, (2) immiscible fluid-fluid collision, and (3) heating non-Newtonian fluids. Consequently, more varieties of non-Newtonian fluid motions can be animated, which include stretching, bending, and bouncing.
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Hachmon, Guy; Mamet, Noam; Sasson, Sapir; Barkai, Tal; Hadar, Nomi; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido
2016-01-01
New types of robots inspired by biological principles of assembly, locomotion, and behavior have been recently described. In this work we explored the concept of robots that are based on more fundamental physical phenomena, such as fluid dynamics, and their potential capabilities. We report a robot made entirely of non-Newtonian fluid, driven by shear strains created by spatial patterns of audio waves. We demonstrate various robotic primitives such as locomotion and transport of metallic loads-up to 6-fold heavier than the robot itself-between points on a surface, splitting and merging, shapeshifting, percolation through gratings, and counting to 3. We also utilized interactions between multiple robots carrying chemical loads to drive a bulk chemical synthesis reaction. Free of constraints such as skin or obligatory structural integrity, fluid robots represent a radically different design that could adapt more easily to unfamiliar, hostile, or chaotic environments and carry out tasks that neither living organisms nor conventional machines are capable of.
Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media
Wu, Yu-Shu.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.
Coupling electrokinetics and rheology: Electrophoresis in non-Newtonian fluids.
Khair, Aditya S; Posluszny, Denise E; Walker, Lynn M
2012-01-01
We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the electrophoretic motion of charged colloidal particles immersed in complex (non-Newtonian) fluids possessing shear-rate-dependent viscosities. We demonstrate that this non-Newtonian rheology leads to an explicit shape and size dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of a uniformly charged particle in the thin-Debye-layer regime, in contrast to electrophoresis in Newtonian fluids. This dependence is caused by non-Newtonian stresses in the bulk (electroneutral) fluid outside the Debye layer, whose magnitude is naturally characterized in an electrophoretic Deborah number.
Non-Newtonian behavior in simple fluids.
Delhommelle, Jerome; Petravic, J; Evans, Denis J
2004-04-01
Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the non-Newtonian rheology of a microscopic sample of simple fluid. The calculations were performed using a configurational thermostat which unlike previous nonequilibrium molecular dynamics or nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics methods does not exert any additional constraint on the flow profile. Our findings are in agreement with experimental results on concentrated "hard sphere"-like colloidal suspensions. We observe: (i) a shear thickening regime under steady shear; (ii) a strain thickening regime under oscillatory shear at low frequencies; and (iii) shear-induced ordering under oscillatory shear at higher frequencies. These results significantly differ from previous simulation results which showed systematically a strong ordering for all frequencies. They also indicate that shear thickening can occur even in the absence of a solvent.
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doludenko, A. N.; Fortova, S. V.; Son, E. E.
2016-10-01
Along with Newtonian fluids (for example, water), fluids with non-Newtonian rheology are widespread in nature and industry. The characteristic feature of a non-Newtonian fluid is the non-linear dependence between the shear stress and shear rate tensors. The form of this relation defines the types of non-Newtonian behavior: viscoplastic, pseudoplastic, dilatant and viscoelastic. The present work is devoted to the study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in pseudoplastic fluids. The main aim of the work is to undertake a direct three-dimensional numerical simulation of the mixing of two media with various rheologies and obtain the width of the mixing layer and the kinetic energy spectra, depending on the basic properties of the shear thinning liquids and the Atwood number. A theoretical study is carried out on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equation system for weakly compressible media.
Transfer of Microparticles across Laminar Streams from Non-Newtonian to Newtonian Fluid.
Ha, Byunghang; Park, Jinsoo; Destgeer, Ghulam; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin
2016-04-19
Engineering inertial lift forces and elastic lift forces is explored to transfer microparticles across laminar streams from non-Newtonian to Newtonian fluid. A co-stream of non-Newtonian flow loaded with microparticles (9.9 and 2.0 μm in diameter) and a Newtonian carrier medium flow in a straight rectangular conduit is devised. The elastic lift forces present in the non-Newtonian fluid, undeterred by particle-particle interaction, successfully pass most of the larger (9.9 μm) particles over to the Newtonian fluid. The Newtonian fluid takes over the larger particles and focus them on the equilibrium position, separating the larger particles from the smaller particles. This mechanism enabled processing of densely suspended particle samples. The method offers dilution-free (for number densities up to 10,000 μL(-1)), high throughput (6700 beads/s), and highly efficient (>99% recovery rate, >97% purity) particle separation operated over a wide range of flow rate (2 orders of magnitude).
Coalescence of Bubbles in a Newtonian Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Christopher; Thete, Sumeet; Munro, James; Lister, John; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman
2015-11-01
Bubble coalescence plays a central role in industry and nature. While considerable work has been done in the past decade to analyze the coalescence of drops in a passive outer fluid, it is only quite recently that the problem of bubble coalescence has begun to receive comparable interest. During bubble coalescence, two bubbles touch and create a gas bridge that grows from microscopic to macroscopic scales. We use high-accuracy simulation to analyze the dynamics in the vicinity of the space-time singularity created by the merging of two bubbles immersed in an outer Newtonian fluid of non-negligible density and viscosity while treating the inner gas as dynamically passive. This problem has recently been studied experimentally by Nagel and coworkers (2014) and theoretically by Munro and coworkers (2015) by asymptotic analysis. While both studies agree on power law scaling of the variation of the minimum neck radius with time, there is a discrepancy in the proposed/observed prefactors. In order to reconcile these differences, simulations are used to access earlier times than it has been possible in experiments. Extremely small length scales are also attained in the simulations through the use of a truncated domain approach.
Lu, Gui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan
2016-10-01
Dynamic wetting is an important interfacial phenomenon in many industrial applications. There have been many excellent reviews of dynamic wetting, especially on super-hydrophobic surfaces with physical or chemical coatings, porous layers, hybrid micro/nano structures and biomimetic structures. This review summarizes recent research on dynamic wetting from the viewpoint of the fluids rather than the solid surfaces. The reviewed fluids range from simple Newtonian fluids to non-Newtonian fluids and complex nanofluids. The fundamental physical concepts and principles involved in dynamic wetting phenomena are also reviewed. This review focus on recent investigations of dynamic wetting by non-Newtonian fluids, including the latest experimental studies with a thorough review of the best dynamic wetting models for non-Newtonian fluids, to illustrate their successes and limitations. This paper also reports on new results on the still fledgling field of nanofluid wetting kinetics. The challenges of research on nanofluid dynamic wetting is not only due to the lack of nanoscale experimental techniques to probe the complex nanoparticle random motion, but also the lack of multiscale experimental techniques or theories to describe the effects of nanoparticle motion at the nanometer scale (10(-9) m) on the dynamic wetting taking place at the macroscopic scale (10(-3) m). This paper describes the various types of nanofluid dynamic wetting behaviors. Two nanoparticle dissipation modes, the bulk dissipation mode and the local dissipation mode, are proposed to resolve the uncertainties related to the various types of dynamic wetting mechanisms reported in the literature.
Spreading of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluids on a Solid Substrate under Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta Choudhury, Moutushi; Chandra, Subrata; Nag, Soma; Das, Shantanu; Tarafdar, Sujata
2011-09-01
Strongly non-Newtonian fluids namely, aqueous gels of starch, are shown to exhibit visco-elastic behavior, when subjected to a load. We study arrowroot and potato starch gels. When a droplet of the fluid is sandwiched between two glass plates and compressed, the area of contact between the fluid and plates increases in an oscillatory manner. This is unlike Newtonian fluids, where the area increases monotonically in a similar situation. The periphery moreover, develops an instability, which looks similar to Saffman Taylor fingers. This is not normally seen under compression. The loading history is also found to affect the manner of spreading. We attempt to describe the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid through a visco-elastic model incorporating generalized calculus. This is shown to reproduce qualitatively the oscillatory variation in the surface strain.
Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids.
Fontana, João V; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A
2014-01-01
The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed.
Dynamic characteristics of Non Newtonian fluid Squeeze film damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaksha, C. P.; Shivaprakash, S.; Jagadish, H. P.
2016-09-01
The fluids which do not follow linear relationship between rate of strain and shear stress are termed as non-Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluids are usually categorized as those in which shear stress depends on the rates of shear only, fluids for which relation between shear stress and rate of shear depends on time and the visco inelastic fluids which possess both elastic and viscous properties. It is quite difficult to provide a single constitutive relation that can be used to define a non-Newtonian fluid due to a great diversity found in its physical structure. Non-Newtonian fluids can present a complex rheological behaviour involving shear-thinning, viscoelastic or thixotropic effects. The rheological characterization of complex fluids is an important issue in many areas. The paper analyses the damping and stiffness characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids (waxy crude oil) used in squeeze film dampers using the available literature for viscosity characterization. Damping and stiffness characteristic will be evaluated as a function of shear strain rate, temperature and percentage wax concentration etc.
Geophysical Aspects of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balmforth, N. J.; Craster, R. V.
Non-Newtonian fluid mechanics is a vast subject that has several journals partly, or primarily, dedicated to its investigation (Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, Rheologica Acta, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Journal of Rheology, amongst others). It is an area of active research, both for industrial fluid problems and for applications elsewhere, notably geophysically motivated issues such as the flow of lava and ice, mud slides, snow avalanches and debris flows. The main motivati on for this research activity is that, apart from some annoyingly common fluids such as air and water, virtually no fluid is actually Newtonian (that is, having a simple linear relation between stress and strain-rate characterized by a constant viscosity). Several textbooks are useful sources of information; for example, [1-3] are standard texts giving mathematical and engineering perspectives upon the subject. In these lecture notes, Ancey's chapter on rheology (Chap. 3) gives further introduction.
Flow non-normality-induced transient growth in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers.
Camporeale, C; Gatti, F; Ridolfi, L
2009-09-01
In recent years non-normality and transient growths have attracted much interest in fluid mechanics. Here, we investigate these topics with reference to the problem of interfacial instability in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers. Under the hypothesis of the lubrication theory, we demonstrate the existence of significant transient growths in the parameter space region where the dynamical system is asymptotically stable, and show how they depend on the main physical parameters. In particular, the key role of the density ratio is highlighted.
Perrin, Christian L; Tardy, Philippe M J; Sorbie, Ken S; Crawshaw, John C
2006-03-15
The in situ rheology of polymeric solutions has been studied experimentally in etched silicon micromodels which are idealizations of porous media. The rectangular channels in these etched networks have dimensions typical of pore sizes in sandstone rocks. Pressure drop/flow rate relations have been measured for water and non-Newtonian hydrolyzed-polyacrylamide (HPAM) solutions in both individual straight rectangular capillaries and in networks of such capillaries. Results from these experiments have been analyzed using pore-scale network modeling incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid mechanics of a Carreau fluid. Quantitative agreement is seen between the experiments and the network calculations in the Newtonian and shear-thinning flow regions demonstrating that the 'shift factor,'alpha, can be calculated a priori. Shear-thickening behavior was observed at higher flow rates in the micromodel experiments as a result of elastic effects becoming important and this remains to be incorporated in the network model.
Force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominik, Šedivý; Petr, Ferfecki; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This article presents the evaluation of force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper. Rotor is eccentric placed and its motion is translate-circular. The amplitude of rotor motion is smaller than its initial eccentricity. The force effects are calculated from pressure and viscous forces which were gained by using computational modeling. Two types of fluid were considered as filling of damper. First type of fluid is Newtonian (has constant viscosity) and second type is magnetorheological fluid (does not have constant viscosity). Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is given using Bingham rheology model. Yield stress is a function of magnetic induction which is described by many variables. The most important variables of magnetic induction are electric current and gap width which is between rotor and stator. Comparison of application two given types of fluids is shown in results.
Electro-osmotic mobility of non-Newtonian fluids.
Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun
2011-03-23
Electrokinetically driven microfluidic devices are usually used to analyze and process biofluids which can be classified as non-Newtonian fluids. Conventional electrokinetic theories resulting from Newtonian hydrodynamics then fail to describe the behaviors of these fluids. In this study, a theoretical analysis of electro-osmotic mobility of non-Newtonian fluids is reported. The general Cauchy momentum equation is simplified by incorporation of the Gouy-Chapman solution to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Carreau fluid constitutive model. Then a nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the electro-osmotic velocity of Carreau fluids is obtained and solved numerically. The effects of the Weissenberg number (Wi), the surface zeta potential (ψ¯s), the power-law exponent(n), and the transitional parameter (β) on electro-osmotic mobility are examined. It is shown that the results presented in this study for the electro-osmotic mobility of Carreau fluids are quite general so that the electro-osmotic mobility for the Newtonian fluids and the power-law fluids can be obtained as two limiting cases.
Electro-osmotic mobility of non-Newtonian fluids
Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun
2011-01-01
Electrokinetically driven microfluidic devices are usually used to analyze and process biofluids which can be classified as non-Newtonian fluids. Conventional electrokinetic theories resulting from Newtonian hydrodynamics then fail to describe the behaviors of these fluids. In this study, a theoretical analysis of electro-osmotic mobility of non-Newtonian fluids is reported. The general Cauchy momentum equation is simplified by incorporation of the Gouy–Chapman solution to the Poisson–Boltzmann equation and the Carreau fluid constitutive model. Then a nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the electro-osmotic velocity of Carreau fluids is obtained and solved numerically. The effects of the Weissenberg number (Wi), the surface zeta potential (ψ¯s), the power-law exponent(n), and the transitional parameter (β) on electro-osmotic mobility are examined. It is shown that the results presented in this study for the electro-osmotic mobility of Carreau fluids are quite general so that the electro-osmotic mobility for the Newtonian fluids and the power-law fluids can be obtained as two limiting cases. PMID:21503161
Verification of vertically rotating flume using non-newtonian fluids
Huizinga, R.J.
1996-01-01
Three tests on non-Newtonian fluids were used to verify the use of a vertically rotating flume (VRF) for the study of the rheological properties of debris flow. The VRF is described and a procedure for the analysis of results of tests made with the VRF is presented. The major advantages of the VRF are a flow field consistent with that found in nature, a large particle-diameter threshold, inexpensive operation, and verification using several different materials; the major limitations are a lack of temperature control and a certain error incurred from the use of the Bingham plastic model to describe a more complex phenomenon. Because the VRF has been verified with non-Newtonian fluids as well as Newtonian fluids, it can be used to measure the rheological properties of coarse-grained debris-flow materials.
The chromatographic performance of flow-through particles: A computational fluid dynamics study.
Smits, Wim; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Desmet, Gert
2016-01-15
The performance of flow-through particles has been studied by computational fluid dynamics. Computational fluid dynamics simulations was used to calculate the flow behaviour around and inside the particles rather than estimate it. The obtained flow field has been used to accurately simulate plate heights generated by flow-through particles and compare them to standard fully porous particles. The effects of particle size, particle porosity and microparticle size on the intra-particle flow and plate heights is investigated. It is shown that the intra-particle flow generates mass transfer enhancement which lowers the total plate height. An empirical model is proposed for the mass transfer enhancement and it is compared to previously proposed models. Kinetic plots are constructed for the flow-through particles. Counter-intuitively, columns packed with flow-through particles have a higher flow resistance which counters the advantages of lower plate heights. Flow-through particles offer no significant gain in kinetic performance over fully porous particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Viscosity effects in foam drainage: Newtonian and non-newtonian foaming fluids.
Safouane, M; Saint-Jalmes, A; Bergeron, V; Langevin, D
2006-02-01
We have studied the drainage of foams made from Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions of different viscosities. Forced-drainage experiments first show that the behavior of Newtonian solutions and of shear-thinning ones (foaming solutions containing either Carbopol or Xanthan) are identical, provided one considers the actual viscosity corresponding to the shear rate found inside the foam. Second, for these fluids, a drainage regime transition occurs as the bulk viscosity is increased, illustrating a coupling between surface and bulk flow in the channels between bubbles. The properties of this transition appear different from the ones observed in previous works in which the interfacial viscoelasticity was varied. Finally, we show that foams made of solutions containing long flexible PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO) molecules counter-intuitively drain faster than foams made with Newtonian solutions of the same viscosity. Complementary experiments made with fluids having all the same viscosity but different responses to elongational stresses (PEO-based Boger fluids) suggest an important role of the elastic properties of the PEO solutions on the faster drainage.
Studies on heat transfer to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in agitated vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triveni, B.; Vishwanadham, B.; Venkateshwar, S.
2008-09-01
Heat transfer studies to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are carried out in a stirred vessel fitted with anchor/turbine impeller and a coil for heating/cooling with an objective of determining experimentally the heat transfer coefficient of few industrially important systems namely castor oil and its methyl esters, soap solution, CMC and chalk slurries. The effect of impeller geometry, speed and aeration is investigated. Generalized Reynolds and Prandtl numbers are calculated using an apparent viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids. The data is correlated using a Sieder-Tate type equation. A trend of increase in heat transfer coefficient with RPM in presence and absence of solids has been observed. Relatively high values of Nusselt numbers are obtained for non-Newtonian fluids when aeration is coupled with agitation. The contribution of natural convection to heat transfer has been accounted for by incorporating the Grashof number. The correlations developed based on these studies are applied for design of commercial scale soponification reactor. Power per unit volume resulted in reliable design of a reactor.
Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tjahjadi, Mahari; Gupta, Santosh K.
1986-01-01
Describes an experimental program to examine flow curve determination for non-Newtonian fluids. Includes apparatus used (a modification of Walawender and Chen's set-up, but using a 50cc buret connected to a glass capillary through a Tygon tube), theoretical information, procedures, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tjahjadi, Mahari; Gupta, Santosh K.
1986-01-01
Describes an experimental program to examine flow curve determination for non-Newtonian fluids. Includes apparatus used (a modification of Walawender and Chen's set-up, but using a 50cc buret connected to a glass capillary through a Tygon tube), theoretical information, procedures, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Calculation of the Pitot tube correction factor for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Etemad, S Gh; Thibault, J; Hashemabadi, S H
2003-10-01
This paper presents the numerical investigation performed to calculate the correction factor for Pitot tubes. The purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids with the power-law model constitutive equation were considered. It was shown that the power-law index, the Reynolds number, and the distance between the impact and static tubes have a major influence on the Pitot tube correction factor. The problem was solved for a wide range of these parameters. It was shown that employing Bernoulli's equation could lead to large errors, which depend on the magnitude of the kinetic energy and energy friction loss terms. A neural network model was used to correlate the correction factor of a Pitot tube as a function of these three parameters. This correlation is valid for most Newtonian, pseudoplastic, and dilatant fluids at low Reynolds number.
Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.
1979-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.
Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.
1979-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.
Speed of a swimming sheet in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids.
Dasgupta, Moumita; Liu, Bin; Fu, Henry C; Berhanu, Michael; Breuer, Kenneth S; Powers, Thomas R; Kudrolli, Arshad
2013-01-01
We measure the swimming speed of a cylindrical version of Taylor's swimming sheet in viscoelastic fluids, and find that depending on the rheology, the speed can either increase or decrease relative to the speed in a Newtonian viscous fluid. The swimming stroke of the sheet is a prescribed propagating wave that travels along the sheet in the azimuthal direction. The measurements are performed with the sheet immersed in a fluid inside a cylindrical tank under torque-free conditions. Swimming speeds in the Newtonian case are found to be consistent with calculations using the Stokes equation. A faster swimming speed is found in a viscoelastic fluid that has a viscosity independent of shear rate. By contrast, a slower swimming speed is found with more complex shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids which have multiple relaxation time scales as well. These results are compared with calculations with Oldroyd-B fluids which find a decreasing swimming speed with Deborah number given by the product of the fluid elastic relaxation time scale and the driving frequency.
Elastomeric microfluidic diode and rectifier work with Newtonian fluids.
Liu, John; Chen, Yan; Taylor, Clive R; Scherer, Axel; Kartalov, Emil P
2009-12-01
We report on two microfluidic elastomeric autoregulatory devices-a diode and a rectifier. They exhibit physically interesting and complex nonlinear behaviors (saturation, bias-dependent resistance, and rectification) with a Newtonian fluid. Due to their autoregulatory properties, they operate without active external control. As a result, they enable increased microfluidic device density and overall system miniaturization. The demonstrated diode and rectifier would also be useful components in future microfluidic logic circuitry.
Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Complex-Plasma Fluids
Ivlev, A. V.; Kompaneets, R.; Hoefner, H.; Sidorenko, I.; Morfill, G. E.; Steinberg, V.
2007-04-06
Investigations of shear flows in three-dimensional complex-plasma fluids produced in a dc discharge were carried out. The shear was induced either by an inhomogeneous gas flow or by a laser beam. The viscosity of complex plasmas was measured over a broad range of shear rates, up to the hydrodynamic limit when the discreteness becomes important. Analysis of the measurements reveals non-Newtonian behavior of complex plasmas accompanied by substantial shear thinning.
Non-newtonian viscosity of complex-plasma fluids.
Ivlev, A V; Steinberg, V; Kompaneets, R; Höfner, H; Sidorenko, I; Morfill, G E
2007-04-06
Investigations of shear flows in three-dimensional complex-plasma fluids produced in a dc discharge were carried out. The shear was induced either by an inhomogeneous gas flow or by a laser beam. The viscosity of complex plasmas was measured over a broad range of shear rates, up to the hydrodynamic limit when the discreteness becomes important. Analysis of the measurements reveals non-Newtonian behavior of complex plasmas accompanied by substantial shear thinning.
Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in newtonian fluids.
Piriz, A R; Rodriguez Prieto, G; Muñoz Díaz, I; López Cela, J J; Tahir, N A
2010-08-01
Dynamic stabilization of incompressible and immiscible newtonian fluids is studied by means of an approximate analytical model that considers the vertical vibration of the interface between the fluids. The force driving the vibration is modeled by periodic sequences of Dirac deltas. The model shows the roles played by surface tension and viscosity in determining the stability boundaries and the relevant similarity parameters are found. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies that used a sinusoidal vibration and they are found to present the same qualitative features provided a symmetric sequence of Dirac deltas is considered. Instead, important differences are observed when an asymmetric driving is used.
Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Newtonian fluids
Piriz, A. R.; Rodriguez Prieto, G.; Munoz Diaz, I.; Lopez Cela, J. J.; Tahir, N. A.
2010-08-15
Dynamic stabilization of incompressible and immiscible Newtonian fluids is studied by means of an approximate analytical model that considers the vertical vibration of the interface between the fluids. The force driving the vibration is modeled by periodic sequences of Dirac deltas. The model shows the roles played by surface tension and viscosity in determining the stability boundaries and the relevant similarity parameters are found. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies that used a sinusoidal vibration and they are found to present the same qualitative features provided a symmetric sequence of Dirac deltas is considered. Instead, important differences are observed when an asymmetric driving is used.
Enderlin, Carl W.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Nigl, Franz
2011-01-01
Pulse jet mixing systems are being developed for use in the Waste Treatment Plant in Washington State. To assist with system development, scaled tests were conducted to obtain experimental measurements of the cloud height for Newtonian slurries and cavern heights for a Non-Newtonian yield stress material. The measurements were required to assess the effective mixing and material mobilization produced during pulse jet mixer operation. The cloud height measurements were obtained for a single steady-state jet directed downward in a spherical-bottom tank. The cloud tests used glass beads in water to evaluate the height of the suspended slurry as a function of jet velocity. Cloud testing revealed that the glass bead material was suspended in the tank quickly and developed a distinctive height for each combination of flow rate and particulate size tested. The solids loading had minimal impact on the cloud height for a given particle size. During all cloud tests, the surface of the tank remained relatively calm, indicating that the slurry was dissipating the mixing energy of the relatively high velocity jet. Cavern tests were conducted to obtain experimental data of non-Newtonian fluid mixing for fluid properties similar to those of certain tank wastes. A transparent material that exhibited a yield stress and shear thinning behavior was used to obtain measurements of steady-state cavern heights as a function of jet velocity. For the non-Newtonian fluid cavern tests, distinct cavern volumes were readily developed for the four velocities tested. A linear relationship was observed to exist between cavern height and nozzle velocity. Since the experimental work detailed in this paper was completed, additional scaled tests have been conducted with pneumatic drive systems and direct drive systems similar to that described for this effort. Data from both types of measurements are shown to be linear; however, effects from the reciprocating drive systems that are not yet
Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou Najm, M. R.; Atallah, N. M.; Selker, J. S.; Roques, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Saad, G.; El-Fadel, M.
2015-12-01
Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization while still representing the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. We present a new method for experimentally estimating the pore structure of porous media using a combination of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The proposed method transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). This method allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation comparing the functional flow behavior of different soils to their modeled flow with N representative radii revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the definition of the radii and corresponding percent contribution to flow of multiple representative pores, thus improving the ability of pore-scale models to mimic the functional behavior of real porous media in terms of flow and porosity. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil
Ochowiak, Marek; Matuszak, Magdalena; Włodarczak, Sylwia
2017-08-01
The article contains results of the experimental studies on atomization process of inhaled drugs and aqueous solutions of glycerol with aqueous solutions of glycerol polyacrylamide (Rokrysol WF1) in pneumatic nebulizers. In experiments, the different concentration of aqueous solutions of glycerol polyacrylamide have been tested. In addition, the effect of nebulizer design on atomization process has been determined. The one of the main elements of medical pneumatic nebulizer is nebulizer cup. The experiment with this scope is new and is very important from the point of view of aerosol therapy. The results have been obtained by the use of the digital microphotography technique. In order to determine a physicochemical properties of tested liquids, a rheological measurements and measurements of the surface tension were carried out. The differences between characteristics of aerosol for the liquids have been observed. The analysis of the droplets size distributions shows that the different diameters of droplets for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids have been formed during atomization in pneumatic nebulizers equipped with different nebulizer cups. The effect of the mouthpiece location on the droplets diameters has been shown. Precise design of nebulizer and nebulizer cups, and also physicochemical properties of atomized liquids are of high importance in order to the effectiveness of drug delivery to patient's respiratory tracts.
Experimental realization of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhiyuan; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.
2016-01-01
The Brownian diffusion of micron-scale inclusions in freely suspended smectic-A liquid crystal films a few nanometers thick and several millimeters in diameter depends strongly on the air surrounding the film. Near atmospheric pressure, the three-dimensionally coupled film-gas system is well described by Hughes-Pailthorpe-White hydrodynamic theory but at lower pressure (p ≲70 torr), the diffusion coefficient increases substantially, tending in high vacuum toward the two-dimensional limit where it is determined by film size. In the absence of air, the films are found to be a nearly ideal physical realization of a two-dimensional, incompressible Newtonian fluid.
A rivulet of perfectly wetting Newtonian fluid with thermocapillary effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redwan, Nurul Ainina; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd
2017-08-01
In the present study, we investigate the thermocapillary effects on a steady flow of a symmetric thin rivulet of perfectly wetting Newtonian fluid. The lubrication approximation is used to study the rivulet flow draining down an inclined substrate. The substrate is either uniformly hotter or uniformly colder than the surrounding atmosphere. The implicit solution of the third-order ordinary differential equation for the free-surface of the rivulet is obtained. Graphical results for the middle height and the width of the rivulet of prescribed volume flux for various inclination angles and effective Marangoni numbers are presented, together with the transverse cross-sectional profiles of the rivulet.
Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.
Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A
2015-01-01
Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system.
Intermittent outgassing through a non-Newtonian fluid.
Divoux, Thibaut; Bertin, Eric; Vidal, Valérie; Géminard, Jean-Christophe
2009-05-01
We report an experimental study of the intermittent dynamics of a gas flowing through a column of a non-Newtonian fluid. In a given range of the imposed constant flow rate, the system spontaneously alternates between two regimes: bubbles emitted at the bottom either rise independently one from the other or merge to create a winding flue which then connects the bottom air entrance to the free surface. The observations are reminiscent of the spontaneous changes in the degassing regime observed on volcanoes and suggest that, in the nature, such a phenomenon is likely to be governed by the non-Newtonian properties of the magma. We focus on the statistical distribution of the lifespans of the bubbling and flue regimes in the intermittent steady state. The bubbling regime exhibits a characteristic time whereas, interestingly, the flue lifespan displays a decaying power-law distribution. The associated exponent, which is significantly smaller than the value 1.5 often reported experimentally and predicted in some standard intermittency scenarios, depends on the fluid properties and can be interpreted as the ratio of two characteristic times of the system.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-flake vortices in Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazazzadeh, Nasim; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Khavasi, Amin; Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail; Movahed, S. M. S.; Jafari, G. R.
2016-12-01
We study the rotational motion of nano-flake ferromagnetic disks suspended in a Newtonian fluid, as a potential material owing the vortex-like magnetic configuration. Using analytical expressions for hydrodynamic, magnetic and Brownian torques, the stochastic angular momentum equation is determined in the dilute limit conditions under applied magnetic field. Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. We also estimate the uncertainty in the orientation of the disks due to the Brownian torque when an external magnetic field aligns them. Interestingly, this uncertainty is roughly proportional to the ratio of thermal energy of fluid to the magnetic energy stored in the disks. Our approach can be implemented in many practical applications including biotechnology and multi-functional fluidics.
Electrokinetic flow of non-Newtonian fluids in microchannels.
Berli, Claudio L A; Olivares, María L
2008-04-15
A theoretical description of the electrokinetic flow of non-Newtonian fluids through slit and cylindrical microchannels is presented. Calculations are based on constitutive models of the fluid viscosity, and take into account wall depletion effects of colloids and polymer solutions. The resulting equations allow one to predict the flow rate and electric current as functions of the simultaneously applied electric potential and pressure gradients. It is found that (i) nonlinear effects induced by the shear-dependent viscosity are limited to the pressure-driven component of the flow, and (ii) the reciprocity between electroosmosis and streaming current is complied. Thus a generalized form of the force-flux relations is proposed, which is of interest in microfluidic applications.
Steady flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through a contraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Lumley, J. L.
1978-01-01
A steady-state analysis is conducted to examine the basic flow structure of a non-Newtonian fluid in a domain including an inflow region, a contraction region, and an outflow region. A Cartesian grid system is used throughout the entire flow domain, including the contraction region, thus creating an irregular grid cell structure adjacent to the curved boundary. At node points adjacent to the curved boundary symmetry conditions are derived for the different flow variables in order to solve the governing difference equations. Attention is given to the motion and non-Newtonian constitutive equations, the boundary conditions, the numerical modeling of the non-Newtonian equations, the stream function contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid, the vorticity contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid, the velocity profile across the contraction, and the shear stress contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid.
Steady flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through a contraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Lumley, J. L.
1978-01-01
A steady-state analysis is conducted to examine the basic flow structure of a non-Newtonian fluid in a domain including an inflow region, a contraction region, and an outflow region. A Cartesian grid system is used throughout the entire flow domain, including the contraction region, thus creating an irregular grid cell structure adjacent to the curved boundary. At node points adjacent to the curved boundary symmetry conditions are derived for the different flow variables in order to solve the governing difference equations. Attention is given to the motion and non-Newtonian constitutive equations, the boundary conditions, the numerical modeling of the non-Newtonian equations, the stream function contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid, the vorticity contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid, the velocity profile across the contraction, and the shear stress contour lines for the non-Newtonian fluid.
Using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the mixing of non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Dineshkumar; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Mehrvar, Mehrab
2012-12-01
Mixing is a critical unit operation, which is widely used in chemical and allied industries. Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task due to the complex rheology exhibited by these fluids. Pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress are an important class of non-Newtonian fluids. In this study, we utilized ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to explore the flow field generated by different impellers in the agitation of xanthan gum solutions and pulp suspensions, which are yield-pseudoplastic fluids.
Turbulent Entrainment into Non-Newtonian Fluid Mud Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Michael; Testik, Firat
2011-11-01
This study presents insights into turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. It is well established that fluid mud suspensions exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior. Gravity current laboratory experiments were conducted for constant-volume release configuration with different initial concentrations of fluid mud, representing different rheological properties (i.e. different Power-law model constants). A high quality data set of concentration and velocity profiles of fluid mud gravity currents was collected to calculate the entrainment velocity, we. The entrainment ratio (E =we / U , U - characteristic velocity) was calculated following the well-accepted Morton-Taylor-Turner entrainment hypothesis, which states that the inflow across the edge of a turbulent flow is proportional to some characteristic velocity. The entrainment ratio was further measured qualitatively using a light opaqueness technique. A semi-empirical parameterization for the entrainment ratio is proposed. The findings of this study are expected to be of significance for modeling various non-Newtonian gravity currents, in particular for modeling fluid mud gravity currents generated during dredge disposal operations in coastal waters. Contact Author.
Dynamics and Control of Newtonian and Viscoelastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieu, Binh K.
Transition to turbulence represents one of the most intriguing natural phenomena. Flows that are smooth and ordered may become complex and disordered as the flow strength increases. This process is known as transition to turbulence. In this dissertation, we develop theoretical and computational tools for analysis and control of transition and turbulence in shear flows of Newtonian, such as air and water, and complex viscoelastic fluids, such as polymers and molten plastics. Part I of the dissertation is devoted to the design and verification of sensor-free and feedback-based strategies for controlling the onset of turbulence in channel flows of Newtonian fluids. We use high fidelity simulations of the nonlinear flow dynamics to demonstrate the effectiveness of our model-based approach to flow control design. In Part II, we utilize systems theoretic tools to study transition and turbulence in channel flows of viscoelastic fluids. For flows with strong elastic forces, we demonstrate that flow fluctuations can experience significant amplification even in the absence of inertia. We use our theoretical developments to uncover the underlying physical mechanism that leads to this high amplification. For turbulent flows with polymer additives, we develop a model-based method for analyzing the influence of polymers on drag reduction. We demonstrate that our approach predicts drag reducing trends observed in full-scale numerical simulations. In Part III, we develop mathematical framework and computational tools for calculating frequency responses of spatially distributed systems. Using state-of-the-art automatic spectral collocation techniques and new integral formulation, we show that our approach yields more reliable and accurate solutions than currently available methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, U. P.; Medhavi, Amit; Gupta, R. S.; Bhatt, Siddharth Shankar
2017-07-01
Peristaltic transport is an important mechanism of physiological phenomenon and peristaltic pumps. With the advancement of medical science, it has been established that the physiological fluids do not behave like Newtonian fluids. Therefore, in order to understand the behaviour and properties of physiological fluids during peristalsis, selection of appropriate fluid model is of great importance. In the present investigation, properties of peristaltic transport through nonuniform tube have been studied for non-Newtonian fluids using Rabinowitsch fluid model. Theoretical analysis has been presented for long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. To analyse various properties of the flow, analytical expressions for velocity, pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction force, and temperature have been obtained. The numerical results for the same have been obtained to present the effect of various physical and flow parameters on fluid velocity, pressure rise, friction force, and temperature. Significant variation of these properties has been observed in the analysis for non-Newtonian nature of the fluid and nonuniformity of the tube.
Pinch-off Dynamics of Non-Newtonian Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huisman, F. M.; Gutman, S. R.; Taborek, P.
2010-11-01
The pinch-off dynamics of a variety of shear-thinning fluids (foams, concentrated emulsions, and slurries) were studied using high speed videography. The pinch was characterized by the variation of the minimum neck radius rmin as a function of the time to pinch t, with rmin prop to t^α. The rheology of shear thinning fluids can be characterized by an exponent τ = k γ^n, with n < 1. We found that for a variety of shear-thinning fluids including mayonnaise and acrylic paint, rmin scales with t to a power α equal to the flow index for the particular fluid. The flow index was measured using a TA instruments AR-G2 rheometer. The flow index for acrylic paint was 0.440 +/- 0.014 and rmin scales with t to the 0.41 +/- 0.03; for mayonnaise the flow index was 0.355 +/- 0.014; and rmin scales with t to the 0.35+/- 0.02. To study the transition from conventional Newtonian pinch, we systematically varied the concentration of a water-Xanthan gum mixture.
Generalized Newtonian fluid flow through fibrous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Kołodziej, Jan Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof
2016-06-01
The numerical calculations of the velocity field and the component of transverse permeability in the filtration equation for steady, incompressible flow of the generalized Newtonian fluid through the assemblages of cylindrical fibers are presented in this paper. The fibers are arranged regularly in arrays. Flow is transverse with respect to the fibers. The non-linear governing equation in the repeated element of the array is solved using iteration method. At each iteration step the method of fundamental solutions and the method of particular solutions are used. The bundle of fibers is treated as a porous media and on the base of velocity field the permeability coefficients are calculated as a function of porosity.
Frolov, S V; Sindeev, S V; Liepsch, D; Balasso, A
2016-05-18
According to the clinical data, flow conditions play a major role in the genesis of intracranial aneurysms. The disorder of the flow structure is the cause of damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, which leads to the development of cerebral aneurysms. Knowledge of the alteration of the flow field in the aneurysm region is important for treatment. The aim is to study quantitatively the flow structure in an patient-specific aneurysm model of the internal carotid artery using both experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. A patient-specific geometry of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery was used. Patient data was segmented and smoothed to obtain geometrical model. An elastic true-to-scale silicone model was created with stereolithography. For initial investigation of the blood flow, the flow was visualized by adding particles into the silicone model. The precise flow velocity measurements were done using 1D Laser Doppler Anemometer with a spatial resolution of 50 μ m and a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The local velocity measurements were done at a distance of 4 mm to each other. A fluid with non-Newtonian properties was used in the experiment. The CFD simulations for unsteady-state problem were done using constructed hexahedral mesh for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Using 1D laser Doppler Anemometer the minimum velocity magnitude at the end of systole -0.01 m/s was obtained in the aneurysm dome while the maximum velocity 1 m/s was at the center of the outlet segment. On central cross section of the aneurysm the maximum velocity value is only 20% of the average inlet velocity. The average velocity on the cross-section is only 11% of the inlet axial velocity. Using the CFD simulation the wall shear stresses for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at the end of systolic phase (t= 0.25 s) were computed. The wall shear stress varies from 3.52 mPa (minimum value) to 10.21 Pa (maximum value) for the
Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou Najm, Majdi; Atallah, Nabil; Selker, John; Roques, Clément; Stewart, Ryan; Rupp, David; Saad, George; El-Fadel, Mutasem
2016-04-01
Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization. We present a new method that transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). Those radii and weights are optimized in terms of flow and porosity to represent the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. The method also allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and functional infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media composed of different combinations of sizes and numbers of capillary tubes that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the prediction of the pore structure. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil-root-plant continuum, carbon sequestration into geologic formations, soil remediation, petroleum reservoir engineering, oil exploration and groundwater modeling.
Pseudo-Newtonian Equations for Evolution of Particles and Fluids in Stationary Space-times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witzany, Vojtěch; Lämmerzahl, Claus
2017-06-01
Pseudo-Newtonian potentials are a tool often used in theoretical astrophysics to capture some key features of a black hole space-time in a Newtonian framework. As a result, one can use Newtonian numerical codes, and Newtonian formalism, in general, in an effective description of important astrophysical processes such as accretion onto black holes. In this paper, we develop a general pseudo-Newtonian formalism, which pertains to the motion of particles, light, and fluids in stationary space-times. In return, we are able to assess the applicability of the pseudo-Newtonian scheme. The simplest and most elegant formulas are obtained in space-times without gravitomagnetic effects, such as the Schwarzschild rather than the Kerr space-time; the quantitative errors are smallest for motion with low binding energy. Included is a ready-to-use set of fluid equations in Schwarzschild space-time in Cartesian and radial coordinates.
Viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction between a non-Newtonian fluid flow and flexible cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Anita; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Rothstein, Jonathan
2016-11-01
It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly-mounted structure is placed perpendicular to the flow of a Newtonian fluid, it can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. If the same flexible object is placed in non-Newtonian flows, however, the structure's response is still unknown. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability. In this talk, we will present a series of experiments investigating the response of a flexible cylinder placed in the cross flow of a viscoelastic fluid. The elastic flow instabilities occurring at high Weissenberg numbers can exert fluctuating forces on the flexible cylinder thus leading to nonlinear periodic oscillations of the flexible structure. These oscillations are found to be coupled to the time-dependent state of viscoelastic stresses in the wake of the flexible cylinder. The static and dynamic responses of the flexible cylinder will be presented over a range of flow velocities, along with measurements of velocity profiles and flow-induced birefringence, in order to quantify the time variation of the flow field and the state of stress in the fluid.
Soares, Armando A; Gonzaga, Sílvia; Oliveira, Carlos; Simões, André; Rouboa, Abel I
2017-06-01
Hemodynamic in abdominal aorta bifurcation was investigated in a real case using computational fluid dynamics. A Newtonian and non-Newtonian (Walburn-Schneck) viscosity models were compared. The geometrical model was obtained by 3D reconstruction from CT-scan and hemodynamic parameters obtained by laser-Doppler. Blood was assumed incompressible fluid, laminar flow in transient regime and rigid vessel wall. Finite volume-based was used to study the velocity, pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and viscosity throughout cardiac cycle. Results obtained with Walburn-Schneck's model, during systole, present lower viscosity due to shear thinning behavior. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between the results obtained by the two models for a specific patient. During the systole, differences are more pronounced and are preferably located in the tortuous regions of the artery. Throughout the cardiac cycle, the WSS amplitude between the systole and diastole is greater for the Walburn-Schneck's model than for the Newtonian model. However, the average viscosity along the artery is always greater for the non-Newtonian model, except in the systolic peak. The hemodynamic model is crucial to validate results obtained with CFD and to explore clinical potential.
Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua
2016-08-01
In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Rheology of cubic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid.
Cwalina, Colin D; Harrison, Kelsey J; Wagner, Norman J
2016-05-18
Many real-world industrial processes involve non-spherical particles suspended in a fluid medium. Knowledge of the flow behavior of these suspensions is essential for optimizing their transport properties and designing processing equipment. In the present work, we explore and report on the rheology of concentrated suspensions of cubic-shaped colloidal particles under steady and dynamic shear flow. These suspensions exhibit a rich non-Newtonian rheology that includes shear thickening and normal stress differences at high shear stresses. Scalings are proposed to connect the material properties of these suspensions of cubic particle to those measured for suspensions of spherical particles. Negative first normal stress differences indicate that lubrication hydrodynamic forces dominate the stress in the shear-thickened state. Accounting for the increased lubrication hydrodynamic interactions between the flat surfaces of the cubic particles allows for a quantitative comparison of the deviatoric stress in the shear-thickened state to that of spherical particles. New semi-empirical models for the viscosity and normal stress difference coefficients are presented for the shear-thickened state. The results of this study indicate that cubic particles offer new and unique opportunities to formulate colloidal dispersions for field-responsive materials.
Effect of non-Newtonian viscosity on the fluid-dynamic characteristics in stenotic vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huh, Hyung Kyu; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang Joon
2015-08-01
Although blood is known to have shear-thinning and viscoelastic properties, the effects of such properties on the hemodynamic characteristics in various vascular environments are not fully understood yet. For a quantitative hemodynamic analysis, the refractive index of a transparent blood analogue needs to be matched with that of the flowing conduit in order to minimize the errors according to the distortion of the light. In this study, three refractive index-matched blood analogue fluids with different viscosities are prepared—one Newtonian and two non-Newtonian analogues—which correspond to healthy blood with 45 % hematocrit (i.e., normal non-Newtonian) and obese blood with higher viscosity (i.e., abnormal non-Newtonian). The effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the blood analogues on the hemodynamic characteristics in the post-stenosis region of an axisymmetric stenosis model are experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry velocity field measurement technique and pathline flow visualization. As a result, the centerline jet flow from the stenosis apex is suppressed by the shear-thinning feature of the blood analogues when the Reynolds number is smaller than 500. The lengths of the recirculation zone for abnormal and normal non-Newtonian blood analogues are 3.67 and 1.72 times shorter than that for the Newtonian analogue at Reynolds numbers smaller than 200. The Reynolds number of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow for all blood analogues increases as the shear-thinning feature increases, and the maximum wall shear stresses in non-Newtonian fluids are five times greater than those in Newtonian fluids. However, the shear-thinning effect on the hemodynamic characteristics is not significant at Reynolds numbers higher than 1000. The findings of this study on refractive index-matched non-Newtonian blood analogues can be utilized in other in vitro experiments, where non-Newtonian features dominantly affect the flow
Hydrodynamics of Newtonian and power-law fluids in microchannel with superhydrophobic wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagner, S. A.; Patlazhan, S. A.
2016-11-01
The flow peculiarities of the Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda power-law fluids in a microchannel with the striped superhydrophobic wall is studied numerically. The driving forces leading to deviation of streamlines from the channel axis are analyzed.
Dynamic wetting of non-newtonian fluids: multicomponent molecular-kinetic approach.
Liang, Zhan-Peng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Min, Qi; Wang, Chi; Lee, Duu-Jong
2010-09-21
Hydrodynamic models are generally applied to describe the dynamic wetting of newtonian or non-newtonian fluids on a solid surface. Conversely, the molecular-kinetic paradigm is only utilized for spreading newtonian fluids while considering the movement of a contact line as a molecular hopping process. This study extended the molecular-kinetic paradigm to the wetting behavior of non-newtonian fluids, while assuming there are n fluid components at the contact line regime interacting simultaneously with a solid surface during front movement. The limiting cases of the derived model at slow and fast moving speeds were discussed. Moreover, the derived model was validated based on dynamic contact angle data of three carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous solutions measured using the force-balance method. Best-fit parameters were used to interpret the wetting dynamics of CMC solutions.
Nandy, S; Tarbell, J M
1987-01-01
Wall shear stress has been measured by flush-mounted hot film anemometry distal to an Ionescu-Shiley tri-leaflet valve under pulsatile flow conditions. Both Newtonian (aqueous glycerol) and non-Newtonian (aqueous polyacrylamide) blood analog fluids were investigated. Significant differences in the axial distribution of wall shear stress between the two fluids are apparent in flows having nearly identical Reynolds numbers. The Newtonian fluid exhibits a (peak) wall shear rate which is maximized near the valve seat (30 mm) and then decays to a fully developed flow value (by 106 mm). In contrast, the shear rate of the non-Newtonian fluid at 30 mm is less than half that of the Newtonian fluid and at 106 mm is more than twice that of the Newtonian fluid. It is suggested that non-Newtonian rheology influences valve flow patterns either through alterations in valve opening associated with low shear separation zones behind valve leaflets, or because of variations in the rate of jet spreading. More detailed studies are required to clarify the mechanisms. The Newtonian wall shear stresses for this valve are low. The highest value observed anywhere in the aortic chamber was 2.85 N/m2 at a peak Reynolds number of 3694.
Numerical Simulation of non-Newtonian Fluid Flows through Fracture Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharmawan, I. A.; Ulhag, R. Z.; Endyana, C.; Aufaristama, M.
2016-01-01
We present a numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a twodimensional fracture network. The fracture is having constant mean aperture and bounded with Hurst exponent surfaces. The non-Newtonian rheology behaviour of the fluid is described using the Power-Law model. The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to calculate the solutions for non-Newtonian flow in finite Reynolds number. We use a constant force to drive the fluid within the fracture, while the bounceback rules and periodic boundary conditions are applied for the fluid-solid interaction and inflow outlflow boundary conditions, respectively. The validation study of the simulation is done via parallel plate flow simulation and the results demonstrated good agreement with the analytical solution. In addition, the fluid flow properties within the fracture network follow the relationships of power law fluid while the errors are becoming larger if the fluid more shear thinning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Binous, Housam
2007-01-01
We study four non-Newtonian fluid mechanics problems using Mathematica[R]. Constitutive equations describing the behavior of power-law, Bingham and Carreau models are recalled. The velocity profile is obtained for the horizontal flow of power-law fluids in pipes and annuli. For the vertical laminar film flow of a Bingham fluid we determine the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Binous, Housam
2007-01-01
We study four non-Newtonian fluid mechanics problems using Mathematica[R]. Constitutive equations describing the behavior of power-law, Bingham and Carreau models are recalled. The velocity profile is obtained for the horizontal flow of power-law fluids in pipes and annuli. For the vertical laminar film flow of a Bingham fluid we determine the…
Secondary flow in a curved artery model with Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-11-01
Steady and pulsatile flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids through a 180°-curved pipe were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiment was inspired by physiological pulsatile flow through large curved arteries, with a carotid artery flow rate imposed. Sodium iodide (NaI) and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) were added to the working fluids to match the refractive index (RI) of the test section to eliminate optical distortion. Rheological measurements revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN changes the viscoelastic properties of non-Newtonian solutions and reduces their shear-thinning property. Measured centerline velocity profiles in the upstream straight pipe agreed well with an analytical solution. In the pulsatile case, secondary flow structures, i.e. deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices, were observed in various cross sections along the curved pipe. Vortical structures at each cross section were detected using the d2 vortex identification method. Circulation analysis was performed on each vortex separately during the systolic deceleration phase, and showed that vortices split and rejoin. Secondary flow structures in steady flows were found to be morphologically similar to those in pulsatile flows for sufficiently high Dean number. supported by the George Washington University Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
Effect of non-Newtonian fluid properties on bovine sperm motility.
Hyakutake, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Satoru
2015-09-18
The swimming process by which mammal spermatozoa progress towards an egg within the reproductive organs is important in achieving successful internal fertilization. The viscosity of oviductal mucus is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of water, and oviductal mucus also has non-Newtonian properties. In this study, we experimentally observed sperm motion in fluids with various fluid rheological properties and investigated the influence of varying the viscosity and whether the fluid was Newtonian or non-Newtonian on the sperm motility. We selected polyvinylpyrrolidone and methylcellulose as solutes to create solutions with different rheological properties. We used the semen of Japanese cattle and investigated the following parameters: the sperm velocity, the straight-line velocity and the amplitude from the trajectory, and the beat frequency from the fragellar movement. In a Newtonian fluid environment, as the viscosity increased, the motility of the sperm decreased. However, in a non-Newtonian fluid, the straight-line velocity and beat frequency were significantly higher than in a Newtonian fluid with comparable viscosity. As a result, the linearity of the sperm movement increased. Additionally, increasing the viscosity brought about large changes in the sperm flagellar shape. At low viscosities, the entire flagellum moved in a curved flapping motion, whereas in the high-viscosity, only the tip of the flagellum flapped. These results suggest that the bovine sperm has evolved to swim toward the egg as quickly as possible in the actual oviduct fluid, which is a high-viscosity non-Newtonian fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spin coating of non-Newtonian fluids with a moving front.
Charpin, J P F; Lombe, M; Myers, T G
2007-07-01
We investigate axisymmetric spin coating of power law and Ellis fluids. The flow is driven by centrifugal force, gravity and surface tension. For power law and Ellis models a single equation for the fluid film height is obtained. For a Newtonian fluid the flux only involves linear derivative terms which allows the flux to be easily split for a numerical scheme. For power law and Ellis models the derivatives appear as nonlinear terms. To overcome this we develop an alternative numerical scheme to solve for the film height. Neglecting surface tension and gravity the power law model shows a central spike which is reduced by the introduction of surface tension and gravity. In certain cases the shear thinning power law model predicts slower spreading than the Newtonian model. The Ellis fluid shows no central spike, even for zero surface tension and the film always spreads further than the Newtonian fluid.
Gupta, Renu; Bansal, Ajay
2013-08-01
Axial dispersion is an important parameter in the performance of packed bed reactors. A lot of fluids exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour but the effect of rheological parameters on axial dispersion is not available in literature. The effect of rheology on axial dispersion has been analysed for viscoinelastic and viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids. Aqueous solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose and polyacrylamide have been chosen to represent viscoinelastic and viscoelastic liquid-phases. Axial dispersion has been measured in terms of BoL number. The single parameter axial dispersion model has been applied to analyse RTD response curve. The BoL numbers were observed to increase with increase in liquid flow rate and consistency index 'K' for viscoinelastic as well as viscoelastic fluids. Bodenstein correlation for Newtonian fluids proposed has been modified to account for the effect of fluid rheology. Further, Weissenberg number is introduced to quantify the effect of viscoelasticity.
Helton, Kristen L; Yager, Paul
2007-11-01
As part of a project to develop an integrated microfluidic biosensor for the detection of small molecules in saliva, practical issues of extraction of analytes from non-Newtonian samples using an H-filter were explored. The H-filter can be used to rapidly and efficiently extract small molecules from a complex sample into a simpler buffer. The location of the interface between the sample and buffer streams is a critical parameter in the function of the H-filter, so fluorescence microscopy was employed to monitor the interface position; this revealed apparently anomalous fluorophore diffusion from the samples into the buffer solutions. Using confocal microscopy to understand the three-dimensional distribution of the fluorophore, it was found that the interface between the non-Newtonian sample and Newtonian buffer was both curved and unstable. The core of the non-Newtonian sample extended into the Newtonian buffer and its position was unstable, producing a fluorescence intensity profile that gave rise to the apparently anomalously fast fluorophore transport. These instabilities resulted from the pairing of rheologically dissimilar fluid streams and were flowrate dependent. We conclude that use of non-Newtonian fluids, such as saliva, in the H-filter necessitates pretreatment to reduce viscoelasticity. The interfacial variation in position, stability and shape caused by the non-Newtonian samples has substantial implications for the use of biological samples for quantitative analysis and analyte extraction in concurrent flow extraction devices.
Ruef, Peter; Gehm, Jutta; Gehm, Lothar; Felbinger, Claudia; Pöschl, Johannes; Kuss, Navina
2014-01-01
The low shear viscometer LS300 permits measurements of viscosity with the same precision of the LS30 but is now fully controlled by the windows based software. That allows to determine viscosity at several shear rates and to establish flow curves enabling determination of the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids. The viscosity of whole blood of ten adults was determined via flow curves approximated by Casson. The sensitivity of the LS300 was evaluated by determining the viscosity of water at rising temperatures and by establishing flow curves of ten specimen of the same blood sample.
Learning about Non-Newtonian Fluids in a Student-Driven Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dounas-Frazer, D. R.; Lynn, J.; Zaniewski, A. M.; Roth, N.
2013-01-01
We describe a simple, low-cost experiment and corresponding pedagogical strategies for studying fluids whose viscosities depend on shear rate, referred to as "non-Newtonian fluids." We developed these materials teaching for the Compass Project, an organization that fosters a creative, diverse, and collaborative community of science…
Learning about Non-Newtonian Fluids in a Student-Driven Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dounas-Frazer, D. R.; Lynn, J.; Zaniewski, A. M.; Roth, N.
2013-01-01
We describe a simple, low-cost experiment and corresponding pedagogical strategies for studying fluids whose viscosities depend on shear rate, referred to as "non-Newtonian fluids." We developed these materials teaching for the Compass Project, an organization that fosters a creative, diverse, and collaborative community of science…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Hyeong-Ohk; Wolf, Jörg
2017-02-01
We prove the local regularity of a weak solution {\\varvec{u}} to the equations of a generalized Newtonian fluid with power law 1< q ≤ 2 if {\\varvec{u}} belongs to a suitable Lebesgue space. This result extends the well-known Serrin condition for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations to the shear-thinning fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Rosis, Alessandro
2014-11-01
In this paper, the fluid dynamics induced by a rigid lamina undergoing harmonic oscillations in a non-Newtonian calm fluid is investigated. The fluid is modelled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the flow is assumed to be nearly incompressible. An iterative viscosity-correction based procedure is proposed to properly account for the non-Newtonian fluid feature and its accuracy is evaluated. In order to handle the mutual interaction between the lamina and the encompassing fluid, the Immersed Boundary method is adopted. A numerical campaign is performed. In particular, the effect of the non-Newtonian feature is highlighted by investigating the fluid forces acting on a harmonically oscillating lamina for different values of the Reynolds number. The findings prove that the non-Newtonian feature can drastically influence the behaviour of the fluid and, as a consequence, the forces acting upon the lamina. Several considerations are carried out on the time history of the drag coefficient and the results are used to compute the added mass through the hydrodynamic function. Moreover, the computational cost involved in the numerical simulations is discussed. Finally, two applications concerning water resources are investigated: the flow through an obstructed channel and the particle sedimentation. Present findings highlight a strong coupling between the body shape, the Reynolds number, and the flow behaviour index.
Tian, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Cai, Lili; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Guoqing; Cong, Yulong; Liu, Chao; Li, Tiejun; Sun, Jiashu
2017-09-12
The microfluidic passive control of microparticles largely relies on the hydrodynamic effects of the carrier media such as Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic fluids. Yet the viscoelastic/Newtonian interfacial effect has been scarcely investigated, especially for high-resolution particle separation. Here we report a microfluidic co-flow of Newtonian (water or PBS) and viscoelastic fluids (PEO) for the size-dependent separation of microparticles. The co-flow condition generates a stable viscoelastic/Newtonian interface, giving rise to the wall-directed elastic lift forces that compete with the center-directed lift forces, and efficiently hinders the migration of microparticles from the Newtonian to the viscoelastic fluid in a size-dependent manner. An almost complete separation of a binary mixture of 1 μm and 2 μm polystyrene particles is achieved by the co-flow of water and a very dilute PEO solution (100 ppm), whereas the sole use of water or PEO could not lead to an efficient separation. This co-flow microfluidic system is also applied for the separation of Staphylococcus aureus (1 μm) from platelets (2-3 μm) with >90% efficiencies and purities.
A comparison of numerical methods for non-Newtonian fluid flows in a sudden expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilio, G. Di; Chiappini, D.; Bella, G.
2016-06-01
A numerical study on incompressible laminar flow in symmetric channel with sudden expansion is conducted. In this work, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are considered, where non-Newtonian fluids are described by the power-law model. Three different computational methods are employed, namely a semi-implicit Chorin projection method (SICPM), an explicit algorithm based on fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (ERKM) and a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The aim of the work is to investigate on the capabilities of the LBM for the solution of complex flows through the comparison with traditional computational methods. In the range of Reynolds number investigated, excellent agreement with the literature results is found. In particular, the LBM is found to be accurate in the prediction of the fluid flow behavior for the problem under consideration.
Rodriguez Prieto, G.; Piriz, A. R.; Lopez Cela, J. J.; Tahir, N. A.
2013-01-15
A previous theory on dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at interfaces between Newtonian fluids is reformulated in order to make evident the analogy of this problem with the related one on dynamic stabilization of ablation fronts in the framework of inertial confinement fusion. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the boundaries of the dynamically stable region which turns out to be completely analogue to the stability charts obtained for the case of ablation fronts. These results allow proposing experiments with Newtonian fluids as surrogates for studying the case of ablation fronts. Experiments with Newtonian fluids are presented which demonstrate the validity of the theoretical approach and encourage to pursue experimental research on ablation fronts to settle the feasibility of dynamic stabilization in the inertial confinement fusion scenario.
Fingering instability in non-Newtonian fluids during squeeze flow in a Hele-Shaw cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta Choudhury, M.; Tarafdar, S.
2015-05-01
Instability at the interface separating different fluids, may develop under different conditions, leading to increased roughness of the boundary. A difference in viscosity of the fluids is usually responsible for viscous fingering, this occurs when the pressure on the low viscosity side is higher. We report here a reverse effect when a non-Newtonian fluid is squeezed between two plane surfaces by applying a force. We observe that a wave-like irregularity develops on the interface, though the viscosity of the air surrounding the fluid is negligible compared to the apparent viscosity of the thick potato starch gel under study. Development of the wavelength of the undulations as a function of the fluid composition and other factors is studied. We suggest a qualitative explanation for this effect, which is observed only in non-Newtonian fluids.
Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Porous Medium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauswirth, S.; Dye, A. L.; Schultz, P. B.; Bowers, C.; Miller, C. T.
2016-12-01
The ability to predict the behavior of non-Newtonian fluids in porous medium systems is critical for a wide-range of applications, including hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, contaminant remediation, and biological systems. Development of accurate macroscale models of such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between the fluid and medium properties at the microscale and averaged macroscale properties. This study focuses specifically on guar gum, a major component of hydraulic fracturing fluids that exhibits Cross-model rheology. A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) incorporating non-Newtonian behavior was developed and validated against a semi-analytical solution for Cross-model fluid flow between parallel plates. The developed LBM was then used to simulate a series of one-dimensional column flow experiments conducted with a range of fluids and porous medium materials. The computational results were used in conjunction with the experimental data to investigate the relationships between fluid and media properties, microscale physics, and macroscale parameters.
Stretch flow of confined non-Newtonian fluids: nonlinear fingering dynamics.
Brandão, Rodolfo; Fontana, João V; Miranda, José A
2013-12-01
We employ a weakly nonlinear perturbative scheme to investigate the stretch flow of a non-Newtonian fluid confined in Hele-Shaw cell for which the upper plate is lifted. A generalized Darcy's law is utilized to model interfacial fingering formation in both the weak shear-thinning and weak shear-thickening limits. Within this context, we analyze how the interfacial finger shapes and the nonlinear competition dynamics among fingers are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the stretched fluid.
FDA's nozzle numerical simulation challenge: non-Newtonian fluid effects and blood damage.
Trias, Miquel; Arbona, Antonio; Massó, Joan; Miñano, Borja; Bona, Carles
2014-01-01
Data from FDA's nozzle challenge-a study to assess the suitability of simulating fluid flow in an idealized medical device-is used to validate the simulations obtained from a numerical, finite-differences code. Various physiological indicators are computed and compared with experimental data from three different laboratories, getting a very good agreement. Special care is taken with the derivation of blood damage (hemolysis). The paper is focused on the laminar regime, in order to investigate non-Newtonian effects (non-constant fluid viscosity). The code can deal with these effects with just a small extra computational cost, improving Newtonian estimations up to a ten percent. The relevance of non-Newtonian effects for hemolysis parameters is discussed.
FDA’s Nozzle Numerical Simulation Challenge: Non-Newtonian Fluid Effects and Blood Damage
Trias, Miquel; Arbona, Antonio; Massó, Joan; Miñano, Borja; Bona, Carles
2014-01-01
Data from FDA’s nozzle challenge–a study to assess the suitability of simulating fluid flow in an idealized medical device–is used to validate the simulations obtained from a numerical, finite-differences code. Various physiological indicators are computed and compared with experimental data from three different laboratories, getting a very good agreement. Special care is taken with the derivation of blood damage (hemolysis). The paper is focused on the laminar regime, in order to investigate non-Newtonian effects (non-constant fluid viscosity). The code can deal with these effects with just a small extra computational cost, improving Newtonian estimations up to a ten percent. The relevance of non-Newtonian effects for hemolysis parameters is discussed. PMID:24667931
Electrophoresis in a non-Newtonian fluid: sphere in a spherical cavity.
Lee, Eric; Huang, Yu Fen; Hsu, Jyh Ping
2003-02-15
The electrophoretic behavior of a sphere in a non-Newtonian fluid is investigated theoretically by analyzing the phenomenon that occurs in a spherical cavity under the condition of a weak applied electrical field. Non-Newtonian behavior in the liquid phase may be due to, for example, the addition of polymer to a colloidal dispersion to improve its stability. It may also arise from the increase in the volume fraction of the dispersed phase such as the slurry used in chemical mechanical polishing. A Carreau model is adopted to characterize the shear-thinning behavior of the liquid phase. We show that the difference between the mobility of the particle based on the present model and that based on the corresponding Newtonian fluid increases with the decrease in the thickness of a double layer. The shear-thinning nature of the liquid phase has the effect of increasing the mobility.
A deformable plate interacting with a non-Newtonian fluid in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Luoding; Yu, Xijun; Liu, Nansheng; Cheng, Yongguang; Lu, Xiyun
2017-08-01
We consider a deformable plate interacting with a non-Newtonian fluid flow in three dimensions as a simple model problem for fluid-structure-interaction phenomena in life sciences (e.g., red blood cell interacting with blood flow). A power-law function is used for the constitutive equation of the non-Newtonian fluid. The lattice Boltzmann equation (the D3Q19 model) is used for modeling the fluid flow. The immersed boundary (IB) method is used for modeling the flexible plate and handling the fluid-plate interaction. The plate drag and its scaling are studied; the influences of three dimensionless parameters (power-law exponent, bending modulus, and generalized Reynolds number) are investigated.
Numerical Solution of Hydrodynamics Lubrications with Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osman, Kahar; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Bahak, Mohd. Zubil; Bahari, Adli; Asral
2010-06-01
This paper focuses on solution of numerical model for fluid film lubrication problem related to hydrodynamics with non-Newtonian fluid. A programming code is developed to investigate the effect of bearing design parameter such as pressure. A physical problem is modeled by a contact point of sphere on a disc with certain assumption. A finite difference method with staggered grid is used to improve the accuracy. The results show that the fluid characteristics as defined by power law fluid have led to a difference in the fluid pressure profile. Therefore a lubricant with special viscosity can reduced the pressure near the contact area of bearing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golykh, R. N.
2016-06-01
Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.
Vortex rings in non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids play yo-yo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albagnac, Julie; Laupsien, David; Anne-Archard, Dominique
2014-11-01
Vortex rings are coherent vortical structures widely presents in geophysical flows and engineering applications. Numerous applications imply industrial processes including food processing, or petrol industry. Those applications are very often confronted with non-Newtonian fluids. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, only few studies dealing with vortex dynamics in non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluids exist, and none with viscoelastic ones. The aim for the present study is to characterize experimentally the dynamics of vortex rings generated thanks to a piston-cylinder apparatus in various viscoelastic fluids as a function of the generalized Reynolds number, the piston stroke and the final piston position relative to the cylinder exit. In particular, the elastic property of the fluid will be highlighted by the furling-unfurling of vortex rings.
Classical XY model with conserved angular momentum is an archetypal non-Newtonian fluid.
Evans, R M L; Hall, Craig A; Simha, R Aditi; Welsh, Tom S
2015-04-03
We find that the classical one-dimensional XY model, with angular-momentum-conserving Langevin dynamics, mimics the non-Newtonian flow regimes characteristic of soft matter when subjected to counterrotating boundaries. An elaborate steady-state phase diagram has continuous and first-order transitions between states of uniform flow, shear-banding, solid-fluid coexistence and slip planes. Results of numerical studies and a concise mean-field constitutive relation offer a paradigm for diverse nonequilibrium complex fluids.
Mathematical modelling of peristaltic transport of a non-Newtonian fluid.
Mernone, A; Mazumdar, J
1998-09-01
The paper considers the phenomena of peristaltic transport of a non-Newtonian fluid represented as a power law fluid. The governing equations are the modified Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation in axisymmetric form. A solution is sought in terms of a perturbation series and it is shown the close proximity between analytical and numerical solutions when considering stream functions for various values of the flow behaviour index.
CFD simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin; Chen, Shulin
2008-02-15
A general mathematical model that predicts the flow fields in a mixed-flow anaerobic digester was developed. In this model, the liquid manure was assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid, and the flow governed by the continuity, momentum, and k-epsilon standard turbulence equations, and non-Newtonian power law model. The commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, Fluent, was applied to simulate the flow fields of lab-scale, scale-up, and pilot-scale anaerobic digesters. The simulation results were validated against the experimental data from literature. The flow patterns were qualitatively compared for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flow in a lab-scale digester. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the flow fields in scale-up and pilot-scale anaerobic digesters with different water pump power inputs and different total solid concentration (TS) in the liquid manure. The optimal power inputs were determined for the pilot-scale anaerobic digester. Some measures for reducing dead and low velocity zones were proposed based upon the CFD simulation results.
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester.
Pore-Scale Modeling of Non-Newtonian Shear-Thinning Fluids in Blood Oxygenator Design.
Low, Kenny W Q; van Loon, Raoul; Rolland, Samuel A; Sienz, Johann
2016-05-01
This paper reviews and further develops pore-scale computational flow modeling techniques used for creeping flow through orthotropic fiber bundles used in blood oxygenators. Porous model significantly reduces geometrical complexity by taking a homogenization approach to model the fiber bundles. This significantly simplifies meshing and can avoid large time-consuming simulations. Analytical relationships between permeability and porosity exist for Newtonian flow through regular arrangements of fibers and are commonly used in macroscale porous models by introducing a Darcy viscous term in the flow momentum equations. To this extent, verification of analytical Newtonian permeability-porosity relationships has been conducted for parallel and transverse flow through square and staggered arrangements of fibers. Similar procedures are then used to determine the permeability-porosity relationship for non-Newtonian blood. The results demonstrate that modeling non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluids in porous media can be performed via a generalized Darcy equation with a porous medium viscosity decomposed into a constant term and a directional expression through least squares fitting. This concept is then investigated for various non-Newtonian blood viscosity models. The proposed methodology is conducted with two different porous model approaches, homogeneous and heterogeneous, and validated against a high-fidelity model. The results of the heterogeneous porous model approach yield improved pressure and velocity distribution which highlights the importance of wall effects.
Surface textures and Non-Newtonian fluids for decreased friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuh, Jonathon; Ewoldt, Randy
2015-11-01
Using surface textures has been shown to decrease friction in lubricated sliding contact. A growing trend in the lubrication industry is to add polymers to base oils in order to improve the oil's effectiveness as a lubricant. These polymer additives cause the oil to become a viscoelastic lubricant that will behave differently than a simple Newtonian lubricant. We present an experimental investigation varying both the surface texture depth profile and the viscoelastic lubricant in order to determine their effects on friction reduction. Gap-controlled experiments were performed on a custom tribo-rheometer in order to systematically examine the friction reduction by varying the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number, and Deborah number in bi-directional motion. Cavitation effects are not present so that the normal force is produced solely by the surface textures and the lubricants. We show that the symmetry of the surface textures must be broken in order to produce normal forces above the viscoelastic response, and that an optimal angle of asymmetry β exists for decreasing friction with asymmetric surface textures and viscoelastic lubricants.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow over a heterogeneously slippery surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M. J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.
2015-11-01
The no-slip boundary condition does not always hold. In the past, we have investigated the influence of effective wall slip on interfacial transport for a bubble mattress - a superhydrophobic surface consisting of an array of transverse gas-filled grooves. We proved experimentally that the amount of effective wall slip depends on the bubble protrusion angle and the surface porosity (Karatay et al., PNAS 110, 2013), and predicted that mass transport can be enhanced significantly (Haase et al., Soft Matter 9, 2013). Both studies involve the flow of water. In practise, however, many liquids encountered are non-Newtonian, like blood and polymer solutions. This raises some interesting questions. How does interfacial transport depend on the rheological properties of the liquid? Does the time-scale of the experiment matter? A bubble mattress is a suitable platform to investigate this, due to local variations in shear rate. We predict that for shear-thinning liquids, compared to water, the amount of wall slip can be enhanced considerably, although this depends on the applied flow rate. Experiments are performed to proof this behaviour. Simulations are used to assess what will happen when the characteristic time-scale of the system matches the relaxation time of the visco-elastic liquid. R.G.H.L. acknowledges the European Research Council for the ERC starting grant 307342-TRAM.
EXPERIMENTAL BUBBLE FORMATION IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM FOR NEWTONIAN AND NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Leishear, R; Michael Restivo, M
2008-06-26
The complexities of bubble formation in liquids increase as the system size increases, and a photographic study is presented here to provide some insight into the dynamics of bubble formation for large systems. Air was injected at the bottom of a 28 feet tall by 30 inch diameter column. Different fluids were subjected to different air flow rates at different fluid depths. The fluids were water and non-Newtonian, Bingham plastic fluids, which have yield stresses requiring an applied force to initiate movement, or shearing, of the fluid. Tests showed that bubble formation was significantly different in the two types of fluids. In water, a field of bubbles was formed, which consisted of numerous, distributed, 1/4 to 3/8 inch diameter bubbles. In the Bingham fluid, large bubbles of 6 to 12 inches in diameter were formed, which depended on the air flow rate. This paper provides comprehensive photographic results related to bubble formation in these fluids.
Coalescence of drops and bubbles rising through a non-Newtonian fluid in a tube.
Al-Matroushi, Eisa; Borhan, Ali
2009-04-01
We conducted an experimental study of the interaction and coalescence of two drops (of the same fluid) or bubbles translating under the action of buoyancy in a cylindrical tube. The close approach of two Newtonian fluid particles of different size in a non-Newtonian continuous phase was examined using image analysis, and measurements of the coalescence time are reported for various particle size ratios, Bond numbers, and particle-to-suspending-fluid viscosity ratios. The flow disturbance behind the leading bubble and the viscoelastic nature of the continuous phase seemed to retard bubble coalescence. The time scale for coalescence of liquid drops in highly elastic continuous phase was influenced by the relative motion of the drops and their coalescence behavior.
Spreading of completely wetting, non-Newtonian fluids with non-power-law rheology.
Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong; Su, Ay
2010-08-01
Spreading non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on completely wetting surfaces are seldom investigated. This study assessed the wetting behavior of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a Newtonian fluid, two carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium solutions, a PDMS+2%w/w silica nanoparticle suspension and three polyethylene glycol (PEG400)+5-10%w/w silica nanoparticle suspensions (non-power-law fluids) on a mica surface. The theta(D)-U and R-t data for spreading drops of the six tested, non-power-law fluids can be described by power-law wetting models. We propose that this behavior is attributable to a uniform shear rate (a few tens to a few hundreds of s(-1)) distributed over the thin-film regime that controls spreading dynamics. Estimated film thickness was below the resolution of an optical microscope for direct observation. Approximating a general non-Newtonian fluid spreading as a power-law fluid greatly simplifies theoretical analysis and data interpretation.
Experimental evidence for use of Non-Newtonian fluids for pore structure characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou Najm, Majdi; Hauswirth, Scott
2017-04-01
Recent advancements in non-Newtonian fluids research have led to the theoretical development of new method for pore structure characterization. Given the complexity of the developed framework, a numerical solver, referred to as "AAPP method", was built to accommodate a wide range of possible fluid properties and experimental conditions. Using this solver, numerical evaluations revealed promising utility for complementing the use of water in saturated infiltration experiments with different (N-1) non-Newtonian fluids to obtain N different effective pore radii and their contribution to total flow. The method was then tested with synthetic porous media composed of different combinations of capillary tubes showing the ability of the N-1 non-Newtonian fluids to predict with acceptable accuracy the distribution of the pore structure. The numerical evaluations and the experimentation with simple synthetic porous media revealed promising potential out of this method: an ability to predict pore structure that is far beyond the ability of what a similar or even larger number of Newtonian fluids alone can do. To demonstrate the ability on real soils, a series of one-dimensional column experiments was conducted with varying porous medium packings, including a range of Accusands and a polydisperse sand/glass bead mixture. For each packing, distilled water and three concentrations each of guar gum and xanthan gum were injected at a range of flow rates, and the resulting pressure was measured. Data collected from the column experiments were used as inputs for the "AAPP method" to calculate representative pore radii for each media. The model output for varying fluid/flow rate permutations were combined to produce a distribution of pore radii. Independently, the pore radii were determined by x-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) and these results were compared with results obtained from the new method, and were found to be in good agreement.
Squeeze film lubrication for non-Newtonian fluids with application to manual medicine.
Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Roman, Max; Stecco, Antonio; Findley, Thomas
2013-01-01
In this paper, we computed fluid pressure and force on fascia sheets during manual therapy treatments using Squeeze Film Lubrication theory for non-Newtonian fluids. For this purpose, we developed a model valid for three dimensional fluid flow of a non-Newtonian liquid. Previous models considered only one-dimensional flows in two dimensions. We applied this model to compare the one-dimensional flow of HA, considered as a lubricating fluid, around or within the fascia during sliding, vibration, and back-and-forth sliding manipulation treatment techniques. The fluid pressure of HA increases dramatically as fascia is deformed during manual therapies. The fluid force increases more during vertical vibratory manipulation treatment than in constant sliding, and back and forth motion. The variation of fluid pressure/force causes HA to flow near the edges of the fascial area under manipulation in sliding and back and forth motion which may result in greater lubrication. The fluid pressure generated in manual therapy techniques may improve sliding and permit muscles to work more efficiently.
Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids in wavy serpentine microchannel using electrokinetically driven flow.
Cho, Ching-Chang; Chen, Chieh-Li; Chen, Cha'o-Kuang
2012-03-01
A numerical investigation is performed into the mixing performance of electrokinetically driven non-Newtonian fluids in a wavy serpentine microchannel. The flow behavior of the non-Newtonian fluids is described using a power-law model. The simulations examine the effects of the flow behavior index, the wave amplitude, the wavy-wall section length, and the applied electric field strength on the mixing performance. The results show that the volumetric flow rate of shear-thinning fluids is higher than that of shear-thickening fluids, and therefore results in a poorer mixing performance. It is shown that for both types of fluid, the mixing performance can be enhanced by increasing the wave amplitude, extending the length of the wavy-wall section, and reducing the strength of the electric field. Thus, although the mixing efficiency of shear-thinning fluids is lower than that of shear-thickening fluids, the mixing performance can be improved through an appropriate specification of the flow and geometry parameters. For example, given a shear-thinning fluid with a flow behavior index of 0.8, a mixing efficiency of 87% can be obtained by specifying the wave amplitude as 0.7, the wavy-wall section length as five times the characteristic length, the nondimensional Debye-Huckel parameter as 100, and the applied electric field strength as 43.5 V/cm. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Non-Newtonian fluid effects on surface reactions in a microfluidic flow cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akgül, M. Bahattin; Sarı, Gözde; Pakdemirli, Mehmet
2012-11-01
Mass transfer over a reactive surface in microfluidic flow cells plays a key role in understanding biomoleculer interactions and diagnosis of small molecules for biomedical and environmental applications. The effects of Non-Newtonian power law fluid on the binding reaction kinetic of immunoglobulin G in a flow cell are analyzed in this study. Governing equations for the fluid flow, mass transport and surface reaction are derived. The finite element method is employed to solve resulting equations. In addition, the effects of volumetric flow rate, fluid behavior index and reaction constants on the surface reaction are analyzed and presented graphically.
Statistical Decoupling of a Lagrangian Fluid Parcel in Newtonian Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex
2016-03-01
The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.
STATISTICAL DECOUPLING OF A LAGRANGIAN FLUID PARCEL IN NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY
Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex
2016-03-20
The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.
Motion of a Non-Newtonian Fluid in the Wake of a Flat Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Min; Ladeinde, Foluso; Bluestein, Danny
2004-11-01
A theoretical analysis of two-dimensional steady state laminar flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in the wake of a flat plate is presented. This is a simplified model for blood flow over the bi-leaflet of a mechanical heart valve. The present analysis is also intended to validate large eddy simulations, which are currently being carried out for a more elaborate model of the heart valve. By introducing the power-law model, the Goldstein's near wake solution and Tollmien's first asymptotic approximation in the far wake are extended for applicability to blood flow. On the symmetry line, two velocity distributions are obtained as functions of the distance behind the plate, one from the near wake and the other from the far wake. These are matched to form a continuous distribution. For the other regions, the velocity distribution could be determined by interpolation. The results are contrasted with previous work on Newtonian fluids.
Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.
2007-06-15
After providing a brief review of the constitutive modeling of the stress tensor for granular materials using non-Newtonian fluid models, we study the flow between two horizontal flat plates. It is assumed that the granular media behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid (of the Reiner–Rivlin type); we use the constitutive relation derived by Rajagopal and Massoudi [Rajagopal, K. R. and M. Massoudi, “A Method for measuring material moduli of granular materials: flow in an orthogonal rheometer,” Topical Report, DOE/PETC/TR-90/3, 1990] which can predict the normal stress differences. The lower plate is fixed and heated, and the upper plate (which is at a lower temperature than the lower plate) is set into motion with a constant velocity. The steady fully developed flow and the heat transfer equations are made dimensionless and are solved numerically; the effects of different dimensionless numbers and viscous dissipation are discussed.
Lattice Boltzmann method for non-Newtonian (power-law) fluids.
Gabbanelli, Susana; Drazer, German; Koplik, Joel
2005-10-01
We study an ad hoc extension of the lattice Boltzmann method that allows the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids described by generalized Newtonian models. We extensively test the accuracy of the method for the case of shear-thinning and shear-thickening truncated power-law fluids in the parallel plate geometry, and show that the relative error compared to analytical solutions decays approximately linear with the lattice resolution. Finally, we also tested the method in the reentrant-flow geometry, in which the shear rate is no longer a scalar and the presence of two singular points requires high accuracy in order to obtain satisfactory resolution in the local stress near these points. In this geometry, we also found excellent agreement with the solutions obtained by standard finite-element methods, and the agreement improves with higher lattice resolution.
Shear-induced effects in confined non-Newtonian fluids under tension.
Miranda, José A
2004-01-01
We study the influence of shear effects on the adhesive performance of a non-Newtonian fluid under tension, confined between two parallel flat plates. The upper plate is subjected to a pulling force, which is recorded during the separation process. We approach the problem analytically, and use a modified Darcy's law in the weak shear limit to derive the adhesive force and the separation energy. Our theoretical results demonstrate that, for relatively small separations, the adhesion strength is considerably reduced (enhanced) if the fluid is shear thinning (thickening). For larger plate separations, shear effects become negligible, and usual Newtonian behavior is observed. These findings are confirmed by a numerical solution of a more realistic version of the problem, which considers weak shear effects, plus the intrinsic elasticity of the lifting apparatus.
Incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid past a vertical plate with thermal and magnetic stresses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fink, David W.
1994-05-01
This paper analyzes incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid past a vertical, flat plate with thermal and magnetic stresses. This analysis will include deriving the equations governing the fluid velocity and the temperature distribution. The equations governing fluid velocity will be derived from a force balance approach. We shall consider the forces that act on a differentially small parcel of fluid to determine its behavior. The equations governing temperature will be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. Energy and temperature are closely related. In fact, in an incompressible fluid, temperature is a direct measurement of internal energy. These equations will then be programmed to provide a computer simulation for predicting velocity and temperature fields for various parameters. These simulations will tell us whether or not it is possible to 'shape' velocity and temperature distributions using magnetic fields. Possible applications include heat exchanges and any transfer process using fluid flow as a transport medium.
Wang, Lai-Hao; Hsia, Hung-Chang; Lan, Yuan-Zhi
2006-01-01
The construction and characterization of a flow-through polarographic detector for catalyzing the electroreduction of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), is discussed. The flow-through cell is equipped with a gold wire electrode (a thin mercury film deposited on a gold substance). The response is evaluated with respect to substance diameter, length, concentration of modifying film, operating potential, supporting electrolyte and pH, and flow rate in the DC mode. The system allows the determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine in rabbit biological fluids with relatively inexpensive equipment.
Nonvertical ascension or fall of a free sphere in a Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenny, Mathieu; Bouchet, Gilles; Dušek, Jan
2003-01-01
It is shown that the system represented by a free sphere ascending or falling in a Newtonian fluid under the action of gravity buoyancy undergoes a regular, symmetry breaking bifurcation making the trajectory deviate from the vertical direction. The instability threshold expressed in terms of the asymptotic Reynolds number lies below that of a fixed sphere wake. The instability is shown to saturate and reach a fixed point corresponding to a straight oblique ascension (fall).
Heat transfer in a micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet with Newtonian heating.
Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan
2013-01-01
This article looks at the steady flow of Micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer in the presence of Newtonian heating. The relevant partial differential equations have been reduced to ordinary differential equations. The reduced ordinary differential equation system has been numerically solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. Influence of different involved parameters on dimensionless velocity, microrotation and temperature is examined. An excellent agreement is found between the present and previous limiting results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeylaghi, Shahab; Moa, Belaid; Buckham, Bradley; Oshkai, Peter; Vasquez, Jose; Crawford, Curran
2017-09-01
A comprehensive modeling of landslide generated waves using an in-house parallel Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) code is presented in this paper. The study of landslide generated waves is challenging due to the involvement of several complex physical phenomena, such as slide-water interaction, turbulence and complex free surface profiles. A numerical tool that can efficiently calculate both slide motion, impact with the surface and the resulting wave is needed for ongoing study of these phenomena. Mesh-less numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), handle the slide motion and the complex free surface profile with ease. In this paper, an in-house parallel explicit ISPH code is used to simulate both subaerial and submarine landslides in 2D and in more realistic 3D applications. Both rigid and deformable slides are used to generate the impulsive waves. A landslide case is simulated where a slide falls into a non-Newtonian reservoir fluid (water-bentonite mixture). A new technique is also proposed to calculate the motion of a rigid slide on an inclined ramp implicitly, without using the prescribed motion in SPH. For all the test cases, results generated from the proposed ISPH method are compared with available experimental data and show good agreement.
Non-Newtonian fluid model incorporated into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.
1984-01-01
A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. The approach uses a Newtonian model as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Model Incorporated into Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rectangular Contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.
1983-01-01
A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. The approach uses a Newtonian model as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.
Non-Newtonian fluid model incorporated into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.
1984-01-01
A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. The approach uses a Newtonian model as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.
Swimming sheet in a Newtonian fluid confined by a Brinkman medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry
2015-11-01
Many microorganisms swim through complex materials such as viscoelastic mucus in their natural habitats. As microorganisms move through complex materials, they may induce spatial heterogeneity in the medium, which can affect swimming properties. For example, the rotating flagella of bacteria may deplete polymer concentration near the flagella, while H pylori can turn nearby mucin gel into sol by elevating the pH. Here we examine a simple model of swimming in such scenarios, by investigating Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet swimming in a layer of Newtonian fluid. The Newtonian fluid is bounded above by a Brinkman medium, which represents the complex material that has been locally depleted or dissolved near the swimmer. We analytically derive the velocity for a small amplitude wave of an infinite sheet using a perturbation series to second order in the wave amplitude. For a fixed swimmer geometry, we explore the dependence of the velocity on the thickness of the Newtonian fluid and the permeability and porosity of the Brinkman medium.
Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E
2012-11-01
Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiSalvo, Roberto; Deaconu, Stelu; Majumdar, Alok
2006-01-01
One of the goals of this program was to develop the experimental and analytical/computational tools required to predict the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through the various system components of a propulsion system: pipes, valves, pumps etc. To achieve this goal we selected to augment the capabilities of NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) software. GFSSP is a general-purpose computer program designed to calculate steady state and transient pressure and flow distributions in a complex fluid network. While the current version of the GFSSP code is able to handle various systems components the implicit assumption in the code is that the fluids in the system are Newtonian. To extend the capability of the code to non-Newtonian fluids, such as silica gelled fuels and oxidizers, modifications to the momentum equations of the code have been performed. We have successfully implemented in GFSSP flow equations for fluids with power law behavior. The implementation of the power law fluid behavior into the GFSSP code depends on knowledge of the two fluid coefficients, n and K. The determination of these parameters for the silica gels used in this program was performed experimentally. The n and K parameters for silica water gels were determined experimentally at CFDRC's Special Projects Laboratory, with a constant shear rate capillary viscometer. Batches of 8:1 (by weight) water-silica gel were mixed using CFDRC s 10-gallon gelled propellant mixer. Prior to testing the gel was allowed to rest in the rheometer tank for at least twelve hours to ensure that the delicate structure of the gel had sufficient time to reform. During the tests silica gel was pressure fed and discharged through stainless steel pipes ranging from 1", to 36", in length and three diameters; 0.0237", 0.032", and 0.047". The data collected in these tests included pressure at tube entrance and volumetric flowrate. From these data the uncorrected shear rate, shear stress, residence time
Miscible displacement of non-Newtonian fluids in a vertical tube.
Gabard, C; Hulin, J-P
2003-07-01
The influence of rheology on the miscible displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous, Newtonian one in a vertical tube is studied experimentally as a function of the flow velocity. For Newtonian displaced fluids the transient residual film thickness hri is nearly 38% of the tube radius at large viscosity ratios between the two fluids in agreement with experimental and numerical results from the literature. For shear-thinning fluids with a zero yield stress (mostly xanthan-water solutions), hri decreases down to 28-30% of the radius for the most concentrated solutions. For fluids with a non-zero yield stress, hri further decreases down to 24-25% of the radius. The orders of magnitude of these values can be obtained through numerical simulations (commercial code) for the various types of fluids. Instabilities of the film at its boundary develop downstream and lead to a reduction of the final thickness of the film at longer times: this reduction is larger for lower viscosity ratios and larger velocities.
Apparao, Siddangouda; Biradar, Trimbak Vaijanath; Naduvinamani, Neminath Bhujappa
2014-01-01
Theoretical study of non-Newtonian effects of second-order fluids on the performance characteristics of inclined slider bearings is presented. An approximate method is used for the solution of the highly nonlinear momentum equations for the second-order fluids. The closed form expressions for the fluid film pressure, load carrying capacity, frictional force, coefficient of friction, and centre of pressure are obtained. The non-Newtonian second order fluid model increases the film pressure, load carrying capacity, and frictional force whereas the center of pressure slightly shifts towards exit region. Further, the frictional coefficient decreases with an increase in the bearing velocity as expected for an ideal fluid. PMID:27437446
Apparao, Siddangouda; Biradar, Trimbak Vaijanath; Naduvinamani, Neminath Bhujappa
2014-01-01
Theoretical study of non-Newtonian effects of second-order fluids on the performance characteristics of inclined slider bearings is presented. An approximate method is used for the solution of the highly nonlinear momentum equations for the second-order fluids. The closed form expressions for the fluid film pressure, load carrying capacity, frictional force, coefficient of friction, and centre of pressure are obtained. The non-Newtonian second order fluid model increases the film pressure, load carrying capacity, and frictional force whereas the center of pressure slightly shifts towards exit region. Further, the frictional coefficient decreases with an increase in the bearing velocity as expected for an ideal fluid.
WHATS-3: An improved flow-through multi-bottle fluid sampler for deep-sea geofluid research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Junichi; Makabe, Akiko; Matsui, Yohei; Ebina, Naoya; Tsutsumi, Saki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Chen, Chong; Kaneko, Sho; Takai, Ken; Kawagucci, Shinsuke
2017-06-01
Deep-sea geofluid systems, such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are key to understanding subseafloor environments of Earth. Fluid chemistry, especially, provides crucial information towards elucidating the physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in these ecosystems. To accurately assess fluid and gas properties of deep-sea geofluids, well-designed pressure-tight fluid samplers are indispensable and as such they are important assets of deep-sea geofluid research. Here, the development of a new flow-through, pressure-tight fluid sampler capable of four independent sampling events (two subsamples for liquid and gas analyses from each) is reported. This new sampler, named WHATS-3, is a new addition to the WHATS-series samplers and a major upgrade from the previous WHATS-2 sampler with improvements in sample number, valve operational time, physical robustness, and ease of maintenance. Routine laboratory-based pressure tests proved that it is suitable for operation up to 35 MPa pressure. Successful field tests of the new sampler were also carried out in five hydrothermal fields, two in Indian Ocean and three in Okinawa Trough (max. depth 3,300 m). Relations of Mg and major ion species demonstrated bimodal mixing trends between a hydrothermal fluid and seawater, confirming the high-quality of fluids sampled. The newly developed WHATS-3 sampler is well-balanced in sampling capability, field usability, and maintenance feasibility, and can serve as one of the best geofluid samplers available at present to conduct efficient research of deep-sea geofluid systems.
On the rheology of refractive-index-matched, non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids for PIV experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Hinke, Jessica A.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-06-01
Four commonly used refractive-index (RI)-matched Newtonian blood-analog fluids are reviewed, and different non-Newtonian blood-analogs, with RI of 1.372-1.495, are investigated. Sodium iodide (NaI), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and potassium thiocyanate are used to adjust the RI of blood-analogs to that of test sections for minimizing optical distortions in particle image velocimetry data, and xanthan gum (XG) is added to the fluids to give them non-Newtonian properties (shear thinning and viscoelasticity). Our results support the general belief that adding NaI to Newtonian fluids matches the RI without changing the kinematic viscosity. However, in contrast to claims made in a few studies that did not measure rheology, our investigation revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN to XG-based non-Newtonian fluids changes the viscosity of the fluids considerably and reduces the shear-thinning property. Therefore, the RI of non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids with XG cannot be adjusted easily by varying the concentration of NaI or NaSCN and needs more careful rheological study.
Acoustic waveform of continuous bubbling in a non-Newtonian fluid.
Vidal, Valérie; Ichihara, Mie; Ripepe, Maurizio; Kurita, Kei
2009-12-01
We study experimentally the acoustic signal associated with a continuous bubble bursting at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid. Due to the fluid rheological properties, the bubble shape is elongated, and, when bursting at the free surface, acts as a resonator. For a given fluid concentration, at constant flow rate, repetitive bubble bursting occurs at the surface. We report a modulation pattern of the acoustic waveform through time. Moreover, we point out the existence of a precursor acoustic signal, recorded on the microphone array, previous to each bursting. The time delay between this precursor and the bursting signal is well correlated with the bursting signal frequency content. Their joint modulation through time is driven by the fluid rheology, which strongly depends on the presence of small satellite bubbles trapped in the fluid due to the yield stress.
Learning About Non-Newtonian Fluids in a Student-Driven Classroom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dounas-Frazer, D. R.; Lynn, J.; Zaniewski, A. M.; Roth, N.
2013-01-01
We describe a simple, low-cost experiment and corresponding pedagogical strategies for studying fluids whose viscosities depend on shear rate, referred to as "non-Newtonian fluids." We developed these materials teaching for the Compass Project, an organization that fosters a creative, diverse, and collaborative community of science students at UC Berkeley. Incoming freshmen worked together in a week-long residential program to explore physical phenomena through a combination of conceptual model-building and hands-on experimentation. During the program, students were exposed to three major aspects of scientific discovery: developing a model, testing the model, and investigating deviations from the model.
Lateral migration of particles in the Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makino, M.
2014-04-01
Studying of lateral migration of particles has a long history in fluid mechanics. In the Stokes approximation, noncharged rigid spherical particle in dilute solution does not migrate to a direction perpendicular to external field. For example, the spherical particle is placed in the vicinity of the wall. The particle doesn't move when a flow field, which is parallel to the wall, is applied. However, the lateral migrations are observed in dispersions of non-spherical and deformable particles. Blood is a multi-phase dispersion and is composed of red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets and so on dispersed in plasma. The leukocytes and the platelets move to the vicinity of the wall when the blood flows in tube. It is called `margination'. In this study, the migrations of binary droplet dispersion with different radii and surface tension coefficient are examined by computer simulations. The interaction among droplets causes a segregation of some kind of particles. The binary droplets dispersion system under Couette flow is simulated and the mean positions of the droplets are evaluated. The margination of small droplets is observed when the surface tension coefficient of the large droplets is small. On the other hand, the margination of large droplets is not observed when the large droplet is stiff.
Slow viscous stream over a non-Newtonian fluid sphere in an axisymmetric deformed spherical vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiswal, B. R.
2016-08-01
The creeping motion of a non-Newtonian (Reiner-Rivlin) liquid sphere at the instant it passes the center of an approximate spherical container is discussed. The flow in the spheroidal container is governed by the Stokes equation, while for the flow inside the Reiner-Rivlin liquid sphere, the expression for the stream function is obtained by expressing it in the power series of a parameter S , characterizing the cross-viscosity. Both the flow fields are then determined explicitly by matching the boundary conditions at the interface of Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid, and also the condition of imperviousness and no-slip on the outer surface. As an application, we have considered an oblate spheroidal container. The drag and wall effects on the liquid spherical body are evaluated. Their variations with regard to the separation parameter ℓ , viscosity ratio λ, cross-viscosity S, and deformation parameter ɛ are studied and demonstrated graphically. Several renowned cases are derived from the present analysis. It is observed that the drag not only varies with ɛ, but as ℓ increases, the rate of change in behavior of drag force also increases. The influences of these parameters on the wall effects has also been studied and presented in a table.
Torralba, M; Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; del Río, J A; Ortín, J
2005-07-01
We present the dynamic velocity profiles of a Newtonian fluid (glycerol) and a viscoelastic Maxwell fluid (CPyCl-NaSal in water) driven by an oscillating pressure gradient in a vertical cylindrical pipe. The frequency range explored has been chosen to include the first three resonance peaks of the dynamic permeability of the viscoelastic-fluid--pipe system. Three different optical measurement techniques have been employed. Laser Doppler anemometry has been used to measure the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the liquid column. Particle image velocimetry and optical deflectometry are used to determine the velocity profiles at the bulk of the liquid column and at the liquid-air interface respectively. The velocity measurements in the bulk are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of a linear theory. The results, however, show dramatic differences in the dynamic behavior of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids, and demonstrate the importance of resonance phenomena in viscoelastic fluid flows, biofluids in particular, in confined geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sochi, Taha
2015-05-01
We continue our investigation to the use of the variational method to derive flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluids in confined geometries. While in the previous investigations we used the straight circular tube geometry with eight fluid rheological models to demonstrate and establish the variational method, the focus here is on the plane long thin slit geometry using those eight rheological models, namely: Newtonian, power law, Ree-Eyring, Carreau, Cross, Casson, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. We demonstrate how the variational principle based on minimizing the total stress in the flow conduit can be used to derive analytical expressions, which are previously derived by other methods, or used in conjunction with numerical procedures to obtain numerical solutions which are virtually identical to the solutions obtained previously from well established methods of fluid dynamics. In this regard, we use the method of Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch- Mooney-Schofield (WRMS), with our adaptation from the circular pipe geometry to the long thin slit geometry, to derive analytical formulae for the eight types of fluid where these derived formulae are used for comparison and validation of the variational formulae and numerical solutions. Although some examples may be of little value, the optimization principle which the variational method is based upon has a significant theoretical value as it reveals the tendency of the flow system to assume a configuration that minimizes the total stress. Our proposal also offers a new methodology to tackle common problems in fluid dynamics and rheology.
Electroosmotic flows of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in a cylindrical microchannel.
Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun
2013-03-01
EOF of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in a cylindrical microchannel is analyzed theoretically. Specially, exact solutions of electroosmotic velocity corresponding to two special fluid behavior indices (n = 0.5 and 1.0) are found, while approximate solutions are derived for arbitrary values of fluid behavior index. It is found that because of the approximation for the first-order modified Bessel function of the first kind, the approximate solutions introduce largest errors for predicting electroosmotic velocity when the thickness of electric double layer is comparable to channel radius, but can accurately predict the electroosmotic velocity when the thickness of electric double layer is much smaller or larger than the channel radius. Importantly, the analysis reveals that the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity of power-law fluids in cylindrical microchannels becomes dependent on geometric dimensions (radius of channel), standing in stark contrast to the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity over planar surfaces or in parallel-plate microchannels. Such interesting and counterintuitive effects can be attributed to the nonlinear coupling among the electrostatics, channel geometry, and non-Newtonian hydrodynamics. Furthermore, a method for enhancement of EOFs of power-law fluids is proposed under a combined DC and AC electric field. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Study on local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Xu, Tiantian; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Liu, Xueting
2016-06-01
This paper focuses on the flow characteristic and local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in a curved 90° bend pipe with circular cross-sections, which are widely used in industrial applications. By employing numerical simulation and theoretical analysis the properties of the flow and local resistance of power law fluid under different working conditions are obtained. To explore the change rule the experiment is carried out by changing the Reynolds number, the wall roughness and different diameter ratio of elbow pipe. The variation of the local resistance coefficient with the Reynolds number, the diameter ratio and the wall roughness is presented comprehensively in the paper. The results show that the local resistance force coefficient hardly changes with Reynolds number of the power law fluid; the wall roughness has a significant impact on the local resistance coefficient. As the pipe wall roughness increasing, the coefficient of local resistance force will increase. The main reason of the influence of the roughness on the local resistance coefficient is the increase of the eddy current region in the power law fluid flow, which increases the kinetic energy dissipation of the main flow. This paper provides theoretical and numerical methods to understand the local resistance property of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes.
A fluid/gravity prescription of the post-Newtonian parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Rocha, Roldão
2017-08-01
The KSS bound for the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio is employed in the fluid/gravity correspondence setup, to provide a theoretical bound for the post-Newtonian parameter in the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati black string solution that matches the observational bound [1]. This derived bound is here shown to vary according to the black string temperature, and, although the post-Newtonian parameter reaches bigger values as the temperature increases for fixed black string masses, it is still into the observational/experimental bound range. The Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati-AdS black brane is shown to converge to the Schwarzschild-AdS black brane, for sufficiently high order expansion of the dual boundary energy-momentum tensor.
Non-newtonian fluid flow through three-dimensional disordered porous media.
Morais, Apiano F; Seybold, Hansjoerg; Herrmann, Hans J; Andrade, José S
2009-11-06
We investigate the flow of various non-newtonian fluids through three-dimensional disordered porous media by direct numerical simulation of momentum transport and continuity equations. Remarkably, our results for power-law (PL) fluids indicate that the flow, when quantified in terms of a properly modified permeability-like index and Reynolds number, can be successfully described by a single (universal) curve over a broad range of Reynolds conditions and power-law exponents. We also study the flow behavior of Bingham fluids described in terms of the Herschel-Bulkley model. In this case, our simulations reveal that the interplay of (i) the disordered geometry of the pore space, (ii) the fluid rheological properties, and (iii) the inertial effects on the flow is responsible for a substantial enhancement of the macroscopic hydraulic conductance of the system at intermediate Reynolds conditions.
A Numerical Study of Mesh Adaptivity in Multiphase Flows with Non-Newtonian Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Percival, James; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhihua; Alberini, Federico; Simmons, Mark; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
We present an investigation into the computational efficiency benefits of dynamic mesh adaptivity in the numerical simulation of transient multiphase fluid flow problems involving Non-Newtonian fluids. Such fluids appear in a range of industrial applications, from printing inks to toothpastes and introduce new challenges for mesh adaptivity due to the additional ``memory'' of viscoelastic fluids. Nevertheless, the multiscale nature of these flows implies huge potential benefits for a successful implementation. The study is performed using the open source package Fluidity, which couples an unstructured mesh control volume finite element solver for the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations to a dynamic anisotropic mesh adaptivity algorithm, based on estimated solution interpolation error criteria, and conservative mesh-to-mesh interpolation routine. The code is applied to problems involving rheologies ranging from simple Newtonian to shear-thinning to viscoelastic materials and verified against experimental data for various industrial and microfluidic flows. This work was undertaken as part of the EPSRC MEMPHIS programme grant EP/K003976/1.
Experimental Investigation and Pore-Scale Modeling of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauswirth, S.; Dye, A. L.; Miller, C. T.; Tapscott, C.; Schultz, P. B.
2015-12-01
Systems involving the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media arise in a number of settings, including hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, contaminant remediation, and biological systems. Development of accurate macroscale models of such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between the fluid and medium properties at the microscale and averaged macroscale properties. This study investigates the flow of aqueous solutions of guar gum, a major component of hydraulic fracturing fluids that exhibits Cross model rheological behavior. The rheological properties of solutions containing varying concentrations of guar gum were characterized using a rotational rheometer and the data were fit to a model relating viscosity to shear rate and concentration. Flow experiments were conducted in a porous medium-packed column to measure the pressure response during the flow of guar gum solutions at a wide range of flow rates and determine apparent macroscale viscosities and shear rates. To investigate the relationship between the fluid rheology, microscale physics, and the observed macroscale properties, a lattice Boltzmann pore scale simulator incorporating non-Newtonian behavior was developed. The model was validated, then used to simulate systems representative of the column experiments, allowing direct correlation of detailed microscale physics to the macroscale observations.
Viscosity and non-Newtonian features of thickened fluids used for dysphagia therapy.
O'Leary, Mark; Hanson, Ben; Smith, Christina
2010-08-01
Thickening agents based primarily on granulated maize starch are widely used in the care of patients with swallowing difficulties, increasing viscosity of consumed fluids. This slows bolus flow during swallowing, allowing airway protection to be more properly engaged. Thickened fluids have been shown to exhibit time-varying behavior and are non-Newtonian, complicating assessment of fluid thickness, potentially compromising efficacy of therapy. This work aimed to quantify the flow properties of fluids produced with commercial thickeners at shear rates representative of slow tipping in a beaker to fast swallowing. Results were presented as indices calculated using a power-law model representing apparent viscosity (consistency index) and non-Newtonian nature of flow (flow behavior index). Immediately following mixing, 3 fluid thicknesses showed distinct consistency indices and decreasing flow behavior index with increasing thickener concentration. An increase in consistency index over 30 min was observed, but only for samples that were repeatedly sheared during acquisition. Three-hour measurements showed changes in consistency index across fluids with the largest being a 25% rise from initial value. This may have implications for efficacy of treatment, as fluids are not always consumed immediately upon mixing. Flow behavior indices were comparable across thickeners exhibiting similar rises over time. The indices were a more complete method of quantifying flow properties compared with single viscosity measurements, allowing an increased depth of analysis. The non-Newtonian nature of fluids perhaps renders them particularly suitable for use as dysphagia therapies, and such analysis may allow the possibility of altering these properties to optimize therapeutic efficacy to be explored. Practical Application: Effective treatment of swallowing disorders relies upon the appropriate choice and subsequent reproduction of drinks thickened to one of a number of predetermined
CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2010-07-01
This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.
Microfluidic vias enable nested bioarrays and autoregulatory devices in Newtonian fluids
Kartalov, Emil P.; Walker, Christopher; Taylor, Clive R.; Anderson, W. French; Scherer, Axel
2006-01-01
We report on a fundamental technological advance for multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics. Vertical passages (vias), connecting channels located in different layers, are fabricated monolithically, in parallel, by simple and easy means. The resulting 3D connectivity greatly expands the potential complexity of microfluidic architecture. We apply the vias to printing nested bioarrays and building autoregulatory devices. A current source is demonstrated, while a diode and a rectifier are derived; all are building blocks for analog circuitry in Newtonian fluids. We also describe microfluidic septa and their applications. Vias lay the foundation for a new generation of microfluidic devices. PMID:16888040
Microfluidic vias enable nested bioarrays and autoregulatory devices in Newtonian fluids.
Kartalov, Emil P; Walker, Christopher; Taylor, Clive R; Anderson, W French; Scherer, Axel
2006-08-15
We report on a fundamental technological advance for multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics. Vertical passages (vias), connecting channels located in different layers, are fabricated monolithically, in parallel, by simple and easy means. The resulting 3D connectivity greatly expands the potential complexity of microfluidic architecture. We apply the vias to printing nested bioarrays and building autoregulatory devices. A current source is demonstrated, while a diode and a rectifier are derived; all are building blocks for analog circuitry in Newtonian fluids. We also describe microfluidic septa and their applications. Vias lay the foundation for a new generation of microfluidic devices.
Pullback Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions for a 2D Non-autonomous Non-Newtonian Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guowei
2016-10-01
This paper studies the pullback asymptotic behavior of solutions for the non-autonomous incompressible non-Newtonian fluid in 2D bounded domains. Firstly, with a little high regularity of the force, the semigroup method and ɛ -regularity method are used to establish the existence of compact pullback absorbing sets. Then, with a minimal regularity of the force, by verifying the flattening property also known as the "Condition (C)", the author proves the existence of pullback attractors for the universe of fixed bounded sets and for the another universe given by a tempered condition. Furthermore, the regularity of pullback attractors is given.
A note on the breathing mode of an elastic sphere in Newtonian and complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galstyan, Vahe; Pak, On Shun; Stone, Howard A.
2015-03-01
Experiments on the acoustic vibrations of elastic nanostructures in fluid media have been used to study the mechanical properties of materials, as well as for mechanical and biological sensing. The medium surrounding the nanostructure is typically modeled as a Newtonian fluid. A recent experiment however suggested that high-frequency longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles could trigger a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures [Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. Motivated by these experimental studies, we first revisit a classical continuum mechanics problem of the purely radial vibration of an elastic sphere, also called the breathing mode, in a compressible viscous fluid and then extend our analysis to a viscoelastic medium using the Maxwell fluid model. The effects of fluid compressibility and viscoelasticity are discussed. Although in the case of longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles, the effects of fluid compressibility were shown to be negligible, we demonstrate that it plays a significant role in the breathing mode of an elastic sphere. On the other hand, despite the different vibration modes, the breathing mode of a sphere triggers a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures similar to that triggered by the longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles. We also comment on the effect of fluid viscoelasticity on the idea of destroying virus particles by acoustic resonance.
Direct numerical simulation of solid-liquid flow of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Mingyu
The main theme of this work is to enhance the understanding on the behavior of solid particles in flows of Newtonian or viscoelastic fluids by using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS). A large-scale state-of-the-art software package PARTMOVER3D is developed based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique and an Elastic-Viscous-Stress-Split (EVSS) scheme. Our numerical results are extensively compared with analytical, experimental and numerical ones in the literature. We studied the motion of spheres sedimenting in a cylindrical tube filled with a Newtonian fluid. The hydrodynamic drag and lift on the particle are investigated under various conditions. The effects of the tube wall, in terms of the blockage ratio and the eccentricity ratio, on the particle terminal velocity, migration and rotation are studied. We also investigated the interaction between pair particles released in tandem or side by side at different Reynolds numbers. The migration of particles in a pressure driven flow is the heart of vast number of industrial applications. Using 3-D direct numerical simulations, we systematically investigated the independent parameters controlling the particle migration, which are the blockage ratio, the flow Reynolds number, and the solid-liquid density ratio. During the particle migration, the mechanisms of the fluid inertia, the wall confinement, the local flow shear rate, the particle slip velocity, the particle size, and the particle rotation were extensively examined through the stress distribution on the particle surface under different flow conditions. In the presence of a shear flow, an initially deposited bed of heavy particles will be entrained into the bulk fluid and convected away with the flow. We investigated the mechanism of this particle resuspension by using 2-D direct numerical simulations. Various effects on the lift force on the particle was analyzed by examining the distribution of the stress
An efficient implicit unstructured finite volume solver for generalised Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalali, Alireza; Sharbatdar, Mahkame; Ollivier-Gooch, Carl
2016-03-01
An implicit finite volume solver is developed for the steady-state solution of generalised Newtonian fluids on unstructured meshes in 2D. The pseudo-compressibility technique is employed to couple the continuity and momentum equations by transforming the governing equations into a hyperbolic system. A second-order accurate spatial discretisation is provided by performing a least-squares gradient reconstruction within each control volume of unstructured meshes. A central flux function is used for the convective terms and a solution jump term is added to the averaged component for the viscous terms. Global implicit time-stepping using successive evolution-relaxation is utilised to accelerate the convergence to steady-state solutions. The performance of our flow solver is examined for power-law and Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian fluids in different geometries. The effects of model parameters and Reynolds number are studied on the convergence rate and flow features. Our results verify second-order accuracy of the discretisation and also fast and efficient convergence to the steady-state solution for a wide range of flow variables.
Analysis of flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluids based on a concept of traveling force.
Furuse, H; Toda, K
1999-01-01
The non-Newtonian flow behavior of a culture fluid with suspended adhesive particles of microbes and polysaccharides is analyzed in this study based on a new concept. The concept assumes that the force generated by the contact between particles under shearing flow due to mixing is decreasingly transmitted through the fluid in radial directions. A viscosity equation that includes the degree of force transmisson is derived by considering the shear stress to the force. On the other hand, the shear stress dependence on the concentration of bound particles is expressed in an equation by introducing an effective shear stress that works on the contact sites of the bindings and varies the concentration. Relating the degree of force transmission to the concentration derives a non-Newtonian viscosity equation in terms of shear stress (or shear rate), in which zero-shear viscosity is correlated with both the particle concentration and molecular weight of polymers. It is confirmed that calculations based on the equation are in good agreement with experimental results previously reported for aqueous solutions of several polysaccharides.
Minale, Mario; Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano
2010-01-05
In this work, the microconfined shear deformation of a droplet in an equiviscous non-Newtonian immiscible fluid is investigated by modeling and experiments. A phenomenological model based on the assumption of ellipsoidal shape and taking into account wall effects is proposed for systems made of non-Newtonian second-order fluids. The model, without any adjustable parameters, is tested by comparison with experiments under simple shear flow performed in a sliding plate apparatus, where the ratio between the distance between the confining walls and the droplet radius can be varied. The agreement between model predictions and experimental data is good both in steady state shear and in transient drop retraction upon cessation of flow. The results obtained in this work are relevant for microfluidics applications where non-Newtonian fluids are used.
Sun, Kai; Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Peng; Law, Chung K
2015-02-01
The coalescence of two initially stationary droplets of shear-thinning fluids in a gaseous environment is investigated numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method, with particular interest in non-Newtonian flow effects on the internal mixing subsequent to coalescence. Coalescence of equal-sized droplets, with one being Newtonian while the other is non-Newtonian, leads to the non-Newtonian droplet wrapping around the Newtonian one and hence minimal fine-scale mixing. For unequal-sized droplets, mixing is greatly promoted if both droplets are shear-thinning. When only one of the droplets is shear-thinning, the non-Newtonian effect from the smaller droplet is found to be significantly more effective than that from the larger droplet in facilitating internal jetlike mixing. Parametric study with the Carreau-Yasuda model indicates that the phenomena are universal to a wide range of shear-thinning fluids, given that the extent of shear thinning reaches a certain level, and the internal jet tends to be thicker and develops more rapidly with increasing extent of the shear-thinning effect.
Generalized multiscale finite element method for non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, E. T.; Iliev, O.; Vasilyeva, M. V.
2016-10-01
In this work, we consider a non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domains. Fluid flow in perforated domains have a multiscale nature and solution techniques for such problems require high resolution. In particular, the discretization needs to honor the irregular boundaries of perforations. This gives rise to a fine-scale problems with many degrees of freedom which can be very expensive to solve. In this work, we develop a multiscale approach that attempt to solve such problems on a coarse grid by constructing multiscale basis functions. We follow Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) [1, 2] and develop a multiscale procedure where we identify multiscale basis functions in each coarse block using snapshot space and local spectral problems [3, 4]. We show that with a few basis functions in each coarse block, one can accurately approximate the solution, where each coarse block can contain many small inclusions.
A modified model for non-newtonian viscosity behavior of Aureobasidium pullulans culture fluid.
Furuse, Hisamoto; Yabe, Isamu; Asakura, Tomoko; Miyawaki, Osato; Toda, Kiyoshi
2003-01-01
The culture fluid of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans and the exopolysaccharide solution obtained by removal of the microbial cells exhibit a marked shear dependence of viscosity. The viscosity in a high shear rate region was a little higher than that predicted by a non-Newtonian viscosity equation derived previously on the basis of the concept of traveling force. In a sample exhibiting such high shear rate dependence, a hydrodynamic effect based on the fluid structure of the binding of contacting polymers and suspended microbial cells on viscosity becomes comparatively significant. A model for the shear rate dependence of the viscosity is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the viscosity behavior. A term concerning the increase in viscosity caused by the binding of polymers and the microbial cells suspended in a medium was added to the previous viscosity equation. The experimental shear dependence of the viscosity was well simulated by the modified viscosity equation.
DARK FLUID: A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS, DARK MATTER, AND DARK ENERGY
Zhao Hongsheng; Li Baojiu E-mail: b.li@damtp.cam.ac.u
2010-03-20
Empirical theories of dark matter (DM) like modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) gravity and of dark energy (DE) like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general and hence generic framework? Here we propose a very generic Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and covariant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. The desired effects of quintessence plus cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown to be largely achievable by one vector field only. Our framework preserves the covariant formulation of general relativity, but allows the expanding physical metric to be bent by a single new species of dark fluid flowing in spacetime. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simple functions of a vector field with variable norm, not coupled with the baryonic fluid and the four-vector potential of the photon fluid. The dark fluid framework generically branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with DE and DM effects, including the f(R) gravity, tensor-vector-scalar-like theories, Einstein-Aether, and nuLAMBDA theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure scalar field, we obtain the physics for quintessence. Choices of parameters can be made to pass Big Bang nucleosynthesis, parameterized post-Newtonian, and causality constraints. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions.
Dark Fluid: A Unified Framework for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, HongSheng; Li, Baojiu
2010-03-01
Empirical theories of dark matter (DM) like modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) gravity and of dark energy (DE) like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general and hence generic framework? Here we propose a very generic Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and covariant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. The desired effects of quintessence plus cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown to be largely achievable by one vector field only. Our framework preserves the covariant formulation of general relativity, but allows the expanding physical metric to be bent by a single new species of dark fluid flowing in spacetime. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simple functions of a vector field with variable norm, not coupled with the baryonic fluid and the four-vector potential of the photon fluid. The dark fluid framework generically branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with DE and DM effects, including the f(R) gravity, tensor-vector-scalar-like theories, Einstein-Aether, and νΛ theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure scalar field, we obtain the physics for quintessence. Choices of parameters can be made to pass Big Bang nucleosynthesis, parameterized post-Newtonian, and causality constraints. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions.
Depletion layer formation in suspensions of elastic capsules in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pranay, Pratik; Henríquez-Rivera, Rafael G.; Graham, Michael D.
2012-06-01
Motivated by observations of the effects of drag-reducing polymer additives on various aspects of blood flow, suspensions of fluid-filled elastic capsules in Newtonian fluids and dilute solutions of high molecular weight (drag-reducing) polymers are investigated during plane Couette flow in a slit geometry. A simple model is presented to describe the cross-stream distribution of capsules as a balance of shear-induced diffusion and wall-induced migration due to capsule deformability. The model provides a theoretical prediction of the dependence of capsule-depleted layer thickness on the capillary number. A computational approach is then used to directly study the motion of elastic capsules in a Newtonian fluid and in polymer solutions. Capsule membranes are modeled using a neo-Hookean constitutive model and polymer molecules are modeled as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinearly elastic springs, with parameters chosen to loosely approximate 4000 kDa poly(ethylene oxide). Simulations are performed with a Stokes flow formulation of the immersed boundary method for the capsules, combined with Brownian dynamics for the polymer molecules. Results for an isolated capsule near a wall indicate that the wall-induced migration depends on the capillary number and is strongly reduced by addition of polymer. Numerical simulations of suspensions of capsules in Newtonian fluid illustrate the formation of a capsule-depleted layer near the walls. The thickness of this layer is found to be strongly dependent on the capillary number. The shear-induced diffusivity of the capsules, on the other hand, shows only a weak dependence on capillary number. These results thus indicate that the mechanism of wall-induced migration is the primary source for determining the capillary number dependence of the depletion layer thickness. Both the wall-induced migration and the shear-induced diffusive motion of the capsules are attenuated under the influence of polymer; reduction of
A note on the breathing mode of an elastic sphere in Newtonian and complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galstyan, Vahe; Pak, On Shun; Stone, Howard
2015-11-01
Experiments on the acoustic vibrations of elastic nanostructures in fluid media have been used to study the mechanical properties of materials. The medium surrounding the nanostructure is typically modeled as a Newtonian fluid. A recent experiment however suggested that high-frequency longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles could trigger a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures. Motivated by these experimental studies, we first revisit a classical continuum mechanics problem of the purely radial vibration of an elastic sphere in a compressible viscous fluid and then extend our analysis to a viscoelastic medium using the Maxwell fluid model. Although in the case of longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles, the effects of fluid compressibility were shown to be negligible, we demonstrate that it plays a significant role in the breathing mode of an elastic sphere. On the other hand, despite the different vibration modes, the breathing mode of a sphere triggers a viscoelastic response in water-glycerol mixtures similar to that triggered by the longitudinal vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thohura, Sharaban; Molla, Md. Mamun; Sarker, M. M. A.
2016-07-01
A study on the natural convection flow of non-Newtonian fluid along a vertical thin cylinder with constant wall temperature using modified power law viscosity model has been done. The basic equations are transformed to non dimensional boundary layer equations and the resulting systems of nonlinear partial differential equations are then solved employing marching order implicit finite difference method. The evolution of the surface shear stress in terms of local skin-friction, the rate of heat transfer in terms of local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles for shear thinning as well as shear-thickening fluid considering the different values of Prandtl number have been focused. For the Newtonian fluids the present numerical results are compared with available published results which show a good agreement indeed. From the results it can be concluded that, at the leading edge, a Newtonian-like solution exists as the shear rate is not large enough to trigger non-Newtonian effects. Non-Newtonian effects can be found when the shear-rate increases beyond a threshold value.
Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio
2016-08-01
We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.
Gravity driven instabilities in miscible non-Newtonian fluid displacements in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freytes, V. M.; D'Onofrio, A.; Rosen, M.; Allain, C.; Hulin, J. P.
2001-02-01
Gravity driven instabilities in model porous packings of 1 mm diameter spheres are studied by comparing the broadening of the displacement front between fluids of slightly different densities in stable and unstable configurations. Water, water-glycerol and water-polymer solutions are used to vary independently viscosity and molecular diffusion and study the influence of shear-thinning properties. Both injected and displaced solutions are identical but for a different concentration of NaNO 3 salt used as an ionic tracer and to introduce the density contrast. Dispersivity in stable configuration increases with polymer concentration - as already reported for double porosity packings of porous grains. Gravity-induced instabilities are shown to develop below a same threshold Péclet number Pe for water and water-glycerol solutions of different viscosities and result in considerable increases of the dispersivity. Measured threshold Pe values decrease markedly on the contrary with polymer concentration. The quantitative analysis demonstrates that the development of the instabilities is controlled by viscosity through a characteristic gravity number G (ratio between hydrostatic and viscous pressure gradients). A single threshold value of G accounts for results obtained on Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions.
Validation of computational non-Newtonian fluid model for membrane bioreactor.
Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian
2015-01-01
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems are often considered as the wastewater treatment method of the future due to their high effluent quality. One of the main problems with such systems is a relative large energy consumption, compared to conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems, which has led to further research in this specific area. A powerful tool for optimizing MBR-systems is computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling, which gives researchers the ability to describe the flow in the systems. A parameter which is often neglected in such models is the non-Newtonian properties of active sludge, which is of great importance for MBR systems since they operate at sludge concentrations up to a factor of 10 compared to CAS systems, resulting in strongly shear thinning liquids. A CFD-model is validated against measurements conducted in a system with rotating cross-flow membranes submerged in non-Newtonian liquids, where tangential velocities are measured with a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA). The CFD model is found to be capable of modelling the correct velocities in a range of setups, making CFD models a powerful tool for optimization of MBR systems.
Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas
2014-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter. PMID:25302782
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyasov, A. M.; Bulgakova, G. T.
2016-08-01
This paper describes a mathematical model of the main fracture isolation in porous media by water-based mature gels. While modeling injection, water infiltration from the gel pack through fracture walls is taking into account, due to which the polymer concentration changes and the residual water resistance factor changes as a consequence. The salutation predicts velocity and pressure fields of the non-Newtonian incompressible fluid filtration for conditions of a non-deformable formation as well as a gel front trajectory in the fracture. The mathematical model of agent injection into the main fracture is based on the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics conservation describing the flow of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluids separated by an interface plane in a flat channel with permeable walls. The mathematical model is based on a one-dimensional isothermal approximation, with dynamic parameters pressure and velocity, averaged over the fracture section.
Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas
2014-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allouche, M. H.; Millet, S.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.; Rousset, F.
2015-12-01
Squire's theorem, which states that the two-dimensional instabilities are more dangerous than the three-dimensional instabilities, is revisited here for a flow down an incline, making use of numerical stability analysis and Squire relationships when available. For flows down inclined planes, one of these Squire relationships involves the slopes of the inclines. This means that the Reynolds number associated with a two-dimensional wave can be shown to be smaller than that for an oblique wave, but this oblique wave being obtained for a larger slope. Physically speaking, this prevents the possibility to directly compare the thresholds at a given slope. The goal of the paper is then to reach a conclusion about the predominance or not of two-dimensional instabilities at a given slope, which is of practical interest for industrial or environmental applications. For a Newtonian fluid, it is shown that, for a given slope, oblique wave instabilities are never the dominant instabilities. Both the Squire relationships and the particular variations of the two-dimensional wave critical curve with regard to the inclination angle are involved in the proof of this result. For a generalized Newtonian fluid, a similar result can only be obtained for a reduced stability problem where some term connected to the perturbation of viscosity is neglected. For the general stability problem, however, no Squire relationships can be derived and the numerical stability results show that the thresholds for oblique waves can be smaller than the thresholds for two-dimensional waves at a given slope, particularly for large obliquity angles and strong shear-thinning behaviors. The conclusion is then completely different in that case: the dominant instability for a generalized Newtonian fluid flowing down an inclined plane with a given slope can be three dimensional.
Allouche, M H; Millet, S; Botton, V; Henry, D; Ben Hadid, H; Rousset, F
2015-12-01
Squire's theorem, which states that the two-dimensional instabilities are more dangerous than the three-dimensional instabilities, is revisited here for a flow down an incline, making use of numerical stability analysis and Squire relationships when available. For flows down inclined planes, one of these Squire relationships involves the slopes of the inclines. This means that the Reynolds number associated with a two-dimensional wave can be shown to be smaller than that for an oblique wave, but this oblique wave being obtained for a larger slope. Physically speaking, this prevents the possibility to directly compare the thresholds at a given slope. The goal of the paper is then to reach a conclusion about the predominance or not of two-dimensional instabilities at a given slope, which is of practical interest for industrial or environmental applications. For a Newtonian fluid, it is shown that, for a given slope, oblique wave instabilities are never the dominant instabilities. Both the Squire relationships and the particular variations of the two-dimensional wave critical curve with regard to the inclination angle are involved in the proof of this result. For a generalized Newtonian fluid, a similar result can only be obtained for a reduced stability problem where some term connected to the perturbation of viscosity is neglected. For the general stability problem, however, no Squire relationships can be derived and the numerical stability results show that the thresholds for oblique waves can be smaller than the thresholds for two-dimensional waves at a given slope, particularly for large obliquity angles and strong shear-thinning behaviors. The conclusion is then completely different in that case: the dominant instability for a generalized Newtonian fluid flowing down an inclined plane with a given slope can be three dimensional.
Nonlinear wave evolution in pressure-driven stratified flow of Newtonian and Herschel-Bulkley fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valluri, Prashant; Sahu, Kirti; Ding, Hang; Spelt, Peter; Matar, Omar; Lawrence, Chris
2007-11-01
Pressure-driven stratified channel flow of a Newtonian fluid flowing over a Herschel-Bulkley (HB) fluid is considered. The effects of yield stress and shear-thinning rheology on the nonlinear wave evolution are studied using numerical simulations; the HB rheology is regularized at low shear rates using a bi-viscosity formulation. Two different numerical methods were used to carry out the computations: a level-set method (based on that by Spelt, J. Comput. Phys. 2005) and a diffuse-interface method (based on that by Ding et al., J. Comput. Phys., in press). The simulations, which account for fluid inertia, surface tension and gravity are validated against linear theory predictions at early times. The results at later times show the spatio-temporal evolution into the nonlinear regime wherein waves are strongly deformed, leading to the onset of drop entrainment. It is shown that the apparent viscosity in the region of the HB fluid directly involved in the onset of entrainment is almost constant; unyielded regions are confined to wave troughs at late stages of the nonlinear evolution.
Uma, B; Ayyaswamy, P S; Radhakrishnan, R; Eckmann, D M
2012-06-01
The Brownian motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid (quiescent or fully developed Poiseuille flow) has been investigated with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian based finite element method. Results for the motion in a compressible fluid medium are estimated. Thermal fluctuations from the fluid are implemented using a fluctuating hydrodynamics approach. The instantaneous flow around the particle and the particle motion are fully resolved. Carriers of two different sizes with three different densities have been investigated (nearly neutrally buoyant). The numerical results show that (a) the calculated temperature of the nearly neutrally buoyant Brownian particle in a quiescent fluid satisfies the equipartition theorem; (b) the translational and rotational decay of the velocity autocorrelation functions result in algebraic tails, over long time; (c) the translational and rotational mean square displacements of the particle obeys Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye relations, respectively. Larger the particle, longer the time taken to attain this limit; and (d) the parallel and perpendicular diffusivities of the particle closer to the wall are consistent with the analytical results, where available.
Deciphering physical properties of preferential flowpaths using non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, R. D.; Abou Najm, M.; Rupp, D. E.
2016-12-01
Soils often contain features such as desiccation cracks, root channels, and animal/insect burrows (i.e., macropores) that can cause the preferential movement of water, solutes, and gases. Current methods to determine the physical and hydraulic properties (e.g., volume, hydraulic conductivity, connectivity) of such pathways typically require destructive sampling, where the soil profile is excavated and/or otherwise disturbed. This effort typically precludes that particular location/feature from continued study. At the same time, these methods often do not allow determination of the independent properties of the macropores and soil matrix, which can be useful when modeling flow and transport processes. Shear-thinning fluids, in which the fluid viscosity varies as a function of soil pore size, can be used to infer and quantify various physical and hydraulic properties in macroporous soils. Moreover, certain shear-thinning fluids, including guar gum, will naturally biodegrade in soils, meaning that they can be used without permanently altering the soil. In this study we present work in which we characterize the shear-thinning behavior of guar gum solutions, and then provide examples of how this substance can be used to 1) quantify the volume of shrinkage cracks, and 2) characterize the effect of insect burrows on water and gas exchange between soils and the atmosphere. Overall, these examples highlight how non-Newtonian fluids are offering new possibilities for understanding and modeling unsaturated zone properties and processes.
Buoyancy effects on the 3D MHD stagnation-point flow of a Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borrelli, A.; Giantesio, G.; Patria, M. C.; Roşca, N. C.; Roşca, A. V.; Pop, I.
2017-02-01
This work examines the steady three-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field H0 under the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. We neglect the induced magnetic field and examine the three possible directions of H0 which coincide with the directions of the axes. In all cases it is shown that the governing nonlinear partial differential equations admit similarity solutions. We find that the flow has to satisfy an ordinary differential problem whose solution depends on the Hartmann number M, the buoyancy parameter λ and the Prandtl number Pr. The skin-friction components along the axes are computed and the stagnation-point is classified. The numerical integration shows the existence of dual solutions and the occurrence of the reverse flow for some values of the parameters.
Similarity solution for unsteady gravity-driven dry patch in a non-Newtonian fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abas, Siti Sabariah; Mohd Yatim, Yazariah
2013-04-01
We consider an unsteady thin-film flow of a non-Newtonian fluid around a dry patch subject to gravitational acceleration on an inclined plane. The general governing partial differential equation is transformed into the second-order ordinary differential equation using a unique travelling-wave similarity transformation. The analysis shows that the dry patch has a parabolic shape and the film thickness was found to increase monotonically away from the dry patch. Numerical solutions of the similarity equation are obtained for the velocity of the dry patch. These numerical solutions are also compared with the asymptotic solutions in the certain limits. The effects of power-law index on the behavior and patterns of the solutions are also discussed.
Mathematical simulation of nonisothermal filling of plane channel with non-Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzenko, E.; Ryltseva, K.; Frolov, O.; Shrager, G.
2016-10-01
In this paper, the fountain flow of a non-Newtonian fluid during the filling of a plane vertical channel with due account of dissipative heating is investigated. The rheological features of the medium are defined by Ostwald de Waele power-law with exponential temperature dependence of viscosity. The numerical solution of the problem is obtained using a finite-difference method, based on the SIMPLE algorithm, and the method of invariants for compliance with the natural boundary conditions on free surface. It was shown that the flow separates into a two-dimensional flow zone in the vicinity of the free surface and a onedimensional flow zone away from it. The parametrical investigations of kinematic and thermophysical properties of the flow and the dependence of the free surface behavior on the basic criteria and rheological parameters are implemented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javidi, Mahyar; Pope, Michael A.; Hrymak, Andrew N.
2016-06-01
A mathematical model for the dip coating process has been developed for cylindrical geometries with non-Newtonian fluids. This investigation explores the effects of the substrate radius and hydrodynamic behavior of the non-Newtonian viscous fluid on the resulting thin film on the substrate. The coating fluid studied, Dymax 1186-MT, is a resin for fiber optics and used as a matrix to suspend 1 vol. % titanium dioxide particles. The coating substrate is a 100 μm diameter fiber optic diffuser. Ellis viscosity model is applied as a non-Newtonian viscous model for coating thickness prediction, including the influence of viscosity in low shear rates that occurs near the surface of the withdrawal film. In addition, the results of the Newtonian and power law models are compared with the Ellis model outcomes. The rheological properties and surface tension of fluids were analyzed and applied in the models and a good agreement between experimental and analytical solutions was obtained for Ellis model.
Morphological stability of an interface between two non-Newtonian fluids moving in a Hele-Shaw cell.
Martyushev, L M; Birzina, A I
2015-01-01
The problem of the morphological stability of an interface in the case of the displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another non-Newtonian fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell has been considered. Both fluids have been described by the two-parameter Ostwald-de Waele power-law model. The nonzero viscosity of the displacing fluid has been taken into account. A generalized Darcy's law for the system under consideration, as well as an equation for the determination of the critical size of morphological stability with respect to harmonic perturbations (linear analysis), has been derived. Morphological phase diagrams have been constructed, and the region of the parameters in which nonequilibrium reentrant morphological transitions are possible has been revealed.
Self-similarity and scaling transitions during rupture of thin free films of Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thete, Sumeet; Anthony, Christopher; Doshi, Pankaj; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman
2016-11-01
Rupture of thin liquid sheets (free films) is central to diverse industrial and natural phenomena, e.g. foam stability. Rupture of Newtonian films is analyzed under the competing influences of inertial, viscous, van der Waals, and capillary forces by solving numerically a system of spatially one-dimensional evolution equations for film thickness and lateral velocity. As the dynamics close to the rupture singularity is self-similar, the dynamics is also analyzed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations in similarity space. For sheets with negligible inertia, the dominant balance of forces involves solely viscous and van der Waals forces. By contrast, for sheets of inviscid fluids, the dominant balance is between inertial, capillary, and van der Waals forces. For real fluids, the afore-mentioned viscous and inertial regimes are demonstrated to be transitory and hence can only describe the initial thinning of highly viscous and slightly viscous sheets. Moreover, regardless of the fluid's viscosity, it is shown that for sheets that initially thin in either of these two regimes, their dynamics transition to a final inertial-viscous regime in which all forces except capillary force remains important, in accordance with Vaynblat, Lister, and Witelski (2001).
Fast imaging technique to study drop impact dynamics of non-Newtonian fluids.
Xu, Qin; Peters, Ivo; Wilken, Sam; Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich
2014-03-05
In the field of fluid mechanics, many dynamical processes not only occur over a very short time interval but also require high spatial resolution for detailed observation, scenarios that make it challenging to observe with conventional imaging systems. One of these is the drop impact of liquids, which usually happens within one tenth of millisecond. To tackle this challenge, a fast imaging technique is introduced that combines a high-speed camera (capable of up to one million frames per second) with a macro lens with long working distance to bring the spatial resolution of the image down to 10 µm/pixel. The imaging technique enables precise measurement of relevant fluid dynamic quantities, such as the flow field, the spreading distance and the splashing speed, from analysis of the recorded video. To demonstrate the capabilities of this visualization system, the impact dynamics when droplets of non-Newtonian fluids impinge on a flat hard surface are characterized. Two situations are considered: for oxidized liquid metal droplets we focus on the spreading behavior, and for densely packed suspensions we determine the onset of splashing. More generally, the combination of high temporal and spatial imaging resolution introduced here offers advantages for studying fast dynamics across a wide range of microscale phenomena.
Electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media using lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method.
Chen, Simeng; He, Xinting; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2014-12-15
Electro-osmosis in porous media has many important applications in various areas such as oil and gas exploitation and biomedical detection. Very often, fluids relevant to these applications are non-Newtonian because of the shear-rate dependent viscosity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behaviors and physical mechanism of electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. Model porous microstructures (granular, fibrous, and network) were created by a random generation-growth method. The nonlinear governing equations of electro-kinetic transport for a power-law fluid were solved by the lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method (LPBM). The model results indicate that: (i) the electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids exhibits distinct nonlinear behaviors compared to that of Newtonian fluids; (ii) when the bulk ion concentration or zeta potential is high enough, shear-thinning fluids exhibit higher electro-osmotic permeability, while shear-thickening fluids lead to the higher electro-osmotic permeability for very low bulk ion concentration or zeta potential; (iii) the effect of the porous medium structure depends significantly on the constitutive parameters: for fluids with large constitutive coefficients strongly dependent on the power-law index, the network structure shows the highest electro-osmotic permeability while the granular structure exhibits the lowest permeability on the entire range of power law indices considered; when the dependence of the constitutive coefficient on the power law index is weaker, different behaviors can be observed especially in case of strong shear thinning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diagnosis at a glance of biological non-Newtonian fluids with Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hidema, R.; Yamada, N.; Furukawa, H.
2012-04-01
In the human body, full of biological non-Newtonian fluids exist. For example, synovial fluids exist in our joints, which contain full of biopolymers, such as hyaluronan and mucin. It is thought that these polymers play critical roles on the smooth motion of the joint. Indeed, luck of biopolymers in synovial fluid cause joint pain. Here we study the effects of polymer in thin liquid layer by using an original experimental method called Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI). A vertically flowing soap film containing polymers is made as two-dimensional flow to observe turbulence. The thickness of water layer is about 4 μm sandwiched between surfactant mono-layers. The interference pattern of the soap film is linearly related to the flow velocity in the water layer through the change in the thickness of the film. Thus the flow velocity is possibly analyzed by the single image analysis of the interference pattern, that is, FIFI. The grid turbulence was made in the flowing soap films containing the long flexible polymer polyethyleneoxide (PEO, Mw=3.5x106), and rigid polymer hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, Mw > 1.0 x106). The decaying process of the turbulence is affected by PEO and HPC at several concentrations. The effects of PEO are sharply seen even at low concentrations, while the effects of HPC are gradually occurred at much higher concentration compared to the PEO. It is assumed that such a difference between PEO and HPC is due to the polymer stretching or polymer orientation under turbulence, which is observed and analyzed by FIFI. We believe the FIFI will be applied in the future to examine biological fluids such as synovial fluids quickly and quantitatively.
Propagation of Gravity Currents of non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluids in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.; Ciriello, V.; Chiapponi, L.
2014-12-01
A comprehensive analytical and experimental framework is presented to describe gravity-driven motions of rheologically complex fluids through porous media. These phenomena are relevant in geophysical, environmental, industrial and biological applications. The fluid is characterized by an Ostwald-DeWaele constitutive equation with behaviour index n. The flow is driven by the release of fluid at the origin of an infinite porous domain. In order to represent several possible spreading scenarios, we consider: i) different domain geometries: plane, radial, and channelized, with the channel shape parameterized by k; ii) instantaneous or continuous injection, depending on the time exponent of the volume of fluid in the current, α; iii) horizontal or inclined impermeable boundaries. Systematic heterogeneity along the streamwise and/or transverse direction is added to the conceptualization upon considering a power-law permeability variation governed by two additional parameters ω and β. Scalings for current length and thickness are derived in self similar form coupling the modified Darcy's law accounting for the fluid rheology with the mass balance equation. The length, thickness, and aspect ratio of the current are studied as functions of model parameters; several different critical values of α emerge and govern the type of dependency, as well as the tendency of the current to accelerate or decelerate and become thicker or thinner at a given point. The asymptotic validity of the solutions is limited to certain ranges of model parameters. Experimental validation is performed under constant volume, constant and variable flux regimes in tanks/channels filled with transparent glass beads of uniform or variable diameter, using shear-thinning suspensions and Newtonian mixtures. The experimental results for the length and profile of the current agree well with the self-similar solutions at intermediate and late times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Dengke; Wang, Ruihe
2004-08-01
In this paper, fractional order derivative, fractal dimension and spectral dimension are introduced into the seepage flow mechanics to establish the relaxation models of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids with the fractional derivative in fractal reservoirs. A new type integral transform is introduced, and the flow characteristics of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids with the fractional order derivative through a fractal reservoir are studied by using the integral transform, the discrete Laplace transform of sequential fractional derivatives and the generalized Mittag-Leffler functions. Exact solutions are obtained for arbitrary fractional order derivative. The long-time and short-time asymptotic solutions for an infinite formation are also obtained. The pressure transient behavior of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids flow through an infinite fractal reservoir is studied by using the Stehfest's inversion method of the numerical Laplace transform. It is shown that the clearer the viscoelastic characteristics of the fluid, the more the fluid is sensitive to the order of the fractional derivative. The new type integral transform provides a new analytical tool for studying the seepage mechanics of fluid in fractal porous media.
Data on the mixing of non-Newtonian fluids by a Rushton turbine in a cylindrical tank.
Khapre, Akhilesh; Munshi, Basudeb
2016-09-01
The paper focuses on the data collected from the mixing of shear thinning non-Newtonian fluids in a cylindrical tank by a Rushton turbine. The data presented are obtained by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of fluid flow field in the entire tank volume. The CFD validation data for this study is reported in the research article 'Numerical investigation of hydrodynamic behavior of shear thinning fluids in stirred tank' (Khapre and Munshi, 2015) [1]. The tracer injection method is used for the prediction of mixing time and mixing efficiency of a Rushton turbine impeller.
Measurement of viscosity of highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids by means of ultrasonic guided waves.
Kazys, Rymantas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Raisutis, Renaldas
2014-04-01
In order to perform monitoring of the polymerisation process, it is necessary to measure viscosity. However, in the case of non-Newtonian highly viscous fluids, viscosity starts to be dependent on the vibration or rotation frequency of the sensing element. Also, the sensing element must possess a sufficient mechanical strength. Some of these problems may be solved applying ultrasonic measurement methods, however until now most of the known investigations were devoted to measurements of relatively low viscosities (up to a few Pas) of Newtonian liquids. The objective of the presented work is to develop ultrasonic method for measurement of viscosity of high viscous substances during manufacturing process in extreme conditions. For this purpose the method based on application of guided Lamb waves possessing the predominant component of in-plane displacements (the S0 and the SH0 modes) and propagating in an aluminium planar waveguide immersed in a viscous liquid has been investigated. The simulations indicated that in the selected modes mainly in-plane displacements are dominating, therefore the attenuation of those modes propagating in a planar waveguide immersed in a viscous liquid is mainly caused by viscosity of the liquid. The simulation results were confirmed by experiments. All measurements were performed in the viscosity standard Cannon N2700000. Measurements with the S0 wave mode were performed at the frequency of 500kHz. The SH0 wave mode was exited and used for measurements at the frequency of 580kHz. It was demonstrated that by selecting the particular mode of guided waves (S0 or SH0), the operation frequency and dimensions of the aluminium waveguide it is possible to get the necessary viscosity measurement range and sensitivity. The experiments also revealed that the measured dynamic viscosity is strongly frequency dependent and as a characteristic feature of non-Newtonian liquids is much lower than indicated by the standards. Therefore, in order to get the
Wu, Binxin
2011-02-01
This study evaluates six turbulence models for mechanical agitation of non-Newtonian fluids in a lab-scale anaerobic digestion tank with a pitched blade turbine (PBT) impeller. The models studied are: (1) the standard k-ɛ model, (2) the RNG k-ɛ model, (3) the realizable k-ɛ model, (4) the standard k-ω model, (5) the SST k-ω model, and (6) the Reynolds stress model. Through comparing power and flow numbers for the PBT impeller obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from the lab specifications, the realizable k-ɛ and the standard k-ω models are found to be more appropriate than the other turbulence models. An alternative method to calculate the Reynolds number for the moving zone that characterizes the impeller rotation is proposed to judge the flow regime. To check the effect of the model setup on the predictive accuracy, both discretization scheme and numerical approach are investigated. The model validation is conducted by comparing the simulated velocities with experimental data in a lab-scale digester from literature. Moreover, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale digester with two side-entry impellers is performed to optimize the installation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khali, S; Nebbali, R; Ameziani, D E; Bouhadef, K
2013-05-01
In this work the instability of the Taylor-Couette flow for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids) is investigated for cases of finite aspect ratios. The study is conducted numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In many industrial applications, the apparatuses and installations drift away from the idealized case of an annulus of infinite length, and thus the end caps effect can no longer be ignored. The inner cylinder is rotating while the outer one and the end walls are maintained at rest. The lattice two-dimensional nine-velocity (D2Q9) Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying the power-law model. The combined effects of the Reynolds number, the radius ratio, and the power-law index n on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of finite aspect ratio. Two flow modes are obtained: a primary Couette flow (CF) mode and a secondary Taylor vortex flow (TVF) mode. The flow structures so obtained are different from one mode to another. The critical Reynolds number Re(c) for the passage from the primary to the secondary mode exhibits the lowest value for the pseudoplastic fluids and the highest value for the dilatant fluids. The findings are useful for studies of the swirling flow of non-Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries using LBM. The flow changes from the CF to TVF and its structure switches from the two-cells to four-cells regime for both Newtonian and dilatant fluids. Contrariwise for pseudoplastic fluids, the flow exhibits 2-4-2 structure passing from two-cells to four cells and switches again to the two-cells configuration. Furthermore, the critical Reynolds number presents a monotonic increase with the power-law index n of the non-Newtonian fluid, and as the radius ratio grows, the transition flow regimes tend to appear for higher critical Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zijing; Liu, Rong; Liu, Zhou
2017-05-01
In this paper, the stability of two co-axial immiscible fluids flowing in an annular duct is investigated. The inner layer consists of a shear-thinning fluid, which is surrounded by a Newtonian liquid annulus in the outer layer. A constant pressure gradient is applied to drive the flow in the annular channel. Linear stability analysis is employed to investigate the shear-thinning effect on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability and the interface wave instability. Results show that the Rayleigh-Plateau mode can be enhanced and the topological structures of the marginal stability curve of the Rayleigh-Plateau mode can be significantly changed by the shear-thinning effect. When the shear-thinning effect is strong, a case study shows that the Rayleigh-Plateau instability can be slightly suppressed by the viscosity stratification in the inner layer. The shear-thinning effect has a dual influence on the interface wave instability. It can either enhance or suppress the interface wave instability, depending on the thickness ratio and viscosity ratio between the outer layer and the inner layer.
Widmer Soyka, René P; López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Cristofolini, Luca; Ferguson, Stephen J
2013-11-01
Fluids present or used in biology, medicine and (biomedical) engineering are often significantly non-Newtonian. Furthermore, they are chemically complex and can interact with the porous matrix through which they flow. The porous structures themselves display complex morphological inhomogeneities on a wide range of length scales. In vertebroplasty, a shear-thinning fluid, e.g. poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is injected into the cavities of vertebral trabecular bone for the stabilization of fractures and metastatic lesions. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a protocol for numerically investigating the rheological properties of PMMA-based bone cements to predict its spreading behavior while flowing through vertebral trabecular bone. A numerical upscaling scheme based on a dimensionless formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation is proposed in order to relate the pore-scale rheological properties of the PMMA that were experimentally estimated using a plate rheometer, to the continuum-scale. On the pore length scale, a viscosity change on the order of one magnitude was observed whilst the shear-thinning properties caused a viscosity change on the order of only 10% on the continuum length scale and in a flow regime that is relevant for vertebroplasty. An experimental validation, performed on human cadaveric vertebrae (n=9), showed a significant improvement of the cement spreading prediction accuracy with a non-Newtonian formulation. A root mean square cement surface prediction error of 1.53mm (assuming a Newtonian fluid) and 1.37mm (assuming a shear-thinning fluid) was found. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating the non-Newtonian fluids properties in computational models of porous media at the appropriate length scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pähtz, Thomas; Durán, Orencio
2017-07-01
In steady sediment transport, the deposition of transported particles is balanced by the entrainment of soil bed particles by the action of fluid forces or particle-bed impacts. Here we propose a proxy to determine the role of impact entrainment relative to entrainment by the mean turbulent flow: the "bed velocity" Vb, which is an effective near-bed-surface value of the average horizontal particle velocity that generalizes the classical slip velocity, used in studies of aeolian saltation transport, to sediment transport in an arbitrary Newtonian fluid. We study Vb for a wide range of the particle-fluid-density ratio s , Galileo number Ga , and Shields number Θ using direct sediment transport simulations with the numerical model of Durán et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 103306 (2012), 10.1063/1.4757662], which couples the discrete element method for the particle motion with a continuum Reynolds-averaged description of hydrodynamics. We find that transport is fully sustained through impact entrainment (i.e., Vb is constant in natural units) when the "impact number" Im =Ga √{s +0.5 }≳20 or Θ ≳5 /Im . These conditions are obeyed for the vast majority of transport regimes, including steady turbulent bedload, which has long been thought to be sustained solely through fluid entrainment. In fact, we find that transport is fully sustained through fluid entrainment (i.e., Vb scales with the near-bed horizontal fluid velocity) only for sufficiently viscous bedload transport at grain scale (i.e., for Im ≲20 and Θ ≲1 /Im ). Finally, we do not find a strong correlation between Vb, or the classical slip velocity, and the transport-layer-averaged horizontal particle velocity vx¯, which challenges the long-standing consensus that predominant impact entrainment is responsible for a linear scaling of the transport rate with Θ . For turbulent bedload in particular, vx¯ increases with Θ despite Vb remaining constant, which we propose is linked to the formation of a liquidlike
Unified theory of non-suspended sediment transport mediated by a Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pähtz, Thomas; Durán, Orencio
2017-04-01
We present a unified theory of steady, homogeneous, non-suspended transport of nearly uniform spheres mediated by an arbitrary Newtonian fluid. The theory consists of elements that are rigorously derived from Newton's axioms and of semi-empirical elements that well describe simulation data, obtained using a coupled DEM/RANS numerical model of sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid (Durán et al., POF 103306, 2012), for the entire simulated range of the particle-fluid-density ratio s=ρ_p/ρ_f, particle Reynolds number Re_p=√{(s-1)gd^3}/ν, and Shields number Θ=τ/[(ρ_p-ρ_f)gd], where g is the gravitational constant, d the mean particle diameter, and ν the kinematic viscosity. The theory takes into account our recent numerical finding that the mode of entrainment of bed sediment is controlled by the `impact number' Im=Re_p√{s+0.5} (https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.07306), with entrainment through particle-bed impacts dominating most conditions (including turbulent bedload transport). Despite not being fitted to experimental data, the theory simultaneously reproduces measurements in air (s≈2100) and liquids (s≈1{-}5) of the transport cessation threshold Θ^ext (https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07079), obtained from extrapolation to vanishing transport, and the dimensionless value Q^\\ast=Q/(ρ_p√{(s-1)gd^3}) of the sediment transport rate Q. From the theory and simulations, we learn that considering added-mass, lubrication, fluid lift, and/or history forces is not required to quantitatively reproduce measurements. However, collisions between transported particles cannot be neglected as they are strongly influencing the scaling of Q_\\ast with Θ. We find such collisions are behind the asymptotic scaling Q_\\ast∝Θ^3Rep measured for transport in viscous liquids and also indirectly behind a transition from a linear scaling Q_\\ast∝√{Θ^ex_t}(Θ-Θ^ex_t) to a non-linear scaling Q_\\ast∝√{Θ}(Θ-Θ^ex_t) of the transport rate in turbulent bedload and
Self-similarity and scaling transitions during rupture of thin free films of Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thete, Sumeet Suresh; Anthony, Christopher; Doshi, Pankaj; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.
2016-09-01
Rupture of thin liquid films is crucial in many industrial applications and nature such as foam stability in oil-gas separation units, coating flows, polymer processing, and tear films in the eye. In some of these situations, a liquid film may have two free surfaces (referred to here as a free film or a sheet) as opposed to a film deposited on a solid substrate that has one free surface. The rupture of such a free film or a sheet of a Newtonian fluid is analyzed under the competing influences of inertia, viscous stress, van der Waals pressure, and capillary pressure by solving a system of spatially one-dimensional evolution equations for film thickness and lateral velocity. The dynamics close to the space-time singularity where the film ruptures is asymptotically self-similar and, therefore, the problem is also analyzed by reducing the transient partial differential evolution equations to a corresponding set of ordinary differential equations in similarity space. For sheets with negligible inertia, it is shown that the dominant balance of forces involves solely viscous and van der Waals forces, with capillary force remaining negligible throughout the thinning process in a viscous regime. On the other hand, for a sheet of an inviscid fluid for which the effect of viscosity is negligible, it is shown that the dominant balance of forces is between inertial, capillary, and van der Waals forces as the film evolves towards rupture in an inertial regime. Real fluids, however, have finite viscosity. Hence, for real fluids, it is further shown that the viscous and the inertial regimes are only transitory and can only describe the initial thinning dynamics of highly viscous and slightly viscous sheets, respectively. Moreover, regardless of the fluid's viscosity, it is shown that for sheets that initially thin in either of these two regimes, their dynamics transition to a late stage or final inertial-viscous regime in which inertial, viscous, and van der Waals forces balance
Analysis of the formation and evolution of vortex rings in non Newtonian fluids using 3D PTV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajpayee, Abhishek; Techet, Alexandra
2013-11-01
Formation and evolution of vortex rings have been studied for a long time but mostly only in Newtonian fluids. However, many fluids in nature and in the industry such as blood, crude oil, etc., exhibit non Newtonian characteristics. Palacios-Morales and Zenit recently studied the formation of vortex rings in shear thinning liquids for the first time using 2D PIV and compared experimental findings with theoretical predictions. The authors recently demonstrated the applicability of Light Field (LF) imaging to conduct 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to study densely seeded flow fields and their evolution over time using synthetic data. LF based 3D PTV is now used to quantitatively study vortex rings created in Glycerin based on multiple parameters and the results are compared with previous findings. ONR (Grant #N00014-12-1-0787, Dr. Steven Russell), Naval Engineering Education Center.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of a single charged particle in a Newtonian fluid.
Wan, Rong-Zhen; Fang, Hai-Ping; Lin, Zhifang; Chen, Shiyi
2003-07-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the sedimentaion of a single charged circular cylinder in a two-dimensional channel in a Newtonian fluid. When the dielectric constant of the liquid is smaller than that of the walls, there are attractive forces between the particle and the walls. The hydrodynamic force pushes the particle towards the centerline at low Reynolds numbers. Due to the competition between the Coulomb force and the hydrodynamic force in opposite directions, there is a critical linear charge density q(c) at which the particle will fall vertically off centerline, which is a metastable state in addition to the stable state on centerline, for any initial position of the particle sufficiently far from the proximal wall. It is found that the rotation of the particle plays an important role in the stability of such metastable states. The particle hits on the wall or falls on the centerline when the linear charge density on the particle is greater or less than q(c). The simulation method and the new phenomena are also helpful in the study of charged multiparticle suspensions.
Mass transport in a porous microchannel for non-Newtonian fluid with electrokinetic effects.
Mondal, Sourav; De, Sirshendu
2013-03-01
Quantification of mass transfer in porous microchannel is of paramount importance in several applications. Transport of neutral solute in presence of convective-diffusive EOF having non-Newtonian rheology, in a porous microchannel was presented in this article. The governing mass transfer equation coupled with velocity field was solved along with associated boundary conditions using a similarity solution method. An analytical solution of mass transfer coefficient and hence, Sherwood number were derived from first principles. The corresponding effects of assisting and opposing pressure-driven flow and EOF were also analyzed. The influence of wall permeation, double-layer thickness, rheology, etc. on the mass transfer was also investigated. Permeation at the wall enhanced the mass transfer coefficient more than five times compared to impervious conduit in case of pressure-driven flow assisting the EOF at higher values of κh. Shear thinning fluid exhibited more enhancement of Sherwood number in presence of permeation compared to shear thickening one. The phenomenon of stagnation was observed at a particular κh (∼2.5) in case of EOF opposing the pressure-driven flow. This study provided a direct quantification of transport of a neutral solute in case of transdermal drug delivery, transport of drugs from blood to target region, etc.
Ali, N; Asghar, Z; Anwar Bég, O; Sajid, M
2016-05-21
Gliding bacteria are an assorted group of rod-shaped prokaryotes that adhere to and glide on certain layers of ooze slime attached to a substratum. Due to the absence of organelles of motility, such as flagella, the gliding motion is caused by the waves moving down the outer surface of these rod-shaped cells. In the present study we employ an undulating surface model to investigate the motility of bacteria on a layer of non-Newtonian slime. The rheological behavior of the slime is characterized by an appropriate constitutive equation, namely the Carreau model. Employing the balances of mass and momentum conservation, the hydrodynamic undulating surface model is transformed into a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation in terms of a stream function under the long wavelength assumption. A perturbation approach is adopted to obtain closed form expressions for stream function, pressure rise per wavelength, forces generated by the organism and power required for propulsion. A numerical technique based on an implicit finite difference scheme is also employed to investigate various features of the model for large values of the rheological parameters of the slime. Verification of the numerical solutions is achieved with a variational finite element method (FEM). The computations demonstrate that the speed of the glider decreases as the rheology of the slime changes from shear-thinning (pseudo-plastic) to shear-thickening (dilatant). Moreover, the viscoelastic nature of the slime tends to increase the swimming speed for the shear-thinning case. The fluid flow in the pumping (generated where the organism is not free to move but instead generates a net fluid flow beneath it) is also investigated in detail. The study is relevant to marine anti-bacterial fouling and medical hygiene biophysics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, Saad; Premnath, Kannan
2016-11-01
Fluid mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids, which arise in numerous settings, are characterized by non-linear constitutive models that pose certain unique challenges for computational methods. Here, we consider the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which offers some computational advantages due to its kinetic basis and its simpler stream-and-collide procedure enabling efficient simulations. However, further improvements are necessary to improve its numerical stability and accuracy for computations involving broader parameter ranges. Hence, in this study, we extend the cascaded LBM formulation by modifying its moment equilibria and relaxation parameters to handle a variety of non-Newtonian constitutive equations, including power-law and Bingham fluids, with improved stability. In addition, we include corrections to the moment equilibria to obtain an inertial frame invariant scheme without cubic-velocity defects. After preforming its validation study for various benchmark flows, we study the physics of non-Newtonian flow over pairs of circular and square cylinders in a tandem arrangement, especially the wake structure interactions and their effects on resulting forces in each cylinder, and elucidate the effect of the various characteristic parameters.
Castro, Marcelo A; Ahumada Olivares, María C; Putman, Christopher M; Cebral, Juan R
2014-10-01
The aim of this work was to determine whether or not Newtonian rheology assumption in image-based patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) cerebrovascular models harboring cerebral aneurysms may affect the hemodynamics characteristics, which have been previously associated with aneurysm progression and rupture. Ten patients with cerebral aneurysms with lobulations were considered. CFD models were reconstructed from 3DRA and 4DCTA images by means of region growing, deformable models, and an advancing front technique. Patient-specific FEM blood flow simulations were performed under Newtonian and Casson rheological models. Wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created and distributions were compared at the end diastole. Regions of lower WSS (lobulation) and higher WSS (neck) were identified. WSS changes in time were analyzed. Maximum, minimum and time-averaged values were calculated and statistically compared. WSS characterization remained unchanged. At high WSS regions, Casson rheology systematically produced higher WSS minimum, maximum and time-averaged values. However, those differences were not statistically significant. At low WSS regions, when averaging over all cases, the Casson model produced higher stresses, although in some cases the Newtonian model did. However, those differences were not significant either. There is no evidence that Newtonian model overestimates WSS. Differences are not statistically significant.
Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman
2015-03-21
By considering an ion moving inside an imaginary sphere filled with a power-law fluid, we bring out the implications of the fluid rheology and the influence of the proximity of the other ions towards evaluating the conduction current in an ionic solution. We show that the variation of the conductivity as a function of the ionic concentration is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that predicted by the Kohlrausch law. We then utilize this consideration for estimating streaming potentials developed across narrow fluidic confinements as a consequence of the transport of ions in a convective medium constituting a power-law fluid. These estimates turn out to be in sharp contrast to the classical estimates of streaming potential for non-Newtonian fluids, in which the effect of rheology of the solvent is merely considered to affect the advection current, disregarding its contributions to the conduction current. Our results have potential implications of devising a new paradigm of consistent estimation of streaming potentials for non-Newtonian fluids, with combined considerations of the confinement effect and fluid rheology in the theoretical calculations.
Lee, S.R.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.; Greene, G.A.
1998-04-01
An implicit finite difference method was applied to analyze laminar natural convection in a vertical channel with a modified power law fluid. This fluid model was chosen because it describes the viscous properties of a pseudoplastic fluid over the entire shear rate range likely to be found in natural convection flows since it covers the shear rate range from Newtonian through transition to simple power law behavior. In addition, a dimensionless similarity parameter is identified which specifies in which of the three regions a particular system is operating. The results for the average channel velocity and average Nusselt number in the asymptotic Newtonian and power law regions are compared with numerical data in the literature. Also, graphical results are presented for the velocity and temperature fields and entrance lengths. The results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number are given in the three regions including developing and fully developed flows. As an example, a pseudoplastic fluid (carboxymethyl cellulose) was chosen to compare the different results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number between a modified power law fluid and the conventional power law model. The results show, depending upon the operating conditions, that if the correct model is not used, gross errors can result.
Nam, Jeonghun; Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Dookon; Jung, Hyunwook; Shin, Sehyun
2012-04-07
Pure separation and sorting of microparticles from complex fluids are essential for biochemical analyses and clinical diagnostics. However, conventional techniques require highly complex and expensive labeling processes for high purity separation. In this study, we present a simple and label-free method for separating microparticles with high purity using the elasto-inertial characteristic of a non-Newtonian fluid in microchannel flow. At the inlet, particle-containing sample flow was pushed toward the side walls by introducing sheath fluid from the center inlet. Particles of 1 μm and 5 μm in diameter, which were suspended in viscoelastic fluid, were successfully separated in the outlet channels: larger particles were notably focused on the centerline of the channel at the outlet, while smaller particles continued flowing along the side walls with minimal lateral migration towards the centerline. The same technique was further applied to separate platelets from diluted whole blood. Through cytometric analysis, we obtained a purity of collected platelets of close to 99.9%. Conclusively, our microparticle separation technique using elasto-inertial forces in non-Newtonian fluid is an effective method for separating and collecting microparticles on the basis of size differences with high purity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman
2011-10-04
In this work, we explore the possibilities of utilizing the combined consequences of interfacial electrokinetics and rheology toward augmenting the energy transfer efficiencies in narrow fluidic confinements. In particular, we consider the exploitation of steric effects (i.e., effect of finite size of the ionic species) in non-Newtonian fluids over small scales, to report dramatic augmentations in the streaming potential, for shear-thickening fluids. We first derive an expression for the streaming potential considering strong electrical double layer interactions in the confined flow passage and the consequences of the finite conductance of the Stern layer, going beyond the Debye-Hückel limit. With a detailed accounting for the excluded volume effects of the ionic species and their interaction with pertinent interfacial phenomena of special type of rheological fluids such as the power law fluids in the above-mentioned formalism, we demonstrate that a confluence of the steric interactions with the non-Newtonian transport characteristics may result in giant augmentations in the energy transfer efficiency for shear-thickening fluids under appropriate conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Characterising the rheology of non-Newtonian fluids using PFG-NMR and cumulant analysis.
Blythe, T W; Sederman, A J; Mitchell, J; Stitt, E H; York, A P E; Gladden, L F
2015-06-01
Conventional rheological characterisation using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) typically utilises spatially-resolved measurements of velocity. We propose a new approach to rheometry using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR which readily extends the application of MR rheometry to single-axis gradient hardware. The quantitative use of flow propagators in this application is challenging because of the introduction of artefacts during Fourier transform, which arise when realistic sampling strategies are limited by experimental and hardware constraints and when particular spatial and temporal resolution are required. The method outlined in this paper involves the cumulant analysis of the acquisition data directly, thereby preventing the introduction of artefacts and reducing data acquisition times. A model-dependent approach is developed to enable the pipe-flow characterisation of fluids demonstrating non-Newtonian power-law rheology, involving the use of an analytical expression describing the flow propagator in terms of the flow behaviour index. The sensitivity of this approach was investigated and found to be robust to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and number of acquired data points, enabling an increase in temporal resolution defined by the SNR. Validation of the simulated results was provided by an experimental case study on shear-thinning aqueous xanthan gum solutions, whose rheology could be accurately characterised using a power-law model across the experimental shear rate range of 1-100 s(-1). The flow behaviour indices calculated using this approach were observed to be within 8% of those obtained using spatially-resolved velocity imaging and within 5% of conventional rheometry. Furthermore, it was shown that the number of points sampled could be reduced by a factor of 32, when compared to the acquisition of a volume-averaged flow propagator with 128 gradient increments, without negatively influencing the accuracy of the characterisation, reducing the
DeLaMarre, Michael F; Keyzer, Alec; Shippy, Scott A
2015-05-05
Viscosity is an easily measured macroscopic property that provides molecular information and is widely used across the sciences and engineering. Here we report a microfluidic capillary viscometer that forms droplets from aqueous samples in an immiscible carrier phase and encodes information about sample viscosity in the droplet spacing. The device shows exceptional calibration stability, with only a 0.6% drift in calibration factor from run to run, the ability to handle aqueous and nonaqueous samples, and the ability to operate with sample volumes as low as 38 nL. Operating range for aqueous sample viscosity was characterized, and was found to be 0.96-52 cP. Operating range for aqueous shear rate was found to depend on aqueous viscosity and varied from 1.9 × 10(1)-4.4 × 10(2) s(-1) for high viscosity samples to 4.1 × 10(2)-6.0 × 10(3) s(-1) for low viscosity samples. Accuracy was tested by comparing measured viscosities of several samples including crème de menthe peppermint liquor, human urine, and baby oil to viscosities of the same samples obtained with a U-tube viscometer. The device was found to be very accurate, with differences between methods as low as 0.1%. The viscometer presented requires only a basic T junction and can utilize off-chip fluorescence to measure viscosity, which could allow for easy addition of viscometric measurement capabilities to existing droplet platforms. Furthermore, the device is capable of performing measurements on Newtonian fluids without precise control over pressures or flow rates, which significantly simplifies device operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahebi, S. A. R.; Pourziaei, H.; Feizi, A. R.; Taheri, M. H.; Rostamiyan, Y.; Ganji, D. D.
2015-12-01
In this paper, natural convection of non-Newtonian bio-nanofluids flow between two vertical flat plates is investigated numerically. Sodium Alginate (SA) and Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (SCMC) are considered as the base non-Newtonian fluid, and nanoparticles such as Titania ( TiO2 and Alumina ( Al2O3 were added to them. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are calculated through Maxwell-Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models, respectively. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (NUM) and three Weighted Residual Methods (WRMs), Collocation (CM), Galerkin (GM) and Least-Square Method (LSM) and Finite-Element Method (FEM), are used to solve the present problem. The influence of some physical parameters such as nanofluid volume friction on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are discussed. The results show that SCMC- TiO2 has higher velocity and temperature values than other nanofluid structures.
Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita
2015-04-01
Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow
Janečka, Adam Průša, Vít
2015-04-28
We discuss the benefits of using the so-called implicit type constitutive relations introduced by K. R. Rajagopal, J. Fluid Mech. 550, 243-249 (2006) and K. R. Rajagopal, Appl. Math. 48, 279-319 (2003) in the description of the behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids. In particular, we focus on the benefits of using the implicit type constitutive relations in the mathematical modelling of fluids in which the shear stress/shear rate dependence is given by an S-shaped curve, and in modelling of fluids that exhibit nonzero normal stress differences. We also discuss a thermodynamical framework that allows one to cope with the implicit type constitutive relations.
Non-Newtonian Blood Flow in Portal Vein with Thrombosis: A Study by Computational Fluid Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soares, A. A.; Gonzaga, S.; Silva, José Silvestre; Marinho, D.; Silva, A.; Rouboa, Abel
2011-09-01
We investigate the effects on non-Newtonian blood flow model on the wall shear stress (wss), velocity and viscosity distributions. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations coupled with viscosity models describing the steady flow in Portal Vein have been solved numerically. Three blood viscosity models (Newtonian, Power-law and Carreau) are used in numerical simulations. The results highlight the influence of these models on the blood flow and show that the viscosity model of blood may have significant impact on the numerical results especially in the region of the thrombosis.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2016-04-01
In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The use of a non-Newtonian fluid to visualize the mixing of a pseudo-homogeneous slurry
Pullum, L.; Welsh, M.C.; Hamilton, N.; Baillie, K.; Kam, P.
1994-12-31
The efficient mixing of suspensions is important t many mineral processing extraction operations. A flow visualization study was undertaken by CSIRO using a pseudo-plastic yield stress fluid in a one-ninth scale model mixing vessel with impellers. The non-Newtonian viscosity characteristics of the model fluid matched those of a slurry encountered in the alumina industry. Flow visualization showed that the fluid foil blades on the impellers were stalled and generated radial flows rather than axial flows, leading to massive scaling in the mixing vessel. Repositioning the impellers brought the blades out of stall and oiled to near ideal mixing. Subsequent installation of the modified agitator configuration in the full size vessel confirmed the scale model results.
The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2012-01-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391
MHD mixed convection analysis of non-Newtonian power law fluid in an open channel with round cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Pritom; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Mojumder, Satyajit
2017-06-01
In this study, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a round cavity at bottom wall using non-Newtonian power law fluid is analysed numerically. The cavity is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas rest of the bottom wall is insulated and top wall of the channel is maintained at a temperature lower than cavity temperature. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method is appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem is solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Rayleigh number (Ra= 103 - 105), Hartmann number (Ha= 0 - 60) and power law index (n= 0.5 - 1.5) at constant Richardson number Ri= 1.0. The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study is illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. Result of this investigation indicates that heat transfer is highest for dilatant fluids at this configuration and they perform better (47% more heat transfer) in absence of magnetic field. The retardation of heat transfer is offset by shear thickening nature of non-Newtonian fluid.
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L
2012-07-15
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability.
Hayat, Tasawar; Awais, Muhammad; Imtiaz, Amna
2016-01-01
This communication deals with the properties of heat source/sink in a magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a non-Newtonian fluid immersed in a porous medium. Shrinking phenomenon along with the permeability of the wall is considered. Mathematical modelling is performed to convert the considered physical process into set of coupled nonlinear mathematical equations. Suitable transformations are invoked to convert the set of partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically for the solution computations. It is noted that dual solutions for various physical parameters exist which are analyzed in detail. PMID:27598314
Influence of Dissipation on Heat Transfer During Flow of a Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Porous Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, A. V.; Yunitskii, S. A.
2017-07-01
A study is made of flow and heat transfer during the motion of a non-Newtonian (power-law) fluid in a plane channel filled with porous material. The Brinkman equation is used as the equation of state, and a one-temperature model, in representing the energy equation. Account us taken of dissipative heat releases. The problem is solved for temperature boundary conditions of the first kind. The authors show the influence of dissipation on the development of the temperature profile, and also on the distributions of the local Nusselt number and the mass-mean temperature along the channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M. El-Hawary, H.; Mostafa, A. A. Mahmoud; Reda, G. Abdel-Rahman; Abeer, S. Elfeshawey
2014-09-01
The theoretic transformation group approach is applied to address the problem of unsteady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid near a stagnation point with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity. The application of a two-parameter group method reduces the number of independent variables by two, and consequently the governing partial differential equations with the boundary conditions transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations with the appropriate corresponding conditions. Two systems of ordinary differential equations have been solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge—Kutta algorithm with a shooting technique. The effects of various parameters governing the problem are investigated.
Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Xianrui; Yang, Peng
2005-05-01
Hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, such as liquid velocity, gas holdup, solid holdup and gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient, in the riser and downcomer of the gas-liquid-solid three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids, were investigated. A mathematical model for the description of flow behavior and gas-liquid mass transfer of these bioreactors was developed. The predicted results of this model agreed well with the experimental data.
Hayat, Tasawar; Awais, Muhammad; Imtiaz, Amna
2016-01-01
This communication deals with the properties of heat source/sink in a magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a non-Newtonian fluid immersed in a porous medium. Shrinking phenomenon along with the permeability of the wall is considered. Mathematical modelling is performed to convert the considered physical process into set of coupled nonlinear mathematical equations. Suitable transformations are invoked to convert the set of partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically for the solution computations. It is noted that dual solutions for various physical parameters exist which are analyzed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felisa, Giada; Ciriello, Valentina; Longo, Sandro; Di Federico, Vittorio
2017-04-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian flow in fractured media is essential in hydraulic fracturing operations, largely used for optimal exploitation of oil, gas and thermal reservoirs. Complex fluids interact with pre-existing rock fractures also during drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery, environmental remediation, and other natural phenomena such as magma and sand intrusions, and mud volcanoes. A first step in the modeling effort is a detailed understanding of flow in a single fracture, as the fracture aperture is typically spatially variable. A large bibliography exists on Newtonian flow in single, variable aperture fractures. Ultimately, stochastic modeling of aperture variability at the single fracture scale leads to determination of the flowrate under a given pressure gradient as a function of the parameters describing the variability of the aperture field and the fluid rheological behaviour. From the flowrate, a flow, or 'hydraulic', aperture can then be derived. The equivalent flow aperture for non-Newtonian fluids of power-law nature in single, variable aperture fractures has been obtained in the past both for deterministic and stochastic variations. Detailed numerical modeling of power-law fluid flow in a variable aperture fracture demonstrated that pronounced channelization effects are associated to a nonlinear fluid rheology. The availability of an equivalent flow aperture as a function of the parameters describing the fluid rheology and the aperture variability is enticing, as it allows taking their interaction into account when modeling flow in fracture networks at a larger scale. A relevant issue in non-Newtonian fracture flow is the rheological nature of the fluid. The constitutive model routinely used for hydro-fracturing modeling is the simple, two-parameter power-law. Yet this model does not characterize real fluids at low and high shear rates, as it implies, for shear-thinning fluids, an apparent viscosity which becomes unbounded for zero shear rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabbi, Khan Md.; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav
2016-07-01
This paper demonstrates magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a rectangular obstacle at the entrance region using non-Newtonian power law fluid. The obstacle is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas the inlet and top wall of the channel are maintained at a temperature lower than obstacle temperature. Poiseuille flow is implemented as the inlet velocity boundary condition. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method has been appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem has been solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 - 10) at a constant Reynolds number (Re = 100), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 - 100), power index (n = 0.6 - 1.6). The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study has been illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. It is observed that increment of Hartmann number (Ha) tends to decrease the heat transfer rate up to a critical value (Ha = 20) and then let increase the heat transfer performance. Thus maximum heat transfer rate has been recorded for higher Hartmann number and Rayleigh number in case of pseudo-plastic (n = 0.6) non-Newtonian fluid flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, K. C.; Matar, O. K.
2010-11-01
The three-dimensional linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel flow are considered, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. We focus on the parameter ranges for which Squire's theorem for the two-layer Newtonian problem does not exist. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layer are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilizing. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid non-Newtonian flows. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.
Active and hibernating turbulence in minimal channel flow of newtonian and polymeric fluids.
Xi, Li; Graham, Michael D
2010-05-28
Turbulent channel flow of drag-reducing polymer solutions is simulated in minimal flow geometries. Even in the Newtonian limit, we find intervals of "hibernating" turbulence that display many features of the universal maximum drag reduction asymptote observed in polymer solutions: weak streamwise vortices, nearly nonexistent streamwise variations, and a mean velocity gradient that quantitatively matches experiments. As viscoelasticity increases, the frequency of these intervals also increases, while the intervals themselves are unchanged, leading to flows that increasingly resemble maximum drag reduction.
Yih, K.A.
1998-10-01
Convective heat transfer in a porous medium has a number of thermal engineering applications such as ceramic processing, nuclear reactor cooling system, crude oil drilling, chemical reactor design, ground water pollution and filtration processes. In this paper, the authors have investigated a boundary layer analysis for uniform lateral mass flux effect on natural convection of non-Newtonian power-law fluids along an isothermal or isoflux vertical cone embedded in a porous medium. Numerical results for the dimensionless temperature profiles as well as the local Nusselt number are presented for the mass flux parameter, viscosity index n and geometry shape parameter {lambda}. The local surface heat transfer increases for the case withdrawal of fluid, the increase of the value of {lambda}. The local Nusselt number is found to be significantly affected by the surface mass flux than the viscosity index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basteev, A. V.; Dashkov, A. V.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Repalova, O. N.; Forfutdinov, V. V.
2010-07-01
The process of growth of the boundary crystallized phase in the motion of a heated non-Newtonian fluid in a channel with a cold wall has been studied experimentally. As the fluid, polypropylene with pseudoplastic properties was used. Experimental curves of the growth of the wall crystallized phase as a function of time were obtained for different values of the initial fluid melt temperature. The experimental value of the Nusselt number at the solid-liquid interface has been computed.
Shaw, Sachin; Murthy, P V S N
2010-09-01
The present investigation deals with finding the trajectories of the drug dosed magnetic carrier particle in a microvessel with two-phase fluid model which is subjected to the external magnetic field. The radius of the microvessel is divided into the endothelial glycocalyx layer in which the blood is assumed to obey Newtonian character and a core and plug regions where the blood obeys the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley character which is suitable for the microvessel of radius 50 microm. The carrier particles, bound with nanoparticles and drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from malignant tissue, and captured at the tumor site using a local applied magnetic field. The applied magnetic field is produced by a cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body and near the tumor position. The expressions for the fluidic force for the carrier particle traversing in the two-phase fluid in the microvessel and the magnetic force due to the external magnetic field are obtained. Several factors that influence the magnetic targeting of the carrier particles in the microvasculature, such as the size of the carrier particle, the volume fraction of embedded magnetic nanoparticles, and the distance of separation of the magnet from the axis of the microvessel are considered in the present problem. An algorithm is given to solve the system of coupled equations for trajectories of the carrier particle in the invasive case. The trajectories of the carrier particle are found for both invasive and noninvasive targeting systems. A comparison is made between the trajectories in these cases. Also, the present results are compared with the data available for the impermeable microvessel with single-phase fluid flow. Also, a prediction of the capture of therapeutic magnetic nanoparticle in the impermeable microvasculature is made for different radii, distances and volume fractions in both the invasive and noninvasive cases.
A fractional-order Maxwell model for non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrera, Y.; Avila-de la Rosa, G.; Vernon-Carter, E. J.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.
2017-09-01
This work considers an extension of the fractional-order Maxwell arrangement to incorporate a relaxation process with non-Newtonian viscosity behavior. The resulting model becomes a fractional-order nonlinear differential equation with stable solution converging asymptotically to a unique equilibrium point. Expressions for the corresponding storage and loss moduli as function of strain frequency and amplitude are computed via a first-harmonic analysis of the differential equation. Some distinctive features and their relationship to the classical and fractional-order linear Maxwell models are discussed. Three examples are used to illustrate the ability of the fractional-order Maxwell model to describe experimental data.
Lateral migration of a viscoelastic drop in a Newtonian fluid in a shear flow near a wall.
Mukherjee, Swarnajay; Sarkar, Kausik
2014-10-01
Wall induced lateral migration of a viscoelastic (FENE-MCR) drop in a Newtonian fluid is investigated. Just like a Newtonian drop, a viscoelastic drop reaches a quasi-steady state where the lateral velocity only depends on the instantaneous distance from the wall. The drop migration velocity and the deformation scale inversely with the square and the cube of the distance from the wall, respectively. The migration velocity varies non-monotonically with increasing viscoelasticity (increasing Deborah number); initially increasing and then decreasing. An analytical explanation has been given of the effects by computing the migration velocity as arising from an image stresslet field due to the drop. The semi-analytical expression matches well with the simulated migration velocity away from the wall. It contains a viscoelastic stresslet component apart from those arising from interfacial tension and viscosity ratio. The migration dynamics is a result of the competition between the viscous (interfacial tension and viscosity ratio) and the viscoelastic effects. The viscoelastic stresslet contribution towards the migration velocity steadily increases. But the interfacial stresslet-arising purely from the drop shape-first increases and then decreases with rising Deborah number causing the migration velocity to be non-monotonic. The geometric effect of the interfacial stresslet is caused by a corresponding nonmonotonic variation of the drop inclination. High viscosity ratio is briefly considered to show that the drop viscoelasticity could stabilize a drop against breakup, and the increase in migration velocity due to viscoelasticity is larger compared to the viscosity-matched case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollakota, Anjani R. K.; Kishore, Nanda
2017-06-01
The bubbles are almost ubiquitous in many chemical and processing industries; and many of the polymeric solutions obey non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. Therefore, in this work the rise and deformation characteristics of spheroid bubbles in Carreau model non-Newtonian fluids are numerically investigated using a level set method. To demonstrate the validity of the moving bubble interface, the present simulations are compared with existing numerical and experimental results available in the literature; and for these comparisons, the computational geometries are considered same as reported in corresponding literatures. The present bubble deformation characteristics are satisfactorily agreeing with their literature counterparts. After establishing the validity of the numerical solution procedure, the same method is applied to obtain the deformation characteristics of an air bubble in Carreau model non-Newtonian fluids. Further, the results in terms of the volume fraction images, streamlines, and viscosity profiles around the deforming bubbles are presented as function of the bubble rise time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwack, JaeHyuk; Masud, Arif
2014-04-01
This paper presents a stabilized mixed finite element method for shear-rate dependent fluids. The nonlinear viscosity field is a function of the shear-rate and varies uniformly in space and in time. The stabilized form is developed via application of Variational Multiscale (VMS) framework to the underlying generalized Navier-Stokes equation. Linear and quadratic tetrahedral and hexahedral elements are employed with equal-order interpolations for the velocity and pressure fields. A variety of benchmark problems are solved to assess the stability and accuracy properties of the resulting method. The method is then applied to non-Newtonian shear-rate dependent flows in bifurcating artery geometry, and significant non-Newtonian fluid effects are observed. A comparative study of the proposed method shows that the additional computational costs due to the nonlinear shear-rate dependent viscosity are only ten percent more than the computational cost for a Newtonian model.
Uma, B; Radhakrishnan, R; Eckmann, D M; Ayyaswamy, P S
2013-01-01
A hybrid scheme based on Markovian fluctuating hydrodynamics of the fluid and a non-Markovian Langevin dynamics with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise perturbing the translational and rotational equations of motion of a nanoparticle is employed to study the thermal motion of a nearly neutrally buoyant nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium. A direct numerical simulation adopting an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian based finite element method is employed in simulating the thermal motion of the particle suspended in the fluid contained in a cylindrical vessel. The instantaneous flow around the particle and the particle motion are fully resolved. The numerical results show that (a) the calculated temperature of the nearly neutrally buoyant Brownian particle in a quiescent fluid satisfies the equipartition theorem; (b) the translational and rotational decay of the velocity autocorrelation functions result in algebraic tails, over long time; (c) the translational and rotational mean square displacements of the particle obeys Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye relations, respectively; and (d) the parallel and perpendicular diffusivities of the particle closer to the wall are consistent with the analytical results, where available. The study has important implications for designing nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.
2006-09-01
We develop a flux-conservative formalism for a Newtonian multi-fluid system, including dissipation and entrainment (i.e. allowing the momentum of one fluid to be a linear combination of the velocities of all fluids). Maximum use is made of mass, energy and linear and angular momentum conservation to specify the equations of motion. Also used extensively are insights gleaned from a convective variational action principle, the key being the distinction between each velocity and its canonically conjugate momentum (which is modified because of entrainment). Dissipation is incorporated to second order in the 'thermodynamic forces' via the approach pioneered by Onsager, which makes it transparent how to guarantee the law of increase of entropy. An immediate goal of the investigation is to understand better the number, and form, of independent dissipation terms required for a consistent set of equations of motion in the multi-fluid context. A significant, but seemingly innocuous detail is that one must be careful to isolate 'forces' that can be written as total gradients, otherwise errors can be made in relating the net internal force to the net externally applied force. Our long-range aim is to provide a formalism that can be used to model dynamical multi-fluid systems both perturbatively and via fully nonlinear 3D numerical evolutions. To elucidate the formalism we consider the standard model for a heat-conducting, superfluid neutron star, which is believed to be dominated by superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons and a highly degenerate, ultra-relativistic gas of normal fluid electrons. We determine that in this case there are, in principle, 19 dissipation coefficients in the final set of equations. A final reduction of the system is made by neglecting heat conduction. This leads to an extension of the standard two-fluid model for neutron star cores, which has been used in a number of previous applications, and illustrates how mutual friction is represented in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abas, Siti Sabariah; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd
2017-08-01
Rivulet flows occur in a wide range of practical situations ranging from industrial situation such as coating processes to geophysical situation such as lava flow, and extensive efforts have been made to investigate it. In this study, a lubrication approximation is used to investigate the gravity-driven draining of unsteady, slender, symmetric rivulet of Newtonian fluid down an inclined plane, with strong surface-tension effect. A travelling-wave similarity solution is obtained representing a quartic transverse profile rivulet and that it has a uniform thickness at any position x and time t which widen or narrow according to (x - ct)1/4, where c is a velocity of a rivulet and thicken or thin according to a free parameter F0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farnoush, Somayeh; Manzari, Mehrdad T.
2014-12-01
Body force modeling is studied in the Generalized Newtonian (GN) fluid flow simulation using a single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. First, in a shear thickening Poiseuille flow, the necessity for studying body force modeling in the LB method is explained. Then, a parametric unified framework is constructed for the first time which is composed of a parametric LB model and its associated macroscopic dual equations in both steady state and transient simulations. This unified framework is used to compare the macroscopic behavior of different forcing models. Besides, using this unified framework, a new forcing model for steady state simulations is devised. Finally, by solving a number of test cases it is shown that numerical results confirm the theoretical arguments presented in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Hansen, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
A new flow-through reaction cell consisting of an X-ray-transparent semicrystalline thermoplastic has been developed for percolation experiments. Core holder, tubing and all confining parts are constructed using PEEK (polyetheretherketone) to allow concomitant surveillance of the reaction progress by X-ray microtomography (μ-CT). With this cell setup, corrosive or oversaturated fluids can be forced through rock cores (up to ∅ 19 mm) or powders at pressures up to 100 bar and temperatures up to 200 °C. The reaction progress of the experiment can be monitored without dismantling the sample from the core holder. The combination of this flow-through reaction cell setup with a laboratory X-ray μ-CT system facilitates on-demand monitoring of the reaction progress of (long-term) hydrothermal experiments in the own laboratory, keeping interruption times as short as possible. To demonstrate both the suitability of the cell construction material for X-ray imaging purposes and the experimental performance of the flow-through system, we report the virtually non-existent bias of the PEEK cell setup with distinctive X-ray observations (e.g., differing states of pore fillings: air vs. fluid; detection of delicate fabric elements: filigree zeolite crystals overgrowing weathered muscovite), and the monitoring of the gypsum/anhydrite transition as a case study of a 4-D fabric evolution.
MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS
Leishear, R.
2009-09-09
Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.
Gilormini, P; Teyssèdre, H
2013-12-08
Measuring the relaxation time involved in the levelling of a free surface of a Newtonian fluid laid on a substrate can give access to material parameters. It is shown here how most favourable pattern geometries of the free surface and film thicknesses can be defined for the measures of viscosity and Navier slip length at the fluid-solid interface, respectively. Moreover, we put special emphasis on the conditions required to avoid shear thinning by controlling the maximum shear rate. For initially sinusoidal patterns with infinitesimal amplitudes, an analytical solution including slip at the fluid-solid interface is used, and numerical simulations based on the natural element method allow one to discuss the effect of finite amplitudes. This leads to the definition of a relevance domain for the analytical solution that avoids the need for numerical simulations in practical applications. It is also shown how these results can be applied to crenelated profiles, where Fourier series expansion can be used, but with caution.
A constitutive framework for the non-Newtonian pressure tensor of a simple fluid under planar flows.
Hartkamp, Remco; Todd, B D; Luding, Stefan
2013-06-28
Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of an atomic fluid under shear flow, planar elongational flow, and a combination of shear and elongational flow are unified consistently with a tensorial model over a wide range of strain rates. A model is presented that predicts the pressure tensor for a non-Newtonian bulk fluid under a homogeneous planar flow field. The model provides a quantitative description of the strain-thinning viscosity, pressure dilatancy, deviatoric viscoelastic lagging, and out-of-flow-plane pressure anisotropy. The non-equilibrium pressure tensor is completely described through these four quantities and can be calculated as a function of the equilibrium material constants and the velocity gradient. This constitutive framework in terms of invariants of the pressure tensor departs from the conventional description that deals with an orientation-dependent description of shear stresses and normal stresses. The present model makes it possible to predict the full pressure tensor for a simple fluid under various types of flows without having to produce these flow types explicitly in a simulation or experiment.
Lateral migration of a viscoelastic drop in a Newtonian fluid in a shear flow near a wall
Mukherjee, Swarnajay; Sarkar, Kausik
2014-01-01
Wall induced lateral migration of a viscoelastic (FENE-MCR) drop in a Newtonian fluid is investigated. Just like a Newtonian drop, a viscoelastic drop reaches a quasi-steady state where the lateral velocity only depends on the instantaneous distance from the wall. The drop migration velocity and the deformation scale inversely with the square and the cube of the distance from the wall, respectively. The migration velocity varies non-monotonically with increasing viscoelasticity (increasing Deborah number); initially increasing and then decreasing. An analytical explanation has been given of the effects by computing the migration velocity as arising from an image stresslet field due to the drop. The semi-analytical expression matches well with the simulated migration velocity away from the wall. It contains a viscoelastic stresslet component apart from those arising from interfacial tension and viscosity ratio. The migration dynamics is a result of the competition between the viscous (interfacial tension and viscosity ratio) and the viscoelastic effects. The viscoelastic stresslet contribution towards the migration velocity steadily increases. But the interfacial stresslet—arising purely from the drop shape—first increases and then decreases with rising Deborah number causing the migration velocity to be non-monotonic. The geometric effect of the interfacial stresslet is caused by a corresponding nonmonotonic variation of the drop inclination. High viscosity ratio is briefly considered to show that the drop viscoelasticity could stabilize a drop against breakup, and the increase in migration velocity due to viscoelasticity is larger compared to the viscosity-matched case. PMID:25378894
Spreading dynamics and dynamic contact angle of non-Newtonian fluids.
Wang, X D; Lee, D J; Peng, X F; Lai, J Y
2007-07-17
The spreading dynamics of power-law fluids, both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids, that completely or partially wet solid substrate was investigated theoretically and experimentally. An evolution equation for liquid-film thickness was derived using a lubrication approximation, from which the dynamic contact angle versus the contact line moving velocity relationship was evaluated. In the capillary spreading regime, film thickness h is proportional to xi3/(n+2) (xi is the distance from the contact line), whereas in the gravitational regime, h is proportional to xi1/(n+2), relating to the rheological power exponent n. The derived model fit the experimental data well for a shear-thinning fluid (0.2% w/w xanthan solution) or a shear-thickening fluid (7.5% w/w 10 nm silica in polypropylene glycol) on a completely wetted substrate. The derived model was extended using Hoffmann's proposal for partially wetting fluids. Good agreement was also attained between model predictions and the shear-thinning fluid (1% w/w cmc solution) and shear-thickening fluid (10% w/w 15 nm silica) on partially wetted surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.; Ciriello, V.; Chiapponi, L.
2015-12-01
A theoretical and experimental analysis of non-Newtonian gravity-driven flow in porous media with spatially variable properties is presented. The motivation for our study is the rheological complexity exhibited by several environmental contaminants (wastewater sludge, oil pollutants, waste produced by the minerals and coal industries) and remediation agents (suspensions employed to enhance the efficiency of in-situ remediation). Natural porous media are inherently heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity influences the extent and shape of the porous domain invaded by the contaminant or remediation agent. To grasp the combined effect of rheology and spatial heterogeneity, we consider: a) the release of a thin current of non-Newtonian power-law fluid into a 2-D, semi-infinite and saturated porous medium above a horizontal bed; b) perfectly stratified media, with permeability and porosity varying along the direction transverse (vertical) or parallel (horizontal) to the flow direction. This continuous variation of spatial properties is described by two additional parameters. In order to represent several possible spreading scenarios, we consider: i) instantaneous injection with constant mass; ii) continuous injection with time-variable mass; iii) instantaneous release of a mound of fluid, which can drain freely out of the formation at the origin (dipole flow). Under these assumptions, scalings for current length and thickness are derived in self similar form. An analysis of the conditions on model parameters required to avoid an unphysical or asymptotically invalid result is presented. Theoretical results are validated against multiple sets of experiments, conducted for different combinations of spreading scenarios and types of stratification. Two basic setups are employed for the experiments: I) direct flow simulation in an artificial porous medium constructed superimposing layers of glass beads of different diameter; II) a Hele-Shaw (HS) analogue made of two parallel
Amaral, Felipe; Egger, Christina; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas
2013-09-01
Assuming that blood has a constant viscosity is a common practice when designing rotary blood pumps (RBPs), where shear stresses are generally higher than in the human body. This eases the design and allows numerical simulations and bench top experiments to be performed with Newtonian fluids. However, specific flow conditions may cause a change in cell distribution leading to an apparent lower blood viscosity. It has been observed that decreasing the vessel diameters and increasing flow velocities contribute to this effect. Because a hydrodynamic bearing operates under flow conditions following this pattern, it is important to verify whether this effect also takes place when this type of bearing is applied to a RBP. Because the operation of a hydrodynamic bearing depends directly on the fluid viscosity, a local change in cell distribution in the bearing gap can be reflected in changes in the bearing performance. In this work, a spiral groove hydrodynamic bearing was tested with porcine blood in a specially built test rig. The generated suspension force, cross flow, and bearing torque were recorded and compared with the reference response when using a solution of water and glycerol. Experiments with porcine blood yielded lower suspension forces, lower flows, and lower bearing torques than when using the glycerol solution. An explanation could be a lower apparent viscosity due to inhomogeneity of blood cell concentrations. Therefore, it is crucial to consider the effective blood viscosity when designing hydrodynamic bearings for RBPs and performing experiments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.
Flow instabilities during annular displacement of one non-Newtonian fluid by another
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tehrani, M. A.; Bittleston, S. H.; Long, P. J. G.
1993-02-01
This paper describes an experimental setup for axial laminar flow of liquids in the annulus between two eccentered cylinders. The design uses a conductivity method for measuring peak axial velocities around the annulus, and for the determination of displacement efficiency when displacing one fluid by another (displacement efficiency being defined as the ratio of volume of displaced fluid removed from the annulus, to the volume of the annulus, after a given number of annular volumes have been pumped). In an eccentric annulus, lower axial velocity in the narrow side produces “channeling” of the displacing fluid in the wide side and reduces the displacement efficiency. A positive density contrast between the two fluids can increase the efficiency by promoting azimuthal flow of the (denser) displacing fluid towards the narrow side. In this paper we report that gravity driven azimuthal flow is prone to severe instabilities which accelerate the displacement process but may leave behind an immobile strip of the displaced fluid in the narrow side.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faria, Cassio T.; Inman, Daniel J.
2014-04-01
When a mechanical and/or structural component is immersed in a fluid and it vibrates, the reasonable assumption is that part of the energy is transmitted to the adjacent media. For some engineering applications the energy transport between these two domains, i.e., structure and fluid, plays a central role. The work presented in this paper is focused on discussing the energy transport in beam-like structures as they can be used to represent flexible swimmers (fish-like pulsating mechanisms) in their simplest form. In order to expose the role of each of the fluid and beam properties effecting the energy transfer process, a simplified analytical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is derived. After analysis of the resulting coupled-systems' damping coefficient, a new energy transport component is added to the initial Euler-Bernoulli beam equation; a term associated with diffusion (fluid viscosity). In addition our modeling results in an added mass term, a characteristic consistent with previous literature. While deriving the model, an important assumption is made: beam mode shapes are not significantly affected by the domains' interaction. This hypothesis is experimentally tested in two different fluid media and confirmed to be reasonable for the first three vibration mode shapes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Cafferata, Chiara
2007-04-01
The dynamics of the vitreous body induced by eye rotations is studied experimentally. In particular, we consider the case in which the vitreous cavity is filled by a Newtonian fluid, either because the vitreous is liquefied or because it has been replaced, after vitrectomy, by a viscous fluid. We employ a rigid Perspex container which models, in a magnified scale, the vitreous cavity of the human eye. The shape of the cavity closely resembles that of the real vitreous chamber; in particular, the anterior part of the container is concave in order to model the presence of the eye lens. The container is filled with glycerol and is mounted on the shaft of a computer-controlled motor which rotates according to a periodic time law. PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation. The experimental measurements show that the velocity field is strongly influenced by the deformed geometry of the domain. In particular, the formation of a vortex in the vicinity of the lens, which migrates in time towards the core of the domain, is invariably observed. The vortex path is tracked in time by means of a vortex identification technique and it is found that it is significantly influenced by the Womersley number of the flow. Particle trajectories are computed from the PIV measurements. Particles initially located at different positions on the equatorial horizontal plane (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) tend to concentrate in narrow regions adjacent to the lens, thus suggesting the existence, in such regions, of a vertical fluid ejection. Such a strong flow three-dimensionality, which is essentially induced by the irregular shape of the domain, may play a significant role in the mixing processes taking place inside the eye globe. The tangential stresses acting on the rigid boundary of the domain are also computed from the experimental measurements showing that regions subject to particularly intense stresses
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K
2007-01-01
It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145% difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P(1)) between the FSI and wall-only models and 40% difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70% severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20-40% in maximum MSS values, 100-150% in stagnation region) than those from FSI models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Harwell, John R.; Nguyen, Hoa; Succi, Sauro
2017-04-01
Significant improvements in the computational performance of the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) model, coded in FORTRAN90, were achieved through application of enhancement techniques. Applied techniques include optimization of array memory layouts, data structure simplification, random number generation outside the simulation thread(s), code parallelization via OpenMP, and intra- and inter-timestep task pipelining. Effectiveness of these optimization techniques was measured on three benchmark problems: (i) transient flow of multiple particles in a Newtonian fluid in a heterogeneous fractured porous domain, (ii) thermal fluctuation of the fluid at the sub-micron scale and the resultant Brownian motion of a particle, and (iii) non-Newtonian fluid flow in a smooth-walled channel. Application of the aforementioned optimization techniques resulted in an average 21 × performance improvement, which could significantly enhance practical uses of the LB models in diverse applications, focusing on the fate and transport of nano-size or micron-size particles in non-Newtonian fluids.
Study of blades inclination influence of gate impeller with a non-Newtonian fluid of Bingham
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmani, Lakhdar; Seghier, O.; Draoui, B.; Benachour, E.
2016-03-01
A large number of chemical operations, biochemical or petrochemical industry is very depending on the rheological fluids nature. In this work, we study the case of highly viscous of viscoplastic fluids in a classical system of agitation: a cylindrical tank with plate bottom without obstacles agitated by gate impeller agitator. We are interested to the laminar, incompressible and isothermal flows. We devote to a numerical approach carried out using an industrial code CFD Fluent 6.3.26 based on the method of finites volumes discretization of Navier - Stokes equations formulated in variables (U.V.P). The threshold of flow related to the viscoplastic behavior is modeled by a theoretical law of Bingham. The results obtained are used to compare between the five configurations suggested of power consumption. We study the influence of inertia by the variation of Reynolds number.
Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian fluid flow using the indirect boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessonova, M. P.; Yakutenok, V. A.
2017-02-01
The indirect boundary element method is formulated for a two-dimensional Stokes flow with the moving boundary when gravity force aids the flow. The governing equations of low Reynolds flow are formulated. The numerical technique is described. Two regimes of the fluid flow depending on the Stokes number value were detected: the regime of full filling and the jet flow regime. The comparison of obtained results with data of other authors is presented.
Xu, Jing-yu
2010-11-15
The present work has been carried out to investigate on the average void fraction of gas/non-Newtonian fluids flow in downward inclined pipes. The influences of pipe inclination angle on the average void fraction were studied experimentally. A simple correlation, which incorporated the method of Vlachos et al. for gas/Newtonain fluid horizontal flow, the correction factor of Farooqi and Richardson and the pipe inclination angle, was proposed to predict the average void fraction of gas/non-Newtonian power-law stratified flow in downward inclined pipes. The correlation was based on 470 data points covering a wide range of flow rates for different systems at diverse angles. A good agreement was obtained between theory and data and the fitting results could describe the majority of the experimental data within {+-}20%. (author)
Shear History Effects on Extensional Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Filament Stretching Rheometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Minwu; McKinley, Gareth H.
2008-07-01
Modifications to filament stretching rheometers have been used by several researchers in recent years to study the effect of preshear on the transient evolution of the micro structure and viscoelastic tensile stresses for moderately viscous polymer solutions. A typical preshear/extensional experiment usually includes three well-defined stages, namely a preshearing step, followed by exponential axial stretching and then stress relaxation and filament thinning. Measurements collected from these three stages provide a complete quantitative characterization of the effect of preshear history on the extensional rheological properties of the test fluid. In the present work, we simulate all the three stages of the preshearing/filament-stretching experiment using a transient free surface finite element approach. The "swirl" velocity component due to the preshear is efficiently handled by a 2.5-dimensional axisymmetric finite element formulation, which incorporates the effects of viscoelasticity, surface tension, fluid inertia and a deformable free surface. The rheology of the Boger fluid used in the experiments is simulated by a single-mode FENE-P model with strong strain-hardening corresponding to large values of the extensibility parameter L. During the filament stretching stage, we consider the simplest "type II" kinematics, with a simple exponential separation of the two plates. The simulation results demonstrate the strong effect of preshear on the evolution of the filament profile and the resulting extensional viscosity (Trouton ratio). The predicted effect of pre-shear on the transient extensional viscosity agrees qualitatively well with the available experimental data.
Fluid bulk velocity and attenuation measurements in non-Newtonian liquids using a dipstick sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cegla, F. B.; Cawley, P.; Lowe, M. J. S.
2006-02-01
This paper reports an evaluation of a method to measure acoustic fluid bulk properties in order to characterize the fluid. The method is based on a 'dipstick' that is inserted into the liquid of interest; a propagating interface wave, called the quasi-Scholte mode, is used to extract the necessary information. Quasi-Scholte mode measurements on four different silica-suspensions are compared to experiments in a conventional ultrasonic test cell. The results show that the liquid bulk velocity can accurately be retrieved by means of the new approach and errors range within the uncertainties imposed by the experimental setup (0.5%). Further bulk velocity measurements on distilled water and a 5% ethanol-distilled-water mixture over a range of temperatures illustrate that the method can successfully monitor small changes in velocity. The values of fluid attenuation measured by the two techniques agree well in their qualitative trends but quantitative differences of up to 20% are encountered. Errors in the measurements are believed to be mainly due to geometrical features of the current setup.
Analysis of flow parameters of a Newtonian fluid through a cylindrical collapsible tube.
Kanyiri, Caroline W; Kinyanjui, Mathew; Giterere, Kang'ethe
2014-01-01
In this research study, fluid flow through a cylindrical collapsible tube has been investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of flow parameters on the cross sectional area of a collapsible tube, flow velocity and internal pressure of the fluid. The flow parameters considered are longitudinal tension and volumetric flow rate. The tube is considered collapsible in the transverse direction, taken to be perpendicular to the main flow direction. Collapse happens when external pressure exceeds internal pressure and hence the tube results to a highly noncircular cross sectional area. The fluid flow in consideration is steady and incompressible. Equations governing the flow are non-linear and cannot be solved analytically. Therefore an approximate solution to the equations has been determined numerically. In this case, finite difference method has been used. A computer program has then been used to generate the results which are presented in form of graphs. The results show that the longitudinal tension is directly proportional to both the cross sectional area and internal pressure and inversely proportional to the flow velocity and that change in volumetric flow rate has no effect on the cross sectional area but it is directly proportional to the flow velocity and inversely proportional to the internal pressure.
Gilormini, P.; Teyssèdre, H.
2013-01-01
Measuring the relaxation time involved in the levelling of a free surface of a Newtonian fluid laid on a substrate can give access to material parameters. It is shown here how most favourable pattern geometries of the free surface and film thicknesses can be defined for the measures of viscosity and Navier slip length at the fluid–solid interface, respectively. Moreover, we put special emphasis on the conditions required to avoid shear thinning by controlling the maximum shear rate. For initially sinusoidal patterns with infinitesimal amplitudes, an analytical solution including slip at the fluid–solid interface is used, and numerical simulations based on the natural element method allow one to discuss the effect of finite amplitudes. This leads to the definition of a relevance domain for the analytical solution that avoids the need for numerical simulations in practical applications. It is also shown how these results can be applied to crenelated profiles, where Fourier series expansion can be used, but with caution. PMID:24353474
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Caidi
2012-12-01
This paper studies the pullback asymptotic behavior of solutions for a non-autonomous non-Newtonian fluid on Ω = {R}× (-L, L) for some L > 0. We first use the technique of truncation functions together with the decomposition of spatial domain to prove the existence of a pullback attractor in Ω. Then we discuss the upper semicontinuity of the pullback attractors when the spatial domains vary from Ωm to Ω, where [ Ω _m] _{m=1}^infty is an expanding sequence of simply connected, bounded, and smooth subdomains of Ω such that \\cup _{m=1}^infty Ω _m=Ω. Let hat{A}=[ A(tau )] _{tau in {R}} and hat{A}_m=[ A_m(tau )] _{tau in {R}} be the pullback attractors corresponding to Ω and Ωm, respectively. We establish for each tau in {R} that for any neighborhood O(A(tau )) of A(tau ), A_m(tau ) enters O(A(tau )) if m is large enough.
PFG NMR and Bayesian analysis to characterise non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blythe, Thomas W.; Sederman, Andrew J.; Stitt, E. Hugh; York, Andrew P. E.; Gladden, Lynn F.
2017-01-01
Many industrial flow processes are sensitive to changes in the rheological behaviour of process fluids, and there therefore exists a need for methods that provide online, or inline, rheological characterisation necessary for process control and optimisation over timescales of minutes or less. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a non-invasive technique for this application, without limitation on optical opacity. We present a Bayesian analysis approach using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR to enable estimation of the rheological parameters of Herschel-Bulkley fluids in a pipe flow geometry, characterised by a flow behaviour index n , yield stress τ0 , and consistency factor k , by analysis of the signal in q -space. This approach eliminates the need for velocity image acquisition and expensive gradient hardware. We investigate the robustness of the proposed Bayesian NMR approach to noisy data and reduced sampling using simulated NMR data and show that even with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 100, only 16 points are required to be sampled to provide rheological parameters accurate to within 2% of the ground truth. Experimental validation is provided through an experimental case study on Carbopol 940 solutions (model Herschel-Bulkley fluids) using PFG NMR at a 1H resonance frequency of 85.2 MHz; for SNR > 1000, only 8 points are required to be sampled. This corresponds to a total acquisition time of <60 s and represents an 88% reduction in acquisition time when compared to MR flow imaging. Comparison of the shear stress-shear rate relationship, quantified using Bayesian NMR, with non-Bayesian NMR methods demonstrates that the Bayesian NMR approach is in agreement with MR flow imaging to within the accuracy of the measurement. Furthermore, as we increase the concentration of Carbopol 940 we observe a change in rheological characteristics, probably due to shear history-dependent behaviour and the different geometries used. This behaviour highlights the need for
General mechanism for the meandering instability of rivulets of Newtonian fluids.
Daerr, A; Eggers, J; Limat, L; Valade, N
2011-05-06
A rivulet flowing down an inclined plane often does not follow a straight path, but starts to meander spontaneously. Here we show that this instability is the result of two key ingredients: fluid inertia and anisotropy of the friction between rivulet and substrate. Meandering only occurs if the motion normal to the instantaneous flow direction is more difficult than parallel to it. We give a quantitative criterion for the onset of meandering and confirm it by comparing to the flow of a rivulet between two glass plates which are wetted completely. Above the threshold, the rivulet follows an irregular pattern with a typical wavelength of a few cm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, J. D.; Owen, I.; Escudier, M. P.
2007-10-01
Dimensional analysis has been applied to an unsteady pulsatile flow of a shear-thinning power-law non-Newtonian liquid. An experiment was then designed in which both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were used to model blood flow through a large-scale (38.5 mm dia.), simplified, rigid arterial junction (a distal anastomosis of a femorodistal bypass). The flow field within the junction was obtained by Particle Imaging Velocimetry and near-wall velocities were used to calculate the wall shear stresses. Dimensionless wall shear stresses were obtained at different points in the cardiac cycle for two different but dynamically similar non-Newtonian fluids; the good agreement between the measured dimensionless wall shear stresses confirm the validity of the dimensional analysis. However, blood exhibits a constant viscosity at high-shear rates and to obtain complete dynamic similarity between large-scale experiments and life-scale flows, the high-shear viscosity also needs to be included in the analysis. How this might be done is discussed in the paper.
PFG NMR and Bayesian analysis to characterise non-Newtonian fluids.
Blythe, Thomas W; Sederman, Andrew J; Stitt, E Hugh; York, Andrew P E; Gladden, Lynn F
2017-01-01
Many industrial flow processes are sensitive to changes in the rheological behaviour of process fluids, and there therefore exists a need for methods that provide online, or inline, rheological characterisation necessary for process control and optimisation over timescales of minutes or less. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers a non-invasive technique for this application, without limitation on optical opacity. We present a Bayesian analysis approach using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR to enable estimation of the rheological parameters of Herschel-Bulkley fluids in a pipe flow geometry, characterised by a flow behaviour index n, yield stress τ0, and consistency factor k, by analysis of the signal in q-space. This approach eliminates the need for velocity image acquisition and expensive gradient hardware. We investigate the robustness of the proposed Bayesian NMR approach to noisy data and reduced sampling using simulated NMR data and show that even with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 100, only 16 points are required to be sampled to provide rheological parameters accurate to within 2% of the ground truth. Experimental validation is provided through an experimental case study on Carbopol 940 solutions (model Herschel-Bulkley fluids) using PFG NMR at a (1)H resonance frequency of 85.2MHz; for SNR>1000, only 8 points are required to be sampled. This corresponds to a total acquisition time of <60s and represents an 88% reduction in acquisition time when compared to MR flow imaging. Comparison of the shear stress-shear rate relationship, quantified using Bayesian NMR, with non-Bayesian NMR methods demonstrates that the Bayesian NMR approach is in agreement with MR flow imaging to within the accuracy of the measurement. Furthermore, as we increase the concentration of Carbopol 940 we observe a change in rheological characteristics, probably due to shear history-dependent behaviour and the different geometries used. This behaviour highlights the need for online
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.
1993-01-01
The results of Chandrasekhar (1969) are generalized to polytropes, using a formalism based on ellipsoidal energy variational principle to construct approximate stellar equilibrium solutions and study their stability. After reviewing the energy variational method and describing the approach, several equivalent stability conditions are established and secular vs. dynamical instabilities are discussed. Then, the equilibrium structure equations are derived for isolated, rotating polytropes, and axisymmetric configurations (compressible Maclaurin spheroids) are considered. Particular attention is given to triaxial configurations, either in a state of uniform rotation (generalizing the classical Jacobi ellipsoids) or with internal fluid motions of uniform vorticity (the compressible analogues of Riemann-S ellipsoids) and to the stability of these single star configurations. The compressible generalizations of the Roche and Roche-Riemann problems for a polytrope in orbit about a point-mass companion are solved, and the generalized Darwin problem for two identical polytropes in a binary is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, L. C.; Zhang, X. X.; Boubaker, K.; Yücel, U.; Gargouri-Ellouze, E.; Yıldırım, A.
2011-08-01
In this paper, a new model is proposed for the heat transfer characteristics of power law non- Newtonian fluids. The effects of power law viscosity on temperature field were taken into account by assuming that the temperature field is similar to the velocity field with modified Fourier's law of heat conduction for power law fluid media. The solutions obtained by using Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme (BPES) technique are compared with those of the recent related similarity method in the literature with good agreement to verify the protocol exactness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rathod, Maureen L.
Initially 3D FEM simulation of a simplified mixer was used to examine the effect of mixer configuration and operating conditions on dispersive mixing of a non-Newtonian fluid. Horizontal and vertical velocity magnitudes increased with increasing mixer speed, while maximum axial velocity and shear rate were greater with staggered paddles. In contrast, parallel paddles produced an area of efficient dispersive mixing between the center of the paddle and the barrel wall. This study was expanded to encompass the complete nine-paddle mixing section using power-law and Bird-Carreau fluid models. In the center of the mixer, simple shear flow was seen, corresponding with high [special character omitted]. Efficient dispersive mixing appeared near the barrel wall at all flow rates and near the barrel center with parallel paddles. Areas of backflow, improving fluid retention time, occurred with staggered paddles. The Bird-Carreau fluid showed greater influence of paddle motion under the same operating conditions due to the inelastic nature of the fluid. Shear-thinning behavior also resulted in greater maximum shear rate as shearing became easier with decreasing fluid viscosity. Shear rate distributions are frequently calculated, but extension rate calculations have not been made in a complex geometry since Debbaut and Crochet (1988) defined extension rate as the ratio of the third to the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. Extension rate was assumed to be negligible in most studies, but here extension rate is shown to be significant. It is possible to calculate maximum stable bubble diameter from capillary number if shear and extension rates in a flow field are known. Extension rate distributions were calculated for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. High extension and shear rates were found in the intermeshing region. Extension is the major influence on critical capillary number and maximum stable bubble diameter, but when extension rate values are low shear rate has
Accelerated Sedimentation Velocity Assessment for Nanowires Stabilized in a Non-Newtonian Fluid.
Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Ying-Chih
2016-12-27
In this work, the long-term stability of titanium oxide nanowire suspensions was accessed by an accelerated sedimentation with centrifugal forces. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticle (NP) and nanowire (NW) dispersions were prepared, and their sizes were carefully characterized. To replace the time-consuming visual observation, sedimentation velocities of the TiO2 NP and NW suspensions were measured using an analytical centrifuge. For an aqueous TiO2 NP suspension, the measured sedimentation velocities were linearly dependent on the relative centrifugal forces (RCF), as predicted by the classical Stokes law. A similar linear relationship was also found in the case of TiO2 NW aqueous suspensions. However, NWs preferred to settle parallel to the centrifugal direction under high RCF because of the lower flow resistance along the long axis. Thus, the extrapolated sedimentation velocity under regular gravity can be overestimated. Finally, a stable TiO2 NW suspension was formulated with a shear thinning fluid and showed great stability for weeks using visual observation. A theoretical analysis was deduced with rheological shear-thinning parameters to describe the nonlinear power-law dependence between the measured sedimentation velocities and RCF. The good agreement between the theoretical predictions and measurements suggested that the sedimentation velocity can be properly extrapolated to regular gravity. In summary, this accelerated assessment on a theoretical basis can yield quantitative information about long-term stability within a short time (a few hours) and can be further extended to other suspension systems.
Chen, Kaihui; Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong
2017-07-01
To investigate the microstructural evolution dependency on the apparent viscosity in shear-thickening fluids (STFs), a hybrid mesoscale model combined with stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) is used. Muller-Plathe reverse perturbation method is adopted to analyze the viscosities of STFs in a two-dimensional model. The characteristic of microstructural evolution of the colloidal suspensions under different shear rate is studied. The effect of diameter of colloidal particles and the phase volume fraction on the shear thickening behavior is investigated. Under low shear rate, the two-atom structure is formed, because of the strong particle attractions in adjacent layers. At higher shear rate, the synergetic pair structure extends to layered structure along flow direction because of the increasing hydrodynamics action. As the shear rate rises continuously, the layered structure rotates and collides with other particles, then turned to be individual particles under extension or curve string structure under compression. Finally, at the highest shear rate, the strings curve more severely and get into two-dimensional cluster. The apparent viscosity of the system changes from shear-thinning behavior to the shear-thickening behavior. This work presents valuable information for further understanding the shear thickening mechanism.
Asymptotic analysis of a newtonian fluid in a curved pipe with moving walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castiñeira, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, José M.
2016-06-01
This communication is devoted to the presentation of our recent results regarding the asymptotic analysis of a viscous flow in a tube with elastic walls. This study can be applied, for example, to the blood flow in an artery. With this aim, we consider the dynamic problem of the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid through a curved pipe with a smooth central curve. Our analysis leads to the obtention of an one dimensional model via singular perturbation of the Navier-Stokes system as ɛ, a non dimensional parameter related to the radius of cross-section of the tube, tends to zero. We allow the radius depend on tangential direction and time, so a coupling with an elastic or viscoelastic law on the wall of the pipe is possible. To perform the asymptotic analysis, we do a change of variable to a reference domain where we assume the existence of asymptotic expansions on ɛ for both velocity and pressure which, upon substitution on Navier-Stokes equations, leads to the characterization of various terms of the expansion. This allows us to obtain an approximation of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Khan, Ilyas; Islam, Saeed; Siddiqui, Nasir
2017-07-01
We have explored double-layer-coated fiber optics using two-phase immiscible non-Newtonian fluid as a polymeric material. We have considered two layers, the first layer is assumed of soft material and the second consists of hard material. Resin flows are driven by fast-moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet. Two cases of temperature linearly varying at the boundaries have been discussed. The assumption of fully developed flow of non-Newtonian fluid permits an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. The thickness of the secondary coating resin and the shear stress on the glass fiber, which are two basic output variables of practical concern, have been examined by several input parameters: two geometric parameters, i.e., radius of the glass fiber Rw and radius of the coating die Rd; two operational parameters, i.e., the velocity ratio U and power indices n1,2; the non-Newtonian parameter S1,2; and the nondimensional parameters H and ϕ. The comparison of the present work with published result predicts the close agreement.
Etemad, S.G.
1997-11-01
Many important industrial fluids are non-Newtonian in their flow characteristics. These include food materials, soap and detergent slurries, polymer solutions and many others. In the most of the industries such as polymer, foods, petrochemical the heat exchanger is an especially important component of the processing equipment. In the design of heat exchanger, the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient plays a key role as a design factor. Here the Galerkin finite element is used to solve the three dimensional momentum and energy equations for laminar non-Newtonian flow in cross-shaped straight duct. Both flow and heat transfer develop simultaneously from the entrance of the channel. Uniform wall temperature (T) and also constant wall heat flux both axially and peripherally (H2) are used as thermal boundary conditions. The power-law model is chosen to characterize the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid. The effect of power-law index and geometric parameter on the apparent friction factor as well as Nusselt number are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arifin, N. S.; Zokri, S. M.; Kasim, A. R. M.; Salleh, M. Z.; Mohammad, N. F.; Yusoff, W. N. S. W.
2017-09-01
The effect of aligned magnetic field is numerically investigated for mixed convection flow of dusty Casson fluid over a stretching sheet. The governing equations of flow and heat transfer for the two-phase model (fluid and dust) with an appropriate thermal boundary condition which is Newtonian heating (NH) is presented. The similarity transformation is employed to transform the nonlinear governing equations for each phase into the ordinary differential equations which then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg (RKF45) method. Numerical solutions obtained for velocity and temperature distributions are illustrated through graph by varying several physical parameters. It is observed that the fluid velocity decreases with an increase in aligned magnetic field and particle-fluid interaction parameter.
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.
2009-01-01
It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145% difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P1) between the FSI and wall-only models and 40% difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70% severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20–40% in maximum MSS values, 100–150% in stagnation region) than those from FSI models. PMID:19784387
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponalagusamy, R.
2017-05-01
The primary concern of the present investigation is to study blood flow in a porous catheterized artery with an axially asymmetric and radially symmetric stenosis (constriction). In the present study, blood is characterized as a two-fluid system containing a cell-rich zone of suspension of blood cells described to be a particle-fluid suspension (Jeffrey fluid) and a cell-free plasma (Newtonian fluid) layer near the wall. The systematic expressions for flow characteristics such as fluid phase and particle phase velocities, flow rate, wall shear stress, resistive force, and frictional forces on walls of arterial stenosis and catheter are derived. It is recorded that the wall shear stress, flow resistance, and frictional forces are found to be increased with catheter size, red cell concentration, and slip parameter. When blood obeys the law of constitutive equation of a Jeffrey fluid, the flowing blood experiences lesser wall shear stress, flow resistance and frictional forces as compared to the case of blood being categorized as a Newtonian fluid. The increase in Darcy number, blood rheology as Jeffrey fluid, and the presence of peripheral plasma layer near the wall serves to reduce substantially the values of the flow characteristics (wall shear stress, flow resistance and frictional forces).
Digilov, Rafael M
2008-12-02
The impact of non-Newtonian behavior and the dynamic contact angle on the rise dynamics of a power law liquid in a vertical capillary is studied theoretically and experimentally for quasi-steady-state flow. An analytical solution for the time evolution of the meniscus height is obtained in terms of a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which in the case of a Newtonian liquid reduces to the Lucas-Washburn equation modified by the dynamic contact angle correction. The validity of the solution is checked against experimental data on the rise dynamics of a shear-thinning cmc solution in a glass microcapillary, and excellent agreement is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, Kirti; Matar, Omar
2010-11-01
We investigate the three-dimensional linear characteristics of pressure-driven two-layer channel flow, focussing on the range of parameters for which Squire's theorem does not exist, wherein a Newtonian fluid layer overlies a layer of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The modified Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations in each layers are derived and solved using an efficient spectral collocation method. Our results demonstrate the presence of three-dimensional instabilities for situations where the square root of the viscosity ratio is larger than the thickness ratio of the two layers; these "interfacial" mode instabilities are also present when density stratification is destabilising. These results may be of particular interest to researchers studying the transient growth and nonlinear stability of two-fluid flows. We also show that the "shear" modes, which are present at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, are most unstable to two-dimensional disturbances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asjad, Muhammad Imran; Shah, Nehad Ali; Aleem, Maryam; Khan, Ilyas
2017-08-01
The present study is a comparative analysis of unsteady flows of a second-grade fluid with Newtonian heating and time-fractional derivatives, namely, the Caputo fractional derivative (singular kernel) and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative (non-singular kernel). A physical model for second-grade fluids is developed with fractional derivatives. The expressions for temperature and velocity fields in dimensionless form as well as rates of heat transfer are determined by means of the Laplace transform technique. Solutions for ordinary cases corresponding to integer order derivatives are also obtained. Numerical computations for a comparison between the solutions of the problem with the Caputo time-fractional derivative, problem with Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivative and of the ordinary fluid problem were made. The influence of some flow parameters and fractional parameter α on temperature field as well as velocity field was presented graphically and in tabular forms.
Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza
2015-09-18
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is recognized as bad cholesterol, typically has been regarded as a main cause of atherosclerosis. LDL infiltration across arterial wall and subsequent formation of Ox-LDL could lead to atherogenesis. In the present study, combined effects of non-Newtonian fluid behavior and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) on LDL mass transfer inside an artery and through its multilayer arterial wall are examined numerically. Navier-Stokes equations for the blood flow inside the lumen and modified Darcy's model for the power-law fluid through the porous arterial wall are coupled with the equations of mass transfer to describe LDL distributions in various segments of the artery. In addition, the arterial wall is considered as a heterogeneous permeable elastic medium. Thus, elastodynamics equation is invoked to examine effects of different wall elasticity on LDL distribution in the artery. Findings suggest that non-Newtonian behavior of filtrated plasma within the wall enhances LDL accumulation meaningfully. Moreover, results demonstrate that at high blood pressure and due to the wall elasticity, endothelium pores expand, which cause significant variations on endothelium physiological properties in a way that lead to higher LDL accumulation. Additionally, results describe that under hypertension, by increasing angular strain, endothelial junctions especially at leaky sites expand more dramatic for the high elastic model, which in turn causes higher LDL accumulation across the intima layer and elevates atherogenesis risk.
Hatem, N.; Philippe, C.; Mbow, C.; Kabdi, Z.; Najoua, S.; Daguenet, M.
1996-03-01
The authors study numerically the steady state laminar mixed convection around a sphere heated by a nonuniform flux in a Newtonian fluid. The sphere rotates around its vertical axis. The governing transfer equations in this three-dimensional problem are solved by using the method of Cebeci-Keller. Three types of convection are considered: pure rotation, pure natural convection, and mixed convection. The profiles of the coefficients of heat transfer and local friction, as well as the profiles of temperature, will be determined for various distributions of a heat flux. In the case of a two-dimensional problem, the results agree with those in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Luz, Paulo
2014-11-01
A wormhole solution in Newtonian gravitation, enhanced through an equation relating the Ricci scalar to the mass density, is presented. The wormhole inhabits a spherically symmetric curved space, with one throat and two asymptotically flat regions. Particle dynamics in this geometry is studied, and the three distinct dynamical radii, namely, the geodesic, circumferential, and curvature radii, appear naturally in the study of circular motion. Generic motion is also analysed. A limiting case, although inconclusive, suggests the possibility of having a Newtonian black hole in a region of finite (nonzero) size.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2017-08-07
In this paper, the heat and flow characteristic of third-grade non-Newtonian biofluids flow through a vertical porous human vessel due to peristaltic wall motion are studied. The third-grade model can describe shear thinning (or shear thickening) and normal stress differences, which is acceptable for biofluids modeling. In order to solve the governing equations, the assumption of long-wavelength approximation is utilized. This hypothesis emphasizes that the wavelength of the peristaltic wall motion is large in comparison with the radius of the human vessel, which is widely acceptable in biological investigations. The analytical perturbation method is employed to solve the governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, shear stress, temperature field, and biofluid flow rate are obtained. In addition, the effects of the governing parameters such as the third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, Grashof Number, Eckert number, and porosity, on the results are examined.
Girardo, Salvatore; Cingolani, Roberto; Pisignano, Dario
2007-10-28
We present a study of the rheological phenomenology of a non-Newtonian glass former within hybrid microchannels above the vitrification region. We determined the temperature behavior of the viscosity, which is well fitted by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman law for shear rates between 4 x 10(-2) and 9 x 10(-1) s(-1). The microflow viscosity was compared with previously reported conductivity data of the investigated molecular system. Our findings provide an insight into the coupling between the structural dynamics in the bulk and that within the microchannels, suggesting lithographically defined microfluidic systems as promising tools for the investigation of the rheological properties of complex liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramachandra Prasad, V.; Gaffar, S. Abdul; Keshava Reddy, E.; Bég, O. Anwar
2014-07-01
Polymeric enrobing flows are important in industrial manufacturing technology and process systems. Such flows are non-Newtonian. Motivated by such applications, in this article we investigate the nonlinear steady state boundary layer flow, heat, and mass transfer of an incompressible Jefferys non-Newtonian fluid past a vertical porous plate in a non-Darcy porous medium. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a versatile, implicit, Keller-box finite-difference technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely Deborah number (De), Darcy number (Da), Prandtl number (Pr), ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ), Schmidt number (Sc), Forchheimer parameter (Λ), and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ) on velocity, temperature, and concentration evolution in the boundary layer regime are examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate, mass transfer rate, and local skin friction are also investigated. It is found that the boundary layer flow is decelerated with increasing De and Forchheimer parameter, whereas temperature and concentration are elevated. Increasing λ and Da enhances the velocity but reduces the temperature and concentration. The heat transfer rate and mass transfer rates are found to be depressed with increasing De and enhanced with increasing λ. Local skin friction is found to be decreased with a rise in De, whereas it is elevated with increasing λ. An increasing Sc decreases the velocity and concentration but increases temperature.
Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters. PMID:26402366
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-06-01
Steady flow and physiological pulsatile flow in a rigid 180° curved tube are investigated using particle image velocimetry. A non-Newtonian blood-analog fluid is used, and in-plane primary and secondary velocity fields are measured. A vortex detection scheme ( d 2-method) is applied to distinguish vortical structures. In the pulsatile flow case, four different vortex types are observed in secondary flow: deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices. Investigation of secondary flow in multiple cross sections suggests the existence of vortex tubes. These structures split and merge over time during the deceleration phase and in space as flow progresses along the 180° curved tube. The primary velocity data for steady flow conditions reveal additional vortices rotating in a direction opposite to Dean vortices—similar to structures observed in pulsatile flow—if the Dean number is sufficiently high.
Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishan, N.; Shashidar Reddy, B.
2013-06-01
The problem of a magneto-hydro dynamic flow and heat transfer to a non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow past a continuously moving flat porous plate in the presence of sucion/injection with heat flux by taking into consideration the viscous dissipation is analysed. The non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations and then solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme. The solution is found to be dependent on various governing parameters including the magnetic field parameter M, power-law index n, suction/injection parameter ƒw, Prandtl number Pr and Eckert number Ec. A systematical study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these major parameters on the velocity profiles, temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer and the local Nusslet number.
Alkasasbeh, Hamzeh Taha Sarif, Norhafizah Md Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Tahar, Razman Mat; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan
2015-02-03
In this paper, the effect of radiation on magnetohydrodynamic free convection boundary layer flow on a solid sphere with Newtonian heating in a micropolar fluid, in which the heat transfer from the surface is proportional to the local surface temperature, is considered. The transformed boundary layer equations in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the local wall temperature and the local skin friction coefficient, as well as the velocity, angular velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for various values of the Prandtl number Pr, micropolar parameter K, magnetic parameter M, radiation parameter N{sub R}, the conjugate parameter γ and the coordinate running along the surface of the sphere, x are analyzed and discussed.
Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.
1994-06-01
The changes in the physical processes of atomization as a result of adding a high molecular weight polymer in low concentrations to liquid have been studied. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were investigated with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. It was found that viscoelastic liquids are much more difficult to atomize than viscoinelastic liquids. Viscoinelastic liquids showed a breakup behavior similar to that of water sprays. Viscoelastic materials showed remarkably different breakup patterns. The ligaments were seen to undergo a very large stretching motion before they breakup, resulting in long threads of liquid attached to droplets. The normal stresses developed in viscoelastic materials are much higher than their associated shear stresses. Consequently, the development of the large normal stresses appears to be the most important rheological mechanism that inhibits breakup. The non-Newtonian liquids selected for the experiment were aqueous solutions of Xanthan gum and Polyacrylamide E10.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah
2010-11-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow down an incline is studied for optimal design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. We develop a 3D FEM model using non-Newtonian mechanics to model the flow of gels in response to gravity, surface tension and shear-thinning. Constant volume setup is applied within the lubrication approximation scope. The lengthwise profiles of the 3D model agree with our previous 2D finite difference model, while the transverse contact line patterns of the 3D model are compared to the experiments. With incorporation of surface tension, capillary ridges are observed at the leading front in both 2D and 3D models. Previously published studies show that capillary ridge can amplify the fingering instabilities in transverse direction. Sensitivity studies (2D & 3D) and experiments are carried out to describe the influence of surface tension and shear-thinning on capillary ridge and fingering instabilities.
Exact solutions for the flow of non-Newtonian fluid with fractional derivative in an annular pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Dengke; Wang, Ruihe; Yang, Heshan
2005-08-01
This paper deals with some unsteady unidirectional transient flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe. The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model Oldroyd-B fluid is introduced and a generalized Jeffreys model with the fractional calculus has been built. Exact solutions of some unsteady flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe are obtained by using Hankel transform and Laplace transform for fractional calculus. The following four problems have been studied: (1) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient; (2) axial Couette flow in an annulus; (3) axial Couette flow in an annulus due to a longitudinal constant shear; (4) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient and a longitudinal constant shear. The well-known solutions for Navier-Stokes fluid, as well as those corresponding to a Maxwell fluid and a second grade one, appear as limited cases of our solutions.
Welch, Kyle J; Liebman-Peláez, Alexander; Corwin, Eric I
2016-09-27
In conventional fluids, viscosity depends on temperature according to a strict relationship. To change this relationship, one must change the molecular nature of the fluid. Here, we create a metafluid whose properties are derived not from the properties of molecules but rather from chaotic waves excited on the surface of vertically agitated water. By making direct rheological measurements of the flow properties of our metafluid, we show that it has independently tunable viscosity and temperature, a quality that no conventional fluid possesses. We go on to show that the metafluid obeys the Einstein relation, which relates many-body response (viscosity) to single-particle dynamics (diffusion) and is a fundamental result in equilibrium thermal systems. Thus, our metafluid is wholly consistent with equilibrium thermal physics, despite being markedly nonequilibrium. Taken together, our results demonstrate a type of material that retains equilibrium physics while simultaneously allowing for direct programmatic control over material properties.
Welch, Kyle J.; Liebman-Peláez, Alexander; Corwin, Eric I.
2016-01-01
In conventional fluids, viscosity depends on temperature according to a strict relationship. To change this relationship, one must change the molecular nature of the fluid. Here, we create a metafluid whose properties are derived not from the properties of molecules but rather from chaotic waves excited on the surface of vertically agitated water. By making direct rheological measurements of the flow properties of our metafluid, we show that it has independently tunable viscosity and temperature, a quality that no conventional fluid possesses. We go on to show that the metafluid obeys the Einstein relation, which relates many-body response (viscosity) to single-particle dynamics (diffusion) and is a fundamental result in equilibrium thermal systems. Thus, our metafluid is wholly consistent with equilibrium thermal physics, despite being markedly nonequilibrium. Taken together, our results demonstrate a type of material that retains equilibrium physics while simultaneously allowing for direct programmatic control over material properties. PMID:27621467
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Kyle J.; Liebman-Peláez, Alexander; Corwin, Eric I.
2016-09-01
In conventional fluids, viscosity depends on temperature according to a strict relationship. To change this relationship, one must change the molecular nature of the fluid. Here, we create a metafluid whose properties are derived not from the properties of molecules but rather from chaotic waves excited on the surface of vertically agitated water. By making direct rheological measurements of the flow properties of our metafluid, we show that it has independently tunable viscosity and temperature, a quality that no conventional fluid possesses. We go on to show that the metafluid obeys the Einstein relation, which relates many-body response (viscosity) to single-particle dynamics (diffusion) and is a fundamental result in equilibrium thermal systems. Thus, our metafluid is wholly consistent with equilibrium thermal physics, despite being markedly nonequilibrium. Taken together, our results demonstrate a type of material that retains equilibrium physics while simultaneously allowing for direct programmatic control over material properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, J.; Hu, H. H.; Joseph, D. D.
1994-02-01
This paper reports the result of direct simulations of fluid-particle motions in two dimensions. We solve the initial value problem for the sedimentation of circular and elliptical particles in a vertical channel. The fluid motion is computed from the Navier-Stokes equations for moderate Reynolds numbers in the hundreds. The particles are moved according to the equations of motion of a rigid body under the action of gravity and hydrodynamic forces arising from the motion of the fluid. The solutions are as exact as our finite-element calculations will allow. As the Reynolds number is increased to 600, a circular particle can be said to experience five different regimes of motion: steady motion with and without overshoot and weak, strong and irregular oscillations. An elliptic particle always turn its long axis perpendicular to the fall, and drifts to the centreline of the channel during sedimentation. Steady drift, damped oscillation and periodic oscillation of the particle are observed for different ranges of the Reynolds number. For two particles which interact while settling, a steady staggered structure, a periodic wake-action regime and an active drafting-kissing-tumbling scenario are realized at increasing Reynolds numbers. The nonlinear effects of particle-fluid, particle-wall and interparticle interactions are analyzed, and the mechanisms controlling the simulated flows are shown to be lubrication, turning couples on long bodies, steady and unsteady wakes and wake interactions. The results are compared to experimental and theoretical results previously published.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, C. A.; Vogt, S.; Maneval, J. E.; Brox, T.; Skidmore, M. L.; Codd, S. L.; Seymour, J. D.
2010-12-01
Sandstone core samples were challenged with a supercritical CO2-saturated brine mixture in a laboratory flow-through core reactor system over a range of temperatures and brine strengths. Cores of quartz arenite from the Berea formation were selected to represent ideal ‘clean’ sandstone These laboratory experiments potentially provide an analog for the acidification of pore fluids near the brine/CO2 interface during CO2 flooding of depleted clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs for carbon sequestration. Flow in the reactor was perpendicular to bedding. Initial experiments were run at 50°C and 100°C with brine concentrations of 1g/L and 10g/L (TDS) to test effects of different temperatures and brine compositions. Real-time monitoring of fluid pH and conductivity provided a measure of reaction rates. Introduction of supercritical CO2 into the brine-saturated cores initiated a reduction in pH accompanied by an increase in conductivity. NMR images of fresh cores were compared with images of challenged cores using a protocol for pixel-by-pixel comparison to determine the effects on bulk pore volume and geometry. Two types of imaging experiments were conducted: multi-slice spin echo and 3-D spin echo images. Multi-slice experiments had a slice thickness of 1.5 mm and an in-plane resolution of 0.27 mm x 0.27 mm, and 3-D experiments had a resolution of 0.47 mm x 0.55 mm x 0.55mm. Imaging results reflected the observed changes in the physical and chemical structure post-challenge. Two-dimensional relaxation correlation experiments were also conducted to probe the pore sizes, connectivity and fluid saturation of the rock cores before and after challenging. Chemical analyses and microscopic examination of the challenged cores will provide a better understanding of alteration in the cores and the changes in the volume, geometry and connectivity of pore space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basir, Mohammad Faisal Mohd; Ismail, Fazreen Amira; Amirsom, Nur Ardiana; Latiff, Nur Amalina Abdul; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.
2017-04-01
The effect of multiple slip on a chemically reactive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) non-Newtonian power law fluid flow over a stretching sheet with microorganism was numerically investigated. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using the similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis. The reduced governing nonlinear ordinary differential equations were then numerically solved using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. Good agreement was found between the present numerical solutions with the existing published results to support the validity and the accuracy of the numerical computations. The influences of the velocity, thermal, mass and microorganism slips, the magnetic field parameter and the chemical reaction parameter on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, microorganism concentration, the distribution of the density of motile microorganisms have been illustrated graphically. The effects of the governing parameters on the physical quantities, namely, the local heat transfer rate, the local mass transfer rate and the local microorganism transfer rate were analyzed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Botong; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang
2016-09-01
This paper presents an investigation of forced convection heat transfer in power-law non-Newtonian fluids between two semi-infinite plates with variable thermal conductivity. Three cases of different thermal conductivity models are considered: (i) thermal conductivity is a constant, (ii) thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature, (iii) thermal conductivity is a power-law function of temperature gradient (Zheng's model). Governing equations are solved using the finite element method with the ‘ghost’ time introduced to the control equations, which does not affect the results because the velocity and temperature will remain unchanged when the steady state is reached. Results for the solutions of different variable models are presented as well as the analysis of the associated heat transfer characteristics. It is shown that the heat transfer behaviours are strongly dependent on the power-law index (n) in all models. For example, when n < 1, the temperature in model (iii) is higher than that in model (i) and (ii), while the situation is reversed when n > 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.; Ciriello, V.; Chiapponi, L.
2016-12-01
Several environmental contaminants and remediation agents exhibit rheological complexity. Crude oil and displacing agents in EOR operations are rheologically nonlinear. These applications prompt the need for a theoretical analysis of non-Newtonian flow in natural porous and fractured media, considering gravity-driven and confined flows, different geometries and diverse boundary conditions. We present a review of the results obtained by our group concerning the modeling of power-law fluids, as this constitutive law is amenable to self-similar solutions which may act as benchmarks even for more complex rheology. First, closed form results were obtained for gravity currents advancing in plane or cylindrical geometry, deriving scalings for current length and thickness. Analogous results were obtained for confined flows in various geometries; here, scalings were obtained for pressure front and pressure field. Based on these benchmarks, the analytical models were refined introducing two additional factors: medium heterogeneity and topographic control. The inherent hetehrogeneity of natural media was modeled within a simplified framework considering continuous variations of spatial properties. Topographic control was introduced considering flows in porous channels of different shapes. Both factors proved relevant for the spreading of gravity currents as they influence the extent and shape of porous domain invaded by the contaminant, or reached by the remediation agent. Our theoretical results were validated against multiple sets of experiments, conducted with different combinations of spreading scenarios and types of heterogeneity or channelization. Two basic experimental setups were employed, adopting either reconstructed porous media made of glass beads, or Hele-Shaw analogues. To this end, existing Hele-Shaw analogies for porous flow of power-law fluids were extended to heterogeneous media. All scalings derived for the current front and thickness were confirmed by our
Jin, L.; Chenevert, M.E. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)
1994-03-01
Aqueous solutions of different concentrations of three polymers: a synthetic high molecular weight polymer, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA), a xanthan-type biopolymer (Xanvis), and a cellulose-type polymer (HEC) were investigated in this study. It was found that the steric arrangement of molecules or interactions between molecules can be detected by a systematically designed strain and frequency sweep measurement, and is reflected by the different relaxation times of the solutions. The degree of elasticity can be quantified by G[prime]/[vert bar]G*[vert bar] in linear viscoelastic range. The responses of the fluids to frequency sweeps are displayed in a normalized moduli versus normalized frequency pattern derived from the Maxwell model. Results show that within the tested concentration ranges, PHPA solutions are highly elastic with moderate relaxation times that are strain and concentration insensitive. Xanvis solutions are also highly elastic, but with high relaxation times that are both strain and concentration sensitive, indicating a different mechanism of elasticity compared to PHPA solutions. HEC (cellulose derivatives) are mostly viscous shear thinning fluids with weak elasticity and short relaxation times that are insensitive to strain, but sensitive to concentration.
Experimental flow-through study of artificial diagenesis in sandstones
Donahoe, R.J.; Leard, L.E.
1986-05-01
During petroleum reservoir development and production, various fluids are injected into well bores. Because these fluids differ compositionally from the reservoir rock pore fluids, induced fluid/rock interactions can range from none to extreme in their effect on reservoir rock properties. These induced reactions, considered artificial diagenesis, can be studied using a new low-temperature flow-through hydrothermal apparatus. The flow-through apparatus is presented as an alternative to conventional high-temperature, high-pressure permeameters for studying water/rock interactions. This equipment is designed to study water/rock interactions under variable fluid-flow rate (0.0005-10 ml/min), temperature (50/sup 0/-300/sup 0/C), and pressure (50-500 bar) conditions; to allow in-situ measurements of permeability; and to accommodate packed column or 1-in. diameter core samples. An experimental and computational study was conducted at 250/sup 0/C to investigate the effects of fluid flow rate, fluid composition, and sandstone mineralogy on disaggregated sandstone sample alteration mineralogy and permeability. Three series of flow-through experiments were conducted with the following variables: (1) sandstone composition (quartzarenite, 2 arkose); (2) fluid composition (distilled, deionized water and aqueous solutions of HF/HCl and NaOH); and (3) fluid-flow rate (0.001-1 ml/min). Preliminary results from these experiments are presented. The variables listed above are discussed in terms of their effect on sandstone alteration mineralogy and permeability. In addition, computer chemical-equilibrium programs used to model these man-made diagenetic systems are evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoud, M. A. A.; Megahed, A. M.
2013-01-01
Thermal radiation, thermal diffusion, and diffusion-thermo effects on heat and mass transfer by mixed convection of non-Newtonian power-law fluids over a vertical permeable surface embedded in a saturated porous medium are investigated. The governing equations describing the problem are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a non-similar form. The transformed equations are solved by using the local non-similarity method combined with the shooting technique. The effects of the physical parameters of the problem on the fluid temperature and concentration are illustrated graphically and analyzed. Also, the effects of the pertinent parameters on the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number are presented.
Henry, C L; Craig, V S J
2009-11-07
We report measurements of slip length at smooth and rough hydrophilic silica surfaces, using the hydrodynamic force measurement atomic force microscope (AFM). There has been some debate in the literature as to whether the boundary condition between a solid and a wetting fluid is one of no-slip or partial-slip; in particular the results of Neto et al. (C. Neto, V. S. J. Craig and D. R. M. Williams, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2003, 12, S71-S74) and of Honig and Ducker (C. D. F. Honig and W. A. Ducker, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2007, 98, 028305) are inconsistent. Unexpectedly, the AFM cantilever geometry leads to a different measurement of hydrodynamic drainage force. Rectangular cantilevers give results consistent with a no-slip boundary condition on smooth and rough surfaces, while v-shaped cantilever measurements show variability and can produce a finding of apparent partial-slip, consistent with earlier results in the literature. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. Equilibrium force measurements show no cantilever shape dependence. We conclude that the appropriate boundary condition for aqueous solutions on smooth and nanoscale-rough hydrophilic surfaces is one of no-slip.
Thin-shell wormholes in neo-Newtonian theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Övgün, Ali; Salako, Ines G.
2017-07-01
In this paper, we constructed an acoustic thin-shell wormhole (ATW) under neo-Newtonian theory using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. To determine the stability of the ATW by applying the cut-and-paste method, we found the surface density and surface pressure of the ATW under neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics just after obtaining an analog acoustic neo-Newtonian solution. We focused on the effects of the neo-Newtonian parameters by performing stability analyses using different types of fluids, such as a linear barotropic fluid (LBF), a Chaplygin fluid (CF), a logarithmic fluid (LogF) and a polytropic fluid (PF). We showed that a fluid with negative energy is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. The ATW can be stable if suitable values of the neo-Newtonian parameters ς, A and B are chosen.
A Flow-Through Reaction Cell that Couples Time - Resolved Analysis
A Wall; P Heaney; R Mathur; J Post; J Hanson; P Eng
2011-12-31
A non-metallic flow-through reaction cell is described, designed for in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction coupled with stable isotope analysis. The experimental setup allows the correlation of Cu isotope fractionation with changes in crystal structure during copper sulfide dissolution. This flow-through cell can be applied to many classes of fluid-mineral reactions that involve dissolution or ion exchange.
Muehlhausen, M-P; Janoske, U; Oertel, H
2015-03-01
Although image-based methods like MRI are well-developed, numerical simulation can help to understand human heart function. This function results from a complex interplay of biochemistry, structural mechanics, and blood flow. The complexity of the entire system often causes one of the three parts to be neglected, which limits the truth to reality of the reduced model. This paper focuses on the interaction of myocardial stress distribution and ventricular blood flow during diastole and systole in comparison to a simulation of the same patient-specific geometry with a given wall movement (Spiegel, Strömungsmechanischer Beitrag zur Planung von Herzoperationen, 2009). The orthotropic constitutive law proposed by Holzapfel et al. (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 367:3445-3475, 2009) was implemented in a finite element package to model the passive behavior of the myocardium. Then, this law was modified for contraction. Via the ALE method, the structural model was coupled to a flow model which incorporates blood rheology and the circulatory system (Oertel, Prandtl-Essentials of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edn, Springer Science + Business Media, 2010; Oertel et al., Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edn, Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe, 2009). Comparison reveals a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with respect to fluid flow. The motion of the myocardium is consistent with physiological observations. The calculated stresses and the distribution are within the physiological range and appear to be reasonable. The coupled model presented contains many features essential to cardiac function. It is possible to calculate wall stresses as well as the characteristic ventricular fluid flow. Based on the simulations we derive two characteristics to assess the health state quantitatively including solid and fluid mechanical aspects.
Microfluidic rheology of non-Newtonian liquids.
Girardo, Salvatore; Cingolani, Roberto; Pisignano, Dario
2007-08-01
We investigate the rheological properties of a non-Newtonian glass-former liquid within lithographically defined microchannels in the range of temperatures above the vitrification region. The non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid, as evidenced by rotational rheology, is well described by a power law dependence of the viscosity on the shear rate. Taking into account such non-Newtonian character in the equations for the microfluidic motion, we relate the penetration dynamics into capillaries with the liquid rheological properties. The temperature dependence of the viscosity, determined over 1 order of magnitude in the temperature range 286-333 K and for shear rates between 0.07 and 1 s-1, can be described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman law, consistent with the fragile nature of the investigated compound. Microfluidics is a promising analytical approach for the investigation of the rheology of non-Newtonian fluids within confined microenvironments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pažanin, Igor; Siddheshwar, Pradeep G.
2017-03-01
In this article we investigate the fluid flow through a thin fracture modelled as a fluid-saturated porous medium. We assume that the fracture has constrictions and that the flow is governed by the prescribed pressure drop between the edges of the fracture. The problem is described by the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model acknowledging the Brinkman extension of the Darcy law as well as the flow inertia. Using asymptotic analysis with respect to the thickness of the fracture, we derive the explicit higher-order approximation for the velocity distribution. We make an error analysis to comment on the order of accuracy of the method used and also to provide rigorous justification for the model.
Method of Simulating Flow-Through Area of a Pressure Regulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hass, Neal E. (Inventor); Schallhorn, Paul A. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
The flow-through area of a pressure regulator positioned in a branch of a simulated fluid flow network is generated. A target pressure is defined downstream of the pressure regulator. A projected flow-through area is generated as a non-linear function of (i) target pressure, (ii) flow-through area of the pressure regulator for a current time step and a previous time step, and (iii) pressure at the downstream location for the current time step and previous time step. A simulated flow-through area for the next time step is generated as a sum of (i) flow-through area for the current time step, and (ii) a difference between the projected flow-through area and the flow-through area for the current time step multiplied by a user-defined rate control parameter. These steps are repeated for a sequence of time steps until the pressure at the downstream location is approximately equal to the target pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-09-01
I show that if Newtonian gravity is formulated in geometrical language, then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as relativistic cosmology. In homogeneous and isotropic universes, the geodesic deviation equation in Newtonian cosmology is proven to be exactly the same as the geodesic deviation equation in relativistic Friedmann cosmologies. This equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: by generalizing the flat-space Newtonian gravity force law to Riemannian metrics, I show that ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any homogeneous and isotropic spatial geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezzasalma, Stefano A.
2000-08-01
A theory is presented to describe the apparent viscosity of thixotropic fluids as a function of the rate of shear. It represents the extension of a semiclassical approach that was previously formulated to deal with matter densification phenomena in solids starting from the state equation of the medium. In this context, the Debye expression for the Helmholtz free energy has been provided with a density of vibrational modes that accounts for atomic and microstructural changes occurring at the frequency scale of momentum transport (see diffusion). Working out the steady-state condition with respect to time gives an equation relating reduced apparent viscosity (η˜) and shear rate (γ˜) through the temperature value (θ*) that is energetically equivalent to the medium vibrations implied. Viscosity also turns out to depend on the Debye temperature θD (see φ˜θ*/θD) and an equivalent Gruneisen parameter (μ), defined with respect to viscosity variations. Increasing φ in pseudoplastic and dilatant media, respectively, increases and decreases η˜, which always increases with increasing μ. The analogy between dilatancy/sintering and pseudoplasticity/desintering is suggested, and a correspondence between matter and momentum transports is traced on the basis of the phononic spectrum properties. Application to experimental measurements are presented and discussed for aqueous monodispersions of polystyrene (PS) latex particles, aqueous glycerol solutions of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPAA) at different sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) suspensions in dioctylphthalate (DOP), and for a molecularly thin liquid film of octamethylciclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS). Best fit coefficients for φ and μ have been constrained to the Debye temperature and the effective low-shear viscosity (η0) according to their dependences upon the suspended volume fraction (φ), θD=θD(φ), and η0=η0(φ), and the agreement with experimental data is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-10-01
It is generally believed that it is not possible to rigorously analyze a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in Newtonian mechanics. I show on the contrary that if Newtonian gravity theory is rewritten in geometrical language in the manner outlined in 1923-1924 by Élie Cartan [Ann. Ecole Norm. Sup. 40, 325-412 (1923); 41, 1-25 (1924)], then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as Friedmann cosmology. In particular, I show that the equation of geodesic deviation in Newtonian cosmology is exactly the same as equation of geodesic deviation in the Friedmann universe, and that this equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: Ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any noncompact homogeneous and isotropic spatial topology. I shall give a brief history of attempts to do cosmology in the framework of Newtonian mechanics.
NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN MAGNETIC-FIELD RELAXATIONS IN SOLAR-CORONAL MHD
Low, B. C.
2013-05-01
This paper treats the relaxation of a magnetic field into a minimum-energy force-free state in a cold (pressure-less) viscous fluid, under the frozen-in condition of perfect electrical conductivity and letting the viscosity-dissipated energy be completely lost. A non-Newtonian fluid in popular use is studied in relation to the Newtonian viscous fluid, as two alternative numerical means to (1) construct force-free fields representing solar coronal structures in realistic geometry and (2) investigate the Parker theory of spontaneous formation of electric current sheets as a basic MHD process. Faraday's induction equation imposes an independent condition on the fluid velocity at rigid, perfectly conducting boundaries. This boundary condition is quite compatible with Newtonian mechanics but not with the non-Newtonian fluid model where velocity is equated to the Lorentz force with a free, positive multiplicative-factor. This defining property gives rise to unphysical or artificial singularities not previously known that are completely distinct from the physically admissible singularities representing the current sheets of the Parker theory. In particular, the non-Newtonian fluid takes a magnetic field with neutral points from any one of a continuum of initial states into an unphysical state instead of the proper force-free end-state accessible by Newtonian relaxation. The validity of previously published MHD results based on this non-Newtonian fluid, including some counterclaims against the Parker theory, is dubious. Investigating the Parker theory requires numerical relaxation models capable of anticipating and accurately describing inevitable current-sheet singularities. By including a weak resistivity to dissipate the inevitable current sheets as they form, the field can change topology intermittently to seek a terminal force-free state free of singularities. The minimum-energy state of this more complete model corresponds to the long-lived relaxed structures in the
Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow in coiled cerebral aneurysms.
Morales, Hernán G; Larrabide, Ignacio; Geers, Arjan J; Aguilar, Martha L; Frangi, Alejandro F
2013-09-03
Endovascular coiling aims to isolate the aneurysm from blood circulation by altering hemodynamics inside the aneurysm and triggering blood coagulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques have the potential to predict the post-operative hemodynamics and to investigate the complex interaction between blood flow and coils. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of blood viscosity on hemodynamics in coiled aneurysms. Three image-based aneurysm models were used. Each case was virtually coiled with a packing density of around 30%. CFD simulations were performed in coiled and untreated aneurysm geometries using a Newtonian and a Non-Newtonian fluid models. Newtonian fluid slightly overestimates the intra-aneurysmal velocity inside the aneurysm before and after coiling. There were numerical differences between fluid models on velocity magnitudes in coiled simulations. Moreover, the non-Newtonian fluid model produces high viscosity (>0.007 [Pas]) at aneurysm fundus after coiling. Nonetheless, these local differences and high-viscous regions were not sufficient to alter the main flow patterns and velocity magnitudes before and after coiling. To evaluate the influence of coiling on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics, the assumption of a Newtonian fluid can be used.
Choi, Hyo Won; Barakat, Abdul I
2005-01-01
Endothelial cell (EC) responsiveness to shear stress is essential for vasoregulation and plays a role in atherogenesis. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, EC flow studies in vitro are typically performed using Newtonian fluids. The goal of the present study was to determine the impact of non-Newtonian behavior on the flow field within a model flow chamber capable of producing flow disturbance and whose dimensions permit Reynolds and Womersley numbers comparable to those present in vivo. We performed two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations of steady and pulsatile laminar flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids over a backward facing step. In the non-Newtonian simulations, the fluid was modeled as a shear-thinning Carreau fluid. Steady flow results demonstrate that for Re in the range 50-400, the flow recirculation zone downstream of the step is 22-63% larger for the Newtonian fluid than for the non-Newtonian fluid, while spatial gradients of shear stress are larger for the non-Newtonian fluid. In pulsatile flow, the temporal gradients of shear stress within the flow recirculation zone are significantly larger for the Newtonian fluid than for the non-Newtonian fluid. These findings raise the possibility that in regions of flow disturbance, EC mechanotransduction pathways stimulated by Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids may be different.
Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert
2012-03-01
Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the Friedmann equations, and also that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies holds in linearized perturbation theory. Nevertheless, it is not obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology with significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed. We propose a straightforward dictionary---exact at the linearized level---that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into GR dust cosmologies, and we use our ordering scheme to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein's equation. We then find additional corrections needed to satisfy Einstein's equation to ``order 1'' at small scales and to ``order ɛ'' at large scales. We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations to describe GR cosmologies.
Hanson, J.C.; Wall, A.J.; Heaney, P.J.; Mathur, R.; Post, J.E.; Eng, P.J.
2011-04-01
A non-metallic flow-through reaction cell is described, designed for in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction coupled with stable isotope analysis. The experimental setup allows the correlation of Cu isotope fractionation with changes in crystal structure during copper sulfide dissolution. This flow-through cell can be applied to many classes of fluid-mineral reactions that involve dissolution or ion exchange.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Vita, F.; de Tullio, M. D.; Verzicco, R.
2016-04-01
This work focuses on the comparison between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flows through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in the aortic root. The blood, in fact, is a concentrated suspension of cells, mainly red blood cells, in a Newtonian matrix, the plasma, and consequently its overall behavior is that of a non-Newtonian fluid owing to the action of the cells' membrane on the fluid part. The common practice, however, assumes the blood in large vessels as a Newtonian fluid since the shear rate is generally high and the effective viscosity becomes independent of the former. In this paper, we show that this is not always the case even in the aorta, the largest artery of the systemic circulation, owing to the pulsatile and transitional nature of the flow. Unexpectedly, for most of the pulsating cycle and in a large part of the fluid volume, the shear rate is smaller than the threshold level for the blood to display a constant effective viscosity and its shear thinning character might affect the system dynamics. A direct inspection of the various flow features has shown that the valve dynamics, the transvalvular pressure drop and the large-scale features of the flow are very similar for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models. On the other hand, the mechanical damage of the red blood cells (hemolysis), induced by the altered stress values in the flow, is larger for the non-Newtonian fluid model than for the Newtonian one.
Physiological non-Newtonian blood flow through single stenosed artery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Akhter, Most. Nasrin; Ali, Mohammad
2016-07-01
A numerical simulation to investigate the Non-Newtonian modelling effects on physiological flows in a three dimensional idealized artery with a single stenosis of 85% severity. The wall vessel is considered to be rigid. Oscillatory physiological and parabolic velocity profile has been imposed for inlet boundary condition. Where the physiological waveform is performed using a Fourier series with sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 96 to 800. Low Reynolds number k - ω model is used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize two Non-Newtonian constitutive equations of blood, namely, (i) Carreau and (ii) Cross models. The Newtonian model has also been investigated to study the physics of fluid. The results of Newtonian model are compared with the Non-Newtonian models. The numerical results are presented in terms of pressure, wall shear stress distributions and the streamlines contours. At early systole pressure differences between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian models are observed at pre-stenotic, throat and immediately after throat regions. In the case of wall shear stress, some differences between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian models are observed when the flows are minimum such as at early systole or diastole.
Regan, John Frederick
2014-09-09
Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Den Berg, Arie P.; Yuen, David A.; Van Keken, Peter E.
1995-01-01
Numerical simulations of mantle convection with a composite temperature-dependent, Newtonian and non-Newtonian creep law have revealed a transition in the dominant creep mechanism with the increasing vigour of convection. Newtonian creep is found to dominate in the low Rayleigh number regime. With sufficiently high effective Rayleigh number, the overall creep mechanism in the convective flow becomes non-Newtonian. The transitional Rayleigh number increases strongly with the activation energy. These results would suggest a scenario that in the early epochs of Earth the flow in the mantle would have been governed by non-Newtonian rheology and would have exhibited both strong spatial and temporal fluctuations. With time the flow mechanism would behave like a Newtonian fluid and would have a different time-dependent character. In time-dependent Newtonian-dominated flows there are still localized features with distinctly non-Newtonian character. Our analysis of the relative contributions to the lateral viscosity field supports the idea that the inference of the nature of lateral viscosity heterogeneities by seismic tomography may be strongly contaminated by the dominant non-Newtonian contributions to the total lateral viscosity field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Den Berg, Arie P.; Yuen, David A.; Van Keken, Peter E.
1995-01-01
Numerical simulations of mantle convection with a composite temperature-dependent, Newtonian and non-Newtonian creep law have revealed a transition in the dominant creep mechanism with the increasing vigour of convection. Newtonian creep is found to dominate in the low Rayleigh number regime. With sufficiently high effective Rayleigh number, the overall creep mechanism in the convective flow becomes non-Newtonian. The transitional Rayleigh number increases strongly with the activation energy. These results would suggest a scenario that in the early epochs of Earth the flow in the mantle would have been governed by non-Newtonian rheology and would have exhibited both strong spatial and temporal fluctuations. With time the flow mechanism would behave like a Newtonian fluid and would have a different time-dependent character. In time-dependent Newtonian-dominated flows there are still localized features with distinctly non-Newtonian character. Our analysis of the relative contributions to the lateral viscosity field supports the idea that the inference of the nature of lateral viscosity heterogeneities by seismic tomography may be strongly contaminated by the dominant non-Newtonian contributions to the total lateral viscosity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khojasteh, Danial; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmood; Kamali, Reza
2017-05-01
In the present study, the behaviors of Newtonian and shear-thinning non-Newtonian droplets impinging on heated hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces have been investigated numerically using Ansys-Fluent. In this context, the volume-of-fluid technique is applied to track the free-surface of the liquid, and variable time-step is also utilized to control the Courant number. Furthermore, we have considered the dependence of viscosity, density and surface tension on temperature during the simulation. The results are compared to available experimental data at the same conditions, such as boundary conditions. The results demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and the experimental trends, concerning normalized diameter profiles at various Weber numbers. Therefore, the focus of the present study is an assessment of the effects of variations in Weber number, contact angle and surface temperature for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids on dynamics behavior of droplet in collision with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The results represent that the behaviors of Newtonian and non-Newtonian droplets are totally different, indicating the droplet sensitivity to the working parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khojasteh, Danial; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmood; Kamali, Reza
2016-11-01
In the present study, the behaviors of Newtonian and shear-thinning non-Newtonian droplets impinging on heated hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces have been investigated numerically using Ansys-Fluent. In this context, the volume-of-fluid technique is applied to track the free-surface of the liquid, and variable time-step is also utilized to control the Courant number. Furthermore, we have considered the dependence of viscosity, density and surface tension on temperature during the simulation. The results are compared to available experimental data at the same conditions, such as boundary conditions. The results demonstrate that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and the experimental trends, concerning normalized diameter profiles at various Weber numbers. Therefore, the focus of the present study is an assessment of the effects of variations in Weber number, contact angle and surface temperature for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids on dynamics behavior of droplet in collision with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The results represent that the behaviors of Newtonian and non-Newtonian droplets are totally different, indicating the droplet sensitivity to the working parameters.
Post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wenbiao; Mazurova, Elena
2016-02-01
We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting a relativistic calculation of the geoid's undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry of the background manifold through Einstein's equations. We then reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. To complete this task, we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. We fully explore the coordinate (gauge) freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate based on the astrophysical application of the coordinate gauge advocated by Bardeen and Chandrasekhar. We also derive the gauge-invariant relations of the post-Newtonian mass and the constant angular velocity of the rotating fluid with the parameters characterizing the shape of the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including its eccentricity, a semiminor axis, and a semimajor axis. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the physically measurable force of gravity at the pole and equator of the ellipsoid. Finally, we expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid to
Discrete Newtonian cosmology: perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.
2015-03-01
In a previous paper (Gibbons and Ellis 2014 Discrete Newtonian cosmology Class. Quantum Grav. 31 025003), we showed how a finite system of discrete particles interacting with each other via Newtonian gravitational attraction would lead to precisely the same dynamical equations for homothetic motion as in the case of the pressure-free Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological models of general relativity theory, provided the distribution of particles obeys the central configuration equation. In this paper we show that one can obtain perturbed such Newtonian solutions that give the same linearized structure growth equations as in the general relativity case. We also obtain the Dmitriev-Zel’dovich equations for subsystems in this discrete gravitational model, and show how it leads to the conclusion that voids have an apparent negative mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.
2017-04-01
An analysis is made to examine the magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell fluid brought by an inclined stretching cylinder. Flow field analysis is accounted by thermal stratification phenomena. The temperature is assumed to be higher across the surface of cylinder as compared to ambient fluid. The arising mathematical model regarding Eyring-Powell fluid is governed by interesting physical parameters which includes mixed convection parameter, thermal stratification parameter, heat generation/absorption parameter, curvature parameter, fluid parameters, magnetic field parameter and Prandtl number. The numerical solutions are computed through the application of shooting technique conjunction with fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. In addition, numeric values for two unlike geometries namely, plate and cylinder for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented with the aid graphs and some particular cases are discussed. The present study is validated by establishing comparison with previously published works, which sets a benchmark of quality of shooting method.
Newtonian and relativistic cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.
2012-03-01
Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robinson-Walker cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in the light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed [S. R. Green and R. M. Wald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 084020 (2011).10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084020], which allows for such nonlinearity at small scales. We propose a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general relativistic dust cosmologies, and we use our “ordering scheme” to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein’s equation. We find that, within our ordering scheme, Einstein’s equation fails to hold at “order 1” at small scales and at “order ɛ” at large scales. We then find the additional corrections to the metric and matter distribution needed to satisfy Einstein’s equation to these orders. While these corrections are of some interest in their own right, our main purpose in calculating them is that their smallness should provide a criterion for the validity of the original dictionary (as well as simplified versions of this dictionary). We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations
Post-Newtonian cosmological dynamics in Lagrangian coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matarrese, Sabino; Terranova, David
1996-11-01
We study the non-linear dynamics of self-gravitating irrotational dust in a general relativistic framework, using synchronous and comoving (i.e. Lagrangian) coordinates. All the equations are written in terms of a single tensor variable, the metric tensor of the spatial sections orthogonal to the fluid flow. This treatment allows an unambiguous expansion in inverse (even) powers of the speed of light. To lowest order, the Newtonian approximation - in Lagrangian form - is derived and written in a transparent way; the corresponding Lagrangian Newtonian metric is obtained. Post-Newtonian corrections are then derived and their physical meaning clarified. A number of results are obtained: (i) the master equation of Lagrangian Newtonian dynamics, the Raychaudhuri equation, can be interpreted as an equation for the evolution of the Lagrangian-to-Eulerian Jacobian matrix, complemented by the irrotationality constraint; (ii) the Lagrangian spatial metric reduces, in the Newtonian limit, to that of Euclidean 3-space written in time-dependent curvilinear coordinates, with non-vanishing Christoffel symbols, but vanishing spatial curvature (a particular example of it is given within the Zel'dovich approximation); (iii) a Lagrangian version of the Bernoulli equation for the evolution of the `velocity potential' is obtained. (iv) The Newtonian and post-Newtonian content of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor is clarified. (v) At the post-Newtonian level, an exact and general formula is derived for gravitational-wave emission from non-linear cosmological perturbations; (vi) a straightforward application to the anisotropic collapse of homogeneous ellipsoids shows that the ratio of these postNewtonian terms to the Newtonian ones tends to diverge at least like the mass density. (vii) It is argued that a stochastic gravitational wave background is produced by non-linear cosmic structures, with present-day closure density Ωgw ˜10-5-10-6 on 1-10 Mpc scales.
The extensional rheology of non-Newtonian materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spiegelberg, Stephen H.; Gaudet, Samuel; Mckinley, Gareth H.
1994-01-01
It has been proposed to measure the extensional viscosity function of a non-Newtonian polymer solution in a reduced gravity environment as part of the Advanced Fluid Module. In ground-based extensional measurements, the no-sip boundary condition at solid-fluid interfaces always result in appreciable shear gradients in the test fluid; however the removal of gravitational body forces permits controlled extensional deformation of containerless test samples and the first unambiguous measurements of this kind. Imperative to successful implementation of this experiment is the generation and subsequent deformation of a stable cylindrical column of test fluid. A study of the generation and deformation of liquid bridges demonstrates that Newtonian liquid bridges undergo capillary breakup as anticipated when stretched beyond a critical aspect ratio; non-Newtonian liquid bridges, however, are stabilized by the strain-hardening phenomenon exhibited by these materials. Numerical simulations of Newtonian breakup are compared with experimental results, and show that previous ground-based attempts at measuring the extensional viscosity of Newtonian fluids are of limited accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouteraa, Mondher; Nouar, Chérif
2015-12-01
Finite-amplitude thermal convection in a shear-thinning fluid layer between two horizontal plates of finite thermal conductivity is considered. Weakly nonlinear analysis is adopted as a first approach to investigate nonlinear effects. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. As a first step, the critical conditions for the onset of convection are computed as a function of the ratio ξ of the thermal conductivity of the plates to the thermal conductivity of the fluid. In agreement with the literature, the critical Rayleigh number Rac and the critical wave number kc decrease from 1708 to 720 and from 3.11 to 0, when ξ decreases from infinity to zero. In the second step, the critical value αc of the shear-thinning degree above which the bifurcation becomes subcritical is determined. It is shown that αc increases with decreasing ξ . The stability of rolls and squares is then investigated as a function of ξ and the rheological parameters. The limit value ξc, below which squares are stable, decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. This is related to the fact that shear-thinning effects increase the nonlinear interactions between sets of rolls that constitute the square patterns [M. Bouteraa et al., J. Fluid Mech. 767, 696 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.64]. For a significant deviation from the critical conditions, nonlinear convection terms and nonlinear viscous terms become stronger, leading to a further diminution of ξc. The dependency of the heat transfer on ξ and the rheological parameters is reported. It is consistent with the maximum heat transfer principle. Finally, the flow structure and the viscosity field are represented for weakly and highly conducting plates.
Bouteraa, Mondher; Nouar, Chérif
2015-12-01
Finite-amplitude thermal convection in a shear-thinning fluid layer between two horizontal plates of finite thermal conductivity is considered. Weakly nonlinear analysis is adopted as a first approach to investigate nonlinear effects. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. As a first step, the critical conditions for the onset of convection are computed as a function of the ratio ξ of the thermal conductivity of the plates to the thermal conductivity of the fluid. In agreement with the literature, the critical Rayleigh number Ra(c) and the critical wave number k(c) decrease from 1708 to 720 and from 3.11 to 0, when ξ decreases from infinity to zero. In the second step, the critical value α(c) of the shear-thinning degree above which the bifurcation becomes subcritical is determined. It is shown that α(c) increases with decreasing ξ. The stability of rolls and squares is then investigated as a function of ξ and the rheological parameters. The limit value ξ(c), below which squares are stable, decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. This is related to the fact that shear-thinning effects increase the nonlinear interactions between sets of rolls that constitute the square patterns [M. Bouteraa et al., J. Fluid Mech. 767, 696 (2015)]. For a significant deviation from the critical conditions, nonlinear convection terms and nonlinear viscous terms become stronger, leading to a further diminution of ξ(c). The dependency of the heat transfer on ξ and the rheological parameters is reported. It is consistent with the maximum heat transfer principle. Finally, the flow structure and the viscosity field are represented for weakly and highly conducting plates.
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2009-07-15
Previous theorems concerning Weyl type systems, including Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, are generalized in two ways, namely, we take these theorems into d spacetime dimensions (d{>=}4), and we also consider the very interesting Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, i.e., general relativistic charged fluids with nonzero pressure. In particular within the Newton-Coulomb theory of charged gravitating fluids, a theorem by Bonnor (1980) in three-dimensional space is generalized to arbitrary (d-1)>3 space dimensions. Then, we prove a new theorem for charged gravitating fluid systems in which we find the condition that the charge density and the matter density should obey. Within general relativity coupled to charged dust fluids, a theorem by De and Raychaudhuri (1968) in four-dimensional spacetime is rendered into arbitrary d>4 dimensions. Then a theorem, new in d=4 and d>4 dimensions, for Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, is stated and proved, in which we find the condition that the charge density, the matter density, the pressure, and the electromagnetic energy density should obey. This theorem comprises, in particular cases, a theorem by Gautreau and Hoffman (1973) and results in four dimensions by Guilfoyle (1999). Upon connection of an interior charged solution to an exterior Tangherlini solution (i.e., a Reissner-Nordstroem solution in d dimensions), one is able to give a general definition for gravitational mass for this kind of relativistic systems and find a mass relation with several quantities of the interior solution. It is also shown that for sources of finite extent the mass is identical to the Tolman mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Rahul Harishchandra; Nadar, Mariappan Dharmaraj; Ali, Rashed
2017-05-01
The influence of Dean Number on the heat transfer to petroleum base oils (SN70, SN150 and SN300, flowing through four spiral coils, maintained at constant wall temperature and having average curvature ratio of 0.01568, 0.019, 0.02466 and 0.03011 are investigated in the present study. The fluid, with fully developed velocity profile and underdeveloped temperature profile (the Graetz problem), flows inside the tube at the entrance. Four correlations are developed which are valid for a range of Dean Number from 2 to 1043, Prandtl Number from 76 to 298, and Reynold's Number from 12 to 6013. These correlations are not available in literature and are developed for the first time for the given conditions. The correlations are compared with the correlations developed by earlier investigators and it is found that they are in good agreement. The developed correlations are corrected to account for the variable property relations for the viscous fluids used in the experiment. The average deviations in the developed correlations and the readings obtained by experiment are found to be <± 3%. The comparison of the developed correlations with the correlations of other investigators on helical coils showed an increase in heat transfer in spiral coils than the helical coils. The reason for this is that the magnitude of the secondary flow varied continuously with an increase in the mixing of the fluid particles occurring throughout the length of the spiral coil.
Crossover phenomena in non-Newtonian viscous fingers at a finite viscosity ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatani, Takashi
1990-04-01
A viscous fingering of non-Newtonian fluids at a finite viscosity ratio is considered in order to study the effect of non-Newtonian fluid on crossover phenomena. The crossover from the fractal pattern to the dense structure is investigated by using a two-parameter position-space renormalization-group method. The global flow diagrams in two-parameter space are obtained. It is found that there are two nontrivial fixed points: the fractal point and the Eden point. When the viscosity ratio is finite, the pattern must eventually cross over to the dense structure. The dependences of the crossover phenomena on the parameter k, which describes the different non-Newtonian fluids, are shown. It is found that the non-Newtonian fluids have important effects on the fractal point and the crossover line but the crossover exponent is independent of the non-Newtonian property.
MHD Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge with Newtonian heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Kartini; Hanouf, Zahir; Ishak, Anuar
2017-02-01
The problem of steady Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge is studied in this paper. The presence of magnetic field along with Newtonian heating at the surface is considered. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations, before being solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The effects of the wedge angle Ω from 0° (horizontal plate) to 180° (vertical plate) as well as of as the magnetic parameter M on the non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is found that the surface temperature is slightly higher for the flow over a horizontal plate compared to that over a vertical plate. It is also found that the magnetic field decreases the surface temperature but increases the skin friction. The flow of a Newtonian fluid is found to give higher skin friction as compared to that of Casson fluid.
Accuracy of non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conrad, Daniel; Schneider, Andreas; Böhle, Martin
2015-11-01
This work deals with the accuracy of non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann simulations. Previous work for Newtonian fluids indicate that, depending on the numerical value of the dimensionless collision frequency Ω, additional artificial viscosity is introduced, which negatively influences the accuracy. Since the non-Newtonian fluid behavior is incorporated through appropriate modeling of the dimensionless collision frequency, a Ω dependent error EΩ is introduced and its influence on the overall error is investigated. Here, simulations with the SRT and the MRT model are carried out for power-law fluids in order to numerically investigate the accuracy of non-Newtonian Lattice Boltzmann simulations. A goal of this accuracy analysis is to derive a recommendation for an optimal choice of the time step size and the simulation Mach number, respectively. For the non-Newtonian case, an error estimate for EΩ in the form of a functional is derived on the basis of a series expansion of the Lattice Boltzmann equation. This functional can be solved analytically for the case of the Hagen-Poiseuille channel flow of non-Newtonian fluids. With the help of the error functional, the prediction of the global error minimum of the velocity field is excellent in regions where the EΩ error is the dominant source of error. With an optimal simulation Mach number, the simulation is about one order of magnitude more accurate. Additionally, for both collision models a detailed study of the convergence behavior of the method in the non-Newtonian case is conducted. The results show that the simulation Mach number has a major impact on the convergence rate and second order accuracy is not preserved for every choice of the simulation Mach number.
Newtonian wormholes with spherical symmetry and tidal forces on test particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luz, Paulo; Lemos, José P. S.
2015-06-01
A spherically symmetric wormhole in Newtonian gravitation in curved space, enhanced with a connection between the mass density and the Ricci scalar, is presented. The wormhole, consisting of two connected asymptotically flat regions, inhabits a spherically symmetric curved space. The gravitational potential, gravitational field and the pressure that supports the fluid that permeates the Newtonian wormhole are computed. Particle dynamics and tidal effects in this geometry are studied. The possibility of having Newtonian black holes in this theory is sketched.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collyer, A. A.
1973-01-01
Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collyer, A. A.
1973-01-01
Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)
Predicting single-phase and two-phase non-Newtonian flow behavior in pipes
Kaminsky, R.D.
1998-12-31
Improved and novel prediction methods are described for single-phase and two-phase flow of non-Newtonian fluids in pipes. Good predictions are achieved for pressure drop, liquid holdup fraction, and two-phase flow regime. The methods are applicable to any visco-inelastic non-Newtonian fluid and include the effect of surface roughness. The methods utilize a reference fluid for which validated models exist. For single-phase flow the use of Newtonian and power-law reference fluids are illustrated. For two-phase flow a Newtonian reference fluid is used. Focus is given to shear-thinning fluids. The approach is theoretically based and is better suited than correlation methods for two-phase flow in high pressure pipelines, for which no experimental data is available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.
2016-04-01
In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.
Gijsen, F J; Allanic, E; van de Vosse, F N; Janssen, J D
1999-07-01
A numerical and experimental investigation of unsteady entry flow in a 90 degrees curved tube is presented to study the impact of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on the velocity distribution. The time-dependent flow rate for the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian blood analog fluid were identical. For the numerical computation, a Carreau-Yasuda model was employed to accommodate the shear thinning behavior of the Xanthan gum solution. The viscoelastic properties were not taken into account. The experimental results indicate that significant differences between the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid are present. The numerical results for both the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian fluid agree well with the experimental results. Since viscoelasticity was not included in the numerical code, shear thinning behavior of the blood analog fluid seems to be the dominant non-Newtonian property, even under unsteady flow conditions. Finally, a comparison between the non-Newtonian fluid model and a Newtonian fluid at a rescaled Reynolds number is presented. The rescaled Reynolds number, based on a characteristic rather than the high-shear rate viscosity of the Xanthan gum solution, was about three times as low as the original Reynolds number. Comparison reveals that the character of flow of the non-Newtonian fluid is simulated quite well by using the appropriate Reynolds number.
The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.
1983-01-01
To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…
The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.
1983-01-01
To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…
Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow transition in lung surfactants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadoughi, Amir; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2010-11-01
The lining of normal lungs is covered by surfactants, because otherwise the surface tension of the aqueous layer would be too large to allow breathing. A lack of functioning surfactants can lead to respiratory distress syndrome, a potentially fatal condition in both premature infants and adults, and a major cause of death in the US and world-wide. We use a home-built Brewster angle microscope on an optically accessible deep channel viscometer to simultaneously observe the mesoscale structures of DPPC, the primary constituent of lung surfactant, on water surface and measure the interfacial velocity field. The measured interfacial velocity is compared to Navier-Stokes computations with the Boussinesq-Scriven surface model. Results show that DPPC monolayer behaves i) purely elastically at low surface pressures on water, ii) viscoelastically at modest surface pressures, exhibiting non-zero surface shear viscosity that is independent of the shear rate and flow inertia, and iii) at surface pressures approaching film collapse, DPPC loses its fluid characteristics, and a Newtonian surface model no longer captures its hydrodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.
1990-01-01
The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.
Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a non-Newtonian incompressible complex plasma
Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.
2015-03-15
The stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is investigated in a non-Newtonian unmagnetized dusty plasma with an experimentally verified model of shear flow rate dependent viscosity. It has been found that non-Newtonian property has also a significant role in stabilization of RT instability along with velocity shear stabilization in the short wavelength regime. The effect of the non-Newtonian parameters is more profound in the higher velocity shear rate regime. A detailed study is reported on the role of non-Newtonian effect on RT instability with conventional dust fluid equations using standard numerical eigenvalue analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.
1990-01-01
The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.
Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand
Lemons, D.S.
1988-06-01
Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology.
Analysis of non-Newtonian effects on Low-Density Lipoprotein accumulation in an artery.
Iasiello, Marcello; Vafai, Kambiz; Andreozzi, Assunta; Bianco, Nicola
2016-06-14
In this work, non-Newtonian effects on Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transport across an artery are analyzed with a multi-layer model. Four rheological models (Carreau, Carreau-Yasuda, power-law and Newtonian) are used for the blood flow through the lumen. For the non-Newtonian cases, the arterial wall is modeled with a generalized momentum equation. Convection-diffusion equation is used for the LDL transport through the lumen, while Staverman-Kedem-Katchalsky, combined with porous media equations, are used for the LDL transport through the wall. Results are presented in terms of filtration velocity, Wall Shear Stresses (WSS) and concentration profiles. It is shown that non-Newtonian effects on mass transport are negligible for a healthy intramural pressure value. Non-Newtonian effects increase slightly with intramural pressure, but Newtonian assumption can still be considered reliable. Effects of arterial size are also analyzed, showing that Newtonian assumption can be considered valid for both medium and large arteries, in predicting LDL deposition. Finally, non-Newtonian effects are also analyzed for an aorta-common iliac bifurcation, showing that Newtonian assumption is valid for mass transport at low Reynolds numbers. At a high Reynolds number, it has been shown that a non-Newtonian fluid model can have more impact due to the presence of flow recirculation.
Why there is no Newtonian backreaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Nick
2017-07-01
In the conventional framework for cosmological dynamics, the scalefactor a(t) is assumed to obey the 'background' Friedmann equation for a perfectly homogeneous universe while particles move according to equations of motions driven by the gravity of the density fluctuations. It has recently been suggested that the emergence of structure modifies the evolution of a(t) via Newtonian (or 'kinematic') backreaction and that this may avoid the need for dark energy. Here, we point out that the conventional system of equations is exact in Newtonian gravity and there is no approximation in the use of the homogeneous universe equation for a(t). The recently proposed modification of Rácz et al. does not reduce to Newtonian gravity in the limit of low velocities. We discuss the relation of this to the 'generalized Friedmann equation' of Buchert and Ehlers. These are quite different things; their formula describes individual regions and is obtained under the restrictive assumption that the matter behaves like a pressure-free fluid, whereas our result is exact for collisionless dynamics and is an auxiliary relation appearing in the structure equations. We use the symmetry of the general velocity autocorrelation function to show how Buchert's Q tends very rapidly to zero for large volume and that this does not simply arise 'by construction' through the adoption of periodic boundary conditions as has been claimed. We conclude that, to the extent that Newtonian gravity accurately describes the low-z universe, there is no backreaction of structure on a(t) and that the need for dark energy cannot be avoided in this way.
Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul
2013-08-19
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.
Weddell, Jared C.; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P. I.; Masud, Arif
2015-01-01
Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model. PMID:25897758
Weddell, Jared C; Kwack, JaeHyuk; Imoukhuede, P I; Masud, Arif
2015-01-01
Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF) constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS) is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.
Mathematical Analysis of Non-Newtonian Blood Flow in Stenosis Narrow Arteries
Sriyab, Somchai
2014-01-01
The flow of blood in narrow arteries with bell-shaped mild stenosis is investigated that treats blood as non-Newtonian fluid by using the K-L model. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to non-Newtonian blood in normal artery, the results present the effect of stenosis length. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to Newtonian blood in stenosis artery, the results present the effect of non-Newtonian blood. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on skin friction are consistent with the Casson model in which the skin friction increases with the increase of ither stenosis length or the yield stress but the skin friction decreases with the increase of plasma viscosity coefficient. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on resistance of blood flow are contradictory. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by non-Newtonian blood in normal artery) increases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by Newtonian blood in stenosis artery) decreases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length. PMID:25587350
Mathematical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in stenosis narrow arteries.
Sriyab, Somchai
2014-01-01
The flow of blood in narrow arteries with bell-shaped mild stenosis is investigated that treats blood as non-Newtonian fluid by using the K-L model. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to non-Newtonian blood in normal artery, the results present the effect of stenosis length. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to Newtonian blood in stenosis artery, the results present the effect of non-Newtonian blood. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on skin friction are consistent with the Casson model in which the skin friction increases with the increase of either stenosis length or the yield stress but the skin friction decreases with the increase of plasma viscosity coefficient. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on resistance of blood flow are contradictory. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by non-Newtonian blood in normal artery) increases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by Newtonian blood in stenosis artery) decreases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari, Elham; Kazemi, Ali; Roshan, Mahmood; Abbassi, Shahram
2017-04-01
The Jeans analysis is studied in the first post-Newtonian limit. In other words, the relativistic effects on local gravitational instability are considered for systems whose characteristic velocities and corresponding gravitational fields are higher than those permitted in the Newtonian limit. The dispersion relation for the propagation of small perturbations is found in the post-Newtonian approximation using two different techniques. A new Jeans mass is derived and compared to the standard Jeans mass. In this limit, the relativistic effects make the new Jeans mass smaller than the Newtonian Jeans mass. Furthermore, the fractional difference between these two masses increases when the temperature/pressure of the system increases. Interestingly, in this limit, pressure can enhance gravitational instability instead of preventing it. Finally, the results are applied to high-temperature astrophysical systems, and the possibility of local fragmentation in some relativistic systems is investigated.
More problems for Newtonian cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, David
2017-02-01
I point out a radical indeterminism in potential-based formulations of Newtonian gravity once we drop the condition that the potential vanishes at infinity (as is necessary, and indeed celebrated, in cosmological applications). This indeterminism, which is well known in theoretical cosmology but has received little attention in foundational discussions, can be removed only by specifying boundary conditions at all instants of time, which undermines the theory's claim to be fully cosmological, i.e., to apply to the Universe as a whole. A recent alternative formulation of Newtonian gravity due to Saunders (Philosophy of Science 80 (2013) pp. 22-48) provides a conceptually satisfactory cosmology but fails to reproduce the Newtonian limit of general relativity in homogenous but anisotropic universes. I conclude that Newtonian gravity lacks a fully satisfactory cosmological formulation.
Performance of flexible low-Re swimmers in Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinosa, J.; Zenit, R.; Lauga, E.
2011-11-01
We show experimental results of ``flexible tail'' swimmers in elastic fluids. A magnetic microswimmer powered by a frequency-controlled homogeneous magnetic field was built. Experiments were performed in a reference viscous Newtonian fluid and a glucose-based Boger fluid of the same shear viscosity. High definition video of the swimmer traveling along a channel was taken to measure its average swimming speed. We found that locomotion is enhanced in elastic fluids for most conditions. To further investigate the swimming performance, the flow field around the swimmer was visualized with a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. The differences between Newtonian and Boger fluid will be presented and discussed.
Air Sparging for Mixing Non-Newtonian Slurries
Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Tzemos, Spyridon
2010-01-01
The mechanics of air sparger systems have been primarily investigated for aqueous-based Newtonian fluids. Tilton et al. (1982) [1] describes the fluid mechanics of air sparging systems in non-Newtonian fluids as having two primary flow regions. A center region surrounding the sparger, referred to as the region of bubbles (ROB), contains upward flow due to the buoyant driving force of the rising bubbles. In an annular region, outside the ROB, referred to as the zone of influence (ZOI), the fluid flow is reversed and is opposed to the direction of bubble rise. Outside the ZOI the fluid is unaffected by the air sparger system. The flow regime in the ROB is often turbulent, and the flow regime in the ZOI is laminar; the flow regime outside the ZOI is quiescent. Tests conducted with shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid in a 34-in. diameter tank showed that the ROB forms an approximately inverted cone that is the envelop of the bubble trajectories. The depth to which the air bubbles reach below the sparger nozzle is a linear function of the air-flow rate. The recirculation time through the ZOI was found to vary proportionally with the inverse square of the sparging air-flow rate. Visual observations of the ROB were made in both water and Carbopol®. The bubbles released from the sparge tube in Carbopol® were larger than those in water
Aspects of non-Newtonian flow and displacement in porous media
Shah, C.; Yortsos, Y.C.
1993-02-01
The rheology of many heavy oils has been shown to be non-Newtonian, Bingham plastics being one manifestation of heavy oil flow. In EOR applications, non-Newtonian fluids such as low concentration polymer solutions, emulsions, gels etc. are simultaneously injected to increase the viscosity of driving agents that displace oil. Such rheologically complex fluids are used to improve sweep efficiencies, divert displacing fluids and block swept zones. The present study has been undertaken to understand the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. The work considered involves the numerical (pore network) modeling of both single and multiphase flow of power-law and Bingham plastic fluids in network-like porous media. We consider aspects of both single- and multi-phase flow and displacement. Section 2 describes elementary aspects of non-Newtonian flow and some simple models for porous media. Viscoelastic effects in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids are also discussed. The section includes a brief literature review on non-Newtonian flow in porous media. Section 3 describes single-phase flow.
Was Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vickers, Peter
This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament [(1995). Is Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62, 489-510] has shown that Newtonian cosmology is not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton's claim [(1995). The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative. Philosophy of Science 62, 511-522.] that Newtonian cosmology was inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger's seminal paper of Seeliger [(1895). Über das Newton'sche Gravitationsgesetz. Astronomische Nachrichten 137 (3273), 129-136.] In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of science, which are inconsistent. But there are some important corrections to make to Norton's account. Here I display for the first time the inconsistencies-four in total-in all their detail. Although this extra detail shows there to be several different inconsistencies, it also goes some way towards explaining why they went unnoticed for 200 years.
Relativistic Newtonian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Yaakov; Mendel Steiner, Joseph
2017-05-01
A new Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics (RND) for motion under a conservative force capable to describe non-classical behavior in astronomy is proposed. The rotor experiments using Mössbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, described in the paper, indicate the influence of non-gravitational acceleration or potential energy on time. Similarly, the observed precession of Mercury and the periastron advance of binaries can be explained by the influence of gravitational potential energy on spacetime. The proposed RND incorporates the influence of potential energy on spacetime in Newton’s dynamics. The effect of this influence on time intervals, space increments and velocities is described explicitly by the use of the concept of escape trajectory. For an attracting conservative static potential we derived the RND energy conservation and the dynamics equation for motion of objects with non-zero mass and for massless particles. These equations are subsequently simplified for motion under a central force. Without the need to curve spacetime, this model predicts accurately the four non-classical observations in astronomy used to test the General Relativity.
Accurate prediction of wall shear stress in a stented artery: newtonian versus non-newtonian models.
Mejia, Juan; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Olivier F
2011-07-01
A significant amount of evidence linking wall shear stress to neointimal hyperplasia has been reported in the literature. As a result, numerical and experimental models have been created to study the influence of stent design on wall shear stress. Traditionally, blood has been assumed to behave as a Newtonian fluid, but recently that assumption has been challenged. The use of a linear model; however, can reduce computational cost, and allow the use of Newtonian fluids (e.g., glycerine and water) instead of a blood analog fluid in an experimental setup. Therefore, it is of interest whether a linear model can be used to accurately predict the wall shear stress caused by a non-Newtonian fluid such as blood within a stented arterial segment. The present work compares the resulting wall shear stress obtained using two linear and one nonlinear model under the same flow waveform. All numerical models are fully three-dimensional, transient, and incorporate a realistic stent geometry. It is shown that traditional linear models (based on blood's lowest viscosity limit, 3.5 Pa s) underestimate the wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment, which can lead to an overestimation of the risk of restenosis. The second linear model, which uses a characteristic viscosity (based on an average strain rate, 4.7 Pa s), results in higher wall shear stress levels, but which are still substantially below those of the nonlinear model. It is therefore shown that nonlinear models result in more accurate predictions of wall shear stress within a stented arterial segment.
Electro-hydrodynamic instability in a microchannel between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ersoy, Gülsüm; Kerem Uguz, A.
2012-06-01
We perform linear stability analysis of the interface between a Newtonian fluid and a non-Newtonian fluid, assumed to obey the Upper Convective Maxwell model, flowing in a channel due to a pressure gradient subject to an electric field applied normal to the interface. The fluids are assumed to be immiscible, incompressible and leaky dielectric. A detailed parametric study of the effects of the system parameters, such as Weissenberg number, Reynolds number, applied potential and physical and electrical properties of the fluids, is conducted. It is found that increasing the applied voltage could be stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the electrical properties of the liquids, and increasing the Weissenberg number decreases the maximum growth rate without changing the corresponding wavenumber and increases the critical wavenumber. The effect of the height ratio of the liquids is analyzed through neutral curves for given electric numbers, i.e. applied potential. The critical wavenumber decreases with height ratio and converges to a value for all the electric numbers considered.
Observability of Viscoelastic Fluids
2010-01-01
THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy J. Non - Newtonian Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 425...434 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Non - Newtonian Fluid Mechanics journa l homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate / jnnfm...by Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.01.025 Author’s personal copy 426 H. Zhou et al. / J. Non - Newtonian Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 425–434 the
Non-Newtonian effects of blood flow on hemodynamics in distal vascular graft anastomoses.
Chen, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun; Wang, Wen
2006-01-01
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in a stenosed coronary bypass is investigated numerically using the Carreau-Yasuda model for the shear thinning behavior of the blood. End-to-side coronary bypass anastomosis is considered in a simplified model geometry where the host coronary artery has a 75% severity stenosis. Different locations of the bypass graft to the stenosis and different flow rates in the graft and in the host artery are studied. Particular attention is given to the non-Newtonian effect of the blood on the primary and secondary flow patterns in the host coronary artery and the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution there. Interaction between the jet flow from the stenosed artery and the flow from the graft is simulated by solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the non-Newtonian constitutive model. Results for the non-Newtonian flow, the Newtonian flow and the rescaled Newtonian flow are presented. Significant differences in axial velocity profiles, secondary flow streamlines and WSS between the non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flows are revealed. However, reasonable agreement between the non-Newtonian and the rescaled Newtonian flows is found. Results from this study support the view that the residual flow in a partially occluded coronary artery interacts with flow in the bypass graft and may have significant hemodynamic effects in the host vessel downstream of the graft. Non-Newtonian property of the blood alters the flow pattern and WSS distribution and is an important factor to be considered in simulating hemodynamic effects of blood flow in arterial bypass grafts.
Low-Hysteresis Flow-Through Wind-Tunnel Balance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunz, N.; Luna, P. M.; Roberts, A. C.; Smith, R. C.; Horne, W. L.; Smith, K. M.
1992-01-01
Improved flow-through wind-tunnel balance includes features minimizing both spurious force readings caused by internal pressurized flow and mechanical hysteresis. Symmetrical forces caused by internal flow cancelled.
NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Stremel, Paul M.
2016-01-01
Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75 scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14x22 and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40x80 low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.
NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Jospeh A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Stremel, Paul M.; Tompkins, Daniel M.
2016-01-01
Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75% scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14'x22' and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40'x80' low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.
Huang, Y; Wang, Y L; Wong, T N
2017-08-22
Monodispersity and fast generation are innate advantages of microfluidic droplets. Other than the normally adopted simple Newtonian fluids such as a water/oil emulsion system, fluids with complex rheology, namely, non-Newtonian fluids, which are being widely adopted in industries and bioengineering, have gained increasing research interest on the microscale. However, challenges occur in controlling the dynamic behavior due to their complex properties. In this sense, the AC electric field with merits of fast response and easiness in fulfilling "Lab on a chip" has attracted our attention. We design and fabricate flow-focusing microchannels with non-contact types of electrodes for the investigation. We firstly compare the formation of a non-Newtonian droplet with that of a Newtonian one under an AC electric field and discover that viscoelasticity contributes to the discrepancies significantly. Then we explore the effect of AC electric fields on the filament thinning and droplet formation dynamics of one non-Newtonian fluid which has a similar rheological behavior to bio samples, such as DNA or blood samples. We investigate the dynamics of the thinning process of the non-Newtonian filament under the influence of an AC electric field and implement a systematic exploration of the non-Newtonian droplet generation influenced by parameters such as the flow conditions (flow rate Q, capillary number Ca), fluid property (Weissenberg number Wi), applied voltage (U) and frequency (f) of the AC electric field. We present the dependencies of the flow condition and electric field on the non-Newtonian droplet formation dynamics, and conclude with an operating diagram, taking into consideration all the above-mentioned parameters. Results show that the electric field plays a critical role in controlling the thinning process of the filament and the size of the generated droplet. Furthermore, for the first time, we quantitatively measure the flow field of the non-Newtonian droplet
Cosmological dynamics: from the Eulerian to the Lagrangian frame. Part I. Newtonian approximation
Villa, Eleonora; Maino, Davide; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it
2014-06-01
We analyse the non-linear gravitational dynamics of a pressure-less fluid in the Newtonian limit of General Relativity in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian pictures. Starting from the Newtonian metric in the Poisson gauge, we transform to the synchronous and comoving gauge and obtain the Lagrangian metric within the Newtonian approximation. Our approach is fully non-perturbative, which implies that if our quantities are expanded according to the rules of standard perturbation theory, all terms are exactly recovered at any order in perturbation theory, only provided they are Newtonian. We explicitly show this result up to second order and in both gauges. Our transformation clarifies the meaning of the change of spatial and time coordinates from the Eulerian to the Lagrangian frame in the Newtonian approximation.
Shape optimization in unsteady blood flow: a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects.
Abraham, Feby; Behr, Marek; Heinkenschloss, Matthias
2005-06-01
This paper presents a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects on the solution of shape optimization problems involving unsteady pulsatile blood flow. We consider an idealized two dimensional arterial graft geometry. Our computations are based on the Navier-Stokes equations generalized to non-Newtonian fluid, with the modified Cross model employed to account for the shear-thinning behavior of blood. Using a gradient-based optimization algorithm, we compare the optimal shapes obtained using both the Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constitutive equations. Depending on the shear rate prevalent in the domain, substantial differences in the flow as well as in the computed optimal shape are observed when the Newtonian constitutive equation is replaced by the modified Cross model. By varying a geometric parameter in our test case, we investigate the influence of the shear rate on the solution.
Numerical simulation of the non-Newtonian mixing layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azaiez, Jalel; Homsy, G. M.
1993-01-01
This work is a continuing effort to advance our understanding of the effects of polymer additives on the structures of the mixing layer. In anticipation of full nonlinear simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer, we examined in a first stage the linear stability of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. The results of this study show that, for a fluid described by the Oldroyd-B model, viscoelasticity reduces the instability of the inviscid mixing layer in a special limit where the ratio (We/Re) is of order 1 where We is the Weissenberg number, a measure of the elasticity of the flow, and Re is the Reynolds number. In the present study, we pursue this project with numerical simulations of the non-Newtonian mixing layer. Our primary objective is to determine the effects of viscoelasticity on the roll-up structure. We also examine the origin of the numerical instabilities usually encountered in the simulations of non-Newtonian fluids.
Gijsen, F J; van de Vosse, F N; Janssen, J D
1999-06-01
Laser Doppler anemometry experiments and finite element simulations of steady flow in a three dimensional model of the carotid bifurcation were performed to investigate the influence of non-Newtonian properties of blood on the velocity distribution. The axial velocity distribution was measured for two fluids: a non-Newtonian blood analog fluid and a Newtonian reference fluid. Striking differences between the measured flow fields were found. The axial velocity field of the non-Newtonian fluid was flattened, had lower velocity gradients at the divider wall, and higher velocity gradients at the non-divider wall. The flow separation, as found with the Newtonian fluid, was absent. In the computations, the shear thinning behavior of the analog blood fluid was incorporated through the Carreau-Yasuda model. The viscoelastic properties of the fluid were not included. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results showed good agreement, both for the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian fluid. Since only shear thinning was included, this seems to be the dominant non-Newtonian property of the blood analog fluid under steady flow conditions.
Post-Newtonian quasirigid body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chongming; Tao, Jin-He; Wu, Xuejun
2004-01-01
In this paper, we construct for the first time, in the first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation, a complete model of a quasirigid body by means of a new constraint on the mass current density and mass density. In our 1PN quasirigid body model most of the relations, such as the spin vector proportional to the angular velocity, the definition of the moment of inertia tensor, the key relation between the mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, the rigid rotating formulas for the mass quadrupole moment, and the moment of inertia tensor, are just an extension of the main relations in the Newtonian rigid body model. When all of the 1/c2 terms are neglected, the 1PN quasirigid body model and the corresponding formulas reduce to the Newtonian version. A key relation is obtained in this paper for the first time, which might be very useful in future applications to problems in geodynamics and astronomy.
The Many Fates of Retracting Newtonian Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Christopher; Thete, Sumeet; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman
2016-11-01
The retraction of Newtonian filaments plays a central role in applications as diverse as inkjet printing and atomization where formation of satellite droplets is undesirable. In order to avoid satellite drop production, filaments formed after drop, jet, or sheet breakup should contract to spheres without undergoing further pinch-off. Therefore, it is important to understand all of the dynamical responses that can arise during filament recoil. To accomplish this goal, we use high accuracy simulations to analyze the retraction of Newtonian filaments in a passive ambient fluid. Previously, Notz and Basaran described the fate of low-viscosity filaments. More recent works by Hoepffner and Pare on intermediate viscosity filaments and by Lohse et al. on high viscosity filaments have greatly enhanced our understanding of filament recoil. Unfortunately, taking all of these works in aggregate does not provide a comprehensive picture of filament dynamics. Here, we overcome the deficiencies of these earlier studies to provide a comprehensive analysis of filament recoil and arrive at a complete phase diagram of the system response. While doing so, we also uncover a new mode of filament breakup that has been missed by earlier investigators.
Newtonian perturbations on models with matter creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesus, J. F.; Oliveira, F. A.; Basilakos, S.; Lima, J. A. S.
2011-09-01
Creation of cold dark matter (CCDM) can macroscopically be described by a negative pressure, and, therefore, the mechanism is capable to accelerate the Universe, without the need of an additional dark energy component. In this framework, we discuss the evolution of perturbations by considering a Neo-Newtonian approach where, unlike in the standard Newtonian cosmology, the fluid pressure is taken into account even in the homogeneous and isotropic background equations (Lima, Zanchin, and Brandenberger, MNRAS 291, L1, 1997). The evolution of the density contrast is calculated in the linear approximation and compared to the one predicted by the ΛCDM model. The difference between the CCDM and ΛCDM predictions at the perturbative level is quantified by using three different statistical methods, namely: a simple χ2-analysis in the relevant space parameter, a Bayesian statistical inference, and, finally, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We find that under certain circumstances, the CCDM scenario analyzed here predicts an overall dynamics (including Hubble flow and matter fluctuation field) which fully recovers that of the traditional cosmic concordance model. Our basic conclusion is that such a reduction of the dark sector provides a viable alternative description to the accelerating ΛCDM cosmology.
Chen, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun
2004-12-01
The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a bifurcation model with a non-planar daughter branch is investigated by using finite element method to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a non-Newtonian constitutive model, in which the shear thinning behavior of the blood fluid is incorporated by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the non-Newtonian property of fluid as well as of curvature and out-of-plane geometry in the non-planar daughter vessel on wall shear stress (WSS) and flow phenomena. In the non-planar daughter vessel, the flows are typified by the skewing of the velocity profile towards the outer wall, creating a relatively low WSS at the inner wall. In the downstream of the bifurcation, the velocity profiles are shifted towards the flow divider. The low WSS is found at the inner walls of the curvature and the lateral walls of the bifurcation. Secondary flow patterns that swirl fluid from the inner wall of curvature to the outer wall in the middle of the vessel are also well documented for the curved and bifurcating vessels. The numerical results for the non-Newtonian fluid and the Newtonian fluid with original Reynolds number and the corresponding rescaled Reynolds number are presented. Significant difference between the non-Newtonian flow and the Newtonian flow is revealed; however, reasonable agreement between the non-Newtonian flow and the rescaled Newtonian flow is found. Results of this study support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are an important factor in hemodynamics and may play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology.
Podichetty, Jagdeep T; Dhane, Dhananjay V; Madihally, Sundararajan V
2012-07-01
In this study, transport characteristics in flow-through and parallel-flow bioreactors used in tissue engineering were simulated using computational fluid dynamics. To study nutrient distribution and consumption by smooth muscle cells colonizing the 100 mm diameter and 2-mm thick scaffold, effective diffusivity of glucose was experimentally determined using a two-chambered setup. Three different concentrations of chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by freezing at -80°C followed by lyophilization. Experiments were performed in both bioreactors to measure pressure drop at different flow rates. At low flow rates, experimental results were in agreement with the simulation results for both bioreactors. However, increase in flow rate beyond 5 mL/min in flow-through bioreactor showed channeling at the circumference resulting in lower pressure drop relative to simulation results. The Peclet number inside the scaffold indicated nutrient distribution within the flow-through bioreactor to be convection-dependent, whereas the parallel-flow bioreactor was diffusion-dependent. Three alternative design modifications to the parallel-flow were made by (i) introducing an additional inlet and an outlet, (ii) changing channel position, and (iii) changing the hold-up volume. Simulation studies were performed to assess the effect of scaffold thickness, cell densities, and permeability. These new designs improved nutrient distribution for 2 mm scaffolds; however, parallel-flow configuration was found to be unsuitable for scaffolds more than 4-mm thick, especially at low porosities as tissues regenerate. Furthermore, operable flow rate in flow-through bioreactors is constrained by the mechanical strength of the scaffold. In summary, this study showed limitations and differences between flow-through and parallel-flow bioreactors used in tissue engineering.
Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment
Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; ...
2015-11-24
In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)more » spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.
1975-01-01
The coordinate independence of gravitational radiation and the parameterized post-Newtonian approximation from which it is extended are described. The general consistency of the field equations with Bianchi identities, gauge conditions, and the Newtonian limit of the perfect fluid equations of hydrodynamics are studied. A technique of modification is indicated for application to vector-metric or double metric theories, as well as to scalar-tensor theories.
Flow-Through Assay for Detection of Antibodies Using Protein-A Colloidal Gold Conjugate as a Probe.
Chennuru, Sreedevi; Pavuluri, Panduranga Rao
2015-01-01
Flow-through assay (FTA) is a rapid, simple-to-perform, cost-effective, and user-friendly diagnostic test for monitoring infections in non-laboratory settings. It is mostly applied for antibody detection. FTA employing protein-A colloidal gold conjugate to detect antibodies against porcine cysticerci using cyst fluid and whole cyst antigens of Taenia solium metacestode is described here. Antibodies in the serum are captured by an antigen spotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane mounted on a flow-through device that serves as the antigen capture matrix. The bound antibodies are visualized by the addition of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate, which imparts a pink color. The test can be completed within 3 min at room temperature without any instrumentation. The sensitivity and specificity of the FTA are in agreement with ELISA.
Lacina, Karel; Vondál, Jiří; Skládal, Petr
2012-05-21
Four-channel flow-through electrochemical cell working in thin-layer regime was designed, fabricated and characterized experimentally and in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The new principle of operation allows reproducible splitting of a stream of liquid into multiple flow channels. Systems comprising of 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-channels were tested. The proper function of the cell is given by the ratio of the cross-sections of the fluidic element collecting chamber and the particular flow paths among which the liquid is distributed. Suitable flow rates providing uniform liquid distribution were evaluated and the results were compared to CFD modeling. The flow-through cells designed according to the proposed principle can be simply incorporated in automated routine analysis as only one inlet and one common outlet are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of Non-Newtonian Liquid Droplet Collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Vigor
2012-11-01
Collision of Newtonian liquid droplets has been extensively investigated both experimentally and numerically for decades. Limited information, however, is available about non-Newtonian droplet collision dynamics. In the present work, high-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to study the situation associated with shear-thinning non-Newtonian liquids. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for the liquid and the surrounding gas phases. An improved volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, combined with an innovative topology-oriented adaptive mesh refinement (TOAMR) technique, was developed and implemented to track the interfacial dynamics. The complex evolution of the droplet surface over a broad range of length scales was treated accurately and efficiently. In particular, the thin gas film between two approaching droplets and subsequent breakup of liquid threads were well-resolved. Various types of droplet collision were obtained, including coalescence, bouncing, and reflexive and stretching separations. A regime diagram was developed and compared with that for Newtonian liquids. Fundamental mechanisms and key parameters that dictate droplet behaviors were identified. In addition, collision-induced atomization was addressed. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative under contract No. W911NF-08-1-0124. The support and encouragement provided by Dr. Ralph Anthenien are gratefully acknowledged.
Ren, Yong; Liu, Zhou; Shum, Ho Cheung
2015-01-07
The breakup dynamics in non-Newtonian multiphase microsystems is associated with a variety of industrial applications such as food production and biomedical engineering. In this study, we numerically and experimentally characterize the dripping-to-jetting transition under various flow conditions in a Newtonian/shear-thinning multiphase microsystem. Our work can help to predict the formation of undesirable satellite droplets, which is one of the challenges in dispensing non-Newtonian fluids. We also demonstrate the variations in breakup dynamics between shear-thinning and Newtonian fluids under the same flow conditions. For shear-thinning fluids, the droplet size increases when the capillary number is smaller than a critical value, while it decreases when the capillary number is beyond the critical value. The variations highlight the importance of rheological effects in flows with a non-Newtonian fluid. The viscosity of shear-thinning fluids significantly affects the control over the droplet size, therefore necessitating the manipulation of the shear rate through adjusting the flow rate and the dimensions of the nozzle. Consequently, the droplet size can be tuned in a controlled manner. Our findings can guide the design of novel microdevices for generating droplets of shear-thinning fluids with a predetermined droplet size. This enhances the ability to fabricate functional particles using an emulsion-templated approach. Moreover, elastic effects are also investigated experimentally using a model shear-thinning fluid that also exhibits elastic behaviors: droplets are increasingly deformed with increasing elasticity of the continuous phase. The overall understanding in the model multiphase microsystem will facilitate the use of a droplet-based approach for non-Newtonian multiphase applications ranging from energy to biomedical sciences.
An energy-efficient self-regulating heater for flow-through applications.
Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Loree, Ellis L; Li, Jianzhong; Genfa, Zhang
2003-08-01
In many experiments, a flow-through heating arrangement is needed to reduce reaction time. Often the reaction conditions require inertness of the wetted material. Heated reactors based on polymeric tubing, notably PTFE, are the most common, and such reactors are typically used in a manner in which they are put in a heated bath or an otherwise thermally conductive potting in which a heater and a temperature sensor are embedded for heating and temperature control. Polymeric tubes are poor conductors of heat; as such, most reactors of this type have very poor energy utilization. We describe here heated flow-through reactors where a wire runs through the entire length of the tubular reactor and where the wire is directly electrically heated. The wire may or may not be electrically insulated. If the exterior of the tube is well insulated, the energy efficiency of such a reactor in heating the fluid of interest is nearly unity. This makes it most suitable for battery-powered applications. If an appropriate wire with a significant temperature coefficient of resistance is chosen, monitoring the current through the device at constant applied voltage indicates the effective mean temperature of the device and thus allows effective temperature control without an additional sensor/controller with essentially instantaneous response. Temperature control within +/- 0.4 degrees C at a mean temperature of 65 degrees C and within +/- 0.9 degrees C at 87 degrees C have been achieved.
Use of Surface Enhanced Blocking (SEB) Electrodes for Microbial Cell Lysis in Flow-Through Devices
Talebpour, Abdossamad; Maaskant, Robert; Khine, Aye Aye; Alavie, Tino
2014-01-01
By simultaneously subjecting microbial cells to high amplitude pulsed electric fields and flash heating of the cell suspension fluid, effective release of intracellular contents was achieved. The synergistic effect of the applied electric field and elevated temperature on cell lysis in a flow-through device was demonstrated for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and Mycobacterium species. The resulting lysate is suitable for downstream nucleic acid amplification and detection without requiring further preparation. The lysis chamber employs surface enhanced blocking electrodes which possess an etched micro-structured surface and a thin layer of dielectric metal oxide which provides a large effective area and blocks transmission of electrical current. The surface enhanced blocking electrodes enable simultaneous suppression of the rapid onset of electric field screening in the bulk of the cell suspension medium and avoidance of undesired electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface. In addition the blocking layer ensures the robustness of the cell lysis device in applications involving prolonged flow-through processing of the microbial cells. PMID:25033080
Diffusiophoresis of a charged, rigid sphere in a Carreau fluid.
Tseng, Shiojenn; Su, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Jyh-Ping
2016-03-01
Since non-Newtonian fluid behavior are not uncommon in practice, especially in modern applications of colloid and interface science, assessment of how serious is the deviation of the existing results for Newtonian fluids due to fluid nature is highly desirable and necessary. Here, we extend previous analyses for the diffusiophoresis of a particle in a Newtonian fluid to that in a non-Newtonian fluid choosing Carreau fluids as an example. Results gathered reveal that due to the shear-thinning property of the fluid considered, the difference between the particle mobility in a Carreau fluid and that in the corresponding Newtonian fluid can be on the order of 100%. In addition, this difference has a local minimum as the thickness of double layer varies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment
Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin
2015-11-24
In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) ^{13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H_{2}SO_{4} flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H_{2}SO_{4} led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.
Particle manipulations in non-Newtonian microfluidics: A review.
Lu, Xinyu; Liu, Chao; Hu, Guoqing; Xuan, Xiangchun
2017-08-15
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput. This inertial lift-based approach in Newtonian fluids, however, becomes ineffective and even fails for small particles and/or at low flow rates. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of elastic lift in non-Newtonian fluids for manipulating particles with a much smaller size and over a much wider range of flow rates. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the various passive manipulations, including focusing, separation, washing and stretching, of particles that have thus far been demonstrated in non-Newtonian microfluidics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars in Newtonian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shijun; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu
2004-01-01
We develop a formulation for constructing and examining rapidly rotating Newtonian neutron star models that contain two superfluids, taking account of the effect of the rotation velocity difference between two superfluids. We assume neutron stars to be composed of the superfluid neutrons and a mixture of the superfluid protons and the normal fluid electrons. To describe Newtonian dynamics of the two superfluids, the Newtonian version of the so-called two-fluid formalism is employed. The effect of the rotation velocity difference on the structure of equilibrium state is treated as a small perturbation to rapidly rotating superfluid stars whose angular velocities of two superfluids are assumed to be exactly the same. We derive basic equations for the perturbed structures of rapidly rotating superfluid stars due to the rotation velocity difference between two superfluids. Assuming the superfluids to obey a simple analytical equation of state proposed by Prix, Comer and Andersson, we obtain numerical solutions for the perturbations and find that the density distributions of the superfluids are strongly dependent on the parameter σ, which appears in the analytical equation of state and characterizes the so-called symmetry energy. It is also found that if the analytical equation of state of Prix et al. is assumed, the perturbations can be represented in terms of the universal functions that are independent of the parameters of the equation of state.
Non-Newtonian bile flow in elastic cystic duct: one- and three-dimensional modeling.
Li, W G; Luo, X Y; Chin, S B; Hill, N A; Johnson, A G; Bird, N C
2008-11-01
Bile flow is thought to play an essential role in the pathophysiological genesis of cholelithiasis (gallstone formation) and in gallbladder pain. In this paper, we extend our previous study of the human biliary system (Li et al., 2007, J. Biomech. Eng., 129:164-173) to include two important factors: the non-Newtonian properties of bile, and elastic deformation of the cystic duct. A one-dimensional (1D) model is analyzed and compared with three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction simulations. It is found that non-Newtonian bile raises resistance to the flow of bile, which can be augmented significantly by the elastic deformation (collapse) of the cystic duct. We also show that the 1D model predicts the pressure drop of the cystic duct flow well for all cases considered (Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow, rigid or elastic ducts), when compared with the full 3D simulations.
Time decay rates of non-Newtonian flows in RN+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Bo-Qing; Chen, Zhi-Min
2006-12-01
This paper is concerned with time decay rates of the weak solutions of an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid motion model in half spaces for n[greater-or-equal, slanted]3. With the use of the spectral decomposition of the Stokes operator and Lp-Lq estimates, it is shown that the weak solutions decay in L2 norm like when the initial velocity u0[set membership, variant]L2[intersection]Lr for 1[less-than-or-equals, slant]r<2. The higher decay rates are obtained, if u0 satisfies the additional moment condition Moreover, the error estimates between the non-Newtonian flow and the Navier-Stokes flow are discussed.
Non-Newtonian perspectives on pulsatile blood-analog flows in a 180° curved artery model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Fuchs, Laszlo; Plesniak, Michael W.
2015-07-01
Complex, unsteady fluid flow phenomena in the arteries arise due to the pulsations of the heart that intermittently pumps the blood to the extremities of the body. The many different flow waveform variations observed throughout the arterial network are a result of this process and a function of the vessel properties. Large scale secondary flow structures are generated throughout the aortic arch and larger branches of the arteries. An experimental 180° curved artery test section with physiological inflow conditions was used to validate the computational methods implemented in this study. Good agreement of the secondary flow structures is obtained between experimental and numerical studies of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid under steady-state and pulsatile, carotid artery flow rate waveforms. Multiple vortical structures, some of opposite rotational sense to Dean vortices, similar to Lyne-type vortices, were observed to form during the systolic portion of the pulse. Computational tools were used to assess the effect of blood-analog fluid rheology (i.e., Newtonian versus non-Newtonian). It is demonstrated that non-Newtonian, blood-analog fluid rheology results in shear layer instabilities that alter the formation of vortical structures during the systolic deceleration and onwards during diastole. Additional vortices not observed in the Newtonian cases appear at the inside and outside of the bend at various times during the pulsation. The influence of blood-analog shear-thinning viscosity decreases mean pressure losses in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favelukis, Moshe; Lavrenteva, Olga M.; Nir, Avinoam
2006-09-01
We consider the deformation and breakup of a non-Newtonian slender drop in a Newtonian liquid, subject to an axisymmetric extensional flow, and the influence of inertia in the continuous phase. The non-Newtonian fluid inside the drop is described by the simple power-law model and the unsteady deformation of the drop is represented by a single partial differential equation. The steady-state problem is governed by four parameters: the capillary number; the viscosity ratio; the external Reynolds number; and the exponent characterizing the power-law model for the non-Newtonian drop. For Newtonian drops, as inertia increases, drop breakup is facilitated. However, for shear thinning drops, the influence of increasing inertia results first in preventing and then in facilitating drop breakup. Multiple stationary solutions were also found and a stability analysis has been performed in order to distinguish between stable and unstable stationary states.
Chemical Gardens as Flow-through Reactors Simulating Natural Hydrothermal Systems.
Barge, Laura M; Abedian, Yeghegis; Doloboff, Ivria J; Nuñez, Jessica E; Russell, Michael J; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik
2015-11-18
Here we report experimental simulations of hydrothermal chimney growth using injection chemical garden methods. The versatility of this type of experiment allows for testing of various proposed ocean / hydrothermal fluid chemistries that could have driven reactions toward the origin of life in environments on the early Earth, early Mars, or even other worlds such as the icy moons of the outer planets. We show experiments that include growth of chemical garden structures under anoxic conditions simulating the early Earth, inclusion of trace components of phosphates / organics in the injection solution to incorporate them into the structure, a switch of the injection solution to introduce a secondary precipitating anion, and the measurement of membrane potentials generated by chemical gardens. Using this method, self-assembling chemical garden structures were formed that mimic the natural chimneys precipitated at submarine hydrothermal springs, and these precipitates can be used successfully as flow-through reactors by feeding through multiple successive "hydrothermal" injections.
Extension of Murray's law using a non-Newtonian model of blood flow
Revellin, Rémi; Rousset, François; Baud, David; Bonjour, Jocelyn
2009-01-01
Background So far, none of the existing methods on Murray's law deal with the non-Newtonian behavior of blood flow although the non-Newtonian approach for blood flow modelling looks more accurate. Modeling In the present paper, Murray's law which is applicable to an arterial bifurcation, is generalized to a non-Newtonian blood flow model (power-law model). When the vessel size reaches the capillary limitation, blood can be modeled using a non-Newtonian constitutive equation. It is assumed two different constraints in addition to the pumping power: the volume constraint or the surface constraint (related to the internal surface of the vessel). For a seek of generality, the relationships are given for an arbitrary number of daughter vessels. It is shown that for a cost function including the volume constraint, classical Murray's law remains valid (i.e. ΣRc = cste with c = 3 is verified and is independent of n, the dimensionless index in the viscosity equation; R being the radius of the vessel). On the contrary, for a cost function including the surface constraint, different values of c may be calculated depending on the value of n. Results We find that c varies for blood from 2.42 to 3 depending on the constraint and the fluid properties. For the Newtonian model, the surface constraint leads to c = 2.5. The cost function (based on the surface constraint) can be related to entropy generation, by dividing it by the temperature. Conclusion It is demonstrated that the entropy generated in all the daughter vessels is greater than the entropy generated in the parent vessel. Furthermore, it is shown that the difference of entropy generation between the parent and daughter vessels is smaller for a non-Newtonian fluid than for a Newtonian fluid. PMID:19445663
Extension of Murray's law using a non-Newtonian model of blood flow.
Revellin, Rémi; Rousset, François; Baud, David; Bonjour, Jocelyn
2009-05-15
So far, none of the existing methods on Murray's law deal with the non-Newtonian behavior of blood flow although the non-Newtonian approach for blood flow modelling looks more accurate. MODELING: In the present paper, Murray's law which is applicable to an arterial bifurcation, is generalized to a non-Newtonian blood flow model (power-law model). When the vessel size reaches the capillary limitation, blood can be modeled using a non-Newtonian constitutive equation. It is assumed two different constraints in addition to the pumping power: the volume constraint or the surface constraint (related to the internal surface of the vessel). For a seek of generality, the relationships are given for an arbitrary number of daughter vessels. It is shown that for a cost function including the volume constraint, classical Murray's law remains valid (i.e. SigmaR(c) = cste with c = 3 is verified and is independent of n, the dimensionless index in the viscosity equation; R being the radius of the vessel). On the contrary, for a cost function including the surface constraint, different values of c may be calculated depending on the value of n. We find that c varies for blood from 2.42 to 3 depending on the constraint and the fluid properties. For the Newtonian model, the surface constraint leads to c = 2.5. The cost function (based on the surface constraint) can be related to entropy generation, by dividing it by the temperature. It is demonstrated that the entropy generated in all the daughter vessels is greater than the entropy generated in the parent vessel. Furthermore, it is shown that the difference of entropy generation between the parent and daughter vessels is smaller for a non-Newtonian fluid than for a Newtonian fluid.
Estimating Flow-Through Balance Momentum Tares with CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melton, John E.; James, Kevin D.; Long, Kurtis R.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the process used for estimating flow-through balance momentum tares. The interaction of jet engine exhausts on the BOEINGERA Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) was simulated in the NFAC 40x80 wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a pair of turbine powered simulators (TPS). High-pressure air was passed through a flow-through balance and manifold before being delivered to the TPS units. The force and moment tares that result from the internal shear and pressure distribution were estimated using CFD. Validation of the CFD simulations for these complex internal flows is a challenge, given limited experimental data due to the complications of the internal geometry. Two CFD validation efforts are documented, and comparisons with experimental data from the final model installation are provided.
Numerical study of purely viscous non-Newtonian flow in an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Marrero, Victor L; Tichy, John A; Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth E
2014-10-01
It is well known that blood has non-Newtonian properties, but it is generally accepted that blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates above 100 s-1. However, in transient conditions, there are times and locations where the shear rate is well below 100 s-1, and it is reasonable to infer that non-Newtonian effects could become important. In this study, purely viscous non-Newtonian (generalized Newtonian) properties of blood are incorporated into the simulation-based framework for cardiovascular surgery planning developed by Taylor et al. (1999, "Predictive Medicine: Computational Techniques in Therapeutic Decision Making," Comput. Aided Surg., 4, pp. 231-247; 1998, "Finite Element Modeling of Blood Flow in Arteries," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 158, pp. 155-196). Equations describing blood flow are solved in a patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm model under steady and physiological flow conditions. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used, and the complex flow is found to be constantly transitioning between laminar and turbulent in both the spatial and temporal sense. It is found for the case simulated that using the non-Newtonian viscosity modifies the solution in subtle ways that yield a mesh-independent solution with fewer degrees of freedom than the Newtonian counterpart. It appears that in regions of separated flow, the lower shear rate produces higher viscosity with the non-Newtonian model, which reduces the associated resolution needs. When considering the real case of pulsatile flow, high shear layers lead to greater unsteadiness in the Newtonian case relative to the non-Newtonian case. This, in turn, results in a tendency for the non-Newtonian model to need fewer computational resources even though it has to perform additional calculations for the viscosity. It is also shown that both viscosity models predict comparable wall shear stress distribution. This work suggests that the use of a non-Newtonian viscosity models may be attractive
Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.
Baynes, R E
2001-11-01
Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.
Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy
2017-03-01
Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).
Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells
Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md. Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang
2017-01-01
This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm3 and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm2 using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time. PMID:28120875
Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md. Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang
2017-01-01
This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm3 and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm2 using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time.
Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells.
Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J; Dong, Liang
2017-01-25
This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm(3) and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm(2) using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time.
Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.
Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G
2014-10-01
Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay.
Development of the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon; Prather, Edward E.
2013-01-01
We introduce the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI), a 26-item multiple-choice instrument to assess introductory general education college astronomy ("Astro 101") student understanding of Newtonian gravity. This paper describes the development of the NGCI through four phases: Planning, Construction, Quantitative Analysis, and…
Development of the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon; Prather, Edward E.
2013-01-01
We introduce the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI), a 26-item multiple-choice instrument to assess introductory general education college astronomy ("Astro 101") student understanding of Newtonian gravity. This paper describes the development of the NGCI through four phases: Planning, Construction, Quantitative Analysis, and…
Quantum corpuscular corrections to the Newtonian potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Giusti, Andrea; Lenzi, Michele
2017-08-01
We study an effective quantum description of the static gravitational potential for spherically symmetric systems up to the first post-Newtonian order. We start by obtaining a Lagrangian for the gravitational potential coupled to a static matter source from the weak field expansion of the Einstein-Hilbert action. By analyzing a few classical solutions of the resulting field equation, we show that our construction leads to the expected post-Newtonian expressions. Next, we show that one can reproduce the classical Newtonian results very accurately by employing a coherent quantum state, and modifications to include the first post-Newtonian corrections are considered. Our findings establish a connection between the corpuscular model of black holes and post-Newtonian gravity, and set the stage for further investigations of these quantum models.
Low-drag exact coherent states in Newtonian channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael
2013-11-01
Exact coherent states have been known to nicely capture the main features of turbulent flows such as near-wall coherent structures and streak spacing. In this study, we numerically calculate new classes of exact coherent states, specifically nonlinear traveling wave solutions, for Newtonian channel flow, which display low-drag flow features such as weak streamwise vortices and nearly nonexistent streamwise variations like those observed in polymer solutions and in Newtonian hibernating turbulence. Traveling wave solutions with various symmetries are found. While some of the structures clearly display nonlinear critical layer dynamics, in others this connection is not as clear. Dynamical trajectories are computed and some of the solutions are shown to lie on the basin boundary between laminar and turbulent flows and are thus edge-states of the flow. Lastly, the dependence of Reynolds number for the solutions is investigated. We find one intriguing family whose mean velocity profile appears to approach the so-called maximum drag reduction asymptote found in polymer solutions, despite the fact that fluid studied here is Newtonian. Our results suggest that these traveling wave solutions may play a role as promising targets for turbulence control strategies for drag reduction. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through grant FA9550-11-1-0094 (Flow Interactions and Control Program).
Mantle flow pressure and the angle of subduction - Non-Newtonian corner flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tovish, A.; Schubert, G.; Luyendyk, B. P.
1978-01-01
Corner flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are used to model the flow in a subduction zone which is viscously driven by the motions of the converging plates and the descending slab. The pressures induced by the flow tend to lift the slab up beneath the overriding plate thereby offsetting the tendency of gravity to align the slab with the vertical. The low angles of subduction observed in Peru and Central Chile may be the result of strong dynamic pressures forcing the slab up against the overriding plate. Viscous coupling between the overriding plate and the downgoing slab is essential if the nonvertical dips of slabs are a consequence of the balance between gravitational and pressure torques. For a Newtonian mantle, shear stresses and pressures on the top of the slab are comparable. If the mantle is non-Newtonian, however, the pressures greatly exceed the shear stresses, for most acute dip angles. Thus frictional forces on the top and bottom surfaces of slabs are less important in resisting slab descent into a non-Newtonian mantle than they are in resisting penetration into a Newtonian mantle.
Mantle flow pressure and the angle of subduction - Non-Newtonian corner flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tovish, A.; Schubert, G.; Luyendyk, B. P.
1978-01-01
Corner flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are used to model the flow in a subduction zone which is viscously driven by the motions of the converging plates and the descending slab. The pressures induced by the flow tend to lift the slab up beneath the overriding plate thereby offsetting the tendency of gravity to align the slab with the vertical. The low angles of subduction observed in Peru and Central Chile may be the result of strong dynamic pressures forcing the slab up against the overriding plate. Viscous coupling between the overriding plate and the downgoing slab is essential if the nonvertical dips of slabs are a consequence of the balance between gravitational and pressure torques. For a Newtonian mantle, shear stresses and pressures on the top of the slab are comparable. If the mantle is non-Newtonian, however, the pressures greatly exceed the shear stresses, for most acute dip angles. Thus frictional forces on the top and bottom surfaces of slabs are less important in resisting slab descent into a non-Newtonian mantle than they are in resisting penetration into a Newtonian mantle.
Post-Newtonian cosmological dynamics of plane-parallel perturbations and back-reaction
Villa, Eleonora; Maino, Davide; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it
2011-08-01
We study the general relativistic non-linear dynamics of self-gravitating irrotational dust in a cosmological setting, adopting the comoving and synchronous gauge, where all the equations can be written in terms of the metric tensor of spatial hyper-surfaces orthogonal to the fluid flow. Performing an expansion in inverse powers of the speed of light, we obtain the post-Newtonian equations, which yield the lowest-order relativistic effects arising during the non-linear evolution. We then specialize our analysis to globally plane-parallel configurations, i.e. to the case where the initial perturbation field depends on a single coordinate. The leading order of our expansion, corresponding to the ''Newtonian background'', is the Zel'dovich approximation, which, for plane-parallel perturbations in the Newtonian limit, represents an exact solution. This allows us to find the exact analytical form for the post-Newtonian metric, thereby providing the post-Newtonian extension of the Zel'dovich solution: this accounts for some relativistic effects, such as the non-Gaussianity of primordial perturbations. An application of our solution in the context of the back-reaction proposal is eventually given, providing a post-Newtonian estimation of kinematical back-reaction, mean spatial curvature, average scale-factor and expansion rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miklosovic, David Scott
Significant work has been done in the last 10 years to advance the technology of long-term mechanical circulatory assistance, particularly the left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Traditionally, rotary LVADs have been developed using conventional fluid dynamic design methods and Newtonian scaling laws, since non-Newtonian effects were previously assumed to be of second-order importance. To evaluate centrifugal pump performance scaling and flow patterns in a non-Newtonian fluid, the Large-Scale Rotor Testbed (LSRT) at The Ohio State University was developed to test two 9X-scale blood pump impellers in a baseline volute housing of the Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) designed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Non-Newtonian fluids yielded pump performance deficits of first-order importance, or up to 11% of the Newtonian performance. Thus, the non-Newtonian effects were of the same magnitude as substantial variations in the impeller geometry. Moreover, the dimensionless pressure- and flow-coefficients showed that the non-Newtonian performance deviated from the similarity laws at critical Reynolds numbers that were 2.4--2.7 times higher than the Newtonian value of 71,000. Above the critical Reynolds number, the non-Newtonian fluids followed a similarity behavior, but it was different from the Newtonian case. The deviation increased with the magnitude of shear-thinning behavior as measured by the Weissenberg number. Shear-thinning xanthan gum solutions were used as non-Newtonian test fluids in concentrations from 0 to 1,200 ppm. Fluid samples were characterized in a Couette rheometer to determine viscosity behavior, biological degradation, and shear-induced polymer chain breakdown. The solutions proved to be stable and useful for a duration of up to two weeks of routine LSRT testing. Because the LSRT pump operates in a low-specific speed, low-flow regime, flow visualizations revealed a strong adverse pressure gradient and a prominent inverse Ekman layer in
Li, Lin; Walker, Andrew M; Rival, David E
2014-01-01
Although a blood analog of aqueous glycerol and xanthan gum was found to replicate the viscoelastic behavior of blood, measurements were restricted to laminar flow. To expand the characterization of a non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous glycerol and xanthan gum to transitional Reynolds numbers to quantify its behavior as a function of both natural and shear-layer-induced mechanisms. A Newtonian analog and a shear-thinning aqueous glycerol, xanthan gum solution were circulated through an in vitro flow loop replicating both a straight and obstructed artery where transition was initiated through natural and shear-layer-induced mechanisms respectively. Steady and pulsatile pressure drop measurements for both fluids were acquired across a range of Reynolds numbers up to 7600 and Womersley numbers of 4 and 6. In steady and pulsatile straight flow, the non-Newtonian analog presented with reduced pressure drops and prolonged laminar flow to Reynolds numbers of 3200 and 3800 respectively. Upon blockage inclusion, non-Newtonian minor losses were comparable to Newtonian in steady flow and greater in pulsatile flow suggesting an elongation of downstream non-Newtonian recirculation. Although non-Newtonian total system pressure drops in both straight and obstructed flows were lower, the ratio of pressure drop difference between the two fluids decreased through shear-layer-induced transition. These findings not only demonstrated the suitability of using a xanthan gum analog to model blood flow in transitional regimes, but also presented the respective differences in analog behavior as a function of transition mechanism.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, D. A.; Schubert, G.
1976-01-01
Stress is placed on the temperature dependence of both a linear Newtonian rheology and a nonlinear olivine rheology in accounting for narrow mantle flow structures. The boundary-layer theory developed incorporates an arbitrary temperature-dependent power-law rheology for the medium, in order to facilitate the study of mantle plume dynamics under real conditions. Thermal, kinematic, and dynamic structures of mantle plumes are modelled by a two-dimensional natural-convection boundary layer rising in a fluid with a temperature-dependent power-law relationship between shear stress and strain rate. An analytic similarity solution is arrived at for upwelling adjacent to a vertical isothermal stress-free plane. Newtonian creep as a deformation mechanism, thermal anomalies resulting from chemical heterogeneity, the behavior of plumes in non-Newtonian (olivine) mantles, and differences in the dynamics of wet and dry olivine are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, D. A.; Schubert, G.
1976-01-01
Stress is placed on the temperature dependence of both a linear Newtonian rheology and a nonlinear olivine rheology in accounting for narrow mantle flow structures. The boundary-layer theory developed incorporates an arbitrary temperature-dependent power-law rheology for the medium, in order to facilitate the study of mantle plume dynamics under real conditions. Thermal, kinematic, and dynamic structures of mantle plumes are modelled by a two-dimensional natural-convection boundary layer rising in a fluid with a temperature-dependent power-law relationship between shear stress and strain rate. An analytic similarity solution is arrived at for upwelling adjacent to a vertical isothermal stress-free plane. Newtonian creep as a deformation mechanism, thermal anomalies resulting from chemical heterogeneity, the behavior of plumes in non-Newtonian (olivine) mantles, and differences in the dynamics of wet and dry olivine are discussed.
Theory of creeping gravity currents of a non-Newtonian liquid
Gratton, Julio; Minotti, Fernando; Mahajan, Swadesh M.
1999-12-01
Recently several experiments on creeping gravity currents have been performed, using highly viscous silicone oils and putties. The interpretation of the experiments relies on the available theoretical results that were obtained by means of the lubrication approximation with the assumption of a Newtonian rheology. Since very viscous fluids are usually non-Newtonian, an extension of the theory to include non-Newtonian effects is needed. We derive the governing equations for unidirectional and axisymmetric creeping gravity currents of a non-Newtonian liquid with a power-law rheology, generalizing the usual lubrication approximation. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found that are in good agreement with experiment. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as those describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General traveling-wave solutions are given, and analytic formulas for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism that allows the systematic derivation of self-similar solutions is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. All the self-similar solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows, as should be expected because the power-law rheology involves a single-dimensional parameter as the Newtonian constitutive relation. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self-similar, but now the spreading relations are rheology-dependent. In most cases this dependence is weak but leads to significant differences easily detected in experiments. The present results may also be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power-law rheology. (c) 1999 The American
Theory of creeping gravity currents of a non-Newtonian liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratton, Julio; Minotti, Fernando; Mahajan, Swadesh M.
1999-12-01
Recently several experiments on creeping gravity currents have been performed, using highly viscous silicone oils and putties. The interpretation of the experiments relies on the available theoretical results that were obtained by means of the lubrication approximation with the assumption of a Newtonian rheology. Since very viscous fluids are usually non-Newtonian, an extension of the theory to include non-Newtonian effects is needed. We derive the governing equations for unidirectional and axisymmetric creeping gravity currents of a non-Newtonian liquid with a power-law rheology, generalizing the usual lubrication approximation. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found that are in good agreement with experiment. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as those describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General traveling-wave solutions are given, and analytic formulas for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism that allows the systematic derivation of self-similar solutions is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. All the self-similar solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows, as should be expected because the power-law rheology involves a single-dimensional parameter as the Newtonian constitutive relation. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self-similar, but now the spreading relations are rheology-dependent. In most cases this dependence is weak but leads to significant differences easily detected in experiments. The present results may also be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power-law rheology.
Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M. J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.
2017-02-01
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum solution with a power-law index of n =0.4 , the numerical results indicate that wall slip can be enhanced 3.2 times when compared to a Newtonian liquid. This enhancement factor was also predicted from a theoretical analysis, which gave an expression for the maximum slip length that can be attained over flat, heterogeneously slippery surfaces. Although this equation was derived for a no-slip/no-shear unit length that is much larger than the typical size of the system, we found that it can also be used to predict the enhancement in the regime where the slip length is proportional to the size of the no-shear region or the bubble width. The results could be coupled to the hydrodynamic development or entrance length of the system, as maximum wall slip is only reached when the fluid flow can fully adapt to the no-slip and no-shear conditions at the wall.
Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces.
Haase, A Sander; Wood, Jeffery A; Sprakel, Lisette M J; Lammertink, Rob G H
2017-02-01
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum solution with a power-law index of n=0.4, the numerical results indicate that wall slip can be enhanced 3.2 times when compared to a Newtonian liquid. This enhancement factor was also predicted from a theoretical analysis, which gave an expression for the maximum slip length that can be attained over flat, heterogeneously slippery surfaces. Although this equation was derived for a no-slip/no-shear unit length that is much larger than the typical size of the system, we found that it can also be used to predict the enhancement in the regime where the slip length is proportional to the size of the no-shear region or the bubble width. The results could be coupled to the hydrodynamic development or entrance length of the system, as maximum wall slip is only reached when the fluid flow can fully adapt to the no-slip and no-shear conditions at the wall.
Impinging jet spray formation using non-Newtonian liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Neil S.
Over the past two decades there has been a heightened interest in implementing gelled propellants for rocket propulsion, especially for hypergolic bi-propellants such as monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer (NTO). Due to the very high level of toxicity of hypergolic liquid rocket propellants, increasing safety is an important area of need for continued space exploration and defense operations. Gelled propellants provide an attractive solution to meeting the requirements for safety, while also potentially improving performance. A gelling agent can be added to liquid propellants exhibiting Newtonian behavior to transform the liquid into a non-Newtonian fluid with some solid-like behavior, i.e. a gel. Non-Newtonian jet impingement is very different from its Newtonian counterpart in terms of fluid flow, atomization, and combustion. This is due to the added agents changing physical properties such as the bulk rheology (viscosity) and interfacial rheology (surface tension). Spray characterization of jet impingement with Newtonian liquids has been studied extensively in existing literature. However, there is a scarcity in literature of studies that consider the spray characterization of jet impingement with gelled propellants. This is a rather critical void since a major tradeoff of utilizing gelled propellants is the difficulty with atomization due to the increased effective viscosity. However, this difficulty can be overcome by using gels that exhibit shear-thinning behavior---viscosity decreases with increasing strain rate. Shear-thinning fluids are ideal because they have the distinct advantage of only flowing easily upon pressure. Thereby, greatly reducing the amount of propellant that could be accidentally leaked during both critical functions such as liftoff or engagement in the battlefield and regular tasks like refilling propellant tanks. This experimental work seeks to help resolve the scarcity in existing literature by providing drop size
A Colorful Mixing Experiment in a Stirred Tank Using Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trujilo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecillia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballesca´-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Marion Moise´s
2014-01-01
A simple experiment designed to study mixing of a material of complex rheology in a stirred tank is described. Non-Newtonian suspensions of blue maize flour that naturally contain anthocyanins have been chosen as a model fluid. These anthocyanins act as a native, wide spectrum pH indicator exhibiting greenish colors in alkaline environments, blue…
A Colorful Mixing Experiment in a Stirred Tank Using Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trujilo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecillia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballesca´-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Marion Moise´s
2014-01-01
A simple experiment designed to study mixing of a material of complex rheology in a stirred tank is described. Non-Newtonian suspensions of blue maize flour that naturally contain anthocyanins have been chosen as a model fluid. These anthocyanins act as a native, wide spectrum pH indicator exhibiting greenish colors in alkaline environments, blue…
Continuous, flow-through immunomagnetic cell sorting in a quadrupole field.
Sun, L; Zborowski, M; Moore, L R; Chalmers, J J
1998-12-01
A flow-through quadrupole magnetic cell separator has been designed, built, and evaluated by using a cell model system of human peripheral T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and CD45+ cells). The immunomagnetic labeling was accomplished by using a sandwich of mouse anti-human monoclonal antibody conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and rat anti-mouse polyclonal antibody conjugated to a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle. The feed and sorted fractions were analyzed by FACScan flow cytometry. The magnetically labeled cells were separated from nonlabeled ones in a flow-through cylindrical column within a quadrupole field, which exerted a radial, outward force on the magnetic cells. The flow rate of the cell samples was 0.1-0.75 ml/min, and the flow rate of sheath fluid was 1.5-33.3 times that of the sample flow rate. The maximum shear stress exerted on the cell was less than 1 dyne/cm2, which was well below the level that would threaten cell integrity and membrane disruption. The maximum magnetic field was 0.765 T at the channel wall, and the gradient was 0.174 T/mm. The highest purity of selected cells was 99.6% (CD8 cells, initial purity of 26%), and the highest recovery of selected cells was 79% (CD4 cells, initial purity of 20%). The maximum throughput of the quadrupole magnetic cell separator was 7,040 cells/s (CD45 cells, initial purity of 5%). Theoretical calculations showed that the throughput can be increased to 10(6) cells/s by a scale-up of the current prototype.
Non-Newtonian gravity or gravity anomalies?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David P.; Chao, B. Fong; Schatten, Kenneth H.; Sager, William W.
1988-01-01
Geophysical measurements of G differ from laboratory values, indicating that gravity may be non-Newtonian. A spherical harmonic formulation is presented for the variation of (Newtonian) gravity inside the Earth. Using the GEM-10B Earth Gravitational Field Model, it is shown that long-wavelength gravity anomalies, if not corrected, may masquerade as non-Newtonian gravity by providing significant influences on experimental observation of delta g/delta r and G. An apparent contradiction in other studies is also resolved: i.e., local densities appear in equations when average densities of layers seem to be called for.
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics in cosmology: Field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2013-02-01
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics is a relativistic theory of motion of massive bodies and test particles under the influence of relatively weak gravitational forces. The standard approach for development of this theory relies upon the key concept of the isolated astronomical system supplemented by the assumption that the background spacetime is flat. The standard post-Newtonian theory of motion was instrumental in the explanation of the existing experimental data on binary pulsars, satellite, and lunar laser ranging, and in building precise ephemerides of planets in the Solar System. Recent studies of the formation of large-scale structures in our Universe indicate that the standard post-Newtonian mechanics fails to describe more subtle dynamical effects in motion of the bodies comprising the astronomical systems of larger size—galaxies and clusters of galaxies—where the Riemann curvature of the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe interacts with the local gravitational field of the astronomical system and, as such, cannot be ignored. The present paper outlines theoretical principles of the post-Newtonian mechanics in the expanding Universe. It is based upon the gauge-invariant theory of the Lagrangian perturbations of cosmological manifold caused by an isolated astronomical N-body system (the Solar System, a binary star, a galaxy, and a cluster of galaxies). We postulate that the geometric properties of the background manifold are described by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric governed by two primary components—the dark matter and the dark energy. The dark matter is treated as an ideal fluid with the Lagrangian taken in the form of pressure along with the scalar Clebsch potential as a dynamic variable. The dark energy is associated with a single scalar field with a potential which is hold unspecified as long as the theory permits. Both the Lagrangians of the dark matter and the scalar field are
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics
Pan, W.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Monaghan, J. J.
2013-06-01
Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is verif;ed by simulating Poiseuille flow, plane shear flow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian fluid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian fluid and non-Newtonian fluid, such that the effect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glen’s law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kuwana, Akemi; Shibata, Hiroko; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro
2016-06-01
To clarify the effects of pump pulsation and flow-through cell (FTC) dissolution system settings on the hydrodynamic properties and dissolution profiles of model formulations. Two FTC systems with different cell temperature control mechanisms were used. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to analyze the hydrodynamic properties of test solutions in the flow-through dissolution test cell. Two pulsation pumps (semi-sine, full-sine) and a non-pulsatile pump were used to study the effects of varied flows on the dissolution profiles of United States Pharmacopeia standard tablets. PIV analysis showed periodic changes in the aligned upward fluid flow throughout the dissolution cell that was designed to reduce the temperature gradient during pump pulsation (0.5 s/pulse). The maximum instantaneous flow from the semi-sine pump was higher than that of the full-sine pump under all conditions. The flow from the semi-sine wave pump showed faster dissolution of salicylic acid and prednisone tablets than those from other pumps. The semi-sine wave pump flow showed similar dissolution profiles in the two FTC systems. Variations in instantaneous fluid flow caused by pump pulsation that meets the requirements of pharmacopoeias are a factor that affects the dissolution profiles of tablets in FTC systems.
Increasing heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid in rectangular microchannel with triangular ribs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamsi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari, Omid Ali; Marzban, Ali; Toghraie, Davood; Mashayekhi, Ramin
2017-09-01
In this study, computational fluid dynamics and the laminar flow of the non-Newtonian fluid have been numerically studied. The cooling fluid includes water and 0.5 wt% Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) making the non-Newtonian fluid. In order to make the best of non-Newtonian nanofluid in this simulation, solid nanoparticles of Aluminum Oxide have been added to the non-Newtonian fluid in volume fractions of 0-2% with diameters of 25, 45 and 100 nm. The supposed microchannel is rectangular and two-dimensional in Cartesian coordination. The power law has been used to speculate the dynamic viscosity of the cooling nanofluid. The field of numerical solution is simulated in the Reynolds number range of 5 < Re < 300. A constant heat flux of 10,000 W/m2 is exercised on the lower walls of the studied geometry. Further, the effect of triangular ribs with angle of attacks of 30°, 45° and 60° is studied on flow parameters and heat transfer due to the fluid flow. The results show that an increase in the volume fraction of nanoparticles as well as the use for nanoparticles with smaller diameters lead to greater heat transfer. Among all the studied forms, the triangular rib from with an angle of attack 30° has the biggest Nusselt number and the smallest pressure drop along the microchannel. Also, an increase in the angle of attack and as a result of a sudden contact between the fluid and the ribs and also a reduction in the coflowing length (length of the rib) cause a cut in heat transfer by the fluid in farther parts from the solid wall (tip of the rib).
Theory of non-Newtonian viscosity of red blood cell suspension: effect of red cell deformation.
Murata, T
1983-01-01
The effects of the deformation of red blood cells on non-Newtonian viscosity of a concentrated red cell suspension are investigated theoretically. To simplify the problem an elastic spherical shell filled with an incompressible Newtonian fluid is considered as a model of a normal red cell. The equation of the surface of the shell suspended in a steady simple shear flow is calculated on the assumption that the deformation from a spherical shape is very small. The relative viscosity of a concentrated suspension of such particles is obtained based on the "free surface cell" method proposed by Happel. It is shown that the relative viscosity decreases as the shear rate increases.
Postglacial rebound with a non-Newtonian upper mantle and a Newtonian lower mantle rheology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gasperini, Paolo; Yuen, David A.; Sabadini, Roberto
1992-01-01
A composite rheology is employed consisting of both linear and nonlinear creep mechanisms which are connected by a 'transition' stress. Background stress due to geodynamical processes is included. For models with a non-Newtonian upper-mantle overlying a Newtonian lower-mantle, the temporal responses of the displacements can reproduce those of Newtonian models. The average effective viscosity profile under the ice-load at the end of deglaciation turns out to be the crucial factor governing mantle relaxation. This can explain why simple Newtonian rheology has been successful in fitting the uplift data over formerly glaciated regions.
Postglacial rebound with a non-Newtonian upper mantle and a Newtonian lower mantle rheology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gasperini, Paolo; Yuen, David A.; Sabadini, Roberto
1992-01-01
A composite rheology is employed consisting of both linear and nonlinear creep mechanisms which are connected by a 'transition' stress. Background stress due to geodynamical processes is included. For models with a non-Newtonian upper-mantle overlying a Newtonian lower-mantle, the temporal responses of the displacements can reproduce those of Newtonian models. The average effective viscosity profile under the ice-load at the end of deglaciation turns out to be the crucial factor governing mantle relaxation. This can explain why simple Newtonian rheology has been successful in fitting the uplift data over formerly glaciated regions.
Chen, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun
2006-01-01
The pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian fluid in a bifurcation model with a non-planar daughter branch is investigated numerically by using the Carreau-Yasuda model to take into account the shear thinning behavior of the analog blood fluid. The objective of this study is to deal with the influence of the non-Newtonian property of fluid and of out-of-plane curvature in the non-planar daughter vessel on wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and flow phenomena during the pulse cycle. The non-Newtonian property in the daughter vessels induces a flattened axial velocity profile due to its shear thinning behavior. The non-planarity deflects flow from the inner wall of the vessel to the outer wall and changes the distribution of WSS along the vessel, in particular in systole phase. Downstream of the bifurcation, the velocity profiles are shifted toward the flow divider, and low WSS and high shear stress temporal oscillations characterized by OSI occur on the outer wall region of the daughter vessels close to the bifurcation. Secondary motions become stronger with the addition of the out-of-plane curvature induced by the bending of the vessel, and the secondary flow patterns swirl along the non-planar daughter vessel. A significant difference between the non-Newtonian and the Newtonian pulsatile flow is revealed during the pulse cycle; however, reasonable agreement between the non-Newtonian and the rescaled Newtonian flow is found. Calculated results for the pulsatile flow support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are an important factor in hemodynamics and may play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology.
Sheet atomization of non-Newtonian liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartranft, Thomas Jay
This experimental investigation examines the "airless" sheet atomization of non-Newtonian fluids using an elliptically-shaped nozzle, which induces a fan-shaped wavy sheet. The goal is to investigate the effects of small magnitudes of extensional viscosity on the sheet breakup features. This, in turn, offers insights for manipulating atomization drop sizes, which can then be applied to industrial spray applications like paint spraying. To further this linkage, these research solutions are formulated to mimic the high-shear-rate viscosity behavior of marine paints. An extensive rheology effort precedes the spray research in order to quantify the extensional viscosity in the fluid that exits the spray nozzle. Glycerin/water-based solutions are formulated to have nearly constant shear viscosity and surface tension while exhibiting over a 1000:1 range of extensional viscosity due to the addition of 50--800 ppm by weight of 9 x 10 6 molecular weight polyacrylamide. These extensional viscosities are measured using a contraction rheometer, which shows that they increase in proportion to the polymer molecular weight and concentration. The polymer molecular weight significantly degrades due to the large strain rates of the spray nozzle. This necessitates the determination of these degraded-solution molecular weights to facilitate correlation with the sheet breakup features. The sprayed fluids are found to have residual molecular weights of only 300,000--500,000 after being sprayed at 7--21 MPa (1000--3000 psi). These molecular weights, in turn, are used with an experimental correlation to estimate the residual extensional viscosities, which are reduced by a factor of about 80:1 from their non-pre-strained magnitudes. In spite of these significant molecular weight and extensional viscosity degradations, polymer concentrations of only 50--800 ppm visibly and quantitatively change the sheet breakup features. The 800 ppm addition has the largest changes with a 30% increase of
Newtonian normal shift in multidimensional Riemannian geometry
Sharipov, Ruslan A
2001-06-30
An explicit description of all Newtonian dynamical systems admitting normal shift in Riemannian manifolds of dimension n{>=}3 is obtained. On this basis the kinematics of the normal shift of hypersurfaces along trajectories of such dynamical systems is studied.
Theories of Newtonian gravity and empirical indistinguishability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bain, Jonathan
2004-09-01
In this essay, I examine the curved spacetime formulation of Newtonian gravity known as Newton-Cartan gravity and compare it with flat spacetime formulations. Two versions of Newton-Cartan gravity can be identified in the physics literature-a "weak" version and a "strong" version. The strong version has a constrained Hamiltonian formulation and consequently a well-defined gauge structure, whereas the weak version does not (with some qualifications). Moreover, the strong version is best compared with the structure of what Earman (World enough and spacetime. Cambridge: MIT Press) has dubbed Maxwellian spacetime. This suggests that there are also two versions of Newtonian gravity in flat spacetime-a "weak" version in Maxwellian spacetime, and a "strong" version in Neo-Newtonian spacetime. I conclude by indicating how these alternative formulations of Newtonian gravity impact the notion of empirical indistinguishability and the debate over scientific realism.
Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao
2017-08-01
We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.
Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.
1988-02-01
An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside pipe diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Detailed flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress were measured with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are one micron or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (100 micron size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems. Velocity profiles were acquired by the LDV in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The velocity profile for laminar flow was in agreement with theory. The range of the transition region was 21 percent of the transition velocity in comparison to 50 percent for a Newtonian fluid.
Carbon Nanotube Based Flow-Through Electrochemical Cell for Electroanalysis.
Buffa, Andrea; Erel, Yigal; Mandler, Daniel
2016-11-15
A flow-through electrode made of a carbon nanotubes (CNT) film deposited on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was assembled and employed for the determination of low concentration of copper as a model system by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). CNT films with areal mass ranging from 0.12 to 0.72 mg cm(-2) were characterized by measurement of sheet resistance, water permeation flux and capacitance. Moreover, CNT with two different sizes and PTFE membrane with two different pore diameters (0.45 and 5.0 μm) were evaluated during the optimization of the electrode. Thick layers made of small CNT exhibited the lowest sheet resistance and the greatest analytical response, whereas thin layers of large CNT had the lowest capacitance and the highest permeation flux. Electrodes made of 0.12 mg cm(-2) of large CNT deposited on 5.0 μm PTFE enabled sufficiently high mass transfer and collection efficiency for detecting 64 ppt of Cu(II) within 5 min of deposition and 4.0 mL min(-1) flow rate. The analytical response was linear over 4 orders of magnitude (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) of Cu(II). The excellent performance of the flow-through CNT membrane integrated in a flow cell makes it an appealing approach not only for electroanalysis, but also for the electrochemical treatment of waters, such as the removal of low concentrations of heavy metals and organics.
Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E
2014-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to investigate the influence of a non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous xanthan gum on flow separation in laminar and transitional environments and in both steady and pulsatile flow. Initial steady pressure drop measurements in laminar and transitional flow for a Newtonian analog showed an extension of laminar behavior to Reynolds number (Re) ~ 2900 for the non-Newtonian case. On a macroscale level, this showed good agreement with porcine blood. Subsequently, PIV was used to measure flow patterns and turbulent statistics downstream of an axisymmetric stenosis in the aqueous xanthan gum solution and for a Newtonian analog at Re ~ 520 and Re ~ 1250. The recirculation length for the non-Newtonian case was reduced at Re ~ 520 resultant from increased viscosity at low shear strain rates. At Re ~ 1250, peak turbulent intensities and turbulent shear stresses were dampened by the non-Newtonian fluid in close proximity to the blockage outlet. Although the non-Newtonian case's recirculation length was increased at peak pulsatile flow, turbulent shear stress was found to be elevated for the Newtonian case downstream from the blockage, suggesting shear layer fragmentation and radial transport. Our findings conclude that the xanthan gum elastic polymer prolongs flow stabilization, which in turn emphasizes the importance of non-Newtonian blood characteristics on the resulting flow patterns in such cardiovascular environments.
Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert
2012-11-20
A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.
Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
2007-09-30
scientific disciplines that deal with the dynamics of stratified fluids, rotating fluids, fluid with phase changes and non-Newtonian fluids. To formulate...clearing-house for the mathematical, experimental and computational techniques which serve astrophysics, climate science, geodynamics, meteorology and... Zika , Physical Oceanography, University of New South Wales, “The stability of cascading flows”. RESULTS The Principal Lectures and Fellows
Non-Newtonian Rheology of Calc-Alkaline Obsidian at High Stresses and Strain Rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dingwell, D. B.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cordonnier, B.; Mueller, S.
2005-12-01
The importance of the Non-Newtonian regime at high stress and strain rates has been reported for a variety of silicate melts subject to different tests but never for natural samples bearing their original contents of magmatic water and microlite content. Here, we used a unique high-load (<500 MPa), high-temperature (<1300°C) deformation apparatus for studying in situ the Non-Newtonian flow behaviour of magmas. A series of experiments were performed on calc-alkaline obsidian lavas from Lipari (Italy), Iceland, and Cougar Creek Dome, Yellowstone (USA), and compared to depolymerized melt (NIST 710). The samples were heated to relevant magmatic effusive temperatures that yielded similar relaxation timescales and were deformed under constant stress in the range of 100 to 200 MPa. The onset of the Non-Newtonian flow regime, registered by a decreasing viscosity with time (at fixed strain rate), occurred at 120 MPa for the depolymerized melt. The Non-Newtonian flow behavior was observed up to pressures as high as approx. 180 MPa, where the samples fragmented readily (hot cracking). In contrast, all three calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt remained in a Newtonian regime up to approx. 160 MPa. The window of Non-Newtonian behavior was, however, very narrow and most samples fragmented instantaneously in the attempt of pursuing the deformation. If this is not an experimental artefact, we conclude that modeling of the flow behaviour of a ascending crystal- and bubble-free calc-alkaline rhyolitic dome magma can be performed using a simple Newtonian fluid approximation. Thus the Non-Arrhenian model of Hess and Dingwell (1996) for the compositional and temperature dependence of viscosity could be applied.
Bentzen, T R; Ratkovich, N; Madsen, S; Jensen, J C; Bak, S N; Rasmussen, M R
2012-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread use of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid cross-flow velocity. In rotational cross-flow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of, for example, impellers. Validation of the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model was made against laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) tangential velocity measurements (error less than 8%) using water as a fluid. The shear stress over the membrane surface was inferred from the CFD simulations for water. However, activated sludge (AS) is a non-Newtonian liquid, for which the CFD model was modified incorporating the non-Newtonian behaviour of AS. Shear stress and area-weighted average shear stress relationships were made giving error less that 8% compared with the CFD results. An empirical relationship for the area-weighted average shear stress was developed for water and AS as a function of the angular velocity and the total suspended solids concentration. These relationships can be linked to the energy consumption of this type of systems.
Modeling breakup and relaxation of Newtonian droplets using the advected phase-field approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaucourt, J.; Biben, T.; Leyrat, A.; Verdier, C.
2007-02-01
The relaxation and breakup of Newtonian droplets is considered using the advected field approach. This method allows one to follow the deformation of interfaces using an order parameter field [Biben , Europhys. Lett. 63, 623 (2003)] based on a Ginzburg-Landau equation. Using this method, it is possible to follow the breakup of droplets and stability curves can be obtained in both two- and three-dimensional shear and elongational flows. Finally, relaxation of a droplet is considered, following the application of an elongational flow. The results are compared with previous experimental data [Ha and Leal, Phys. Fluids 13, 1568 (2001)], and are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The method is general enough to be applied to other non-Newtonian fluids, such as Oldroyd-B fluids or viscoplastic materials.
Non-Newtonian Viscosity Modeling of Crude Oils—Comparison Among Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-González, Patsy V.; Aguayo, Juan Pablo; Quiñones-Cisneros, Sergio E.; Deiters, Ulrich K.
2009-04-01
The presence of precipitated wax or even just low temperatures may induce non-Newtonian rheological behavior in crude oils. Such behavior can be found at operating conditions, for instance, in reservoirs at deep-water conditions. Therefore, reliable rheological models for crude oils applicable over the wide range of conditions the fluid may encounter are essential for a large number of oil technology applications. Such models must also be composition dependent, as many applications require predicting the rheological behavior of the fluid under strong compositional changes, e.g., recovery applications such as vapor extraction (VAPEX) processes or blending of fluids for improved rheological characteristics for piping, among many other applications. In this study, a comparative analysis between some published models applicable to the description of the non-Newtonian behavior of crude oils is carried out. Emphasis is placed on the stability of the model predictions within the wide range of conditions that may be encountered.
Effect of non-newtonian behavior on hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms.
Fisher, Carolyn; Rossmann, Jenn Stroud
2009-09-01
Blood flow dynamics near and within cerebral aneurysms have long been implicated in aneurysm growth and rupture. In this study, the governing equations for pulsatile flow are solved in their finite volume formulation to simulate blood flow in a range of three-dimensional aneurysm geometries. Four constitutive models are applied to investigate the influence of non-Newtonian behavior on flow patterns and fluid mechanical forces. The blood's non-Newtonian behavior is found to be more significant, in particular, vascular geometries, and to have pronounced effects on flow and fluid mechanical forces within the aneurysm. The choice of constitutive model has measurable influence on the numerical prediction of aneurysm rupture risk due to fluid stresses, though less influence than aneurysm morphology.
Wetting by simple room-temperature polymer melts: deviations from Newtonian behavior.
Seevaratnam, G K; Walker, L M; Ramé, E; Garoff, S
2005-04-01
The hydrodynamics near moving contact lines of two room-temperature polymer melts, polyisobutylene (PIB) and polystyrene (PS), are different from those of a third polymer melt, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). While all three fluids exhibit Newtonian behavior in rotational rheological measurements, a model of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines which assumes Newtonian behavior of the fluid accurately describes the interface shape of a variety of PDMS fluids but fails to describe the interface deformation by viscous forces in PIB and PS. The magnitude of the deviations from the model and the distance along the liquid-vapor interface over which they are seen increase with increasing capillary number. We conclude that the wetting behaviors of PIB and PS are influenced by weak elasticity in these low molecular weight melts and that dynamic wetting is more sensitive to this elasticity than standard rheometric techniques.
Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media.
Zami-Pierre, F; de Loubens, R; Quintard, M; Davit, Y
2016-08-12
We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability.
Empirical resistive-force theory for slender biological filaments in shear-thinning fluids.
Riley, Emily E; Lauga, Eric
2017-06-01
Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids. By assuming the flow near the flagellum to be locally Newtonian, we propose a self-consistent way to estimate the typical shear rate in the fluid, which we then use to construct correction factors to the Newtonian local drag coefficients. The resulting non-Newtonian resistive-force theory, while empirical, is consistent with the Newtonian limit, and with the experiments. We then use our models to address waving locomotion in non-Newtonian fluids and show that the resulting swimming speeds are systematically lowered, a result which we are able to capture asymptotically and to interpret physically. An application of the models to recent experimental results on the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans in polymeric solutions shows reasonable agreement and thus captures the main physics of swimming in shear-thinning fluids.
Empirical resistive-force theory for slender biological filaments in shear-thinning fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Emily E.; Lauga, Eric
2017-06-01
Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids. By assuming the flow near the flagellum to be locally Newtonian, we propose a self-consistent way to estimate the typical shear rate in the fluid, which we then use to construct correction factors to the Newtonian local drag coefficients. The resulting non-Newtonian resistive-force theory, while empirical, is consistent with the Newtonian limit, and with the experiments. We then use our models to address waving locomotion in non-Newtonian fluids and show that the resulting swimming speeds are systematically lowered, a result which we are able to capture asymptotically and to interpret physically. An application of the models to recent experimental results on the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans in polymeric solutions shows reasonable agreement and thus captures the main physics of swimming in shear-thinning fluids.
General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward
2015-06-01
We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.
Minimal model for zero-inertia instabilities in shear-dominated non-Newtonian flows.
Boi, S; Mazzino, A; Pralits, J O
2013-09-01
The emergence of fluid instabilities in the relevant limit of vanishing fluid inertia (i.e., arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number) has been investigated for the well-known Kolmogorov flow. The finite-time shear-induced order-disorder transition of the non-Newtonian microstructure and the corresponding viscosity change from lower to higher values are the crucial ingredients for the instabilities to emerge. The finite-time low-to-high viscosity change for increasing shear characterizes the rheopectic fluids. The instability does not emerge in shear-thinning or -thickening fluids where viscosity adjustment to local shear occurs instantaneously. The lack of instabilities arbitrarily close to zero Reynolds number is also observed for thixotropic fluids, in spite of the fact that the viscosity adjustment time to shear is finite as in rheopectic fluids. Renormalized perturbative expansions (multiple-scale expansions), energy-based arguments (on the linearized equations of motion), and numerical results (of suitable eigenvalue problems from the linear stability analysis) are the main tools leading to our conclusions. Our findings may have important consequences in all situations where purely hydrodynamic fluid instabilities or mixing are inhibited due to negligible inertia, as in microfluidic applications. To trigger mixing in these situations, suitable (not necessarily viscoelastic) non-Newtonian fluid solutions appear as a valid answer. Our results open interesting questions and challenges in the field of smart (fluid) materials.
Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass
Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John
2014-07-01
The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.
Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass
Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John
2014-07-01
The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.
Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688
Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.
2006-03-02
The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.
Heating in vascular tissue and flow-through tissue phantoms induced by focused ultrasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jinlan
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to control bleeding, both from individual blood vessels as well as from gross damage to the capillary bed. This process, called acoustic hemostasis, is being studied in the hope that such a method would ultimately provide a lifesaving treatment during the so-called "golden hour", a brief grace period after a severe trauma in which prompt therapy can save the life of an injured person. Thermal effects play a major role in occlusion of small vessels and also appear to contribute to the sealing of punctures in major blood vessels. However, aggressive ultrasound-induced tissue heating can also impact healthy tissue and can lead to deleterious mechanical bioeffects. Moreover, the presence of vascularity can limit one's ability to elevate the temperature of blood vessel walls owing to convective heat transport. In an effort to better understand the heating process in tissues with vascular structure we have developed a numerical simulation that couples models for ultrasound propagation, acoustic streaming, ultrasound heating and blood cooling in Newtonian viscous media. The 3-D simulation allows for the study of complicated biological structures and insonation geometries. We have also undertaken a series of in vitro experiments, in non-uniform flow-through tissue phantoms, designed to provide a ground truth verification of the model predictions. The calculated and measured results were compared over a range of values for insonation pressure, insonation time, and flow rate; we show good agreement between predictions and measurements. We then conducted a series of simulations that address two limiting problems of interest: hemostasis in small and large vessels. We employed realistic human tissue properties and considered more complex geometries. Results show that the heating pattern in and around a blood vessel is different for different vessel sizes, flow rates and for varying beam orientations relative to the flow axis
Studying Mixing in Non-Newtonian Blue Maize Flour Suspensions Using Color Analysis
Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballescá-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Mario Moisés
2014-01-01
Background Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. Methodology and Findings We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA) in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter) and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. Conclusion and Relevance Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general) in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB) can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions. PMID:25401332
Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.
Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; García-Lara, Silverio; Ballescá-Estrada, Adriana; Alvarez, Mario Moisés
2014-01-01
Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA) in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter) and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general) in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB) can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.
Connection between Newtonian simulations and general relativity
Chisari, Nora Elisa; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2011-06-15
On large scales, comparable to the horizon, the observable clustering properties of galaxies are affected by various general relativistic effects. To calculate these effects one needs to consistently solve for the metric, densities, and velocities in a specific coordinate system or gauge. The method of choice for simulating large-scale structure is numerical N-body simulations which are performed in the Newtonian limit. Even though one might worry that the use of the Newtonian approximation would make it impossible to use these simulations to compute properties on very large scales, we show that the simulations are still solving the dynamics correctly even for long modes and we give formulas to obtain the position of particles in the conformal Newtonian gauge given the positions computed in the simulation. We also give formulas to convert from the output coordinates of N-body simulations to the observable coordinates of the particles.
Mounding of a non-Newtonian jet impinging on a solid substrate.
Schunk, Peter Randall; Grillet, Anne Mary; Roberts, Scott A.; Baer, Thomas A.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana
2010-06-01
When a fluid jet impinges on a solid substrate, a variety of behaviors may occur around the impact region. One example is mounding, where the fluid enters the impact region faster than it can flow away, forming a mound of fluid above the main surface. For some operating conditions, this mound can destabilize and buckle, entraining air in the mound. Other behaviors include submerging flow, where the jet impinges into an otherwise steady pool of liquid, entraining a thin air layer as it enters the pool. This impact region is one of very high shear rates and as such, complex fluids behave very differently than do Newtonian fluids. In this work, we attempt to characterize this range of behavior for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using dimensionless parameters. We model the fluid as a modified Bingham-Carreau-Yasuda fluid, which exhibits the full range of pseudoplastic flow properties throughout the impact region. Additionally, we study viscoelastic effects through the use of the Giesekus model. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations are performed using a variety of finite element method techniques for tracking the jet interface, including Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE), diffuse level sets, and a conformal decomposition finite element method (CDFEM). The presence of shear-thinning characteristics drastically reduces unstable mounding behavior, yet can lead to air entrainment through the submerging flow regime. We construct an operating map to understand for what flow parameters mounding and submerging flows will occur, and how the fluid rheology affects these behaviors. This study has many implications in high-speed industrial bottle filling applications.
Sinking of spherical slablets through a non-Newtonian mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stegman, D. R.; Crameri, F.; Petersen, R. I.; Tackley, P. J.
2013-12-01
The dominant driving force for plate tectonics is slab pull, in which sinking slabs pull the trailing plate. Forward plate velocities are typically similar in magnitude (7 cm/yr) as estimates for sinking velocities of slabs through the upper mantle. However, these estimates are based on data for slabs that are coherent into the transition zone as well as models that considered the upper mantle to be entirely Newtonian. Dislocation creep in the upper mantle can strongly influence mantle flow, and is likely activated for flow around vertically sinking slabs in the uppermost mantle. Thus, it is possible that in some scenarios, a non-Newtonian mantle will have an influence on plate motions but it is unclear to what degree. To address this question, we investigate how the non-Newtonian rheology modifies the sinking velocities of slablets (spherical, negatively buoyant and highly viscous blobs). The model set-up is similar to a Stokes sphere sinking, but is in 2-D cartesian with temperature-and stress-dependent rheology. For these numerical models, we use the StagYY code and also includes a pseudo-free surface (';sticky air') with a thin surface thermal boundary. The sinking blob is both highly viscous and compositionally dense, but is the same temperature as the background fluid which eliminates thermal diffusion and associated variations in thermal buoyancy. The model domain is 2x1 and allows enough distance to the sidewalls so that sinking velocites are not influenced by the boundary conditions. We compare our results with those previously obtained for salt diapirs rising through a power-law rheology mantle/crust (Weinberg, 1993; Weinberg and Podladchikov, 1994) which provided both numerical and analytic results. Previous results indicate a speed-up of an order of magnitude is possible. We then extend the models and analysis to mantle convection systems that include for single-sided subduction. Surface plate motions are driven by the subducting slabs to which they are
The Parametrized Post-Newtonian Gravitational Redshift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krisher, T. P.
1993-01-01
A derivation of the gravitational redshift effect to order c ^(-4) is presented. The calculation isperformed within the framework of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism for analyzing metrictheories of gravity, which includes corrections to second- order in the Newtonian potential,gravitomagnetic contributions, and preferred-frame terms. We briefly discuss how to generalize ourresults to include possible violations of local Lorentz invariance or local position invariance which canarise in nonmetric theories. Our results are useful for analyzing possible new redshift experimentswhich may be sensitive to second-order effects, such as a close solar flyby mission.
Newtonian cosmology with a quantum bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bargueño, P.; Bravo Medina, S.; Nowakowski, M.; Batic, D.
2016-10-01
It has been known for some time that the cosmological Friedmann equation deduced from general relativity can also be obtained within the Newtonian framework under certain assumptions. We use this result together with quantum corrections to the Newtonian potentials to derive a set a of quantum corrected Friedmann equations. We examine the behavior of the solutions of these modified cosmological equations paying special attention to the sign of the quantum corrections. We find different quantum effects crucially depending on this sign. One such a solution displays a qualitative resemblance to other quantum models like Loop quantum gravity or non-commutative geometry.
Simple aspects of post-Newtonian gravitation
Frisch, D.H. )
1990-04-01
The physical ideas that are unified in general relativity have been separated out and their effects introduced as separate perturbations of Newtonian mechanics. Compression of space and proportional dilation of time contribute the main parts of all observed and expected quasistatic first-order post-Newtonian gravitational phenomena. In this approach, tests measuring trajectories are variants on a single refraction-in-a-nonuniform-medium experiment; their similarity has been obscured by the few small contributions from special relativity (in only the DeSitter and perihelion precessions) and from gravitation by the gravitational field (in only the perihelion precession).
Bleyer, J; Coussot, P
2014-06-01
We study the flow, through a model two-dimensional porous medium, of Newtonian fluids, power-law fluids, and viscoplastic fluids in the laminar regime and with moderate or dominant effects of the yielding term. A numerical technique able to take properly into account yielding effects in viscoplastic flows without any regularization is used to determine the detailed flow characteristics. We show that as soon as the distance between the disks forming the porous medium is sufficiently small, the velocity field and in particular the distribution function of the velocity of these different fluids in a wide range of flow regimes are similar. Moreover, the volume fraction of fluid at rest is negligible even at low flow rate. Thus the non-Newtonian character of a fluid flowing through such a complex geometry tends to be broken. We suggest that this is due to the fact that in a flow through a channel of rapidly varying cross section, the deformation, and thus the flow field, is imposed on the fluid, a situation that is encountered almost everywhere in a porous medium. These results make it possible to deduce a general expression for Darcy's law of these fluid types and estimate the parameters appearing in this expression.
Convective Instability in Ice I with Non-Newtonian Rheology: Application to the Galilean Satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, A. C.; Zhong, S.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
At the temperatures and stresses associated with the onset of convection in an ice I shell of the Galilean satellites, ice behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid with a viscosity that depends on both temperature and strain rate. The convective stability of a non-Newtonian ice shell can be judged by comparing the Rayleigh number of the shell to a critical value. Previous studies suggest that the critical Rayleigh number for a non-Newtonian fluid depends on the initial conditions in the fluid layer, in addition to the thermal, rheological, and physical properties of the fluid. We seek to extend the existing definition of the critical Rayleigh number for a non-Newtonian, basally heated fluid by quantifying the conditions required to initiate convection in an ice I layer initially in conductive equilibrium. We find that the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection in ice I varies as a power (-0.6 to -0.5) of the amplitude of the initial temperature perturbation issued to the layer, when the amplitude of perturbation is less than the rheological temperature scale. For larger-amplitude perturbations, the critical Rayleigh number achieves a constant value. We characterize the critical Rayleigh number as a function of surface temperature of the satellite, melting temperature of ice, and rheological parameters so that our results may be extrapolated for use with other rheologies and for a generic large icy satellite. The values of critical Rayleigh number imply that triggering convection from a conductive equilibrium in a pure ice shell less than 100 km thick in Europa, Ganymede, or Callisto requires a large, localized temperature perturbation of a few kelvins to tens of kelvins to soften the ice and therefore may require tidal dissipation in the ice shell.
Convective Instability in Ice I with Non-Newtonian Rheology: Application to the Galilean Satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, A. C.; Zhong, S.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
At the temperatures and stresses associated with the onset of convection in an ice I shell of the Galilean satellites, ice behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid with a viscosity that depends on both temperature and strain rate. The convective stability of a non-Newtonian ice shell can be judged by comparing the Rayleigh number of the shell to a critical value. Previous studies suggest that the critical Rayleigh number for a non-Newtonian fluid depends on the initial conditions in the fluid layer, in addition to the thermal, rheological, and physical properties of the fluid. We seek to extend the existing definition of the critical Rayleigh number for a non-Newtonian, basally heated fluid by quantifying the conditions required to initiate convection in an ice I layer initially in conductive equilibrium. We find that the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection in ice I varies as a power (-0.6 to -0.5) of the amplitude of the initial temperature perturbation issued to the layer, when the amplitude of perturbation is less than the rheological temperature scale. For larger-amplitude perturbations, the critical Rayleigh number achieves a constant value. We characterize the critical Rayleigh number as a function of surface temperature of the satellite, melting temperature of ice, and rheological parameters so that our results may be extrapolated for use with other rheologies and for a generic large icy satellite. The values of critical Rayleigh number imply that triggering convection from a conductive equilibrium in a pure ice shell less than 100 km thick in Europa, Ganymede, or Callisto requires a large, localized temperature perturbation of a few kelvins to tens of kelvins to soften the ice and therefore may require tidal dissipation in the ice shell.
Collision Dynamics and Internal Mixing of Droplets of Non-Newtonian Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kai; Zhang, Peng; Law, Chung K.; Wang, Tianyou
2015-11-01
The efficient internal mixing of colliding droplets upon coalescence is critical to various technological processes such as color manipulation in ink-jet printing and the initiation of the liquid-phase reaction of gelled hypergolic propellants in rocket engines. Recognizing that such processes can be optimized by varying the impact inertia as well as employing fluids of non-Newtonian rheology, the head-on collision, coalescence, and internal mixing pattern between two impacting equal-sized droplets of non-Newtonian fluids is computationally investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. Results show that, with increasing non-Newtonian effects, droplet deformation and separation following coalescence is promoted for shear-thinning fluids, while permanent coalescence allowing an extended duration for mixing is promoted for shear-thickening fluids. Furthermore, large-scale internal mixing is promoted for the colliding droplets with larger shear-thinning disparity, while coalescence and mixing is synergistically facilitated for the collision between a shear-thinning droplet and a shear-thickening droplet. The individual and coupled influences of viscosity on the droplet deformation and impact inertia, internal motion, viscous loss, and merging of the colliding interfaces leading to the observed outcomes are mechanistically identified and described.
Flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on monoliths: II. Kinetics study and application.
Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B
2013-03-01
In the last decade, the application of monolithic materials has rapidly expanded to the realization of flow-through bioconversion processes. Up to these days, different classes of enzymes such as hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases have been immobilized on organic, inorganic, or hybrid monolithic materials to prepare the effective flow-through enzymes reactors for application in proteomics, biotechnology, pharmaceutics, organic synthesis, and biosensoring. Current review describes the results of kinetic study and specialties of flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on the existing monolithic materials.
Dynamic viscosity measurement in non-Newtonian graphite nanofluids.
Duan, Fei; Wong, Ting Foong; Crivoi, Alexandru
2012-07-02
: The effective dynamic viscosity was measured in the graphite water-based nanofluids. The shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior is observed in the measurement. On the basis of the best fitting of the experimental data, the viscosity at zero shear rate or at infinite shear rate is determined for each of the fluids. It is found that increases of the particle volume concentration and the holding time period of the nanofluids result in an enhancement of the effective dynamic viscosity. The maximum enhancement of the effective dynamic viscosity at infinite rate of shear is more than 24 times in the nanofluids held for 3 days with the volume concentration of 4% in comparison with the base fluid. A transmission electron microscope is applied to reveal the morphology of aggregated nanoparticles qualitatively. The large and irregular aggregation of the particles is found in the 3-day fluids in the drying samples. The Raman spectra are extended to characterize the D and G peaks of the graphite structure in the nanofluids. The increasing intensity of the D peak indicates the nanoparticle aggregation growing with the higher concentration and the longer holding time of the nanofluids. The experimental results suggest that the increase on effective dynamic viscosity of nanofluids is related to the graphite nanoparticle aggregation in the fluids.
Dynamic viscosity measurement in non-Newtonian graphite nanofluids
2012-01-01
The effective dynamic viscosity was measured in the graphite water-based nanofluids. The shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior is observed in the measurement. On the basis of the best fitting of the experimental data, the viscosity at zero shear rate or at infinite shear rate is determined for each of the fluids. It is found that increases of the particle volume concentration and the holding time period of the nanofluids result in an enhancement of the effective dynamic viscosity. The maximum enhancement of the effective dynamic viscosity at infinite rate of shear is more than 24 times in the nanofluids held for 3 days with the volume concentration of 4% in comparison with the base fluid. A transmission electron microscope is applied to reveal the morphology of aggregated nanoparticles qualitatively. The large and irregular aggregation of the particles is found in the 3-day fluids in the drying samples. The Raman spectra are extended to characterize the D and G peaks of the graphite structure in the nanofluids. The increasing intensity of the D peak indicates the nanoparticle aggregation growing with the higher concentration and the longer holding time of the nanofluids. The experimental results suggest that the increase on effective dynamic viscosity of nanofluids is related to the graphite nanoparticle aggregation in the fluids. PMID:22747975
Multilayer coating flow of viscous and elastic fluids on a cylindrical surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolic-Tirkas, Bojana
1998-12-01
Linear stability analyses are performed for the coating flows of a two-layer Newtonian fluid and a two-layer Newtonian/non-Newtonian fluid on a rotating cylinder with an angular velocity /Omega. A constant pressure gradient is applied in the angular direction to simulate the vacuum suction at the beads by the vacuum pump. The linearized disturbance equations are solved with the Chebyshev-collocation method using both the Arnoldi and QZ algorithms. For each computed flow a grid independent solution is obtained. There are two modes that can become unstable at low Reynolds numbers: the surface mode and the interface mode. Stability analyses for both modes are performed for various parameters: i.e., thickness ratios and viscosity ratios of the top layer to the bottom layer, the Reynolds number of the flow, and the direction of the angular pressure gradient. For the stability analysis of the two- layer Newtonian/non-Newtonian fluid, the Weissenberg number is introduced to investigate the effect of elastic forces. For both the two-layer Newtonian fluid and the two-layer Newtonian/non-Newtonian fluid, when surface tension is present the surface mode is stable in the region of low Reynolds numbers and short waves. In addition, in the absence of the interfacial tension the interface mode is found to be stable when the less viscous, Newtonian fluid is on the top and the pressure gradient is applied in the direction opposite to the cylinder rotation. When interfacial tension is present, the interface mode for the two-layer Newtonian fluid is stabilized by reversing the direction of the pressure gradient and by positioning the more viscous and thinner fluid at the bottom. However, for the two-layer Newtonian/non-Newtonian ffuid the interface mode is stable when the pressure gradient is applied in the direction opposite to the cylinder rotation and when the less viscous fluid is positioned on the top.
Investigating the impact of non-Newtonian blood models within a heart pump.
Al-Azawy, Mohammed G; Turan, A; Revell, A
2017-01-01
A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of transient, turbulent blood flow through a positive displacement left ventricular assist device is performed. Two common models for non-Newtonian blood flow are compared to the Newtonian model to investigate their impact on predicted levels of shear rate and wall shear stress. Given that both parameters are directly relevant to the evaluation of risk from thrombus and haemolysis, there is a need to assess the sensitivity to modelling non-Newtonian flow effects within a pulsatile turbulent flow, in order to identify levels of uncertainly in CFD. To capture the effects of turbulence, the elliptic blending Reynolds stress model is used in the present study, on account of superior performance of second moment closure schemes previously identified by the present authors. The CFD configuration includes two cyclically rotating valves and a moving pusher plate to periodically vary the chamber volume. An overset mesh algorithm is used for each instance of mesh motion, and a zero gap technique was employed to ensure full valve closure. The left ventricular assist device was operated at a pumping rate of 86 BPM (beats per minute) and a systolic duration of 40% of the pumping cycle, in line with existing experimental data to which comparisons are made. The sensitivity of the variable viscosity models is investigated in terms of mean flow field, levels of turbulence and global shear rate, and a non-dimensional index is used to directly evaluate the impact of non-Newtonian effects. The clinical relevance of the results is reported along with a discussion of modelling uncertainties, observing that the turbulent kinetic energy is generally predicted to be higher in non-Newtonian flow than that observed in Newtonian flow. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pai, S.-I.
The properties of fluids are examined, taking into account fluids and modern fluid mechanics, the properties of liquids and gases, the properties of a plasma, the kinetic theory of fluids, the Boltzmann-Maxwellian laws of distribution, atomic and molecular structures, specific heats, enthalpy, ionization, radiation, viscosity, rheology, heat transfer, and the mixture of fluids. Statics of fluids are considered along with the fundamentals of fluid dynamics, giving attention to flow regimes, the conservation of mass, the equation of continuity, diffusion equations, the stream function, equations of motion, Kelvin's theorem, equations of motion from the Lagrangian point of view, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. Other topics discussed are related to dimensional analysis and dynamics similarity, aerothermochemistry, magnetofluid dynamics and plasma dynamics, radiation gasdynamics, rarefied gasdynamics, non-Newtonian fluids, two-phase flows, the multifluid theory of a plasma, and relativistic fluid mechanics
The effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the deformation of red blood cells in a shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sesay, Juldeh
2005-11-01
The analyses of the effects of non-Newtonian viscosity on the membrane of red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in a shear flow are presented. The specific objective is to investigate the mechanical deformation on the surfaces of an ellipsoidal particle model. The hydrodynamic stresses and other forces on the surface of the particle are used to determine the cell deformation. We extended previous works, which were based on the Newtonian fluid models, to the non-Newtonian case, and focus on imposed shear rate values between 1 and 100 per second. Two viscosity models are investigated, which respectively correspond to a normal person and a patient with cerebrovascular accident (CVA). The results are compared with those obtained assuming a Newtonian model. We observed that the orientation of the cell influences the deformation and the imposed shear rate drives the local shear rate distribution along the particle surface. The integral particle deformation for the non-Newtonian models in the given shear rate regime is higher than that for the Newtonian reference model. Finally, the deformation of the cell surface decreases as the dissipation ratio increases.
Collective motion of microswimmers in viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gaojin; Ardekani, Arezoo
2015-11-01
The dynamics of suspension of self-propelled microorganisms show fascinating hydrodynamic phenomena, such as, large scale swarming motion, locally correlated motion, enhanced particle diffusion, and enhanced fluid mixing. Even though many studies have been conducted in a Newtonian fluid, the collective motion of microorganisms in non-Newtonian fluids is less understood. The non-Newtonian fluid rheological properties, such as viscoelasticity and shear-dependent viscosity in saliva, mucus and biofilm, significantly affect the swimming properties and hydrodynamic interaction of microorganisms. In this work, we use direct numerical simulation to investigate the collective motion of rod-like swimmers in viscoelastic fluids. Two swimming types, pusher and puller, are investigated. The background viscoelastic fluid is modeled using an Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1445955 and Indiana CTSI TR001108.
Inline Ultrasonic Rheometry of a Non-Newtonian Waste Simulant
Pfund, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.
2004-03-31
This is a discussion of non-invasive determination of the viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid in laminar pipe flow over the range of shear rates present in the pipe. The procedure requires knowledge of the flow profile in and the pressure drop along the long straight run of pipe. The profile is determined by using a pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocimeter. This approach is ideal for making non-invasive, real-time measurements for monitoring and control. Rheograms of a shear thinning, thixotropic gel which is often used as a Hanford waste simulant are presented. The operating parameters and limitations of the ultrasound based instrument will be discussed. The component parts of the instrument have been packaged into a unit for field use. The presentation also discusses the features and engineering optimizations done to enhance field usability of the instrument.
Effects of non Newtonian spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Maruf, Mahbub Alam; Ali, Mohammad
2016-07-01
The spiral component of blood flow has both beneficial and detrimental effects in human circulatory system. A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of spiral blood flow through an axisymmetric three dimensional artery having 75% stenosis at the center. Blood is assumed as a Non-Newtonian fluid. Standard k-ω model is used for the simulation with the Reynolds number of 1000. A parabolic velocity profile with spiral flow is used as inlet boundary condition. The peak values of all velocity components are found just after stenosis. But total pressure gradually decreases at downstream. Spiral flow of blood has significant effects on tangential component of velocity. However, the effect is mild for radial and axial velocity components. The peak value of wall shear stress is at the stenosis zone and decreases rapidly in downstream. The effect of spiral flow is significant for turbulent kinetic energy. Detailed investigation and relevant pathological issues are delineated throughout the paper.
Nonlinear drainage of some non-Newtonian free films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabakova, S.
2015-10-01
In the present work we apply the generalized lubrication approach (including inertial, viscous, capillary and van-der-Waals forces) to study the dynamics of a free thin film of a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity is described by the Power law and Carreau models. For planar films with fully mobile surfaces, this approach leads to a system of two nonlinear PDE for the film thickness and lateral velocity. This system is solved numerically in the case of laterally bounded free films. The calculations of the film shape and velocity are presented using data of some real liquids: blood and aqueous solution of 0.5% hydroxyethylcellulose. It is shown that the Power law model predicts a very different viscosity to the Carreau model viscosity, although that the film profiles are not very different for all film wetting angles.
On predicting the onset of transient convection in porous media saturated with Non-Newtonian liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, K. K.; Pua, S. Y.; Yang, A.
2017-06-01
The onset of transient convection in non-Newtonian liquid immersing porous media was simulated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package for the thermal boundary condition of Fixed Surface Temperature (FST). Most of the simulated values of stability criteria were found to be in good agreement with the predicted and theoretical values of transient critical Rayleigh number for non-Newtonian liquid defined by Tan and Thorpe (1992) for power-law fluids. The critical transient Rayleigh numbers for convection in porous media were found to be in good agreement with theoretical values by using apparent viscosity µapp at zero shear. The critical time and critical depth for transient heat conduction were then determined accurately that
Shape optimization in steady blood flow: a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects.
Abraham, Feby; Behr, Marek; Heinkenschloss, Matthias
2005-04-01
We investigate the influence of the fluid constitutive model on the outcome of shape optimization tasks, motivated by optimal design problems in biomedical engineering. Our computations are based on the Navier-Stokes equations generalized to non-Newtonian fluid, with the modified Cross model employed to account for the shear-thinning behavior of blood. The generalized Newtonian treatment exhibits striking differences in the velocity field for smaller shear rates. We apply sensitivity-based optimization procedure to a flow through an idealized arterial graft. For this problem we study the influence of the inflow velocity, and thus the shear rate. Furthermore, we introduce an additional factor in the form of a geometric parameter, and study its effect on the optimal shape obtained.
Pressurized fluid damping of nanoelectromechanical systems.
Svitelskiy, Oleksiy; Sauer, Vince; Liu, Ning; Cheng, Kar-Mun; Finley, Eric; Freeman, Mark R; Hiebert, Wayne K
2009-12-11
Interactions of nanoscale structures with fluids are of current interest both in the elucidation of fluid dynamics at these small scales, and in determining the ultimate performance of nanoelectromechanical systems outside of vacuum. We present a comprehensive study of nanomechanical damping in three gases (He, N2, CO2), and liquid CO2. Resonant dynamics in multiple devices of varying size and frequency is measured over 10 decades of pressure (1 mPa-20 MPa) using time-domain stroboscopic optical interferometry. The wide pressure range allows full exploration of the regions of validity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow damping models. Observing free molecular flow behavior extending above 1 atm, we find a fluid relaxation time model to be valid throughout, but not beyond, the non-Newtonian regime, and a Newtonian flow vibrating spheres model to be valid in the viscous limit.
Newtonian Mechanics for Elementary School Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cleland, Winston E.
This monograph presents a module that introduces Newtonian Mechanics and related Science - A Process Approach (SAPA) materials. The activities are designed to give the necessary background for understanding the physics involved with the SAPA exercises relevant to this topic. The module is designed so that it can be used with individualized format.…
Modeling Nutrient Consumptions in Large Flow-Through Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering
Devarapalli, Mamatha; Lawrence, Benjamin J.; Madihally, Sundararajan V.
2009-01-01
Flow-through bioreactors are utilized in tissue regeneration to ensure complete nutrient distribution and apply defined hydrodynamic stresses. The fundamental concepts in designing these bioreactors for regenerating large high aspect ratio tissues (large surface area relative to the thickness of the matrix such as skin, bladder, and cartilage) are not well defined. Further, tissue regeneration is a dynamic process where the porous characteristics change due to proliferation of cells, de novo deposition of matrix components, and degradation of the porous architecture. These changes affect the transport characteristics and there is an imminent need to understand the influence of these factors. Using computational fluid dynamic tools, changes in the pressure drop, shear stress distribution and nutrient consumption patterns during tissue regeneration were assessed in rectangular and circular reactors described by Lawrence et al (Lawrence et al. 2008). Further, six new designs with different inlet and outlet shapes were analyzed. The fluid flow was defined by the Brinkman equation on the porous regions using the pore characteristics of 85 μm and 120 pores/mm2. The minimum flow requirements to satisfy nutrient (oxygen and glucose) requirements for three different cell types (SMCs, chondrocytes, and hepatocytes) was evaluated using convective diffusion equation. For consumption reaction, the Michaelis-Menten rate law was used, with constants (km and vm values) extracted from literature. Simulations were performed by varying the flow rate as well as the cell number. One of the circular reactors with semicircular inlet and outlet shape decreased (i) non-uniformity in hydrodynamic stress within the porous structure and (ii) non-uniform nutrient distribution. All cell types showed increased consumption of oxygen than glucose. Hepatocytes needed a very high flow rate relative to other cell types. Increase in cell number suggested a need for increasing the flow in circular
Non-Newtonian Momentum Transfer past an Isothermal Stretching Sheet with Applied Suction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veena, P. H.; Suresh, B.; Pravin, V. K.; Goud, A. M.
2017-08-01
The paper discusses the flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid due to stretching of a plane elastic surface in a saturated porous medium in the approximation of boundary layer theory. An exact analytical solution of non-linear MHD momentum equation governing the self-similar flow is given. The skin friction co-efficient decreases with an increase in the visco-elastic parameter k1 and increase in the values of both the magnetic parameter and permeability parameter.
Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery.
Changdar, Satyasaran; De, Soumen
2015-01-01
An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models.
Stokesian locomotion in elastic fluids: Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenit, Roberto; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
In many instances of biological relevance, self-propelled cells have to swim through non-Newtonian fluids. In order to provide fundamental understanding on the effect of such non-Newtonian stresses on locomotion, we have studied the motion an oscillating magnetic swimmer immersed in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids at small Reynolds numbers. The swimmer is made with a small rare earth (Neodymium-Iron-Boron) magnetic rod (3 mm) to which a flexible tail was glued. This array was immersed in cylindrical container (50 mm diameter) in which the test fluid was contained. A nearly uniform oscillating magnetic field was created with a Helmholtz coil (R=200mm) and a AC power supply. For the Newtonian case, a 30,000 cSt silicon oil was used. In the non-Newtonian case, a fluid with nearly constant viscosity and large first normal stress difference (highly elastic) was used; this fluid was made with Corn syrup with a small amount of polyacrylamide. The swimming speed was measured, for different amplitudes and frequencies, using a digital image analysis. The objective of the present investigation is to determine whether the elastic effects of the fluid improve or not the swimming performance. Some preliminary results will be presented and discussed.
Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines
Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Abrefah, John; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Nigl, Franz; Minette, Michael J.; Toth, James J.; Tingey, Joel M.; Yokuda, Satoru T.
2009-03-01
correlation used in the WTP design guide has been shown to be inaccurate for Hanford waste feed materials. The use of the Thomas (1979) correlation in the design guide is not conservative—In cases where 100% of the particles are smaller than 74 μm or particles are considered to be homogeneous due to yield stress forces suspending the particles the homogeneous fraction of the slurry can be set to 100%. In such cases, the predicted critical velocity based on the conservative Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation is reduced to zero and the design guide returns a value from the Thomas (1979) correlation. The measured data in this report show that the Thomas (1979) correlation predictions often fall below that measured experimental values. A non-Newtonian deposition velocity design guide should be developed for the WTP— Since the WTP design guide is limited to Newtonian fluids and the WTP expects to process large quantities of such materials, the existing design guide should be modified address such systems. A central experimental finding of this testing is that the flow velocity required to reach turbulent flow increases with slurry rheological properties due to viscous forces dampening the formation of turbulent eddies. The flow becomes dominated by viscous forces rather than turbulent eddies. Since the turbulent eddies necessary for particle transport are not present, the particles will settle when crossing this boundary called the transitional deposition boundary. This deposition mechanism should be expected and designed for in the WTP.
Simulating non-Newtonian flows with the moving particle semi-implicit method with an SPH kernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Hao; Chen, Bin
2015-02-01
The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are commonly used mesh-free particle methods for free surface flows. The MPS method has superiority in incompressible flow simulation and simple programing. However, the crude kernel function is not accurate enough for the discretization of the divergence of the shear stress tensor by the particle inconsistency when the MPS method is extended to non-Newtonian flows. This paper presents an improved MPS method with an SPH kernel to simulate non-Newtonian flows. To improve the consistency of the partial derivative, the SPH cubic spline kernel and the Taylor series expansion are combined with the MPS method. This approach is suitable for all non-Newtonian fluids that can be described with τ = μ(|γ|) Δ (where τ is the shear stress tensor, μ is the viscosity, |γ| is the shear rate, and Δ is the strain tensor), e.g., the Casson and Cross fluids. Two examples are simulated including the Newtonian Poiseuille flow and container filling process of the Cross fluid. The results of Poiseuille flow are more accurate than the traditional MPS method, and different filling processes are obtained with good agreement with previous results, which verified the validation of the new algorithm. For the Cross fluid, the jet fracture length can be correlated with We0.28Fr0.78 (We is the Weber number, Fr is the Froude number).
Flow-through fluorescence immunosensor for atrazine determination.
Turiel, E; Fernández, P; Pérez-Conde, C; Gutiérrez, A M; Cámara, C
1998-12-01
A new flow-through fluoroimmunosensor for atrazine determination based on the use of protein A immobilized on controlled pore glass as immunoreactor is reported. The support, placed in the optical path of the flow cell, allows the 'in situ' quantification of atrazine by on-line antigen-antibody binding upon successive injections of both substances. The immunosensor has a detection limit of 2.1 mug l(-1), a sample speed of about 10 samples per hour, and provides high reproducibility both within-day (3.2% for 5 mug l(-1) and 2.2% for 30 mug l(-1)) and between days. The optimum working concentration range was 2.1-50 mug l(-1). Possible interferences of other triazines like simazine, desethylatrazine (DEA) and desisopropylatrazine (DIA) were evaluated. Simazine and DIA were not cross-reactive; however, the cross-reactivity for DEA was CR=7.7%. The proposed immunosensor was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine in drinking water and citrus fruits.
Squirming through shear thinning fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun
2015-11-01
Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.
Fingering instability of Bingham fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghadge, Shilpa; Myers, Tim
2005-11-01
Contact line instabilities have been extensively studied and many useful results obtained for industrial applications. Our research in this area is to explore these instabilities for non-Newtonian fluids which has wide scope in geological, biological as well as industrial areas. In this talk, we will present an analysis of fingering instability near a contact line of the thin sheet of fluid flowing down on a moderately inclined plane. This instability has been well studied for Newtonian fluids. We explore the effect of a yield strength of the fluid on this instability. We have conveniently assumed the presence of the precussor film of small thickness ahead of the fluid film to avoid some mathematical singularities. Using a lubrication-type approximation, we perform a linear stability analysis of a straight contact line. We will show comparison with some experimental results using suspensions of kaolin in silicone oil as a yield strength fluid.
Basal entrainment by Newtonian gravity-driven flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, Belinda M.; Andreini, Nicolas; Ancey, Christophe
2016-05-01
Gravity-driven flows can erode the bed along which they descend and increase their mass by a factor of 10 or more. This process is called "basal entrainment." Although documented by field observations and laboratory experiments, it remains poorly understood. This paper examines what happens when a viscous gravity-driven flow generated by releasing a fixed volume of incompressible Newtonian fluid encounters a stationary layer (composed of fluid with the same density and viscosity). Models based on depth-averaged mass and momentum balance equations deal with bed-flow interfaces as shock waves. In contrast, we use an approach involving the long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations (lubrication theory), and in this context, bed-flow interfaces are acceleration waves that move quickly across thin stationary layers. The incoming flow digs down into the bed, pushing up downstream material, thus advancing the flow front. Extending the method used by Huppert ["The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface," J. Fluid Mech. 121, 43-58 (1982)] for modeling viscous dam-break waves, we end up with a nonlinear diffusion equation for the flow depth, which is solved numerically. Theory is compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement is found in the limit of low Reynolds numbers (i.e., for flow Reynolds numbers lower than 20) for the front position over time and flow depth profile.
Gravitational radiation from colliding clusters - Newtonian simulations in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.; Chernoff, David F.
1990-07-01
Gravitational radiation from colliding star cluster is studied using a Newtonian N-body code. Fully three-dimensional cases, which cannot yet be treated reliably with existing hydrodynamic codes for fluid stars can be handled. Comparing colliding axisymmetric star cluster to colliding axisymmetric fluid stars provides information on the importance of shock waves in the generation of gravitational waves. Comparison of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric star cluster scenarios then provides information on the importance of asymmetry. Numerical results are compared with simple analytic models. Two important effects reduce the radiation from extended objects relative to one's expectation from simple point-mass models: phase incoherence (destructive interference) and collisionless dissipation (violent relaxation). Because of phase incoherence, the gravitational radiation from the head-on collision of two fluid stars can actually be less than the correspondig emission from colliding clusters, despite the absence of shocks in the collisionless case. The present calculations include head-on, free-fall collisions, nonaxisymmetric parabolic encounters, hyperbolic collisions, and the tidal disruption and merger of close binary clusters.
Slip-Flow and Heat Transfer of a Non-Newtonian Nanofluid in a Microtube
Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang
2012-01-01
The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared. PMID:22615961
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampf, Cornelius; Villa, Eleonora; Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco
2016-10-01
We study the nonlinear gravitational dynamics of a universe filled with a pressureless fluid and a cosmological constant Λ in the context of Newtonian gravity, and in the relativistic post-Friedmann approach proposed in paper I [I. Milillo et al., Phys. Rev. D 92, 023519 (2015)]. The post-Friedmann approximation scheme is based on the 1 /c expansion of the space-time metric and the energy-momentum tensor, and includes nonlinear Newtonian cosmology. Here we establish the nonlinear post-Friedmann framework in the Lagrangian-coordinates approach for structure formation. For this we first identify a Lagrangian gauge which is suitable for incorporating nonzero vorticity. We analyze our results in two limits: at the leading order we recover the fully nonlinear Newtonian cosmological equations in the Lagrangian formulation, and we provide a space-time metric consistent from the perspective of general relativity. We then linearize our expressions and recover the relativistic results at first order in cosmological perturbation theory. Therefore, the introduced approximation scheme provides a unified treatment for the two leading-order regimes, from the small scales described by Newtonian gravity to the large linear scale, where first-order relativistic cosmological perturbation theory gives a very good description of structure formation.
Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary
2017-04-01
Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain.