Science.gov

Sample records for next-generation microlensing surveys

  1. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-04-20

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of ≲ 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of ≤2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of ≲ 100 M {sub E} planets with separations of 0.2 AU ≲ d ≲ 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, ≳ 1 M {sub E} planets in EWCP events with deviations ≤2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

  2. Discovering Exoplanets with Microlensing: Transition to the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    We propose to continue our successful program of planet discovery using the gravitaional microlensing technique. Our work will specifically focus on so-called "high- magnification events", which are exceptionally sensitive to planets, and which allow us to extract exceptionally detailed information about each planetary system. These results will be of high scientific interest in their own right, but will also play a key role in the transition to "next-generation" surveys that will discover many times more planets in "low-magnification events". We will continue to operate and build our network of approximately 30 amateur+professional astronomers (about half each) on 6 continents plus Oceania, which enables the 24 hour coverage that is crucial to extracting planetary science from microlensing events. In particular, by engaging the amateurs at a high scientific level, we will both improve the quantity and quality of amateur data and utilize their role as a "transmission belt" to the broader public. Over the past few years, high-mag events have enabled the first detection of a Jupiter- Saturn analog system, the first census of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, the recognition that "cold Neptunes" are extremely common, and the detection of 3 very massive, super-Jupiter planets orbiting M dwarfs (which may challenge the standard "core-accretion" paradigm). Analysis of these events has also led to key theoretical insights, including the fact that planet orbital motion can be detected in microlensing events and that careful effort is required to disentangle this from "parallax effects" (due to the Earth's own orbital motion). The direct impact of our proposed work will be to increase the still small statistics of high-mag planet detections (due to the intrinsic rarity of high-mag events) and to exploit the sensitivity of these events to higher-order effects (including parallax, planet orbital motion, and multiple planets) to gain deeper knowledge of detected systems

  3. Exoplanet Demographics with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B.

    2014-04-01

    Because of its unique sensitivity to low-mass, long-period, and free-floating planets, microlensing is an essential complement to our arsenal of planet detection methods. I motivate microlensing surveys for exoplanets, and in particular describe how they can be used to test models for planet formation, as well as inform our understanding of the frequency and potential habitability of low-mass planets located in the habitable zones of their host stars. I review results from current microlensing surveys, and then discuss expectations for next-generation experiments. I explain why a space-based mission is necessary to realize the full potential of microlensing. When combined with the results from complementary surveys such as Kepler, a space-based microlensing survey will yield a nearly complete picture of the demographics of planetary systems throughout the Galaxy.

  4. The Next Generation Microlensing Search: SuperMacho

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, A; Cook, K; Hiriart, R; Keller, S; Miknaitis, G; Nilolaev, S; Olsen, K; Prochter, G; Rest, A; Schmidt, B; Smith, C; Stubbs, C; Suntzeff, N; Welch, D; Becker, A; Clocchiati, A; Covarrubias, R

    2003-10-27

    Past microlensing experiments such as the MACHO project have discovered the presence of a larger than expected number of microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These events could represent a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy, if they are indeed due to halo lenses. However the locations of most of the lenses are poorly defined. The SuperMacho project will detect and follow up {approx}60 microlensing events exhibiting special properties due to binarity, etc., will allow us to better determine the location and nature of the lenses causing the LMC microlensing events.

  5. Cluster cosmology with next-generation surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.

    2017-03-01

    The advent of next-generation surveys will provide a large number of cluster detections that will serve the basis for constraining cos mological parameters using cluster counts. The main two observational ingredients needed are the cluster selection function and the calibration of the mass-observable relation. In this talk, we present the methodology designed to obtain robust predictions of both ingredients based on realistic cosmological simulations mimicking the following next-generation surveys: J-PAS, LSST and Euclid. We display recent results on the selection functions for these mentioned surveys together with others coming from other next-generation surveys such as eROSITA, ACTpol and SPTpol. We notice that the optical and IR surveys will reach the lowest masses between 0.3next-generation surveys and introduce very preliminary results.

  6. A Next-Generation NEO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Cutri, Roc Michael; Masiero, Joseph; Wright, Edward

    2015-08-01

    NASA's NEOWISE project has demonstrated the feasibility of using a space-based infrared telescope to discover minor planets and characterize their physical properties such as diameter and albedo. NEOWISE has detected >160,000 minor planets to date at thermal infrared wavelengths, including nearly 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs; Mainzer et al. 2011, Wright et al. 2010). While NEOWISE serves as a valuable proof of concept, the number of NEOs it can discover is intrinsically limited by expendable cryogens, its field of view, and the relatively narrow range of solar elongations it can view. To make substantial rapid progress toward discovering >90% of the NEO population larger than 140 m in diameter (the goal set to NASA by Congress in 2005), a dedicated survey is needed. The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a proposed space-based IR survey telescope that will discover and deliver thermal IR images at 4 and 8 microns of millions of minor planets. NEOCam was funded for technology development in the 2011 Discovery competition to mature the long-wavelength IR detector arrays needed to support a mission that is cooled purely passively, without the use of cryogens or cryocoolers. That development was successful and has resulted in the production of chips that exceed NEOCam's requirements (McMurtry et al. 2013, Girard et al. 2014). Detailed survey simulations have been carried out using a realistic survey cadence that will result in linkable detections of NEO candidates. The results of the simulation show that stationing NEOCam in a Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit provides the optimal environment for surveying the NEO population (Mainzer et al. 2015).

  7. The Next Generation Transit Survey Becomes Operational at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. G.; Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P.; Goad, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Watson, C.; Udry, S.; Bannister, N.; Bayliss, D.; Bouchy, F.; Burleigh, M.; Cabrera, J.; Chaushev, A.; Chazelas, B.; Crausaz, M.; Csizmadia, S.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Genolet, L.; Gillen, E.; Grange, A.; Günther, M.; Hodgkin, S.; Kirk, J.; Lambert, G.; Louden, T.; McCormac, J.; Metrailler, L.; Neveu, M.; Smith, A.; Thompson, A.; Raddi, R.; Walker, S. R.; Jenkins, J.; Jordán, A.

    2016-09-01

    A new facility dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets has commenced science operations at Paranal. The Next-Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) will deliver photometry at a precision unprecedented for a ground-based wide-field survey, enabling the discovery of dozens of transiting exoplanets of the size of Neptune or smaller around bright stars. NGTS is briefly described and the survey prospects are outlined.

  8. Faint detection of exoplanets in microlensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2014-06-20

    We propose a new approach to discovering faint microlensing signals below traditional thresholds, and for estimating the binary-lens mass ratio and the apparent separation from such signals. The events found will be helpful in accurately estimating the true distribution of planetary semimajor axes, which is an important goal of space microlensing surveys.

  9. A Survey on Next-generation Power Grid Data Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    You, Shutang; Zhu, Dr. Lin; Liu, Yong; Liu, Yilu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Robertson, Russell; King Jr, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The operation and control of power grids will increasingly rely on data. A high-speed, reliable, flexible and secure data architecture is the prerequisite of the next-generation power grid. This paper summarizes the challenges in collecting and utilizing power grid data, and then provides reference data architecture for future power grids. Based on the data architecture deployment, related research on data architecture is reviewed and summarized in several categories including data measurement/actuation, data transmission, data service layer, data utilization, as well as two cross-cutting issues, interoperability and cyber security. Research gaps and future work are also presented.

  10. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  11. The WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Expectations and Unexpectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Penny, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST microlensing survey will provide the definitive determination of the demographics of cool planets with semimajor axes > 1 AU and masses greater than that of the Earth, including free-floating planets. Together with the results from Kepler, TESS, and PLATO, WFIRST will complete the statistical census of planets in the Galaxy. These expectations are based on the most basic and conservative assumptions about the data quality, and assumes that the analysis methodologies will be similar to that used for current ground-based microlensing. Yet, in fact, the data quality will be dramatically better, and information content substantially richer, for the WFIRST microlensing survey as compared to current ground-based surveys. Thus WFIRST should allow for orders of magnitude improvement in both sensitivity and science yield. We will review some of these expected improvements and opportunities (the "known unknowns"), and provide a "to do list" of what tasks will need to be completed in order to take advantage of these opportunities. We will then speculate on the opportunities that we may not be aware of yet (the "unknown unknowns"), how we might go about determining what those opportunities are, and how we might figure out what we will need to do to take advantage of them.This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX14AF63G.

  12. Detection Rates for Surveys for Fast Transients with Next Generation Radio Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    We relate the underlying properties of a population of fast radio-emitting transient events to its expected detection rate in a survey of finite sensitivity. The distribution of the distances of the detected events is determined in terms of the population luminosity distribution and survey parameters, for both extragalactic and Galactic populations. The detection rate as a function of Galactic position is examined to identify regions that optimize survey efficiency in a survey whose field of view is limited. The impact of temporal smearing caused by scattering in the interstellar medium has a large and direction-dependent bearing on the detection of impulsive signals, and we present a model for the effects of scattering on the detection rate. We show that the detection rate scales as ΩS -3/2 + δ 0, where Ω is the field of view, S 0 is the minimum detectable flux density, and 0 < δ <= 3/2 for a survey of Galactic transients in which interstellar scattering or the finite volume of the Galaxy is important. We derive formal conditions on the optimal survey strategy to adopt under different circumstances for fast transient surveys on next generation large-element, wide-field arrays, such as ASKAP, LOFAR, the MWA, and the SKA, and show how interstellar scattering and the finite spatial extent of a Galactic population modify the choice of optimal strategy.

  13. Cosmological forecasts for combined and next-generation peculiar velocity surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlett, Cullan; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Blake, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Peculiar velocity surveys present a very promising route to measuring the growth rate of large-scale structure and its scale dependence. However, individual peculiar velocity surveys suffer from large statistical errors due to the intrinsic scatter in the relations used to infer a galaxy's true distance. In this context, we use a Fisher matrix formalism to investigate the statistical benefits of combining multiple peculiar velocity surveys. We find that for all cases we consider that there is a marked improvement on constraints on the linear growth rate fσ8. For example, the constraining power of only a few peculiar velocity measurements is such that the addition of the 2MASS Tully-Fisher survey (containing only ˜2000 galaxies) to the full redshift and peculiar velocity samples of the 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey (containing ˜110 000 redshifts and ˜9000 velocities) can improve growth rate constraints by ˜20 per cent. Furthermore, the combination of the future TAIPAN and WALLABY+WNSHS surveys has the potential to reach a ˜3 per cent error on fσ8, which will place tight limits on possible extensions to General Relativity. We then turn to look at potential systematics in growth rate measurements that can arise due to incorrect calibration of the peculiar velocity zero-point and from scale-dependent spatial and velocity bias. For next-generation surveys, we find that neglecting velocity bias in particular has the potential to bias constraints on the growth rate by over 5σ, but that an offset in the zero-point has negligible impact on the velocity power spectrum.

  14. The Near-Earth Object Camera: A Next-Generation Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy K.; Wright, Edward L.; Bauer, James; Grav, Tommy; Cutri, Roc M.; Masiero, Joseph; Nugent, Carolyn R.

    2015-11-01

    The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a next-generation asteroid and comet survey designed to discover, characterize, and track large numbers of minor planets using a 50 cm infrared telescope located at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point. Proposed to NASA's Discovery program, NEOCam is designed to carry out a comprehensive inventory of the small bodies in the inner regions of our solar system. It address three themes: 1) quantify the potential hazard that near-Earth objects may pose to Earth; 2) study the origins and evolution of our solar system as revealed by its small body populations; and 3) identify the best destinations for future robotic and human exploration. With a dual channel infrared imager that observes at 4-5 and 6-10 micron bands simultaneously through the use of a beamsplitter, NEOCam enables measurements of asteroid diameters and thermal inertia. NEOCam complements existing and planned visible light surveys in terms of orbital element phase space and wavelengths, since albedos can be determined for objects with both visible and infrared flux measurements. NEOCam was awarded technology development funding in 2011 to mature the necessary megapixel infrared detectors.

  15. Apples to apples A2 - II. Cluster selection functions for next-generation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Mei, S.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benítez, N.

    2017-01-01

    We present the cluster selection function for three of the largest next-generation stage-IV surveys in the optical and infrared: Euclid-Optimistic, Euclid-Pessimistic and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). To simulate these surveys, we use the realistic mock catalogues introduced in the first paper of this series. We detected galaxy clusters using the Bayesian Cluster Finder in the mock catalogues. We then modelled and calibrated the total cluster stellar mass observable-theoretical mass (M^{*}_CL-M_h) relation using a power-law model, including a possible redshift evolution term. We find a moderate scatter of σ _{M^{*}_CL | M_h} of 0.124, 0.135 and 0.136 dex for Euclid-Optimistic, Euclid-Pessimistic and LSST, respectively, comparable to other work over more limited ranges of redshift. Moreover, the three data sets are consistent with negligible evolution with redshift, in agreement with observational and simulation results in the literature. We find that Euclid-Optimistic will be able to detect clusters with >80 per cent completeness and purity down to 8 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ up to z < 1. At higher redshifts, the same completeness and purity are obtained with the larger mass threshold of 2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ up to z = 2. The Euclid-Pessimistic selection function has a similar shape with ˜10 per cent higher mass limit. LSST shows ˜5 per cent higher mass limit than Euclid-Optimistic up to z < 0.7 and increases afterwards, reaching a value of 2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ at z = 1.4. Similar selection functions with only 80 per cent completeness threshold have also been computed. The complementarity of these results with selection functions for surveys in other bands is discussed.

  16. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Chen, Y.-T.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; and others

    2014-12-20

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg{sup 2} centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i {sub AB} = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z {sub phot} ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ{sub outl.rej.}, and an individual error on z {sub phot} that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z {sub phot} ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ{sub outl.rej} ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z {sub phot.err.} ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  17. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XIX. TOMOGRAPHY OF MILKY WAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE NGVS FOOTPRINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhorst, Deborah; Starkenburg, Else; Navarro, Julio F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2016-03-10

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep u*giz survey targeting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies at 16.5 Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an ∼100 deg{sup 2} region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep u*gi imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations (α ∼ 190°, δ ∼ −5°) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between ∼8 and 25 kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances between 25 and 40 kpc, with a density maximum at ≃35 kpc. No evidence is found for new substructures beyond the Sagittarius stream, at least out to a distance of ∼90 kpc—the largest distance to which we can reliably trace the halo using MSTO stars. We find clear evidence for a distance gradient in the Sagittarius stream across the ∼30° of sky covered by the NGVS and its flanking fields. We compare our distance measurements along the stream with those predicted by leading stream models.

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XIX. Tomography of Milky Way Substructures in the NGVS Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhorst, Deborah; Starkenburg, Else; McConnachie, Alan W.; Navarro, Julio F.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2016-03-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep u*giz survey targeting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies at 16.5 Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an ˜100 deg2 region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep u*gi imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations (α ˜ 190°, δ ˜ -5°) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between ˜8 and 25 kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances between 25 and 40 kpc, with a density maximum at ≃35 kpc. No evidence is found for new substructures beyond the Sagittarius stream, at least out to a distance of ˜90 kpc—the largest distance to which we can reliably trace the halo using MSTO stars. We find clear evidence for a distance gradient in the Sagittarius stream across the ˜30° of sky covered by the NGVS and its flanking fields. We compare our distance measurements along the stream with those predicted by leading stream models.

  19. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The Photometric Redshift Estimation for Background Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ilbert, O.; Licitra, R.; Ball, N. M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Ferrarese, L.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lançon, A.; Liu, C.; MacArthur, L. A.; Muller, M.; Muñoz, R. P.; Peng, E. W.; Puzia, T. H.; Sawicki, M.; Toloba, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Woods, D.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i AB = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag <= i <~ 23 mag or z phot <~ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σoutl.rej., and an individual error on z phot that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 <~ z phot <~ 0.8 range (-0.05 < Δz < -0.02, σoutl.rej ~ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z phot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  20. Exoplanet Demographics with a Space-Based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the frequency of exoplanets over a broad range of planet and host star properties provide fundamental empirical constraints on theories of planet formation and evolution. Because of its unique sensitivity to low-mass, long-period, and free-floating planets, microlensing is an essential complement to our arsenal of planet detection methods. I motivate microlensing surveys for exoplanets, and in particular describe how they can be used to test the currently-favored paradigm for planet formation, as well as inform our understanding of the frequency and potential habitability of low-mass planets located in the habitable zones of their host stars. I explain why a space-based mission is necessary to realize the full potential of microlensing, and outline the expected returns of such surveys. When combined with the results from complementary surveys such as Kepler, a space-based microlensing survey will yield a nearly complete picture of the demographics of planetary systems throughout the Galaxy.

  1. Catalina Sky Survey II, a Next-Generation Survey with Small Binocular Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Beshore, E. C.

    2010-10-01

    The Congress has directed NASA to develop a Near-Earth Object (NEO) survey program to detect, track, catalog, and characterize NEOs ≥ 140 meters in diameter by 2020. We are studying one possible approach, the Catalina Sky Survey II (CSS-II), a dedicated, low-cost, rapid-response, advanced survey that could be quickly deployed. CSS-II will dovetail with the planned capabilities of LSST and Pan-STARRS (PS), and add important new capabilities for NEO characterization and follow up that other surveys will not have. At the core of our proposal is three Small Binocular Telescopes (SBTs) using existing mirrors from the former Multiple Mirror Telescope. Working individually from a single observing site, each SBT will have the light grasp of a 2.4-meter telescope. Working together, they will be equivalent to a single telescope with a 4.2-meter mirror. Our approach has many advantages, including economy, 100 percent commitment to NEO search, low risk relative to other approaches, the ability to provide characterization of threatening objects, scalability, and the addition of significant new search capacity. The characterization potential of the mixed-use survey programs of LSST and PS will be valuable, but limited. Determining impact energy is vital to mitigation strategies. Impact energy follows from mass and velocity. Velocity is obtained from the orbital solution, but mass requires size and composition. Both size (through albedo) and composition can be significantly constrained with low-resolution spectroscopy covering the region from 0.35 to 2.4 microns. Shapes and rotation rates can best be obtained through time-series studies during close approaches. We will describe some preliminary designs for the CSS-II, the flexibility afforded by its multiple, independently-targeted mount design, freedom to adopt new observing strategies, and the potential for generating valuable science through a systematic spectrographic study of the asteroid population as part of its search

  2. An Open-Source Galaxy Redshift Survey Simulator for next-generation Large Scale Structure Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijak, Uros

    Galaxy redshift surveys produce three-dimensional maps of the galaxy distribution. On large scales these maps trace the underlying matter fluctuations in a relatively simple manner, so that the properties of the primordial fluctuations along with the overall expansion history and growth of perturbations can be extracted. The BAO standard ruler method to measure the expansion history of the universe using galaxy redshift surveys is thought to be robust to observational artifacts and understood theoretically with high precision. These same surveys can offer a host of additional information, including a measurement of the growth rate of large scale structure through redshift space distortions, the possibility of measuring the sum of neutrino masses, tighter constraints on the expansion history through the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and constraints on the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations. Extracting this broadband clustering information hinges on both our ability to minimize and subtract observational systematics to the observed galaxy power spectrum, and our ability to model the broadband behavior of the observed galaxy power spectrum with exquisite precision. Rapid development on both fronts is required to capitalize on WFIRST's data set. We propose to develop an open-source computational toolbox that will propel development in both areas by connecting large scale structure modeling and instrument and survey modeling with the statistical inference process. We will use the proposed simulator to both tailor perturbation theory and fully non-linear models of the broadband clustering of WFIRST galaxies and discover novel observables in the non-linear regime that are robust to observational systematics and able to distinguish between a wide range of spatial and dynamic biasing models for the WFIRST galaxy redshift survey sources. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach in a pilot study of the SDSS-III BOSS galaxies, in which we

  3. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  4. Next-generation biofuels: Survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues.

    PubMed

    Zinoviev, Sergey; Müller-Langer, Franziska; Das, Piyali; Bertero, Nicolás; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Centi, Gabriele; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-10-25

    Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as it addresses related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situation, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter ones are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry.

  5. Microbial Community Composition in the Marine Sediments of Jeju Island: Next-Generation Sequencing Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heebok; Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Hongik; Chae, Jong-Chan; Park, Soo-Je

    2016-05-28

    Marine sediments are a microbial biosphere with an unknown physiology, and the sediments harbor numerous distinct phylogenetic lineages of Bacteria and Archaea that are at present uncultured. In this study, the structure of the archaeal and bacterial communities was investigated in the surface and subsurface sediments of Jeju Island using a next-generation sequencing method. The microbial communities in the surface sediments were distinct from those in the subsurface sediments; the relative abundance of sequences for Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were higher in the surface than subsurface sediments, whereas the sequences for Euryarchaeota, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deltaproteobacteria were relatively more abundant in the subsurface than surface sediments. This study presents detailed characterization of the spatial distribution of benthic microbial communities of Jeju Island and provides fundamental information on the potential interactions mediated by microorganisms with the different biogeochemical cycles in coastal sediments.

  6. Completing the Exoplanet Census with the WFIRST Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David P.; WFIRST Science Definition Team

    2011-09-01

    The WFIRST mission is the top rated large space mission from last year's decadal survey. It has three major science programs, a microlensing planet search program, a dark energy program, and a general observer program. WFIRST's microlensing planet search program will provide a statistical census of exoplanets with masses greater than one tenth of an Earth mass and orbital separations ranging from 0.5AU to infinity. This includes analogs to all the Solar System’s planets except for Mercury, as well as most types of planets predicted by planet formation theories. In combination with Kepler's census of planets in shorter period orbits, WFIRST's planet search program will provide a complete statistical census of the planets that populate our Galaxy. The current status of the WFIRST mission design will be presented.

  7. Determination of Microlensing Selection Criteria for the SuperMACHO Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A

    2008-10-10

    The SuperMACHO project is a 5 year survey to determine the nature of the lens population responsible for the excess microlensing rate toward the Large Magellanic Cloud observed by the MACHO project [1]. The survey probes deeper than earlier surveys unveiling many more extragalactic contaminants, particularly type Ia supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Using {approx}10{sup 7} simulated light curves of both microlensing events and type Ia supernovae we determine selection criteria optimized to maximize the microlensing detection efficiency while minimizing the contamination rate from non-microlensing events. We discuss these simulations and the selection criteria.

  8. The Exoplanet Microlensing Survey by the Proposed WFIRST Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard; Kruk, Jeffrey; Anderson, Jay; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Bennett, David P.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Cheng, Ed; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Kane, Stephen; Lunine, Jonathan; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Traub, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons report released by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Board in 2010 listed the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as the highest-priority large space mission for the . coming decade. This observatory will provide wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopy at near infrared wavelengths. The scientific goals are to obtain a statistical census of exoplanets using gravitational microlensing. measure the expansion history of and the growth of structure in the Universe by multiple methods, and perform other astronomical surveys to be selected through a guest observer program. A Science Definition Team has been established to assist NASA in the development of a Design Reference Mission that accomplishes this diverse array of science programs with a single observatory. In this paper we present the current WFIRST payload concept and the expected capabilities for planet detection. The observatory. with science goals that are complimentary to the Kepler exoplanet transit mission, is designed to complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from habitable Earth-mass planets to free floating planets, including analogs to all of the planets in our Solar System except Mercury. The exoplanet microlensing survey will observe for 500 days spanning 5 years. This long temporal baseline will enable the determination of the masses for most detected exoplanets down to 0.1 Earth masses.

  9. Microlensing Events in Gaia and other Astrometric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Claire; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    The region within a kiloparsec of the Sun is a vast and mysterious place filled with uncharted planets, stars and compact objects, whose masses and properties are unknown. The Gaia space mission provides a unique opportunity to study of this region by measuring parallax distances and proper motions to millions of nearby stars, significantly advancing data available from previous astrometric surveys.We are putting this new astrometric information from the first Gaia data release to a novel use, by searching for matches between the positions of known microlensing events and the positions of stars observed by both the Gaia and the Tycho-2 missions, as listed in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) Catalogue.The existence of a gravitational microlensing event near a TGAS-listed star may provide information about the nature of either the source star lensed in the event, or the lens itself. For example, the source star lensed in the ‘TAGO’ event lies nearby, and is listed in the TGAS Catalogue. Other events may also have been caused by nearby TGAS-listed stars, or by their dim companions. In such cases, we can determine the lens mass and acquire information about any compact objects or planets which may exist around the lens.We report on the process of matching the positions of over 20,000 candidate microlensing events discovered by either OGLE and/or MOA, with the positions of 2 million stars from the TGAS Catalogue and stars from a range of other surveys, including Lepine's SUPERBLINK survey, and discuss the implications of the matches obtained.

  10. DEEP, AEGIS, & CATS - Pathfinding Surveys to the Next Generation of Distant Galaxy Stellar Population Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, David C.

    2010-04-01

    DEEP, AEGIS, and CATS are examples of spectroscopic, multiwavelength, and adaptive optics surveys, respectively, that are pushing the frontiers of stellar population studies of distant galaxies. Together, these surveys affirm the unprecedented richness of high quality information that can already be gathered using today's generation of ground and space telescopes. We highlight several results in extracting the stellar and dynamical masses, chemical abundances, ages, and frequency of galactic winds for galaxies at redshifts up to z ~ 1.4.

  11. A new yield simulator for transiting planets and false positives: application to the Next Generation Transit Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Queloz, Didier; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Bouchy, Francois

    2017-03-01

    We present a yield simulator to predict the number and characteristics of planets, false positives and false alarms in transit surveys. The simulator is based on a galactic model and the planet occurrence rates measured by the Kepler mission. It takes into account the observation window function and measured noise levels of the investigated survey. Additionally, it includes vetting criteria to identify false positives. We apply this simulator to the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), a wide-field survey designed to detect transiting Neptune-sized exoplanets. We find that red noise is the main limitation of NGTS up to 14 mag, and that its obtained level determines the expected yield. Assuming a red noise level of 1 mmag, the simulation predicts the following for a 4-yr survey: 4 ± 3 Super-Earths, 19 ± 5 Small Neptunes, 16 ± 4 Large Neptunes, 55 ± 8 Saturn-sized planets and 150 ± 10 Jupiter-sized planets, along with 4688 ± 45 eclipsing binaries and 843 ± 75 background eclipsing binaries. We characterize the properties of these objects to enhance the early identification of false positives and discuss follow-up strategies for transiting candidates.

  12. Deep Generative Models of Galaxy Images for the Calibration of the Next Generation of Weak Lensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, Francois; Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schneider, Jeff; Poczos, Barnabas

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has long been identified as one of the most powerful probes to investigate the nature of dark energy. As such, weak lensing is at the heart of the next generation of cosmological surveys such as LSST, Euclid or WFIRST.One particularly crititcal source of systematic errors in these surveys comes from the shape measurement algorithms tasked with estimating galaxy shapes. GREAT3, the last community challenge to assess the quality of state-of-the-art shape measurement algorithms has in particular demonstrated that all current methods are biased to various degrees and, more importantly, that these biases depend on the details of the galaxy morphologies. These biases can be measured and calibrated by generating mock observations where a known lensing signal has been introduced and comparing the resulting measurements to the ground-truth. Producing these mock observations however requires input galaxy images of higher resolution and S/N than the simulated survey, which typically implies acquiring extremely expensive space-based observations.The goal of this work is to train a deep generative model on already available Hubble Space Telescope data which can then be used to sample new galaxy images conditioned on parameters such as magnitude, size or redshift and exhibiting complex morphologies. Such model can allow us to inexpensively produce large set of realistic realistic images for calibration purposes.We implement a conditional generative model based on state-of-the-art deep learning methods and fit it to deep galaxy images from the COSMOS survey. The quality of the model is assessed by computing an extensive set of galaxy morphology statistics on the generated images. Beyond simple second moment statistics such as size and ellipticity, we apply more complex statistics specifically designed to be sensitive to disturbed galaxy morphologies. We find excellent agreement between the morphologies of real and model generated galaxies.Our results

  13. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  14. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the “Digital MapBeta” series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe® Reader® software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the “US Topo” series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data

  15. Discovery of a New Member of the Inner Oort Cloud from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Suc, Vincent; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of 2010 GB174, a likely new member of the Inner Oort Cloud (IOC). 2010 GB174 is 1 of 91 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs discovered in a 76 deg2 contiguous region imaged as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS)—a moderate ecliptic latitude survey reaching a mean limiting magnitude of g' ~= 25.5—using MegaPrime on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. 2010 GB174 is found to have an orbit with a semi-major axis of a ~= 350.8 AU, an inclination of i ~= 21.°6, and a pericenter of q ~ 48.5 AU. This is the second largest perihelion distance among known solar system objects. Based on the sky coverage and depth of the NGVS, we estimate the number of IOC members with sizes larger than 300 km (HV <= 6.2 mag) to be ~= 11, 000. A comparison of the detection rate from the NGVS and the PDSSS (a characterized survey that "rediscovered" the IOC object Sedna) gives, for an assumed a power-law luminosity function for IOC objects, a slope of α ~= 0.7 ± 0.2. With only two detections in this region this slope estimate is highly uncertain.

  16. DISCOVERY OF A NEW MEMBER OF THE INNER OORT CLOUD FROM THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Suc, Vincent; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of 2010 GB{sub 174}, a likely new member of the Inner Oort Cloud (IOC). 2010 GB{sub 174} is 1 of 91 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs discovered in a 76 deg{sup 2} contiguous region imaged as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS)—a moderate ecliptic latitude survey reaching a mean limiting magnitude of g' ≅ 25.5—using MegaPrime on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. 2010 GB{sub 174} is found to have an orbit with a semi-major axis of a ≅ 350.8 AU, an inclination of i ≅ 21.°6, and a pericenter of q ∼ 48.5 AU. This is the second largest perihelion distance among known solar system objects. Based on the sky coverage and depth of the NGVS, we estimate the number of IOC members with sizes larger than 300 km (H{sub V} ≤ 6.2 mag) to be ≅ 11, 000. A comparison of the detection rate from the NGVS and the PDSSS (a characterized survey that 'rediscovered' the IOC object Sedna) gives, for an assumed a power-law luminosity function for IOC objects, a slope of α ≅ 0.7 ± 0.2. With only two detections in this region this slope estimate is highly uncertain.

  17. Apples to apples A2 - I. Realistic galaxy simulated catalogues and photometric redshift predictions for next-generation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Mei, S.; Benítez, N.

    2015-11-01

    We present new mock catalogues for two of the largest Stage IV next-generation surveys in the optical and infrared: Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and Euclid, based on an N-body simulation+semi-analytical cone with a posterior modification with PHOTREAL. This technique modifies the original photometry by using an empirical library of spectral templates to make it more realistic. The reliability of the catalogues is confirmed by comparing the obtained colour-magnitude relation, the luminosity and mass function and the angular correlation function with those of real data. Consistent comparisons between the expected photometric redshifts for different surveys are also provided. Very deep near-infrared surveys such as Euclid will provide very good performance (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.025-0.053) down to H ˜ 24 AB mag and up to z ˜ 3 depending on the optical observations available from the ground, whereas extremely deep optical surveys such as LSST will obtain an overall lower photometric redshift resolution (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.045) down to i ˜ 27.5 AB mag, being considerably improved (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.035) if we restrict the sample down to i ˜ 24 AB mag. Those numbers can be substantially upgraded by selecting a subsample of galaxies with the best quality photometric redshifts. We finally discuss the impact that these surveys will have for the community in terms of photometric redshift legacy. This is the first of a series of papers where we set a framework for comparability between mock catalogues and observations with a particular focus on cluster surveys. The Euclid and LSST mocks are made publicly available.

  18. Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhenghong; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jinguo; Chang, Lianpeng; Guo, Weihua; Li, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%. The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon. PMID:23875008

  19. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XXII. Shell Feature Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Smith, Rory; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cantiello, Michele; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Mei, Simona; Mihos, J. Christopher; Peng, Eric W.; Powalka, Mathieu; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is a deep (with a 2σ detection limit μg = 29 mag arcsec‑2 in the g-band) optical panchromatic survey targeting the Virgo cluster from its core to virial radius, for a total areal coverage of 104 square degrees. As such, the survey is well suited for the study of galaxies’ outskirts, haloes, and low surface brightness features that arise from dynamical interactions within the cluster environment. We report the discovery of extremely faint (μg > 25 mag arcsec‑2) shells in three Virgo cluster early-type dwarf galaxies: VCC 1361, VCC 1447, and VCC 1668. Among them, VCC 1447 has an absolute magnitude Mg = ‑11.71 mag and is the least massive galaxy with a shell system discovered to date. We present a detailed study of these low surface brightness features. We detect between three and four shells in each of our galaxies. Within the uncertainties, we find no evidence of a color difference between the galaxy main body and shell features. The observed arcs of the shells are located up to several effective radii of the galaxies. We further explore the origin of these low surface brightness features with the help of idealized numerical simulations. We find that a near equal mass merger is best able to reproduce the main properties of the shells, including their quite symmetric appearance and their alignment along the major axis of the galaxy. The simulations provide support for a formation scenario in which a recent merger, between two near-equal mass, gas-free dwarf galaxies, forms the observed shell systems. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  1. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin; Mihos, J. Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5}, the latter values

  2. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. V. Modeling the Dynamics of M87 with the Made-to-measure Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Long, R. J.; Mao, Shude; Peng, Eric W.; Liu, Chengze; Caldwell, Nelson; Li, Biao; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Mei, Simona; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalog of 922 globular cluster line-of-sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. There are 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey. For the M2M modeling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modeled as a logarithmic potential. Our best-fit dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/LI = 6.0 ± 0.3 M⊙ L⊙ -1 with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591 ± 50 km s-1 and scale radius of 42 ± 10 kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 ± 0.2) × 1013 M ⊙. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than previous estimates determined using globular cluster kinematics that did not extend beyond ~45 kpc. With our new globular cluster velocities at much larger radii, we see that globular clusters around 40 kpc show an anomalously large velocity dispersion which affected previous results. The mass we derive is in good agreement with that inferred from ROSAT X-ray observation out to 180 kpc. Within 30 kpc our mass is also consistent with that inferred from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, while within 120 kpc it is about 20% smaller. The model velocity dispersion anisotropy β parameter for the globular clusters in M87 is small, varying from -0.2 at the center to 0.2 at ~40 kpc, and gradually decreasing to zero at ~120 kpc.

  3. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. V. modeling the dynamics of M87 with the made-to-measure method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ling; Long, R. J.; Mao, Shude; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Liu, Chengze; Caldwell, Nelson; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Mei, Simona

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalog of 922 globular cluster line-of-sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. There are 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey. For the M2M modeling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modeled as a logarithmic potential. Our best-fit dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/L{sub I} = 6.0 ± 0.3 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1} with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591 ± 50 km s{sup –1} and scale radius of 42 ± 10 kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than previous estimates determined using globular cluster kinematics that did not extend beyond ∼45 kpc. With our new globular cluster velocities at much larger radii, we see that globular clusters around 40 kpc show an anomalously large velocity dispersion which affected previous results. The mass we derive is in good agreement with that inferred from ROSAT X-ray observation out to 180 kpc. Within 30 kpc our mass is also consistent with that inferred from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, while within 120 kpc it is about 20% smaller. The model velocity dispersion anisotropy β parameter for the globular clusters in M87 is small, varying from –0.2 at the center to 0.2 at ∼40 kpc, and gradually decreasing to zero at ∼120 kpc.

  4. The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network: Expectations for a Cold Exoplanet Census through a Global Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen Barnett

    The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) consists of three 1.6m telescopes each with a 4 deg2 field of view (FoV) and is dedicated to monitoring the Galactic bulge to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. KMTNet's combination of aperture size, FoV, cadence, and longitudinal coverage will provide a unique opportunity to probe exoplanet demographics in an unbiased way. My dissertation focuses on the results of simulations I have written and analyses I have performed that together provide estimates of and facilitate intuition about the number and variety of systmes KMTNet will detect and how best to maximize their scientific yield. First I present my simulations that optimize the observing strategy for, and predict the planetary yields of, KMTNet. I estimate the planet detection rates for planets with mass and separation across the ranges 0.1 ≤Mp/M⊕ ≤1000 and 0.4 ≤ a/AU ≤ 16, respectively, and also for free-floating planets. I furthermore investigate the dependence of these detection rates on the number of observatories, the photometric precision limit, and optimistic assumptions regarding seeing, throughput, and flux measurement uncertainties. Next I explore several possible avenues for constraining the flux of the lens for these predicted KMTNet detections. I examine the potential to obtain lens flux measurements by 1) imaging the lens once it is spatially resolved from the source, 2) measuring the elongation of the point spread function of the microlensing target (lens+source) when the lens and source are still unresolved, and 3) taking prompt follow-up photometry. In each case I simulate observing programs for a representative example of current ground-based adaptive optics (AO) facilities, future ground-based AO facilities, and future space telescopes. Lastly, I provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens

  5. Article: Next Generation Compliance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The article Next Generation Compliance by Cynthia Giles, Assistant Administrator for OECA was published in The Environmental Forum, Sept-Oct 2013 explains EPA's strategy on using new technologies to improve compliance with environmental laws.

  6. Next Generation Internet Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.

  7. VSX: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), the most comprehensive and up-to-date assemblage of publicly-maintained variable star data on the planet, will be undergoing a major overhaul in the coming year to greatly improve the database design, as well as the Web-based user interface. Five years after its official launch, VSX has evolved into an essential component of the AAVSO enterprise information architecture, tightly integrated with many of the technical organization’s other mission-critical processes. However, its unique configuration and functionality are largely based on decades-old data formats and outmoded Web methodologies which will generally not scale well under the anticipated deluge of data from large-scale synoptic surveys. Here, we present the justifications and vision for VSX 2.0, the next generation of this indispensable research tool, including overviews of the creation of a brand new, fully-normalized, database schema, and the ground-up redesign of the front-end Web interface.

  8. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  9. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE.

  10. Preparing for the WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Simulations, Requirements, Survey Strategies, and Precursor Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, Bernard

    As one of the four primary investigations of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, the microlensing survey will monitor several square degrees of the Galactic bulge for a total of roughly one year. Its primary science goal is to "Complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from the outer habitable zone to free floating planets, including analogs of all of the planets in our Solar System with the mass of Mars or greater.'' WFIRST will therefore (a) measure the mass function of cold bound planets with masses greater than that of roughly twice the mass of the moon, including providing an estimate of the frequency of sub-Mars-mass embryos, (b) determine the frequency of free-floating planets with masses down to the Earth and below, (c) inform the frequency and habitability of potentially habitable worlds, and (d) revolutionize our understanding of the demographics of cold planets with its exquisite sensitivity to, and large expected yield of, planets in a broad and unexplored region of parameter space. In order for the microlensing survey to be successful, we must develop a plan to go from actual survey observations obtained by the WFIRST telescope and hardware to the final science products. This plan will involve many steps, the development of software, data reduction, and analysis tools at each step, and a list of requirements for each of these components. The overarching goal of this proposal is thus to develop a complete flowdown from the science goals of the microlensing survey to the mission design and hardware components. We have assembled a team of scientists with the breadth of expertise to achieve this primary goal. Our specific subgoals are as follows. Goal 1: We will refine the input Galactic models in order to provide improved microlensing event rates in the WFIRST fields. Goal 2: We will use the improved event rate estimates, along with improvements in our simulation methodology, to provide higher

  11. Next Generation Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zilai; Gough, Charles

    2016-04-22

    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  12. The Demographics of Exoplanetary Companions to M Dwarfs: Synthesizing Results from Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian Dwain

    stars and are thus, at least qualitatively, consistent with the predictions of core accretion theory. Finally, I present a synthesis of results from microlensing, RV, and direct imaging surveys that improve constraints on the demographics of long-period, massive planetary companions to M dwarfs. I demonstrate that the results of five different surveys for exoplanets employing these three independent techniques are consistent with a single population of planets described by a simple, joint power-law distribution function in mass and semimajor axis, and provide constraints on the parameters of such a population. The final result is the most statistically-complete census of exoplanets that has hitherto been constructed for a given type of host star, spanning a mass range of 1-104 M⊕ and an orbital period range of 1-105 days. This work represents an important benchmark for all future exoplanet population studies, and the methodologies developed herein are applicable to new and larger data sets of forthcoming "next-generation" surveys.

  13. UKIRT Microlensing Surveys as a Pathfinder for WFIRST: The Detection of Five Highly Extinguished Low-∣b∣ Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Bryden, G.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Howell, S. B.; Beichman, C.

    2017-02-01

    Optical microlensing surveys are restricted from detecting events near the Galactic plane and center, where the event rate is thought to be the highest due to the high optical extinction of these fields. In the near-infrared (NIR), however, the lower extinction leads to a corresponding increase in event detections and is a primary driver for the wavelength coverage of the WFIRST microlensing survey. During the 2015 and 2016 bulge observing seasons, we conducted NIR microlensing surveys with UKIRT in conjunction with and in support of the Spitzer and Kepler microlensing campaigns. Here, we report on five highly extinguished ({A}H=0.81{--}1.97), low-Galactic latitude (-0.98≤slant b≤slant -0.36) microlensing events discovered from our 2016 survey. Four of them were monitored with an hourly cadence by optical surveys but were not reported as discoveries, likely due to the high extinction. Our UKIRT surveys and suggested future NIR surveys enable the first measurement of the microlensing event rate in the NIR. This wavelength regime overlaps with the bandpass of the filter in which the WFIRST microlensing survey will conduct its highest-cadence observations, making this event rate derivation critically important for optimizing its yield.

  14. MOA-2011-BLG-322Lb: a `second generation survey' microlensing planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Han, C.; Abe, F.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sweatman, W. L.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C. M.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2014-03-01

    Global `second-generation' microlensing surveys aim to discover and characterize extrasolar planets and their frequency, by means of round-the-clock high-cadence monitoring of a large area of the Galactic bulge, in a controlled experiment. We report the discovery of a giant planet in microlensing event MOA-2011-BLG-322. This moderate-magnification event, which displays a clear anomaly induced by a second lensing mass, was inside the footprint of our second-generation microlensing survey, involving MOA, OGLE and the Wise Observatory. The event was observed by the survey groups, without prompting alerts that could have led to dedicated follow-up observations. Fitting a microlensing model to the data, we find that the time-scale of the event was tE = 23.2 ± 0.8 d, and the mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q = 0.028 ± 0.001. Finite-source effects are marginally detected, and upper limits on them help break some of the degeneracy in the system parameters. Using a Bayesian analysis that incorporates a Galactic structure model, we estimate the mass of the lens at 0.39^{+0.45}_{-0.19} M_{⊙}, at a distance of 7.56 ± 0.91 kpc. Thus, the companion is likely a planet of mass 11.6^{+13.4}_{-5.6} M_J, at a projected separation of 4.3^{+1.5}_{-1.2} AU, rather far beyond the snow line. This is the first pure-survey planet reported from a second-generation microlensing survey, and shows that survey data alone can be sufficient to characterize a planetary model. With the detection of additional survey-only planets, we will be able to constrain the frequency of extrasolar planets near their systems' snow lines.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; Lozy, Fred; Bell, Daphne W

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancers are the most frequently diagnosed gynecological malignancy and were expected to be the seventh leading cause of cancer death among American women in 2015. The majority of endometrial cancers are of serous or endometrioid histology. Most human tumors, including endometrial tumors, are driven by the acquisition of pathogenic mutations in cancer genes. Thus, the identification of somatic mutations within tumor genomes is an entry point toward cancer gene discovery. However, efforts to pinpoint somatic mutations in human cancers have, until recently, relied on high-throughput sequencing of single genes or gene families using Sanger sequencing. Although this approach has been fruitful, the cost and throughput of Sanger sequencing generally prohibits systematic sequencing of the ~22,000 genes that make up the exome. The recent development of next-generation sequencing technologies changed this paradigm by providing the capability to rapidly sequence exomes, transcriptomes, and genomes at relatively low cost. Remarkably, the application of this technology to catalog the mutational landscapes of endometrial tumor exomes, transcriptomes, and genomes has revealed, for the first time, that serous and endometrioid endometrial cancers can be classified into four distinct molecular subgroups. In this chapter, we overview the characteristic genomic features of each subgroup and discuss the known and putative cancer genes that have emerged from next-generation sequencing of endometrial carcinomas.

  16. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John; Stockman, H. S.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), planned for launch in 2009, will be an 8-m class radiatively cooled infrared telescope at the Lagrange point L2. It will cover the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns with cameras and spectrometers, to observe the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, and the formation, growth, clustering, and evolution of galaxies, stars, and protoplanetary clouds, leading to better understanding of our own Origins. It will seek evidence of the cosmic dark matter through its gravitational effects. With an aperture three times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope, it will provide extraordinary advances in capabilities and enable the discovery of many new phenomena. It is a joint project of the NASA, ESA, and CSA, and scientific operations will be provided by the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  17. Peculiar velocities into the next generation: cosmological parameters from large surveys without bias from non-linear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Alexandra; Bridle, Sarah; Teodoro, Luis F. A.; Warren, Michael S.; Hendry, Martin

    2008-10-01

    We investigate methods to best estimate the normalization of the mass density fluctuation power spectrum (σ8) using peculiar velocity data from a survey like the six-degree Field Galaxy Velocity Survey (6dFGSv). We focus on two potential problems: (i) biases from non-linear growth of structure and (ii) the large number of velocities in the survey. Simulations of ΛCDM-like models are used to test the methods. We calculate the likelihood from a full covariance matrix of velocities averaged in grid cells. This simultaneously reduces the number of data points and smoothes out non-linearities which tend to dominate on small scales. We show how the averaging can be taken into account in the predictions in a practical way, and show the effect of the choice of cell size. We find that a cell size can be chosen that significantly reduces the non-linearities without significantly increasing the error bars on cosmological parameters. We compare our results with those from a principal components analysis following Watkins et al. and Feldman et al. to select a set of optimal moments constructed from linear combinations of the peculiar velocities that are least sensitive to the non-linear scales. We conclude that averaging in grid cells performs equally well. We find that for a survey such as 6dFGSv we can estimate σ8 with less than 3 per cent bias from non-linearities. The expected error on σ8 after marginalizing over Ωm is approximately 16 per cent.

  18. Microlensing by Kuiper, Oort, and Free-Floating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Microlensing is generally thought to probe planetary systems only out to a few Einstein radii. Microlensing events generated by bound planets beyond about 10 Einstein radii generally do not yield any trace of their hosts, and so would be classified as free floating planets (FFPs). I show that it is already possible, using adaptive optics (AO), to constrain the presence of potential hosts to FFP candidates at separations comparable to the Oort Cloud. With next-generation telescopes, planets at Kuiper-Belt separations can be probed. Next generation telescopes will also permit routine vetting for all FFP candidates, simply by obtaining second epochs 4-8 years after the event.At present, the search for such hosts is restricted to within the ``confusion limit'' of θ_\\confus ˜ 0.25'' but future WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) observations will allow one to probe beyond this confusion limit as well.

  19. Are we preparing the next generation of fisheries professionals to succeed in their careers?: A survey of AFS members

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullin, Steve L.; DiCenzo, Vic; Essig, Ron; Bonds, Craig; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; Mather, Martha E.; Myrick, Christopher A.; Phelps, Quinton; Sutton, Trent M.; Triplett, James

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource professionals have frequently criticized universities for poorly preparing graduates to succeed in their jobs. We surveyed members of the American Fisheries Society to determine which job skills and knowledge of academic topics employers, students, and university faculty members deemed most important to early-career success of fisheries professionals. Respondents also rated proficiency of recently hired, entry-level professionals (employers) on how well their programs prepared them for career success (students and faculty) in those same job skills and academic topics. Critical thinking and written and oral communication skills topped the list of important skills and academic topics. Employers perceived recent entry-level hires to be less well-prepared to succeed in their careers than either university faculty or students. Entry-level hires with post-graduate degrees rated higher in proficiency for highly important skills and knowledge than those with bachelor's degrees. We conclude that although universities have the primary responsibility for developing critical thinking and basic communication skills of students, employers have equal or greater responsibility for enhancing skills of employees in teamwork, field techniques, and communicating with stakeholders. The American Fisheries Society can significantly contribute to the preparation of young fisheries professionals by providing opportunities for continuing education and networking with peers at professional conferences.

  20. Next Generation HVAC System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Murakami, Yoshiki; Hanada, Yuuichi; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Itoh, Yasuyuki

    A new HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning) system for buildings is proposed. The key technology for the system is a twin coil air handling unit (AHU) and its advanced control method. One coil is equipped to cool and dehumidify the fresh air intake, and the other coil is for cooling circulated air. The deeply chilled water is necessary only for removing the moisture from the fresh air. The latter coil requires moderately cool water according to the HVAC load. Then 2 kinds of chilled water in terms of temperature should be prepared. The structure helps saving the energy consumption for air-conditioning because the higher chilled water temperature implies the better chiller efficiency (COP: Coefficient of Performance). In addition, an advanced control method that is called an ‘Air-Water cooperation system’ is introduced. The control system mainly focuses on energy savings through changing the temperature of the chilled water and supply air according to the HVAC load and weather conditions. In this paper, we introduce a Next Generation HVAC system with its control system and present evaluation results of the system for the model-building simulator.

  1. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  2. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  3. Next Generation Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  4. The POINT-AGAPE survey: comparing automated searches of microlensing events towards M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapras, Y.; Carr, B. J.; Weston, M. J.; Kerins, E.; Baillon, P.; Gould, A.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.

    2010-05-01

    Searching for microlensing in M31 using automated superpixel surveys raises a number of difficulties which are not present in more conventional techniques. Here we focus on the problem that the list of microlensing candidates is sensitive to the selection criteria or `cuts' imposed, and some subjectivity is involved in this. Weakening the cuts will generate a longer list of microlensing candidates but with a greater fraction of spurious ones; strengthening the cuts will produce a shorter list but may exclude some genuine events. We illustrate this by comparing three analyses of the same data set obtained from a 3 yr observing run on the Isaac Newton Telescope in La Palma. The results of two of these analyses have been already reported: Belokurov et al. obtained between three and 22 candidates, depending on the strength of their cuts, while Calchi Novati et al. obtained six candidates. The third analysis is presented here for the first time and reports 10 microlensing candidates, seven of which are new. Only two of the candidates are common to all three analyses. In order to understand why these analyses produce different candidate lists, a comparison is made of the cuts used by the three groups. Particularly crucial are the method employed to distinguish between a microlensing event and a variable star, and the extent to which one encodes theoretical prejudices into the cuts. Another factor is that the superpixel technique requires the masking of resolved stars and bad pixels. Belokurov et al. and the present analysis use the same input catalogue and the same masks but Calchi Novati et al. use different ones and a somewhat less automated procedure. Because of these considerations, one expects the lists of candidates to vary and it is not possible to pronounce a candidate a definite microlensing event. Indeed we accept that several of our new candidates, especially the long time-scale ones, may not be genuine. This uncertainty also impinges on one of the most

  5. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  6. Next generation information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Limback, Nathan P; Medina, Melanie A; Silva, Michelle E

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  7. The next generation photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S- band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 A range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1 nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 π mm-mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 π mm-mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5×10-5 with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 [MV/over m]. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, ɛn,rms, produced by the NGP is ɛn,rms=1.2/ /pi mm mrad for QT=0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 π mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a photocathode under high field gradient was found to be

  8. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply

  9. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  10. Habitable Earth-like Planet Surveys with Next Generation Extremely High Resolution and High Doppler Precision Optical and Near IR Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Fletcher, A.; Chang, L.; Groot, J.; Wan, X.; Jakeman, H.; Myers, D.; Grafer, E.; Liu, J.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Moore, A.; van Olphen, M.; Katz, J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Barnes, R.; Blake, C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major high precision Doppler surveys for habitable Earth-like planets are about to launch in 2013 using next generation extremely high spectral resolution and high Doppler precision optical and near infrared (NIR) spectrographs developed at UF in 2009-2012. The optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Tracker (EXPERT) III (EXPERT-III), produces a spectral resolution over R=100,000 and simultaneously covers 0.38-0.9 mm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCD detector in a single exposure. It will be coupled to the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. The near IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), produces R=70,000 at 1.4-1.8 mm or R=60,000 at 0.8-1.35 mm in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. It will be coupled with the Tennessee State University 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. Our rocky planet survey with EXPERT-III will primarily target habitable zone (HZ) rocky planets around nearby ~300 bright K0-M4 dwarfs with V<8.5. Our NIR M dwarf survey is the first large-scale NIR high precision Doppler survey dedicated to detecting and characterizing planets around ~200 nearby M dwarfs with J< 10. A combination of the EXPERT-III HZ planet survey in the optical wavelengths with the FIRST HZ planet survey around M4-M9 dwarfs in the near IR wavelengths will give us a broad view of HZ planets around low-mass stars for the first time. The overall planet sample will substantially increase the power for the statistical study of planet occurrence and properties and constraining planet formation models and physical conditions around low mass (0.2-0.8 M ) stars. We will report the early Doppler performance of both survey instruments on the telescopes.

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XII. Stellar Populations and Kinematics of Compact, Low-mass Early-type Galaxies from Gemini GMOS-IFU Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérou, Adrien; Emsellem, Eric; McDermid, Richard M.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Peng, Eric W.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We present Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph integral-field unit (GMOS-IFU) data of eight compact, low-mass early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Virgo cluster. We analyze their stellar kinematics and stellar population and present two-dimensional maps of these properties covering the central 5″ × 7″ region. We find a large variety of kinematics, from nonrotating to highly rotating objects, often associated with underlying disky isophotes revealed by deep images from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. In half of our objects, we find a centrally concentrated younger and more metal-rich stellar population. We analyze the specific stellar angular momentum through the λR parameter and find six fast rotators and two slow rotators, one having a thin counterrotating disk. We compare the local galaxy density and stellar populations of our objects with those of 39 more extended low-mass Virgo ETGs from the SMAKCED survey and 260 massive (M > 1010 {{M}⊙ }) ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample. The compact low-mass ETGs in our sample are located in high-density regions, often close to a massive galaxy, and have, on average, older and more metal-rich stellar populations than less compact low-mass galaxies. We find that the stellar population parameters follow lines of constant velocity dispersion in the mass-size plane, smoothly extending the comparable trends found for massive ETGs. Our study supports a scenario where low-mass compact ETGs have experienced long-lived interactions with their environment, including ram-pressure stripping and gravitational tidal forces, that may be responsible for their compact nature.

  12. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P.; Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Lançon, Ariane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick R. E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn; and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  13. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    PubMed

    Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  14. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members

    PubMed Central

    Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants’ contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents’ experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  15. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXIV. The Red Sequence to ~106 L ⊙ and Comparisons with Galaxy Formation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Joel C.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben; Blakeslee, John P.; Peng, Eric W.; Liu, Chengze; Munoz, Roberto; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Mei, Simona; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Cantiello, Michele; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Lançon, Ariane; Mihos, J. Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H.; Taylor, James E.; Durrell, Patrick R.; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Hongxin

    2017-02-01

    We use deep optical photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) to investigate the color–magnitude diagram for the galaxies inhabiting the core of this cluster. The sensitivity of the NGVS imaging allows us to continuously probe galaxy colors over a factor of ∼2 × 105 in luminosity, from brightest cluster galaxies to scales overlapping classical satellites of the Milky Way ({M}g\\prime ∼ ‑9 M * ∼ 106 M ⊙), within a single environment. Remarkably, we find the first evidence that the red sequence (RS) flattens in all colors at the faint-magnitude end (starting between ‑14 ≤ {M}g\\prime ≤ ‑13, around M * ∼ 4 × 107 M ⊙), with the slope decreasing to ∼60% or less of its value at brighter magnitudes. This could indicate that the stellar populations of faint dwarfs in Virgo’s core share similar characteristics (e.g., constant mean age) over ∼3 mag in luminosity, suggesting that these galaxies were quenched coevally, likely via pre-processing in smaller hosts. We also compare our results to galaxy formation models, finding that the RS in model clusters have slopes at intermediate magnitudes that are too shallow, and in the case of semianalytic models, do not reproduce the flattening seen at both extremes (bright/faint) of the Virgo RS. Deficiencies in the chemical evolution of model galaxies likely contribute to the model-data discrepancies at all masses, while overly efficient quenching may also be a factor at dwarf scales. Deep UV and near-IR photometry are required to unambiguously diagnose the cause of the faint-end flattening.

  16. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  17. Evolution of the real-space correlation function from next generation cluster surveys. Recovering the real-space correlation function from photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Srivatsan; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Cappi, Alberto; Marulli, Federico

    2017-03-01

    Context. The next generation of galaxy surveys will provide cluster catalogues probing an unprecedented range of scales, redshifts, and masses with large statistics. Their analysis should therefore enable us to probe the spatial distribution of clusters with high accuracy and derive tighter constraints on the cosmological parameters and the dark energy equation of state. However, for the majority of these surveys, redshifts of individual galaxies will be mostly estimated by multiband photometry which implies non-negligible errors in redshift resulting in potential difficulties in recovering the real-space clustering. Aims: We investigate to which accuracy it is possible to recover the real-space two-point correlation function of galaxy clusters from cluster catalogues based on photometric redshifts, and test our ability to detect and measure the redshift and mass evolution of the correlation length r0 and of the bias parameter b(M,z) as a function of the uncertainty on the cluster redshift estimate. Methods: We calculate the correlation function for cluster sub-samples covering various mass and redshift bins selected from a 500 deg2 light-cone limited to H < 24. In order to simulate the distribution of clusters in photometric redshift space, we assign to each cluster a redshift randomly extracted from a Gaussian distribution having a mean equal to the cluster cosmological redshift and a dispersion equal to σz. The dispersion is varied in the range σ(z=0)=\\frac{σz{1+z_c} = 0.005,0.010,0.030} and 0.050, in order to cover the typical values expected in forthcoming surveys. The correlation function in real-space is then computed through estimation and deprojection of wp(rp). Four mass ranges (from Mhalo > 2 × 1013h-1M⊙ to Mhalo > 2 × 1014h-1M⊙) and six redshift slices covering the redshift range [0, 2] are investigated, first using cosmological redshifts and then for the four photometric redshift configurations. Results: From the analysis of the light-cone in

  18. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  19. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavilis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA s contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

  20. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

  1. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  2. Next Generation Distance Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses next generation distance education systems, which include research in cognitive science, systems science, and communication theory to provide a learning environment with student autonomy congruent to prior learning, learning objectives, and content materials to be mastered. Describes Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), object…

  3. The Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released almost two years ago. Work tied to the NGSS, their adoption, and implementation continues to move forward around the country. Stephen L. Pruitt, senior vice president, science, at Achieve, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit education reform organization that was a lead…

  4. MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb: A TEST OF PURE SURVEY MICROLENSING PLANET DETECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, J. C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-20

    Because of the development of large-format, wide-field cameras, microlensing surveys are now able to monitor millions of stars with sufficient cadence to detect planets. These new discoveries will span the full range of significance levels including planetary signals too small to be distinguished from the noise. At present, we do not understand where the threshold is for detecting planets. MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb is the first planet to be published from the new surveys, and it also has substantial follow-up observations. This planet is robustly detected in survey+follow-up data ({Delta}{chi}{sup 2} {approx} 5400). The planet/host mass ratio is q = (5.3 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The best-fit projected separation is s = 0.548 {+-} 0.005 Einstein radii. However, due to the s{r_reversible}s{sup -1} degeneracy, projected separations of s{sup -1} are only marginally disfavored at {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} = 3. A Bayesian estimate of the host mass gives M{sub L} = 0.43{sup +0.27}{sub -0.17} M{sub Sun }, with a sharp upper limit of M{sub L} < 1.2 M{sub Sun} from upper limits on the lens flux. Hence, the planet mass is m{sub p} = 2.4{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9} M{sub Jup}, and the physical projected separation is either r {approx_equal} 1.0 AU or r {approx_equal} 3.4 AU. We show that survey data alone predict this solution and are able to characterize the planet, but the {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} is much smaller ({Delta}{chi}{sup 2} {approx} 500) than with the follow-up data. The {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} for the survey data alone is smaller than for any other securely detected planet. This event suggests a means to probe the detection threshold, by analyzing a large sample of events like MOA-2011-BLG-293, which have both follow-up data and high-cadence survey data, to provide a guide for the interpretation of pure survey microlensing data.

  5. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  6. Microlensing Optical Depth towards the Galactic Bulge Using Clump Giants from the MACHO Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P; Griest, K; Thomas, C L; Cook, K H; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Alves, D R; Minniti, D; Drake, A J; Alcock, C; Allsman, R A; Axelrod, T S; Freeman, K C; Geha, M; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Nelson, C A; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D

    2005-07-14

    Using 7 years of MACHO survey data, we present a new determination of the optical depth to microlensing towards the Galactic bulge. We select the sample of 62 microlensing events (60 unique) on clump giant sources and perform a detailed efficiency analysis. We use only the clump giant sources because these are bright bulge stars and are not as strongly affected by blending as other events. Using a subsample of 42 clump events concentrated in an area of 4.5 deg{sup 2} with 739000 clump giant stars, we find {tau} = 2.17{sub -0.38}{sup +0.47} x 10{sup -6} at (l,b) = (1{sup o}.50, -2{sup o}.68), somewhat smaller than found in most previous MACHO studies, but in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. We also present the optical depth in each of the 19 fields in which we detected events, and find limits on optical depth for fields with no events. The errors in optical depth in individual fields are dominated by Poisson noise. We measure optical depth gradients of (1.06 {+-} 0.71) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} and (0.29 {+-} 0.43) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} in the galactic latitude b and longitude l directions, respectively. Finally, we discuss the possibility of anomalous duration distribution of events in the field 104 centered on (l,b) = (3{sup o}.11, -3{sup o}.01) as well as investigate spatial clustering of events in all fields.

  7. Explanatory chapter: next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs in sequencing technologies have driven the advancement of molecular biology and molecular genetics research. The advent of high-throughput Sanger sequencing (for information on the method, see Sanger Dideoxy Sequencing of DNA) in the mid- to late-1990s made possible the accelerated completion of the human genome project, which has since revolutionized the pace of discovery in biomedical research. Similarly, the advent of next generation sequencing is poised to revolutionize biomedical research and usher a new era of individualized, rational medicine. The term next generation sequencing refers to technologies that have enabled the massively parallel analysis of DNA sequence facilitated through the convergence of advancements in molecular biology, nucleic acid chemistry and biochemistry, computational biology, and electrical and mechanical engineering. The current next generation sequencing technologies are capable of sequencing tens to hundreds of millions of DNA templates simultaneously and generate >4 gigabases of sequence in a single day. These technologies have largely started to replace high-throughput Sanger sequencing for large-scale genomic projects, and have created significant enthusiasm for the advent of a new era of individualized medicine.

  8. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  9. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  10. Quasar microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. W.; Wambsganss, J.

    2010-09-01

    Quasar microlensing deals with the effect of compact objects along the line of sight on the apparent brightness of the background quasars. Due to the relative motion between quasar, lenses and observer, the microlensing magnification changes with time which results in uncorrelated brightness variations in the various images of multiple quasar systems. The amplitudes of the signal can be more than a magnitude with time scales of weeks to months to years. The effect is due to the “granular” nature of the gravitational microlenses—stars or other compact objects in the stellar mass range. Quasar microlensing allows to study the quasar accretion disk with a resolution of tens of microarcseconds, hence quasar microlensing can be used to explore an astrophysical field that is hardly accessible by any other means. Quasar microlensing can also be used to study the lensing objects in a statistical sense, their nature (compact or smoothly distributed, normal stars or dark matter) as well as transverse velocities. Quasar microlensing light curves are now being obtained from monitoring programs across the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio through the infrared and optical range to the X-ray regime. Recently, spectroscopic microlensing was successfully applied, it provides quantitative comparisons with quasar/accretion disk models. There are now more than a handful of systems with several-year long light curves and significant microlensing signal, lending to detailed analysis. This review summarizes the current state of the art of quasar microlensing and shows that at this point in time, observational monitoring programs and complementary intense simulations provide a scenario where some of the early promises of quasar microlensing can be quantitatively applied. It has been shown, e.g., that smaller sources display more violent microlensing variability, first quantitative comparison with accretion disk models has been achieved, and quasar microlensing has been used to

  11. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  12. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  13. Next generation oil reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Amoco Production Company, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cray Research Inc. to develop a next-generation massively parallel oil reservoir simulation code. The simulator, code-named Falcon, enables highly detailed simulations to be performed on a range of platforms such as the Cray T3D and T3E. The code is currently being used by Amoco to perform a sophisticated field study using multiple geostatistical realizations on a scale of 2-5 million grid blocks and 1000-2000 wells. In this paper we discuss the nature of this collaborative effort, the software design and engineering aspects of the code, parallelization experiences, and performance studies. The code will be marketed to the oil industry by a third-party independent software vendor in mid-1996.

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  15. Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being

  16. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  17. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  18. Next-generation Digital Earth

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, Michael F.; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J.; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of “big data” has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public’s access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation. PMID:22723346

  19. Biomimetics for next generation materials.

    PubMed

    Barthelat, Francois

    2007-12-15

    Billions of years of evolution have produced extremely efficient natural materials, which are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for engineers. Biomimetics-the science of imitating nature-is a growing multidisciplinary field which is now leading to the fabrication of novel materials with remarkable mechanical properties. This article discusses the mechanics of hard biological materials, and more specifically of nacre and bone. These high-performance natural composites are made up of relatively weak components (brittle minerals and soft proteins) arranged in intricate ways to achieve specific combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness (resistance to cracking). Determining which features control the performance of these materials is the first step in biomimetics. These 'key features' can then be implemented into artificial bio-inspired synthetic materials, using innovative techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly or ice-templated crystallization. The most promising approaches, however, are self-assembly and biomineralization because they will enable tight control of structures at the nanoscale. In this 'bottom-up' fabrication, also inspired from nature, molecular structures and crystals are assembled with a little or no external intervention. The resulting materials will offer new combinations of low weight, stiffness and toughness, with added functionalities such as self-healing. Only tight collaborations between engineers, chemists, materials scientists and biologists will make these 'next-generation' materials a reality.

  20. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  1. Next-generation Digital Earth.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-07-10

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  2. Next Generation National Security Leaders

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, Heidi A.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Stein, Steven L.; Toomey, Christopher

    2012-07-19

    It is generally accepted that the international security community faces an impending challenge in its changing leadership demographics. The workforce that currently addresses nonproliferation, arms control, and verification is moving toward retirement and there is a perceived need for programs to train a new set of experts for both technical- and policy-related functions to replace the retiring generation. Despite the perceived need, there are also indicators that there are not sufficient jobs for individuals we are currently training. If we had “right-sized” the training programs, there would not be a shortage of jobs. The extent and scope of the human resource crisis is unclear, and information about training programs and how they meet existing needs is minimal. This paper seeks to achieve two objectives: 1) Clarify the major human resource problem and potential consequences; and 2) Propose how to characterize the requirement with sufficient granularity to enable key stakeholders to link programs aimed at developing the next generations of experts with employment needs. In order to accomplish both these goals, this paper recommends establishing a forum comprised of key stakeholders of this issue (including universities, public and private sectors), and conducting a study of the human resources and resource needs of the global security community. If there is indeed a human resource crisis in the global security field, we cannot address the problem if we are uninformed. The solution may lie in training more (or fewer) young professions to work in this community – or it may lie in more effectively using our existing resources and training programs.

  3. Planetary Caustic Perturbations of a Close-separation Planet on Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Kim, Han-Seek; Chung, Sun-Ju; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Most planetary events discovered up to date by the planetary caustic of close-separation planets have low-mass ratios. In next-generation microlensing experiments with a wider field of view and a higher cadence, it is possible to obtain densely covered planetary signals induced by the planetary caustic of close-separation planets without missing events. Therefore, the planetary caustic perturbation of close-separation planets would be the more important channel to detect low-mass exoplanets in the next generation of microlensing surveys. In this paper, we investigate the theoretical properties and detection conditions for the planetary caustic perturbation of close-separation planets. To find the properties of the planetary caustic perturbation, we construct deviation maps by subtracting the single-lensing magnification of the lens star from the planetary lensing magnification for various lensing parameters. We find that each deviation area of the positive and negative perturbations disappears at the same normalized source radius according to a given deviation threshold regardless of mass ratio but disappears at a different normalized source radius according to the separation. We also estimate the upper limit of the normalized source radius to detect the planetary caustic perturbation. We find simple relations between the upper limit of the normalized source radius and the lensing parameters. From the relations, we obtain an analytic condition for the theoretical detection limit of the planet, which shows that we can sufficiently discover a planet with a sub-Earth-mass for typical microlensing events. Therefore, we conclude that our planet-detection condition of can be used as an important criteria for maximal planet detections, considering the source type and the photometric accuracy and expect that a number of low-mass planets will be added from the next-generation microlensing experiments.

  4. Constraining the Frequency of Free-floating Planets from a Synthesis of Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2017-01-01

    A microlensing survey by Sumi et al. exhibits an overabundance of short-timescale events (STEs; tE < 2 days) relative to what is expected from known stellar populations and a smooth power-law extrapolation down to the brown dwarf regime. This excess has been interpreted as a population of approximately Jupiter-mass objects that outnumber main-sequence stars nearly twofold; however the microlensing data alone cannot distinguish between events due to wide-separation (a ≳ 10 au) and free-floating planets. Assuming these STEs are indeed due to planetary-mass objects, we aim to constrain the fraction of these events that can be explained by bound but wide-separation planets. We fit the observed timescale distribution with a lens mass function comprised of brown dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and stellar remnants, finding and thus corroborating the initial identification of an excess of STEs. We then include a population of bound planets that are expected not to show signatures of the primary lens (host) in their microlensing light curves and that are also consistent with results from representative microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. We find that bound planets alone cannot explain the entire STE excess without violating the constraints from the surveys we consider and thus some fraction of these events must be due to free-floating planets, if our model for bound planets holds. We estimate a median fraction of STEs due to free-floating planets to be f = 0.67 (0.23 ≤ f ≤ 0.85 at 95% confidence) when assuming “hot-start” planet evolutionary models and f = 0.58 (0.14 ≤ f ≤ 0.83 at 95% confidence) for “cold-start” models. Assuming a delta-function distribution of free-floating planets of mass {m}p=2 {M}{Jup} yields a number of free-floating planets per main-sequence star of N = 1.4 (0.48 ≤ N ≤ 1.8 at 95% confidence) in the “hot-start” case and N = 1.2 (0.29 ≤ N ≤ 1.8 at 95% confidence) in the “cold-start” case.

  5. A Survey on Next-Generation Mixed Line Rate (MLR) and Energy-Driven Wavelength-Division Multiplexed (WDM) Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Sridhar

    2015-06-01

    With the ever-increasing traffic demands, infrastructure of the current 10 Gbps optical network needs to be enhanced. Further, since the energy crisis is gaining increasing concerns, new research topics need to be devised and technological solutions for energy conservation need to be investigated. In all-optical mixed line rate (MLR) network, feasibility of a lightpath is determined by the physical layer impairment (PLI) accumulation. Contrary to PLI-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PLIA-RWA) algorithm applicable for a 10 Gbps wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network, a new Routing, Wavelength, Modulation format assignment (RWMFA) algorithm is required for the MLR optical network. With the rapid growth of energy consumption in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), recently, lot of attention is being devoted toward "green" ICT solutions. This article presents a review of different RWMFA (PLIA-RWA) algorithms for MLR networks, and surveys the most relevant research activities aimed at minimizing energy consumption in optical networks. In essence, this article presents a comprehensive and timely survey on a growing field of research, as it covers most aspects of MLR and energy-driven optical networks. Hence, the author aims at providing a comprehensive reference for the growing base of researchers who will work on MLR and energy-driven optical networks in the upcoming years. Finally, the article also identifies several open problems for future research.

  6. The Manchester Microlensing Conference: The 12th International Conference and ANGLES Microlensing Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerins, E.; Mao, S.; Rattenbury, N.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    The Manchester Microlensing Conference (M2C) was held at the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at Manchester University in the UK from 21st-25th January 2008. M2C comprised two elements: the ANGLES Microlensing Workshop and the 12th International Conference on gravitational microlensing. M2C began with the two-day Workshop, providing interactive Master Classes to around 60 researchers on selected hot topics in microlensing. The Master Classes were delivered by world-leading experts on each of the topics. The topics reflected the diverse techniques and applications of microlensing, such as crowded-field photometry, modelling of extra-solar planetary systems, and the use of microlensing in cosmology. The 12th International Conference on microlensing followed immediately after the Workshop and was attended by around 90 researchers. The Conference covered all aspects of current research in microlensing, including: Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds; Cosmological Microlensing; Stellar and Galactic Microlensing; Galactic Microlensing Surveys; Follow-up Programmes and Planetary Microlensing; M31 Microlensing; and Future Directions. The M2C Proceedings serve three functions. Through the expert master classes the M2C Proceedings provide a great starting point for those who wish to enter the field or who just wish to learn more about microlensing at a depth beyond that usually covered by a single review article. The M2C proceedings also provide a snapshot of the state-of-the art in microlensing observations and theory as of January 2008, in what is a rapidly developing field. Lastly, the M2C meeting and its Proceedings are dedicated to the memory of the late Bohdan Paczynski, a towering figure and founding father of modern day microlensing research.

  7. Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In-Space propulsion technologies relevant to Mars presentation is for the 14.03 Emerging Technologies for Mars Exploration panel. The talk will address propulsion technology needs for future Mars science missions, and will address electric propulsion, Earth entry vehicles, light weight propellant tanks, and the Mars ascent vehicle. The second panel presentation is Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions. This talk is for 14.02 Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions panel. The talk will summarize the technology needs identified in the NAC's Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and will set the stage for the talks for the 4 other panelist.

  8. Next-generation sequencing discoveries in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Slack, Graham W; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2013-03-01

    Since the mapping of the human genome and the advent of next-generation sequencing technology thorough examination of the cancer genome has become a reality. Over the last few years several studies have used next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the genetic landscape of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, identifying novel genetic mutations and gene rearrangements that have shed new light on the underlying tumor biology in these diseases as well as identifying possible targets for directed therapy. This review covers the major discoveries in lymphoma using next-generation sequencing technology.

  9. Analysis of Next Generation TCP

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, K; Hurst, A; Nelson, J

    2004-12-13

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has been around for around 30 years, and in that time computer networks have increased in speed and reliability many times over. TCP has done very well to maintain stability and avoid collapse from congestion in the Internet with this incredible increase in speed. But as the speed of networks continues to increase, some assumptions about the underlying network that influenced the design of TCP may no longer hold valid. Additionally, modern networks often span many different types of links. For example, one end-to-end transmission may traverse both an optical link (high-bandwidth, low-loss) and a wireless network (low-bandwidth, high loss). TCP does not perform well in these situations. This survey will examine some of the reasons for this, focusing on high-bandwidth networks, and offer some solutions that have been proposed to fix these problems. This paper assumes basic knowledge of the TCP protocol.

  10. Optimal survey strategies and predicted planet yields for the Korean microlensing telescope network

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Calen B.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Skowron, Jan; Penny, Matthew T.; Gould, Andrew P.; Han, Cheongho; Nataf, David

    2014-10-10

    The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) will consist of three 1.6 m telescopes each with a 4 deg{sup 2} field of view (FoV) and will be dedicated to monitoring the Galactic Bulge to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. KMTNet's combination of aperture size, FoV, cadence, and longitudinal coverage will provide a unique opportunity to probe exoplanet demographics in an unbiased way. Here we present simulations that optimize the observing strategy for and predict the planetary yields of KMTNet. We find preferences for four target fields located in the central Bulge and an exposure time of t {sub exp} = 120 s, leading to the detection of ∼2200 microlensing events per year. We estimate the planet detection rates for planets with mass and separation across the ranges 0.1 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} ≤ 1000 and 0.4 ≤ a/AU ≤ 16, respectively. Normalizing these rates to the cool-planet mass function of Cassan et al., we predict KMTNet will be approximately uniformly sensitive to planets with mass 5 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} ≤ 1000 and will detect ∼20 planets per year per dex in mass across that range. For lower-mass planets with mass 0.1 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} < 5, we predict KMTNet will detect ∼10 planets per year. We also compute the yields KMTNet will obtain for free-floating planets (FFPs) and predict KMTNet will detect ∼1 Earth-mass FFP per year, assuming an underlying population of one such planet per star in the Galaxy. Lastly, we investigate the dependence of these detection rates on the number of observatories, the photometric precision limit, and optimistic assumptions regarding seeing, throughput, and flux measurement uncertainties.

  11. The Next Generation of Space Communications

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is looking for the next generation of space communications technology and Laser Comm may be the answer. Optical communications provide higher bandwidth, which allows for faster data flow and e...

  12. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  13. Enabling America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs o America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles are presented. The topics include: 1) UAV's- Unlimited Applications; 2) Global Challenges; 3) UAV/CNS Overview; 4) Communications; 5) Navigation; and 6) Surveillance.

  14. On the Feasibility of Characterizing Free-floating Planets with Current and Future Space-based Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Shvartzvald, Yossi

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous space- and ground-based microlensing surveys, such as K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) and WFIRST, facilitate measuring the masses and distances of free-floating planet (FFP) candidates, which are identified as single-lens events with timescales that are of the order of 1 day. Measuring the mass and distance of an FFP lens requires determining the size of the source star ρ, measuring the microlens parallax {π }{{E}}, and using high-resolution imaging to search for the lens flux {F}{\\ell } from a possible host star. Here we investigate the accessible parameter space for each of these components considering different satellites for a range of FFP masses, Galactic distances, and source star properties. We find that at the beginning of K2C9, when its projected separation {D}\\perp from the Earth is ≲0.2 au, it will be able to measure {π }{{E}} for Jupiter-mass FFP candidates at distances larger than ∼2 kpc and to Earth-mass lenses at ∼8 kpc. At the end of K2C9, when {D}\\perp = 0.81 au, it is sensitive to planetary-mass lenses for distances ≳3.5 kpc, and even then only to those with mass ≳M Jup. From lens flux constraints we find that it will be possible to exclude hosts down to the deuterium-burning limit for events within ∼2 kpc. This indicates that the ability to characterize FFPs detected during K2C9 is optimized for events occurring toward the beginning of the campaign. WFIRST, on the other hand, will be able to detect and characterize FFP masses down to or below super-Earths throughout the Galaxy during its entire microlensing survey.

  15. OGLE-2016-BLG-0596Lb: A High-mass Planet from a High-magnification Pure-survey Microlensing Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, P.; Han, C.; and; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE group; Albrow, M. D.; Cha, S.-M.; Chung, S.-J.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Gould, A.; (KMTNet group

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of a high mass ratio planet, q = 0.012, i.e., 13 times higher than the Jupiter/Sun ratio. The host mass has not yet been measured but can be determined or strongly constrained from adaptive optics imaging. The planet was discovered in a small archival study of high-magnification events in pure-survey microlensing data, which was unbiased by the presence of anomalies. The fact that it was previously unnoticed may indicate that more such planets lie in archival data and could be discovered by a similar systematic study. In order to understand the transition from predominantly survey+followup to predominately survey-only planet detections, we conduct the first analysis of these detections in the observational (s, q) plane. Here s is the projected separation in units of the Einstein radius. We find some evidence that survey+followup is relatively more sensitive to planets near the Einstein ring, but that there is no statistical difference in sensitivity by mass ratio.

  16. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. II. The frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-20

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (∼0.1 M {sub Jup}) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M {sub Jup}) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub Jup} ≲ 13) with periods 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} is f{sub J}=0.029{sub −0.015}{sup +0.013}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub G}=0.15{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4}), we find f{sub G{sup ′}}=0.11±0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 ≤ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≤ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub p} = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  17. [Health effects of nanomaterials on next generation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ken; Shinkai, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Umezawa, Masakazu; Yokota, Satoshi; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2011-02-01

    In order to discuss the health effects of nanomaterials, we cannot disregard the research on the health effects of airborne particulates. It is said that many of the fine or ultrafine particles in airborne particulates originate from diesel vehicles in metropolitan areas. The results of not only animal experiments but many epidemiologic surveys and volunteer intervention experiments in humans are reported on the health effects of particles. Although the health effects of the particulate matter particle sizes below 10 µm (PM10) were investigated in the initial studies, recently even smaller particles have come to be regarded as questionable and research of the health effects of the minute particulate matter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been done. However, our recent study about maternal exposure to diesel exhaust suggests that health effect study of PM0.1, particles below 0.1 µm (100 nm), namely nanoparticles, is necessary from now on. We are proceeding with the study of the health effects of various types of intentionally produced nanomaterials such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, fullerene and titanium dioxide, examining in particular their influence on next generation. Although there are differences in the sites affected and the seriousness of the damage, basically similar findings to DEPs mentioned above are being discovered in research on nanomaterials. Regardless of dosage and administration method, such as inhalation, endotracheal administration, nasal drip and subcutaneous administration, once nanomaterials enter the bloodstream of a pregnant mother mouse, they move to the offspring and have effects on them. The effects may appear as various symptoms in the process of growth after birth, and can sometimes lead to the onset and aggravation of serious diseases.

  18. Next generation sequencing based approaches to epigenomics

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation sequencing has brought epigenomic studies to the forefront of current research. The power of massively parallel sequencing coupled to innovative molecular and computational techniques has allowed researchers to profile the epigenome at resolutions that were unimaginable only a few years ago. With early proof of concept studies published, the field is now moving into the next phase where the importance of method standardization and rigorous quality control are becoming paramount. In this review we will describe methodologies that have been developed to profile the epigenome using next generation sequencing platforms. We will discuss these in terms of library preparation, sequence platforms and analysis techniques. PMID:21266347

  19. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  20. Proceedings of the Next Generation Exploration Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schingler, Robbie (Editor); Lynch, Kennda

    2006-01-01

    The Next Generation Exploration Conference (NGEC) brought together the emerging next generation of space leaders over three intensive days of collaboration and planning. The participants extended the ongoing work of national space agencies to draft a common strategic framework for lunar exploration, to include other destinations in the solar system. NGEC is the first conference to bring together emerging leaders to comment on and contribute to these activities. The majority of the three-day conference looked beyond the moon and focused on the "next destination": Asteroids, Cis-Lunar, Earth 3.0, Mars Science and Exploration, Mars Settlement and Society, and Virtual Worlds and Virtual Exploration.

  1. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  2. 78 FR 64404 - Next Generation 911; Text-to-911; Next Generation 911 Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Next Generation 911; Text-to-911; Next Generation 911 Applications AGENCY: Federal... (Commission) amends the text-to-911 ``bounce-back'' requirement as it applies to Commercial Mobile Radio... Commission required all CMRS providers and providers of interconnected text messaging services to provide...

  3. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  4. Designing the next generation of robotic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scenario-based, object-oriented software engineering methodologies in the next generation of robotic controllers is discussed. The controllers are intended to supplant the decades old technology currently embraced by the manufacturing industry of the United States.

  5. The Next Generation of RFID Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Peter H.; Turner, Leigh H.; Hu, Zhonghao; Ranasinghe, Damith C.

    The next generation of RFID will be governed by developments which have occurred in the production of printed semiconductors and in the manufacturing techniques by which RFID tags can be produced using these new materials. The paper considers all of these matters as well as protocols that are appropriate for printed tags.

  6. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Harris, Christopher J.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards embody a new vision for science education grounded in the idea that science is both a body of knowledge and a set of linked practices for developing knowledge. The authors describe strategies that they suggest school and district leaders consider when designing strategies to support NGSS implementation.

  7. Data Analysis and Next Generation Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, much of the work of California school administrators has been shaped by the accountability of the No Child Left Behind Act. Now as they stand at the precipice of Common Core Standards and next generation assessments, it is important to reflect on the proficiency educators have attained in using data to improve instruction and…

  8. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radosław; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Mullally, F.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Project, The; Sumi, T.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Bachelet, E.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; Dominik, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Mao, S.; Ranc, C.; Schmidt, R.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; RoboNet Project, The; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Husser, T.-O.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; The MiNDSTEp Team; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Haas, M. R.; Larson, K.; McCalmont, K.; Packard, M.; Peterson, C.; Putnam, D.; Reedy, L.; Ross, S.; Van Cleve, J. E.; K2C9 Engineering Team; Akeson, R.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Ciardi, D.; Cole, A.; Coutures, C.; Foreman-Mackey, D.; Fouqué, P.; Friedmann, M.; Gelino, C.; Kaspi, S.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Lang, D.; Lee, C.-H.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Maoz, D.; Marquette, J.-B.; Mogavero, F.; Morales, J. C.; Nataf, D.; Pogge, R. W.; Santerne, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Suzuki, D.; Tamura, M.; Tisserand, P.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a ˜3.7 deg2 survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} for ≳ 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  9. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radoslaw; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Mullally, F.; Barry, R. K.; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Haas, M. R.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Van Cleve, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a approximately 3.7 sq. deg survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax Pi(sub E) for approximately greater than 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  10. OGLE-2015-BLG-0051/KMT-2015-BLG-0048Lb: A Giant Planet Orbiting a Low-mass Bulge Star Discovered by High-cadence Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Jung, Y. K.; Albrow, M. D.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Shin, I.-G.; KMTNet Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of an extrasolar planet detected from the combined data of a microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0051/KMT-2015-BLG-0048 acquired by two microlensing surveys. Despite the fact that the short planetary signal occurred in the very early Bulge season during which the lensing event could be seen for just about an hour, the signal was continuously and densely covered. From the Bayesian analysis using models of the mass function, and matter and velocity distributions, combined with information on the angular Einstein radius, it is found that the host of the planet is located in the Galactic bulge. The planet has a mass {0.72}-0.07+0.65 {M}{{J}} and it is orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf host with a projected separation {d}\\perp =0.73+/- 0.08 {{au}}. The discovery of the planet demonstrates the capability of the current high-cadence microlensing lensing surveys in detecting and characterizing planets.

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 < Mg < -8 mag range, and we measure their apparent axis ratios, q, through Sérsic fits to their two-dimensional light distribution, which is well described by a constant ellipticity parameter. The resulting distribution of apparent axis ratios is then fit by families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with

  12. Variant Calling From Next Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nancy F

    2016-01-01

    The use of next generation nucleotide sequencing to discover and genotype small sequence variants has led to numerous insights into the molecular causes of various diseases. This chapter describes the use of freely available software to align next generation sequencing reads to a reference and then to use the resulting alignments to call, annotate, view, and filter small sequence variants. The suggested variant calling workflow includes read alignment with novoalign, the removal of polymerase chain reaction duplicate sequences with samtools or bamUtils, and the detection of variants with Freebayes or bam2mpg software. ANNOVAR is then used to annotate the predicted variants using gene models, population frequencies, and predicted mutation severity, producing variant files which can be viewed and filtered with the variant display tool VarSifter.

  13. Commissioning results of the next generation photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Pellegrini, C.; Winick, H.; Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Sheehna, J.; Skaritka, J.; Woodle, M.; Yakimenko, V.

    1996-12-01

    The Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP) developed by the BNL SLAC / UCLA collaboration was installed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The commissioning results and performance of the photocathode injector are present. The Next Generation Photoinjector consists of the symmetrized BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell S-band Photocathode RF gun and a single solenoidal magnet for transverse emittance compensation. The highest acceleration field achieved on the cathode is 150 m V, and the RF guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The quantum efficiency of the copper cathode was measured to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5}`. The transverse emittance and bunch length of the photoelectron beam were measured. The optimized rms normalized emittance for a charge of 300 pC is 0.77 {pi} mm mrad. The bunch length dependency of photoelectron beam on the RF gun phase and acceleration fields were experimentally investigated.

  14. Next generation biofuel engineering in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation biofuels must be compatible with current transportation infrastructure and be derived from environmentally sustainable resources that do not compete with food crops. Many bacterial species have unique properties advantageous to the production of such next-generation fuels. However, no single species possesses all characteristics necessary to make high quantities of fuels from plant waste or CO2. Species containing a subset of the desired characteristics are used as starting points for engineering organisms with all desired attributes. Metabolic engineering of model organisms has yielded high titer production of advanced fuels, including alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives. Technical developments now allow engineering of native fuel producers, as well as lignocellulolytic and autotrophic bacteria, for the production of biofuels. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer organisms for truly sustainable and economical biofuel production. PMID:23623045

  15. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  16. Next Generation Multimedia Distributed Data Base Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Stuart E.

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of client/server computing is changing. The model of a server running a monolithic application and supporting clients at the desktop is giving way to a different model that blurs the line between client and server. We are on the verge of plunging into the next generation of computing technology--distributed object-oriented computing. This is not only a change in requirements but a change in opportunities, and requires a new way of thinking for Information System (IS) developers. The information system demands caused by global competition are requiring even more access to decision making tools. Simply, object-oriented technology has been developed to supersede the current design process of information systems which is not capable of handling next generation multimedia.

  17. Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-456 Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY... Selective Availability/Anti-Spoofing Module SEP - Spherical Error Probable SS - System Specifications SV - Space Vehicle TV - Technical View UE - User

  18. Neutronics activities for next generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic activities for the next generation devices are the subject of this paper. The main activities include TFCX and FPD blanket/shield studies, neutronic aspects of ETR/INTOR critical issues, and neutronics computational modules for the tokamak system code and tandem mirror reactor system code. Trade-off analyses, optimization studies, design problem investigations and computational models development for reactor parametric studies carried out for these activities are summarized.

  19. Fiber to the home: next generation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengxin; Guo, Baoping

    2006-07-01

    Next generation networks capable of carrying converged telephone, television (TV), very high-speed internet, and very high-speed bi-directional data services (like video-on-demand (VOD), Game etc.) strategy for Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is presented. The potential market is analyzed. The barriers and some proper strategy are also discussed. Several technical problems like various powering methods, optical fiber cables, and different network architecture are discussed too.

  20. Stellar Rotation Effects in Polarimetric Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that the polarization signal in microlensing events of hot stars is larger than that of main-sequence stars. Most hot stars rotate rapidly around their stellar axes. The stellar rotation creates ellipticity and gravity-darkening effects that break the spherical symmetry of the source's shape and the circular symmetry of the source's surface brightness respectively. Hence, it causes a net polarization signal for the source star. This polarization signal should be considered in polarimetric microlensing of fast rotating stars. For moderately rotating stars, lensing can magnify or even characterize small polarization signals due to the stellar rotation through polarimetric observations. The gravity-darkening effect due to a rotating source star creates asymmetric perturbations in polarimetric and photometric microlensing curves whose maximum occurs when the lens trajectory crosses the projected position of the rotation pole on the sky plane. The stellar ellipticity creates a time shift (i) in the position of the second peak of the polarimetric curves in transit microlensing events and (ii) in the peak position of the polarimetric curves with respect to the photometric peak position in bypass microlensing events. By measuring this time shift via polarimetric observations of microlensing events, we can evaluate the ellipticity of the projected source surface on the sky plane. Given the characterizations of the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) polarimeter at the Very Large Telescope, the probability of observing this time shift is very small. The more accurate polarimeters of the next generation may well measure these time shifts and evaluate the ellipticity of microlensing source stars.

  1. Microlensing Event Caustic Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MACHO/GMAN Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The MACHO/GMAN Collaboration (cf. IAUC 6845) plus affiliate S.Rhie report that further observations of microlensing event MACHO-98-SMC-1 (R.A. = 0h45m35s.2, Decl. = -72o52'34" J2000) confirm the binary lens interpretation and yield a prediction for the time of the 2nd caustic crossing: June 19.2 +/- 1.5 UT. The confirming observations were obtained with the MSO 1.3m MACHO survey telescope and the CTIO 0.9-m telescope.

  2. The next generation very large array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Mark; Carilli, Chris; Beasley, Tony

    2016-07-01

    The North American astronomical community is considering a future large area radio array optimized to perform imaging of thermal emission down to milliarcsecond scales. This `Next Generation Very Large Array' would entail ten times the effective collecting area of the Jansky Very Large Array, operate from 1GHz to 115GHz, with ten times longer baselines (300km) providing milliarcsecond resolution, and include a dense core on kilometer scales for high surface brightness imaging. The preliminary design, capabilities, and some of the priority science goals of the instrument are summarized.

  3. Next generation heterodyne array for JCMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.-T.; Dempsey, J.; Ho, P. T. P.; Friberg, P.; Bintley, D.; Walther, C.

    2016-07-01

    As part of the JCMT Future Instrumentation Project, the EAO looks to optimize the premier niche of the facility as the go-to telescope for fast, deep wide-field mapping of the universe at 345 GHz (850 um). The next generation heterodyne array for JCMT will be designed to provide deep ultra-fast mapping capabilities that takes advantage of the full field-of-view available to the telescope, and an array of 90 SIS mixers. This paper presents a preliminary design options and the critical science drivers for the project.

  4. RADSeq: next-generation population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Blaxter, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are making a substantial impact on many areas of biology, including the analysis of genetic diversity in populations. However, genome-scale population genetic studies have been accessible only to well-funded model systems. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, a method that samples at reduced complexity across target genomes, promises to deliver high resolution population genomic data—thousands of sequenced markers across many individuals—for any organism at reasonable costs. It has found application in wild populations and non-traditional study species, and promises to become an important technology for ecological population genomics. PMID:21266344

  5. Next Generation Sequence Assembly with AMOS

    PubMed Central

    Treangen, Todd J; Sommer, Dan D; Angly, Florent E; Koren, Sergey; Pop, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    A Modular Open-Source Assembler (AMOS) was designed to offer a modular approach to genome assembly. AMOS includes a wide range of tools for assembly, including lightweight de novo assemblers Minimus and Minimo, and Bambus 2, a robust scaffolder able to handle metagenomic and polymorphic data. This protocol describes how to configure and use AMOS for the assembly of Next Generation sequence data. Additionally, we provide three tutorial examples that include bacterial, viral, and metagenomic datasets with specific tips for improving assembly quality. PMID:21400694

  6. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  7. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. ); Kozanecki, W. )

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  8. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  9. Next generation science standards available for comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-05-01

    The first public draft of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) is now available for public comment. Feedback on the standards is sought from people who have a stake in science education, including individuals in the K-12, higher education, business, and research communities. Development of NGSS is a state-led effort to define the content and practices students need to learn from kindergarten through high school. NGSS will be based on the U.S. National Research Council's reportFramework for K-12 Science Education.

  10. Access to Space: Beyond the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the many considerations involved in the development of next generation launch vehicles. The pros and cons of single stage and two stage vehicles are presented, as are the pros and cons of jet engines (normal, ramjet, and scramjet) and rocket engines. There is a possibility of utilizing a Rocket-based Combined Cycle Engine (RBCC) which functions as both a jet and rocket engine at different points of ascent. Direct impulse launch systems, tether systems, laser-launch systems, launch assist systems, and a geosynchronous skyhook are also discussed.

  11. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmet, Jérôme; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus; Spinola Durante, Guido; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut; Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried; Keppner, Herbert

    2009-08-01

    structures and their potential to deliver next generation micro devices.

  12. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  13. Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy D.; Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&2) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle. We survey the current VBCV practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration info existing development practice and standards. We also describe two verification tools, JMPL2SMV and Livingstone PathFinder, that can be used to thoroughly verify diagnosis applications that use model-based reasoning, such as the Livingstone system.

  14. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  15. Next-generation sequencing for mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, C J; Brilhante, V; Suomalainen, A

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of our understanding of mitochondrial function has come from studies of inherited mitochondrial diseases, but still majority of the patients lack molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, effective treatments for mitochondrial disorders do not exist. Development of therapies has been complicated by the fact that the diseases are extremely heterogeneous, and collecting large enough cohorts of similarly affected individuals to assess new therapies properly has been difficult. Next-generation sequencing technologies have in the last few years been shown to be an effective method for the genetic diagnosis of inherited mitochondrial diseases. Here we review the strategies and findings from studies applying next-generation sequencing methods for the genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Detailed knowledge of molecular causes also enables collection of homogenous cohorts of patients for therapy trials, and therefore boosts development of intervention. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138576

  16. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  17. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  18. Next-generation magnetic nozzle prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.P.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Moses, R.W. Jr.; Gerwin, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a next-generation magnetic nozzle. The project engaged the fundamental physics of plasma- magnetic field interactions to attain plasma accelerator control that is significantly more advanced than the present state-of-the-art. Central to next-generation magnetic nozzle design and development is the ability to precisely predict the interaction of flowing magnetized plasma with self-generated and applied magnetic fields. This predictive capability must order physical processes in a way that preserves accuracy while allowing for the rapid evaluation of many different nozzle configurations. Large, ``off-the-shelf``, numerical codes are not well suited to nozzle design applications in that they lack the necessary non-ideal physics and are not well disposed to rapid design evaluation. For example, we know that both non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects, such as Hall drifts and finite ion- gyro-radius kinetics, are important constituents of magnetic nozzle performance. We built a special purpose code to allow system design.

  19. The next generation Antarctic digital magnetic anomaly map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Frese, R.R.B; Golynsky, A.V.; Kim, H.R.; Gaya-Piqué, L.; Thébault, E.; Chiappinii, M.; Ghidella, M.; Grunow, A.; ,

    2007-01-01

    S (Golynsky et al., 2001). This map synthesized over 7.1 million line-kms of survey data available up through 1999 from marine, airborne and Magsat satellite observations. Since the production of the initial map, a large number of new marine and airborne surveys and improved magnetic observations from the Ørsted and CHAMP satellite missions have become available. In addition, an improved core field model for the Antarctic has been developed to better isolate crustal anomalies in these data. The next generation compilation also will likely represent the magnetic survey observations of the region in terms of a high-resolution spherical cap harmonic model. In this paper, we review the progress and problems of developing an improved magnetic anomaly map to facilitate studies of the Antarctic crustal magnetic field

  20. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... page please turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians ...

  1. Next Generation Sequencing in Endocrine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Forlenza, Gregory P.; Calhoun, Amy; Beckman, Kenneth B.; Halvorsen, Tanya; Hamdoun, Elwaseila; Zierhut, Heather; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Polgreen, Lynda E.; Miller, Bradley S.; Nathan, Brandon; Petryk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and advances in genomic sequencing technologies, the use of clinical molecular diagnostics has grown tremendously over the last decade. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has overcome many of the practical roadblocks that had slowed the adoption of molecular testing for routine clinical diagnosis. In endocrinology, targeted NGS now complements biochemical testing and imaging studies. The goal of this review is to provide clinicians with a guide to the application of NGS to genetic testing for endocrine conditions, by compiling a list of established gene mutations detectable by NGS, and highlighting key phenotypic features of these disorders. As we outline in this review, the clinical utility of NGS-based molecular testing for endocrine disorders is very high. Identifying an exact genetic etiology improves understanding of the disease, provides clear explanation to families about the cause, and guides decisions about screening, prevention and/or treatment. PMID:25958132

  2. Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  3. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  4. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not components of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.

  5. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Li, Yinhu; Li, Siliang; Hu, Ni; He, Yimin; Pong, Ray; Lin, Danni; Lu, Lihua; Law, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, and improve life qualities. NGS systems are typically represented by SOLiD/Ion Torrent PGM from Life Sciences, Genome Analyzer/HiSeq 2000/MiSeq from Illumina, and GS FLX Titanium/GS Junior from Roche. Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), which possesses the world's biggest sequencing capacity, has multiple NGS systems including 137 HiSeq 2000, 27 SOLiD, one Ion Torrent PGM, one MiSeq, and one 454 sequencer. We have accumulated extensive experience in sample handling, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In this paper, technologies of these systems are reviewed, and first-hand data from extensive experience is summarized and analyzed to discuss the advantages and specifics associated with each sequencing system. At last, applications of NGS are summarized. PMID:22829749

  6. Next Generation Sequencing in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in the history of human genetics research, it is now both technically feasible and economically affordable to screen individual genomes for novel disease-causing mutations at base-pair resolution using "next-generation sequencing" (NGS). One popular aim in many of today's NGS studies is genome resequencing (in part or whole) to identify DNA variants potentially accounting for the "missing heritability" problem observed in many genetically complex traits. Thus far, only relatively few projects have applied these powerful new technologies to search for novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) related sequence variants. In this review, I summarize the findings from the first NGS-based resequencing studies in AD and discuss their potential implications and limitations. Notable recent discoveries using NGS include the identification of rare susceptibility modifying alleles in APP, TREM2, and PLD3. Several other large-scale NGS projects are currently underway so that additional discoveries can be expected over the coming years.

  7. Microstructural characterization of next generation nuclear graphites.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Chinnathambi; Kane, Joshua; Butt, Darryl P; Windes, William E; Ubic, Rick

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  8. The Next Generation of Planetary Atmospheric Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Entry probes provide useful insights into the structures of planetary atmospheres, but give only one-dimensional pictures of complex four-dimensional systems that vary on all temporal and spatial scales. This makes the interpretation of the results quite challenging, especially as regards atmospheric dynamics. Here is a planetary meteorologist's vision of what the next generation of atmospheric entry probe missions should be: Dedicated sounding instruments get most of the required data from orbit. Relatively simple and inexpensive entry probes are released from the orbiter, with low entry velocities, to establish ground truth, to clarify the vertical structure, and for adaptive observations to enhance the dataset in preparation for sensitive operations. The data are assimilated onboard in real time. The products, being immediately available, are of immense benefit for scientific and operational purposes (aerobraking, aerocapture, accurate payload delivery via glider, ballooning missions, weather forecasts, etc.).

  9. Harness: The Next Generation Beyond PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.

    1998-09-05

    Abstract. Harness is the next generation heterogeneous distributed computing package being developed by the PVM team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and Emory University. This paper describes the changing trends in cluster computing and how Harness is being designed to address the future needs of PVM and MPI application developers. Harness (which will support both PVM and MPI) will allow users to dynamically customize, adapt, and extend a virtual machine's features to more closely match the needs of their application and to optimize for the underlying computer resources. This paper will describe the architecture and core services of this new virtual machine paradgm, our progress on this project, and our experiences with early prototypes of Harness.

  10. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  11. Radiology: "killer app" for next generation networks?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Kevin M

    2004-03-01

    The core principles of digital radiology were well developed by the end of the 1980 s. During the following decade tremendous improvements in computer technology enabled realization of those principles at an affordable cost. In this decade work can focus on highly distributed radiology in the context of the integrated health care enterprise. Over the same period computer networking has evolved from a relatively obscure field used by a small number of researchers across low-speed serial links to a pervasive technology that affects nearly all facets of society. Development directions in network technology will ultimately provide end-to-end data paths with speeds that match or exceed the speeds of data paths within the local network and even within workstations. This article describes key developments in Next Generation Networks, potential obstacles, and scenarios in which digital radiology can become a "killer app" that helps to drive deployment of new network infrastructure.

  12. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  13. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  14. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  15. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE PAGES

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; ...

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmore » of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.« less

  16. Microlensing detection of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Emanuela; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2013-05-01

    We review the method of exoplanetary microlensing with a focus on two-body planetary lensing systems. The physical properties of planetary systems can be successfully measured by means of a deep analysis of lightcurves and high-resolution imaging of planetary systems, countering the concern that microlensing cannot determine planetary masses and orbital radii. Ground-based observers have had success in diagnosing properties of multi-planet systems from a few events, but space-based observations will be much more powerful and statistically more complete. Since microlensing is most sensitive to exoplanets beyond the snow line, whose statistics, in turn, allow for testing current planetary formation and evolution theories, we investigate the retrieval of semi-major axis density by a microlensing space-based survey with realistic parameters. Making use of a published statistical method for projected exoplanets quantities (Brown 2011), we find that one year of such a survey might distinguish between simple power-law semi-major axis densities. We conclude by briefly reviewing ground-based results hinting at a high abundance of free-floating planets and describing the potential contribution of space-based missions to understanding the frequency and mass distribution of these intriguing objects, which could help unveil the formation processes of planetary systems.

  17. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Tom; Johnson, Jimmie; Robertson, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. The United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport. Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). AVGS has a proven pedigree, based on extensive ground testing and flight demonstrations. The AVGS on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART)mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km. The first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS. units, and the next generation sensor must be updated to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor is being redesigned to update parts and add additional. capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next, Generation AVGS (NGAVGS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities might include greater sensor range, auto ranging, and real-time video output. This paper presents an approach to sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It will also discuss approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, parts selection and test plans for the NGAVGS will be addressed to provide a highly reliable flight qualified sensor. Expanded capabilities through innovative use of existing capabilities will also be

  18. The Next Generation Transit Survey—Prototyping Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormac, J.; Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J.; West, R. G.; Walker, S.; Bento, J.; Skillen, I.; Faedi, F.; Burleigh, M. R.; Casewell, S. L.; Chazelas, B.; Genolet, L.; Gibson, N. P.; Goad, M. R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Ryans, R.; Todd, I.; Udry, S.; Watson, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/2009 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide-field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility, which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.

  19. Next Generation Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Fisher, R. A.; Vrugt, J. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; McDowell, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen is a key regulator of vegetation dynamics, soil carbon release, and terrestrial carbon cycles. Thus, to assess energy impacts on the global carbon cycle and future climates, it is critical that we have a mechanism-based and data-calibrated nitrogen model that simulates nitrogen limitation upon both above and belowground carbon dynamics. In this study, we developed a next generation nitrogen-carbon dynamic model within the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). This next generation nitrogen-carbon dynamic model utilized 1) a mechanistic model of nitrogen limitation on photosynthesis with nitrogen trade-offs among light absorption, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage; 2) an optimal leaf nitrogen model that links soil nitrogen availability and leaf nitrogen content; and 3) an ecosystem demography (ED) model that simulates the growth and light competition of tree cohorts and is currently coupled to CLM. Our three test cases with changes in CO2 concentration, growing temperature and radiation demonstrate the model's ability to predict the impact of altered environmental conditions on nitrogen allocations. Currently, we are testing the model against different datasets including soil fertilization and Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments across different forest types. We expect that our calibrated model will considerably improve our understanding and predictability of vegetation-climate interactions.itrogen allocation model evaluations. The figure shows the scatter plots of predicted and measured Vc,max and Jmax scaled to 25 oC (i.e.,Vc,max25 and Jmax25) at elevated CO2 (570 ppm, test case one), reduced radiation in canopy (0.1-0.9 of the radiation at the top of canopy, test case two) and reduced growing temperature (15oC, test case three). The model is first calibrated using control data under ambient CO2 (370 ppm), radiation at the top of the canopy (621 μmol photon/m2/s), the normal growing temperature (30oC). The fitted model

  20. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  1. PCR Techniques in Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Rashmi S

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing and its prolific use in the clinical realm, it would appear that techniques such as PCR would not be in high demand. This is not the case however, as PCR techniques play an important role in the success of NGS technology. Although NGS has rapidly become an important part of clinical molecular diagnostics, whole genome sequencing is still difficult to implement in a clinical laboratory due to high costs of sequencing, as well as issues surrounding data processing, analysis, and data storage, which can reduce efficiency and increase turnaround times. As a result, targeted sequencing is often used in clinical diagnostics, due to its increased efficiency. PCR techniques play an integral role in targeted NGS sequencing, allowing for the generation of multiple NGS libraries and the sequencing of multiple targeted regions simultaneously. We will outline the methods we employ in PCR amplification of targeted genomic regions for cancer mutation hotspots using the Ampliseq Cancer Hotspot v2 panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).

  2. Next-generation atmospheric neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    A short review on the next-generation experiments aiming to study the neutrinos produced in cosmic-ray induced atmospheric showers is presented. The projects currently proposed rely on different complementary detection techniques, from the successful water Cherenkov and magnetized tracko-calorimeter techniques to the more innovative Liquid Argon technology. As all of the proposed detectors must be deeply buried to mitigate the atmospheric muon background, many experiments are expected to be placed deep underground. Following the neutrino telescope approach, the largest ones will be located deep under the sea/ice. Several future projects are part of a wider physics program which includes a neutrino beam. For such cases, the focus is put on the expected performances with only using atmospheric neutrinos. The main physics thread of the review is the question of the determination of the ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates, referred to as the neutrino mass hierarchy. This falls into the broader context of the precise measurement of the neutrino mixing parameters. The expected reach of the future planned detectors in this respect is also addressed.

  3. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Pickering, Karen D.; Cox, Marlon; Towsend, Neil; Campbell, Colin; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by NASA s Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project is developing life support technologies (including water recovery and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processor (AWP). The RCA swing bed and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit, with focus on test article development and integrated testing in an Advanced PLSS in cooperation with the Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project. An RCA swing-bed provides integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The VOR technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current space suit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings whereas the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The AWP effort, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based secondary treatment, will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water. This paper will provide a status of technology development activities and future plans.

  4. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; Abney, Morgan B.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  5. The next generation of crystal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Crystal detectors have been used widely in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, medical instruments and homeland security applications. Novel crystal detectors are continuously being discovered and developed in academia and in industry. In high energy and nuclear physics experiments, total absorption electromagnetic calorimeters (ECAL) made of inorganic crystals are known for their superb energy resolution and detection efficiency for photon and electron measurements. A crystal ECAL is thus the choice for those experiments where precision measurements of photons and electrons are crucial for their physics missions. For future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers, however, the crystal detectors used in the above mentioned ECALs are either not bright and fast enough, or not radiation hard enough. Crystal detectors have also been proposed to build a Homogeneous Hadron Calorimeter (HHCAL) to achieve unprecedented jet mass resolution by duel readout of both Cherenkov and scintillation light, where development of cost-effective crystal detectors is a crucial issue because of the huge crystal volume required. This paper discusses several R&D directions for the next generation of crystal detectors for future HEP experiments.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Burchell, Timothy D; Corwin, William R; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Forsberg, Charles W.; Morris, Robert Noel; Moses, David Lewis

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  7. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  8. Choice of next-generation sequencing pipelines.

    PubMed

    Del Chierico, F; Ancora, M; Marcacci, M; Cammà, C; Putignani, L; Conti, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionary tools which have made possible achieving remarkable advances in genetics since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Thanks to the possibility to produce large amount of sequence data, these tools are going to completely substitute other high-throughput technologies. Moreover, the large applications of NGS protocols are increasing the genetic decoding of biological systems through studies of genome anatomy and gene mapping, coupled to the transcriptome pictures. The application of NGS pipelines such as (1) de-novo genomic sequencing by mate-paired and whole-genome shotgun strategies; (2) specific gene sequencing on large bacterial communities; and (3) RNA-seq methods including whole transcriptome sequencing and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (Sage-analysis) are fundamental in the genome-wide fields like metagenomics. Recently, the availability of these advanced protocols has allowed to overcome the usual sequencing technical issues related to the mapping specificity over standard shotgun library sequencing, the detection of large structural genomes variations and bridging sequencing gaps, as well as more precise gene annotation. In this chapter we will discuss how to manage a successful NGS pipeline from the planning of sequencing projects through the choice of the platforms up to the data analysis management.

  9. Keeping Up With the Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    ten Bosch, John R.; Grody, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    The speed, accuracy, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of DNA sequencing have been improving continuously since the initial derivation of the technique in the mid-1970s. With the advent of massively parallel sequencing technologies, DNA sequencing costs have been dramatically reduced. No longer is it unthinkable to sequence hundreds or even thousands of genes in a single individual with a suspected genetic disease or complex disease predisposition. Along with the benefits offered by these technologies come a number of challenges that must be addressed before wide-scale sequencing becomes accepted medical practice. Molecular diagnosticians will need to become comfortable with, and gain confidence in, these new platforms, which are based on radically different technologies compared to the standard DNA sequencers in routine use today. Experience will determine whether these instruments are best applied to sequencing versus resequencing. Perhaps most importantly, along with increasing read lengths inevitably comes increased ascertainment of novel sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance, the postanalytical aspects of which could bog down the entire field. But despite these obstacles, and as a direct result of the promises these sequencing advances present, it will likely not be long before next-generation sequencing begins to make an impact in molecular medicine. In this review, technical issues are discussed, in addition to the practical considerations that will need to be addressed as advances push toward personal genome sequencing. PMID:18832462

  10. Next-generation integrated microfluidic circuits.

    PubMed

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Park, Joong Yull; Burns, Mark A; Takayama, Shuichi

    2011-09-07

    This mini-review provides a brief overview of recent devices that use networks of elastomeric valves to minimize or eliminate the need for interconnections between microfluidic chips and external instruction lines that send flow control signals. Conventional microfluidic control mechanisms convey instruction signals in a parallel manner such that the number of instruction lines must increase as the number of independently operated valves increases. The devices described here circumvent this "tyranny of microfluidic interconnects" by the serial encoding of information to enable instruction of an arbitrary number of independent valves with a set number of control lines, or by the microfluidic circuit-embedded encoding of instructions to eliminate control lines altogether. Because the parallel instruction chips are the most historical and straightforward to design, they are still the most commonly used approach today. As requirements for instruction complexity, chip-to-chip communication, and real-time on-chip feedback flow control arise, the next generation of integrated microfluidic circuits will need to incorporate these latest interconnect flow control approaches.

  11. THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

    2008-09-01

    Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

  12. Digital Earth reloaded - Beyond the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, M.; Woodgate, P.; Annoni, A.; Schade, S.

    2014-02-01

    Digital replicas (or 'mirror worlds') of complex entities and systems are now routine in many fields such as aerospace engineering; archaeology; medicine; or even fashion design. The Digital Earth (DE) concept as a digital replica of the entire planet occurs in Al Gore's 1992 book Earth in the Balance and was popularized in his speech at the California Science Center in January 1998. It played a pivotal role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth that achieved many elements of this vision. Almost 15 years after Al Gore's speech, the concept of DE needs to be re-evaluated in the light of the many scientific and technical developments in the fields of information technology, data infrastructures, citizen?s participation, and earth observation that have taken place since. This paper intends to look beyond the next generation predominantly based on the developments of fields outside the spatial sciences, where concepts, software, and hardware with strong relationships to DE are being developed without referring to this term. It also presents a number of guiding criteria for future DE developments.

  13. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O'Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  14. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2016-03-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (≳2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form {d}2{N}{{pl}}/(d{log} {m}p d{log} a)={ A }{({m}p/{M}{{Sat}})}α {(a/2.5{{AU}})}β with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of aout. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expected observations for each survey. Comparing with the reported results, we derive constraints on the parameters \\{α ,β ,{ A },{a}{{out}}\\} that describe a single population of planets that is simultaneously consistent with the results of microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. We find median and 68% confindence intervals of α =-{0.86}-0.19+0.21 (-{0.85}-0.19+0.21), β ={1.1}-1.4+1.9 ({1.1}-1.3+1.9), { A }={0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2 ({0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2), and {a}{{out}}={10}-4.7+26 AU ({12}-6.2+50 AU) assuming “hot-start” (“cold-start”) planet evolutionary models. These values are consistent with all current knowledge of planets on orbits beyond ∼2 AU around single M dwarfs.

  15. PMAD for the next generation spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) function has traditionally been the largest consumer of power system allocations (excluding the source). The PMAD functional block provides power conversion and the load switching interface between the user and the power system. The PMAD miniaturization approach is to reduce the size without losing system flexibility. The functions of PMAD can be broken down to repeated functions and system specific functions. The repeated functions are candidates for in-accessible packaging techniques such as hybridization and mixed signal ASICs. The system specific functions must utilize packaging techniques which are either accessible or programmable. The load switching function is repeated for every load on the spacecraft. Cassini used a first generation hybrid power switch (SSPS). The SSPS is designed specifically for the Cassini system. The next generation power switch will be a simpler version with the capability to switch different voltages on either the high or low side. The new topology permits different switch configurations to accommodate specific load requirements. Power conversion contains both repeated functions and system specific functions. The pulse width modulation (PWM) and synchronous rectification are repeatable among different power converters. The power transformer, input/output filters and control feedback loop are accessible outside of the hybrid. The hybrid can be used in different topologies to optimize performance for different system requirements. The hybrid power converter combines high density packaging with system design flexibility without sacrificing efficiency. The command interface is a mission specific function. Recent developments in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have provided a means for miniaturizing the command interface without sacrificing the system flexibility. The FPGA is important to maintaining multi-mission capability without invoking a command interface standard.

  16. Patterning techniques for next generation IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reduction of linear critical dimensions (CDs) beyond 45 nm would require significant increase of the complexity of pattern definition process. In this work, we discuss the key successor methodology to the current optical lithography, the Double Patterning Technique (DPT). We compare the complexity of CAD solutions, fab equipment, and wafer processing with its competitors, such as the nanoimprint (NIL) and the extreme UV (EUV) techniques. We also look ahead to the market availability for the product families enabled using the novel patterning solutions. DPT is often recognized as the most viable next generation lithography as it utilizes the existing equipment and processes and is considered a stop-gap solution before the advanced NIL or EUV equipment is developed. Using design for manufacturability (DfM) rules, DPT can drive the k1 factor down to 0.13. However, it faces a variety of challenges, from new mask overlay strategies, to layout pattern split, novel OPC, increased CD tolerances, new etch techniques, as well as long processing time, all of which compromise its return on investment (RoI). In contrast, it can be claimed e.g., that the RoI is the highest for the NIL but this technology bears significant risk. For all novel patterning techniques, the key questions remain: when and how should they be introduced, what is their long-term potential, when should they be replaced, and by what successor technology. We summarize the unpublished results of several panel discussions on DPT at the recent SPIE/BACUS conferences.

  17. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  18. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2013-09-01

    Infrared sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection has become application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive infrared (IR) sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage and 2-stage cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single mechanical module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (<20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (<=25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing techniques and hardware can be utilized to null all motion along the common axis. Low vibration translates to better sensor performance resulting in simpler, more direct mechanical mounting configurations, eliminating the need for convoluted, expensive, massive, long lead damping hardware.

  19. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  20. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  1. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    during the daytime. Energy can also be stored in the smart windows during the daytime simultaneously and be discharged for use in the evening. These results reveal that the electrochromic devices have potential applications in a wide range of areas. We hope that this Account will promote further efforts toward fundamental research on electrochromic materials and the development of new multifunctional electrochromic devices to meet the growing demands for next-generation electronic systems.

  2. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  3. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  4. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  5. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  6. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  7. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  8. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  9. UCAV - The Next Generation Air-Superiority Fighter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    number. 1. REPORT DATE 00 JUN 2002 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UCAV - The Next Generation Air-Superiority...next- generation air-superiority fighter is entering development. Unmanned aircraft must be considered as an alternative to manned aircraft for this

  10. United States Marine Corps Next Generation UAS Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    of Military Studies Research Paper September 2009- April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER United States Marine Corps Next Generation ......States Marine Corps Next Generation UAS Training Author: Major Nicholas 0. Neimer, United States Marine Corps Thesis: Since 2003, the United States

  11. Using Evidence to Create Next Generation High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation High Schools are schools that redesign the high school experience to make it more engaging and worthwhile for high school students. In order to create such Next Generation High Schools, schools, districts, and States should utilize evidence-based strategies to transform high schools in ways that engage students and help prepare…

  12. Applications and Case Studies of the Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies in Food, Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are able to produce high-throughput short sequence reads in a cost-effective fashion. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also changed the landscape of life sciences. Here I survey their major applications ranging...

  13. Japan's robotics research for the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Y.; Yonemoto, K.

    1983-10-01

    The results of a survey of Japanese research institutes concerning the direction of Japanese robotics development over the next twenty years are presented. Attention is given to an assessment of the goals of robotics R & D in the public and private sectors based on the total research budgets of R & D institutes, the number of research laboratories studying robotics, and the various classifications of the topics of study. The study topics include work, control, measurement and recognition functions. A time table is presented which lists the specific applications of robotic research, the year of their expected actualization, and the degree of importance assigned by the respondents. Some of the more important applications are: robots able to work in hostile environments; robots for unmanned mining operations; and the rationalization of such tasks as afforestation, felling and transport activities in steep forested land through the use of advanced locomotive technology.

  14. A research roadmap for next-generation sequencing informatics.

    PubMed

    Altman, Russ B; Prabhu, Snehit; Sidow, Arend; Zook, Justin M; Goldfeder, Rachel; Litwack, David; Ashley, Euan; Asimenos, George; Bustamante, Carlos D; Donigan, Katherine; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Johansen, Elaine; Khuri, Natalia; Lee, Eunice; Liang, Xueying Sharon; Salit, Marc; Serang, Omar; Tezak, Zivana; Wall, Dennis P; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Kass-Hout, Taha

    2016-04-20

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are fueling a wave of new diagnostic tests. Progress on a key set of nine research challenge areas will help generate the knowledge required to advance effectively these diagnostics to the clinic.

  15. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations for the next generation protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhaval K.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated protein engineering efforts have been undertaken lately to generate protein therapeutics with desired properties. This has resulted in the discovery of the next generation of protein therapeutics, which include: engineered antibodies, immunoconjugates, bi/multi-specific proteins, antibody mimetic novel scaffolds, and engineered ligands/receptors. These novel protein therapeutics possess unique physicochemical properties and act via a unique mechanism-of-action, which collectively makes their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) different than other established biological molecules. Consequently, in order to support the discovery and development of these next generation molecules, it becomes important to understand the determinants controlling their PK/PD. This review discusses the determinants that a PK/PD scientist should consider during the design and development of next generation protein therapeutics. In addition, the role of systems PK/PD models in enabling rational development of the next generation protein therapeutics is emphasized. PMID:26373957

  17. NASA/NREN: Next Generation Internet (NGI) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Richard; Freeman, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation internet (NGI) and the NREN (NASA Research and Education Network) activities are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NREN architecture; 2) NREN applications; and 3) NREN applied research.

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations for the next generation protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhaval K

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly sophisticated protein engineering efforts have been undertaken lately to generate protein therapeutics with desired properties. This has resulted in the discovery of the next generation of protein therapeutics, which include: engineered antibodies, immunoconjugates, bi/multi-specific proteins, antibody mimetic novel scaffolds, and engineered ligands/receptors. These novel protein therapeutics possess unique physicochemical properties and act via a unique mechanism-of-action, which collectively makes their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) different than other established biological molecules. Consequently, in order to support the discovery and development of these next generation molecules, it becomes important to understand the determinants controlling their PK/PD. This review discusses the determinants that a PK/PD scientist should consider during the design and development of next generation protein therapeutics. In addition, the role of systems PK/PD models in enabling rational development of the next generation protein therapeutics is emphasized.

  19. Toward green next-generation passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an increasingly important aspect of designing access networks, due to both increased concerns for global warming and increased network costs related to energy consumption. Comparing access, metro, and core, the access constitutes a substantial part of the per subscriber network energy consumption and is regarded as the bottleneck for increased network energy efficiency. One of the main opportunities for reducing network energy consumption lies in efficiency improvements of the customer premises equipment. Access networks in general are designed for low utilization while supporting high peak access rates. The combination of large contribution to overall network power consumption and low Utilization implies large potential for CPE power saving modes where functionality is powered off during periods of idleness. Next-generation passive optical network, which is considered one of the most promising optical access networks, has notably matured in the past few years and is envisioned to massively evolve in the near future. This trend will increase the power requirements of NG-PON and make it no longer coveted. This paper will first provide a comprehensive survey of the previously reported studies on tackling this problem. A novel solution framework is then introduced, which aims to explore the maximum design dimensions and achieve the best possible power saving while maintaining the QoS requirements for each type of service.

  20. In Silico Proficiency Testing for Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Duncavage, Eric J; Abel, Haley J; Pfeifer, John D

    2017-01-01

    Quality assurance for clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assays is difficult given the complex methods and the range of sequence variants such assays can detect. As the number and range of mutations detected by clinical NGS assays has increased, it is difficult to apply standard analyte-specific proficiency testing (PT). Most current proficiency testing challenges for NGS are methods-based PT surveys that use DNA from reference samples engineered to harbor specific mutations that test both sequence generation and bioinformatics analysis. These methods-based PTs are limited by the number and types of mutations that can be physically introduced into a single DNA sample. In silico proficiency testing, which evaluates only the bioinformatics component of NGS assays, is a recently introduced PT method that allows for evaluation of numerous mutations spanning a range of variant classes. In silico PT data sets can be generated from simulated or actual sequencing data and are used to test alignment through variant detection and annotation steps. In silico PT has several advantages over the use of physical samples, including greater flexibility in tested variants, the ability to design laboratory-specific challenges, and lower costs. Herein, we review the use of in silico PT as an alternative to traditional methods-based PT as it is evolving in oncology applications and discuss how the approach is applicable more broadly.

  1. Fibre assignment in next-generation wide-field spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibres to targets in next-generation fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, which we have called the draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogues, we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm, compared to a random assignment, can be as much as 2 per cent for the first tiles. For a survey such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BigBOSS), this would imply saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ˜350 deg2. An important advantage of this method is that the fibre collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss the additional optimizations of the fibre-positioning process. In particular, we show that if we allow for the rotation of the focal plane, we can improve the efficiency of the process by ˜3.5-4.5 per cent, even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2°). For instruments that allow large rotations of the focal plane, the expected gain increases to ˜5-6 per cent. Therefore, these results strongly support the use of focal plane rotation in future spectrographs, as far as the efficiency of the fibre-positioning process is concerned. Finally, we discuss the implications of our optimizations and provide some basic hints for an optimal survey strategy, based on the number of targets per positioner.

  2. Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    Introduction Nanostructured polymer -nanoparticle composites have been widely used as conductive and dielectric materials for applications in flexible...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0010 Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials Peter Kofinas MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK...Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4086 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  3. Physician Event Reporting: Training the Next Generation of Physicians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    353 Physician Event Reporting: Training the Next Generation of Physicians Quang-Tuyen Nguyen, Joanna Weinberg, Lee H. Hilborne Abstract...and the quality of health care by explicitly educating and training the next generation of physicians in these areas. Although quality of care is...implicit in most medical and other professional school curricula, medical students generally are not given the training necessary to meet the specific

  4. Advanced Quality of Service Management for Next Generation Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS ADVANCED QUALITY OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT FOR NEXT GENERATION INTERNET by Paulo R... Management for Next Generation Internet Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Paulo R. Silva Project Number Task Number Work...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC

  5. Next generation interatomic potentials for condensed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Christopher Michael; Behler, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    The computer simulation of condensed systems is a challenging task. While electronic structure methods like density-functional theory (DFT) usually provide a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency, they are computationally very demanding and thus applicable only to systems containing up to a few hundred atoms. Unfortunately, many interesting problems require simulations to be performed on much larger systems involving thousands of atoms or more. Consequently, more efficient methods are urgently needed, and a lot of effort has been spent on the development of a large variety of potentials enabling simulations with significantly extended time and length scales. Most commonly, these potentials are based on physically motivated functional forms and thus perform very well for the applications they have been designed for. On the other hand, they are often highly system-specific and thus cannot easily be transferred from one system to another. Moreover, their numerical accuracy is restricted by the intrinsic limitations of the imposed functional forms. In recent years, several novel types of potentials have emerged, which are not based on physical considerations. Instead, they aim to reproduce a set of reference electronic structure data as accurately as possible by using very general and flexible functional forms. In this review we will survey a number of these methods. While they differ in the choice of the employed mathematical functions, they all have in common that they provide high-quality potential-energy surfaces, while the efficiency is comparable to conventional empirical potentials. It has been demonstrated that in many cases these potentials now offer a very interesting new approach to study complex systems with hitherto unreached accuracy.

  6. The Angstrom Project: a new microlensing candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerins, E.; Darnley, M. J.; Newsam, A. M.; Duke, J. P.; Gould, A.; Street, C. Han B.-G. Park R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new microlensing candidate in M31 by the Angstrom Project M31 bulge microlensing survey using the Liverpool Telescope (La Palma). The candidate was discovered using difference imaging techniques by the Angstrom Project Alert System (APAS) in a series of Sloan i'-band images of the bulge of M31.

  7. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R. E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2009-12-10

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  8. pyLIMA : an open source microlensing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Planetary microlensing is a unique tool to detect cold planets around low-mass stars which is approaching a watershed in discoveries as near-future missions incorporate dedicated surveys. NASA and ESA have decided to complement WFIRST-AFTA and Euclid with microlensing programs to enrich our statistics about this planetary population. Of the nany challenges in- herent in these missions, the data analysis is of primary importance, yet is often perceived as time consuming, complex and daunting barrier to participation in the field. We present the first open source modeling software to conduct a microlensing analysis. This software is written in Python and use as much as possible existing packages.

  9. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mopsaic Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Rusholme, Ben; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We have released a major upgrade of the Montage image mosaic engine (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) , as part of a program to develop the next generation of the engine in response to the rapid changes in the data processing landscape in Astronomy, which is generating ever larger data sets in ever more complex formats . The new release (version 4) contains modules dedicated to creating and managing mosaics of data stored as multi-dimensional arrays ("data cubes"). The new release inherits the architectural benefits of portability and scalability of the original design. The code is publicly available on Git Hub and the Montage web page. The release includes a command line tool that supports visualization of large images, and the beta-release of a Python interface to the visualization tool. We will provide examples on how to use these these features. We are generating a mosaic of the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) Survey maps of neutral hydrogen in and around our Milky Way Galaxy, to assess the performance at scale and to develop tools and methodologies that will enable scientists inexpert in cloud processing to exploit could platforms for data processing and product generation at scale. Future releases include support for an R-tree based mechanism for fast discovery of and access to large data sets and on-demand access to calibrated SDSS DR9 data that exploits it; support for the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization (HEALPix) scheme, now standard for projects investigating cosmic background radiation (Gorski et al 2005); support fort the Tessellated Octahedral Adaptive Subdivision Transform (TOAST), the sky partitioning sky used by the WorldWide Telescope (WWT); and a public applications programming interface (API) in C that can be called from other languages, especially Python.

  10. Educational Approaches When Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Brian

    This paper overviews the history of science education from the launch of Sputnik through reform movements and associated legislation to the most recent Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The paper also considers stakeholder groups that would need to be involved if NGSS is to be implemented properly, including teachers, parents and unions. Each group holds a responsibility within a school system that needs to be addressed from a practical standpoint to increase the likelihood of the effective adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards. This paper provides background and program information about the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). It also considers the educational, philosophical, and instructional approach known as inquiry which is strongly advocated by NGSS and explores where and how other well-studied instructional approaches might have a place within an inquiry-based classroom.

  11. Requirements for Next Generation Comprehensive Analysis of Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Data, Anubhav

    2008-01-01

    The unique demands of rotorcraft aeromechanics analysis have led to the development of software tools that are described as comprehensive analyses. The next generation of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses will be driven and enabled by the tremendous capabilities of high performance computing, particularly modular and scaleable software executed on multiple cores. Development of a comprehensive analysis based on high performance computing both demands and permits a new analysis architecture. This paper describes a vision of the requirements for this next generation of comprehensive analyses of rotorcraft. The requirements are described and substantiated for what must be included and justification provided for what should be excluded. With this guide, a path to the next generation code can be found.

  12. Survey of Current and Next Generation Space Power Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-26

    porous carbon and sulfur dioxide (or thionyl chloride ), electrolyte of acetronitrile and lithium bromide salt, the lithium sulfur dioxide chemistry...TRL 6); recent laboratory developments have yielded energy densities of 600 Wh/kg22. Lithium -Air- Lithium -air batteries consist of lithium anodes...generation, battery types are discussed below and a comparative table of traditional non- lithium , terrestrial battery types are presented in Table 11

  13. Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0056 Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials Yuanzhe Piao SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      23-05-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Mar 2012 to 29...Mar 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER

  14. Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0061 Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials Sylvie Begin-Colin UNIVERSITE DE...THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      15-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2012 to 29 Sep 2015 4...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi-Ferroic Polymer Nanoparticle Composites for Next Generation Metamaterials 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-12-1

  15. THE TRAINING OF NEXT GENERATION DATA SCIENTISTS IN BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Garmire, Lana X; Gliske, Stephen; Nguyen, Quynh C; Chen, Jonathan H; Nemati, Shamim; VAN Horn, John D; Moore, Jason H; Shreffler, Carol; Dunn, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    With the booming of new technologies, biomedical science has transformed into digitalized, data intensive science. Massive amount of data need to be analyzed and interpreted, demand a complete pipeline to train next generation data scientists. To meet this need, the transinstitutional Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Initiative has been implemented since 2014, complementing other NIH institutional efforts. In this report, we give an overview the BD2K K01 mentored scientist career awards, which have demonstrated early success. We address the specific trainings needed in representative data science areas, in order to make the next generation of data scientists in biomedicine.

  16. Astrometric microlensing with the GAIA satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, V. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2002-04-01

    GAIA is the `super-Hipparcos ' survey satellite selected as a Cornerstone 6 mission by the European Space Agency. GAIA can measure microlensing by the brightening of source stars. For the broad G -band photometer, the all-sky source-averaged photometric optical depth is ~10-7 . There are ~1300 photometric microlensing events for which GAIA will measure at least one data point on the amplified light curve. GAIA can also measure microlensing by the small excursions of the light centroid that occur during events. The all-sky source-averaged astrometric microlensing optical depth is ~2.5×10-5 . Some ~25000 sources will have a significant variation of the centroid shift, together with a closest approach, during the lifetime of the mission. This is not the actual number of events that can be extracted from the GAIA data set, as the false detection rate has not been assessed. A covariance analysis is used to study the propagation of errors and the estimation of parameters from realistic sampling of the GAIA data stream of transits in the along-scan direction during microlensing events. The mass of the lens can be calculated to good accuracy if the lens is nearby so that the angular Einstein radius θ E is large; if the Einstein radius projected on to the observer plane r~ E is approximately an astronomical unit; or if the duration of the astrometric event is long (>~1yr) or the source star is bright . Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the ~2500 events for which the mass can be recovered with an error of <50 per cent. These high-quality events are dominated by disc lenses within a few tens of parsecs and source stars within a few hundred parsecs. We show that the local mass function can be recovered from the high-quality sample to good accuracy. GAIA is the first instrument with the capability of measuring the mass locally in very faint objects such as black holes and very cool white and brown dwarfs. For only ~5 per cent of all astrometric events will GAIA record

  17. Gravitational Microlensing Events as a Target for the SETI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2016-09-01

    The detection of signals from a possible extrasolar technological civilization is one of the most challenging efforts of science. In this work, we propose using natural telescopes made of single or binary gravitational lensing systems to magnify leakage of electromagnetic signals from a remote planet that harbors Extraterrestrial Intelligent (ETI) technology. Currently, gravitational microlensing surveys are monitoring a large area of the Galactic bulge to search for microlensing events, finding more than 2000 events per year. These lenses are capable of playing the role of natural telescopes, and, in some instances, they can magnify radio band signals from planets orbiting around the source stars in gravitational microlensing systems. Assuming that the frequency of electromagnetic waves used for telecommunication in ETIs is similar to ours, we propose follow-up observation of microlensing events with radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), the Low Frequency Demonstrators, and the Mileura Wide-Field Array. Amplifying signals from the leakage of broadcasting by an Earth-like civilization will allow us to detect them as far as the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Our analysis shows that in binary microlensing systems, the probability of amplification of signals from ETIs is more than that in single microlensing events. Finally, we propose the use of the target of opportunity mode for follow-up observations of binary microlensing events with SKA as a new observational program for searching ETIs. Using optimistic values for the factors of the Drake equation provides detection of about one event per year.

  18. Theory of dispersive microlenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B.; Gal, George

    1993-01-01

    A dispersive microlens is a miniature optical element which simultaneously focuses and disperses light. Arrays of dispersive mircolenses have potential applications in multicolor focal planes. They have a 100 percent optical fill factor and can focus light down to detectors of diffraction spot size, freeing up areas on the focal plane for on-chip analog signal processing. Use of dispersive microlenses allows inband color separation within a pixel and perfect scene registration. A dual-color separation has the potential for temperature discrimination. We discuss the design of dispersive microlenses and present sample results for efficient designs.

  19. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  20. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  1. The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

  2. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  3. Teachers Shift Instructional Approaches to Bring "Next Generation" into Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    Well before the Next Generation Science Standards became final last month, teachers in pockets around the country were already exploring the vision for science education espoused by the document and bringing elements of that approach to the classroom. The new standards call for bringing greater depth to K-12 students' understanding of the subject…

  4. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  5. Using Digital Watermarking for Securing Next Generation Media Broadcasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Dominik; Gaines, Seán

    The Internet presents a problem for the protection of intellectual property. Those who create content must be adequately compensated for the use of their works. Rights agencies who monitor the use of these works exist in many jurisdictions. In the traditional broadcast environment this monitoring is a difficult task. With Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Next Generation Networks (NGN) this situation is further complicated.

  6. Desirements of Next Generation Spacecraft Interconnects : The JPL NEXUS Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yutao; Some, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of NEXUS (NEXt bUS) (1) A research task funded by JPL R&TD program (2) Develop a common highly-capable next generation avionics interconnect with the following features: (a) Transparently compatible with wired, fiber-optic, and RF physical layers (b) A clear and feasible path-to-flight to ensure infusion into future NASA/JPL missions

  7. Efficient Cryptography for the Next Generation Secure Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupcu, Alptekin

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, and client-server type storage and computation outsourcing constitute some of the major applications that the next generation cloud schemes will address. Since these applications are just emerging, it is the perfect time to design them with security and privacy in mind. Furthermore, considering the high-churn…

  8. Building Next Generation Video Game Collections in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskowski, Mary; Ward, David

    2009-01-01

    Most academic libraries do not yet have gaming collections, let alone gaming services and facilities that support the unique and growing teaching and research needs of campus environments. Academic libraries in particular need to start thinking about developing the next generation of gaming collections and services. This article examines the…

  9. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  10. Lo Que Aprendimos: Advice for the Next Generation of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This essay identifies several themes presented by my parents, Abel and Juanita Jimenez. They are parents of five children who successfully navigated through the K-12 system and earned university degrees. They were interviewed over several evenings and asked what advice they would provide to the next generation of Latino parents. My parents…

  11. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  12. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  13. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Next Generation Science Standards" identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education." The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science,…

  15. 76 FR 2109 - Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference Correction In notice document 2010-32977 appearing on page 82387 in the issue of Thursday, December 30, 2010, make the following...

  16. Development and Testing of Next Generation AWACS SF Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    dimensional assignment problems could be generalized to n- dimensions, then it would solve the tracking sensor fusion problem. Although the true n...Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Development and Testing of Next Generation AWACS SF Processing Contract or Grant

  17. Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.; Saleh, Issa M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning" examines the challenges involved in the development of modern curriculum models, teaching strategies, and assessments in science education in order to prepare future students in the 21st century economies. This comprehensive collection of research brings together science educators,…

  18. Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet: A Realistic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Cecilia M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes new developments, such as Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative, as well as other potential advances in high-performance applications that these new electronic resources will create. Relates these developments to the evolution of the Internet, and looks ahead to their likely impact beyond the higher education and…

  19. Mobile e-Learning for Next Generation Communication Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tin-Yu; Chao, Han-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    This article develops an environment for mobile e-learning that includes an interactive course, virtual online labs, an interactive online test, and lab-exercise training platform on the fourth generation mobile communication system. The Next Generation Learning Environment (NeGL) promotes the term "knowledge economy." Inter-networking…

  20. Next Generation Science Standards: Adoption and Implementation Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzman, Alissa; Rodriguez, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent the culmination of years of collaboration and effort by states, science educators and experts from across the United States. Based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" and developed in partnership with 26 lead states, the NGSS, when…

  1. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the "NGSS," they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  2. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the NGSS, they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  3. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  4. Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Jenkins, Henry; Holland, Walter; Miller, Heather; O'Driscoll, Alice; Tan, Katie Philip; Todd, Katie.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of digital games, describes research at MIT that is exploring the potential of digital games for supporting learning, and offers hypotheses about the design of next-generation educational video and computer games. Highlights include simulations and games; and design principles, including context and using information to…

  5. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W., Ed.; Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Koenig, Judith A., Ed.; Beatty, Alexandra S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" develops an approach to science assessment to meet the vision of science education for the future as it has been elaborated in "A Framework…

  6. Microlenses of smectic flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Francesca; Gharbi, Mohamed-Amine; Liu, Iris B.; Luo, Yimin; Bade, Nathan D.; Kamien, Randall D.; Yang, Shu; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2015-03-01

    The search for new and tunable optical components finds suitable candidates in liquid crystals, which have both reconfigurability and unique optical properties. Here we discuss smectic liquid crystals arranged in focal conic domains (FCDs), which can work as gradient-refractive index microlenses. We exploit this property to create an assembly of microlenses that resembles an insect compound eye. The system consists of a thin layer of smectics on a substrate patterned with microposts. The smectic film is pinned at the microposts, creating a curved interface that induces a hierarchical assembly of FCDs called the ''flower pattern'': each FCD resembles the petal of a flower around the micropost. The arrangement of FCDs, with the largest FCDs pinned at the top of the microposts and the smallest FCDs in the low-curvature regions far from the post, is mirrored into a hierarchy of focal lengths of the microlenses. This structure is reconfigurable by melting and cooling and it allows visualizing objects placed at different distances, hence it can be exploited for 3D image reconstruction. Similarly to the insect eyes, the flower pattern is sensitive to light polarization: the large FCDs, with the largest eccentricity, only work as microlenses for one direction of light polarization. We thank the MRSEC NSF Grant DMR11-20901.

  7. Detecting extrasolar asteroid belts through their microlensing signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng; Dong, Subo

    2017-02-01

    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called 'pseudo-caustics', regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive signatures in the microlensing light curves for a wide range of belt configurations, with source trajectories as far as tenths of the Einstein ring radius from the centre of the lens. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys like WFIRST, which will have the power of detecting per cent-level changes in microlensing light curves even with subminute exposure times, may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of an earth mass.

  8. Emerging Definition of Next-Generation of Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Aviation continues to experience rapid growth. In regions such as the United States and Europe air traffic congestion is constraining operations, leading to major new efforts to develop methodologies and infrastructures to enable continued aviation growth through transformational air traffic management systems. Such a transformation requires better communications linking airborne and ground-based elements. Technologies for next-generation communications, the required capacities, frequency spectrum of operation, network interconnectivity, and global interoperability are now receiving increased attention. A number of major planning and development efforts have taken place or are in process now to define the transformed airspace of the future. These activities include government and industry led efforts in the United States and Europe, and by international organizations. This paper will review the features, approaches, and activities of several representative planning and development efforts, and identify the emerging global consensus on requirements of next generation aeronautical communications systems for air traffic control.

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing: From Understanding Biology to Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Karen S.; Katus, Hugo A.; Meder, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Within just a few years, the new methods for high-throughput next-generation sequencing have generated completely novel insights into the heritability and pathophysiology of human disease. In this review, we wish to highlight the benefits of the current state-of-the-art sequencing technologies for genetic and epigenetic research. We illustrate how these technologies help to constantly improve our understanding of genetic mechanisms in biological systems and summarize the progress made so far. This can be exemplified by the case of heritable heart muscle diseases, so-called cardiomyopathies. Here, next-generation sequencing is able to identify novel disease genes, and first clinical applications demonstrate the successful translation of this technology into personalized patient care. PMID:24832667

  10. Next-generation sequencing - feasibility and practicality in haematology.

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, Alexander; Grossmann, Vera; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Haferlach, Torsten

    2013-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms have evolved to provide an accurate and comprehensive means for the detection of molecular mutations in heterogeneous tumour specimens. Here, we review the feasibility and practicality of this novel laboratory technology. In particular, we focus on the utility of next-generation sequencing technology in characterizing haematological neoplasms and the landmark findings in key haematological malignancies. We also discuss deep-sequencing strategies to analyse the constantly increasing number of molecular markers applied for disease classification, patient stratification and individualized monitoring of minimal residual disease. Although many facets of this assay need to be taken into account, amplicon deep-sequencing has already demonstrated a promising technical performance and is being continuously developed towards routine application in diagnostic laboratories so that an impact on clinical practice can be achieved.

  11. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  12. Engaging the Next Generation of Polar Scientists: An NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, R.

    2008-12-01

    Sealing the leaky pipeline in science education requires new approaches. Leading up to and during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), NSF's Office of Polar Programs supported projects to engage the next generation of polar scientists. The portfolio emphasized adventure, experiential, and place-based education and included symposia and the development of web-based materials. Field experiences for teachers and university students ranged from individuals to small groups conducting research in the Arctic and Antarctic. Over 150 K12 teachers have now been on polar expeditions with NSF support. The legacy of these efforts can be observed through impacts to the participants and through materials that will be available long after IPY. Your innovative ideas are needed to attract and retain the next generation of scientists inside and outside of the polar regions.

  13. Biomarkers in neonatology: the next generation of tests.

    PubMed

    Ng, Pak C; Lam, Hugh S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, neonatal clinicians have commonly used host response biomarkers to diagnose and assess the severity of systemic infection. Most of these biomarkers, such as acute-phase proteins or cytokines, are non-specific immunomodulating mediators of the inflammatory cascade. With advances in biochemical/genetic research, it is anticipated that future biomarkers will be 'organ and/or disease specific'. There is also the quest for discovery of 'novel' biomarkers to assist diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal diseases using powerful mass-screening techniques, e.g. the next-generation sequencing, proteomics and arrays. This article aims to introduce the concept of the next generation of biomarkers to practising neonatal clinicians, and, hopefully, to integrate basic science research into day-to-day clinical practice in the future.

  14. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  15. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program - Strategy and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established a new program office, Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program Office, last year to pursue technologies for future space launch systems. NGLT will fund research in key technology areas such as propulsion, launch vehicles, operations and system analyses. NGLT is part of NASA s Integrated Space Technology Plan. The NGLT Program is sponsored by NASA s Office of Aerospace Technology and is part of the Space Launch Initiative theme that includes both NGLT and Orbital Space Plane. NGLT will focus on technology development to increase safety and reliability and reduce overall costs associated with building, flying and maintaining the nation s next-generations of space launch vehicles. These investments will be guided by systems engineering and analysis with a focus on the needs of National customers.

  17. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-08-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40-50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices.

  18. Assembly Algorithms for Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jason R.; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of next-generation sequencing platforms led to resurgence of research in whole-genome shotgun assembly algorithms and software. DNA sequencing data from the Roche 454, Illumina/Solexa, and ABI SOLiD platforms typically present shorter read lengths, higher coverage, and different error profiles compared with Sanger sequencing data. Since 2005, several assembly software packages have been created or revised specifically for de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing data. This review summarizes and compares the published descriptions of packages named SSAKE, SHARCGS, VCAKE, Newbler, Celera Assembler, Euler, Velvet, ABySS, AllPaths, and SOAPdenovo. More generally, it compares the two standard methods known as the de Bruijn graph approach and the overlap/layout/consensus approach to assembly. PMID:20211242

  19. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    King, Zachary A; Lloyd, Colton J; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-12-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict optimal genetic modifications that improve the rate and yield of chemical production. A new generation of COBRA models and methods is now being developed--encompassing many biological processes and simulation strategies-and next-generation models enable new types of predictions. Here, three key examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering.

  20. Assembly algorithms for next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jason R; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of next-generation sequencing platforms led to resurgence of research in whole-genome shotgun assembly algorithms and software. DNA sequencing data from the Roche 454, Illumina/Solexa, and ABI SOLiD platforms typically present shorter read lengths, higher coverage, and different error profiles compared with Sanger sequencing data. Since 2005, several assembly software packages have been created or revised specifically for de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing data. This review summarizes and compares the published descriptions of packages named SSAKE, SHARCGS, VCAKE, Newbler, Celera Assembler, Euler, Velvet, ABySS, AllPaths, and SOAPdenovo. More generally, it compares the two standard methods known as the de Bruijn graph approach and the overlap/layout/consensus approach to assembly.

  1. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  2. Precision medicine for cancer with next-generation functional diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Adam A; Letai, Anthony; Fisher, David E; Flaherty, Keith T

    2015-12-01

    Precision medicine is about matching the right drugs to the right patients. Although this approach is technology agnostic, in cancer there is a tendency to make precision medicine synonymous with genomics. However, genome-based cancer therapeutic matching is limited by incomplete biological understanding of the relationship between phenotype and cancer genotype. This limitation can be addressed by functional testing of live patient tumour cells exposed to potential therapies. Recently, several 'next-generation' functional diagnostic technologies have been reported, including novel methods for tumour manipulation, molecularly precise assays of tumour responses and device-based in situ approaches; these address the limitations of the older generation of chemosensitivity tests. The promise of these new technologies suggests a future diagnostic strategy that integrates functional testing with next-generation sequencing and immunoprofiling to precisely match combination therapies to individual cancer patients.

  3. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR PARSONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-03-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared a nominal 150 gallon batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) for Parsons. This material was then analyzed and tested for cesium mass transfer efficiency. The bulk of the results indicate that the solvent is qualified as acceptable for use in the upcoming pilot-scale testing at Parsons Technology Center. This report describes the analysis and testing of a batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) prepared in support of pilot-scale testing in the Parsons Technology Center. A total of {approx}150 gallons of NGS solvent was prepared in late November of 2011. Details for the work are contained in a controlled laboratory notebook. Analysis of the Parsons NGS solvent indicates that the material is acceptable for use. SRNL is continuing to improve the analytical method for the guanidine.

  4. TriG: Next Generation Scalable Spaceborne GNSS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Esterhuizen, Stephan X.; Franklin, Garth W.; Meehan, Thomas K.; Munson, Timothy N.; Robison, David E.; Turbiner, Dmitry; Young, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    TriG is the next generation NASA scalable space GNSS Science Receiver. It will track all GNSS and additional signals (i.e. GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass and Doris). Scalable 3U architecture and fully software and firmware recofigurable, enabling optimization to meet specific mission requirements. TriG GNSS EM is currently undergoing testing and is expected to complete full performance testing later this year.

  5. Preparation of SELEX Samples for Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Mayer, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by massive whole genome sequencing projects such as the human genome project, enormous technological advancements and therefore tremendous price drops could be achieved, rendering next-generation sequencing very attractive for deep sequencing of SELEX libraries. Herein we describe the preparation of SELEX samples for Illumina sequencing, based on the already established whole genome sequencing workflow. We describe the addition of barcode sequences for multiplexing and the adapter ligation, avoiding associated pitfalls.

  6. Characterisation and Next-generation Sequencing Analysis of Unknown Arboviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    using techniques such as PCR-select subtraction and next-generation sequencing. Preliminary analysis of the four sequenced viruses has shown that they...HOJV) and Harrison Dam virus (HARDV), and two unknown bunyaviruses, Buffalo Creek Virus (BCV) and Maprik virus (MPKV). It describes the techniques such...unknown viruses with greater speed and at lower cost. The rapid advancement of new generation sequencing techniques allows for highly specific acquisition

  7. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  8. Design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferres, Laurent

    2016-07-27

    This is a presentation given at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE. The motivation for this design is to enable new nuclear physics experiments (defense program applications (DANCE)) that are currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  9. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  10. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. G.; Perrin, T. E.

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  11. Development of the Next Generation of Adaptive Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    interface to how each user perceives, processes, and filters information without the added complexity of current adaptive interfaces. The field of adaptive ...interfaces by going beyond adaptation to the individual’s prior actions and tailoring the interface to how each user perceives, processes, and filters ...ARL-TR-7251 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Development of the Next Generation of Adaptive Interfaces by Jeffrey T

  12. A Next Generation Atmospheric Prediction System for the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    resolution) forecast capability as part of the multi-agency next-generation Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) initiative. Within the next decade or...decadal climate scales. These new dynamical systems may comprise the atmospheric component of the multi-agency Earth System Prediction Capability...is needed to fully address the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) goals. These models all offer selective geodesic grid refinement, which

  13. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation CESTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This talk will present the motivation, research approach and status of intelligent control research for Next Generation Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. An introduction to the challenges of CESTOL control will be given, leading into an assessment of potential control solutions. The approach of the control research will be discussed, including a brief overview of the technical aspects of the research.

  14. The next generation high data rate VCSEL development at SEDU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chuan; Li, Neinyi; Huang, Shenghong; Liu, Chiyu; Wang, Li; Jackson, Kenneth P.

    2013-03-01

    In May of 2012, Emcore's VCSEL FAB and VCSEL based transceiver business joined Sumitomo Electric Device Innovations USA (SEDU). After this change of ownership, our high speed VCSEL development effort continues. In this paper, we will report the progress we made in the past year in our 25Gbps to 28Gbps VCSEL. This next generation device is targeted for EDR, 32GFC as well as other optical interconnect applications.

  15. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  16. Rocket and Laboratory Experiments in Astrophysics— Validation and Verification of the Next Generation FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan

    We submit herein a proposal describing plans for further development of a Next Generation Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS). The goal of the proposal is to demonstrate the scientific utility of multiobject spectroscopy over wide angular fields in the far-UV with investigations of: the blue straggler population in the Globular Cluster M10; low metallicity star formation in the Magellanic Bridge; shock structures Cygnus Loop supernova remnant; a search for unidentified emissions in star-forming galaxies; and potentially an, as yet, unnamed comet as a target of opportunity. FORTIS is a pathfinder for developing the technologies necessary to enable far-UV spectroscopic surveys. Such surveys will allow us to probe problems relevant to the formation of large scale structures, the origin and evolution of galaxies, and the formation and evolution of stars from interstellar gas. In combination with existing and future spectroscopic surveys, they will provide a complete and compelling panchromatic picture of the observable universe. Next generation FORTIS will fly as a sounding rocket borne instrument and incorporate a number of unique technologies, including the Next Generation MicroShutter Array (NGMSA), which provides for the simultaneous acquisition of spectra from multiple objects within a wide angular field. The NGMSA will be controlled by an autonomous targeting system capable of identifying multiple objects on-the-fly for further spectral analysis in the short time afforded to far-UV observations from a sounding rocket 400 seconds. We will also incorporate long life microchannel plate (MCP) detectors that have have high open area ratios, providing for increased quantum efficiency, and improved resistance to gain sag, allowing operation at higher count rate. Recent flight experience with the first generation FORTIS has provided guidance to improving the science return of the next generation FORTIS. Our plans for a rigorous

  17. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  18. Mobility management techniques for the next-generation wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junzhao; Howie, Douglas P.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-10-01

    The tremendous demands from social market are pushing the booming development of mobile communications faster than ever before, leading to plenty of new advanced techniques emerging. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Mobility management is an important issue in the area of mobile communications, which can be best solved at the network layer. One of the key features of the next generation wireless networks is all-IP infrastructure. This paper discusses the mobility management schemes for the next generation mobile networks through extending IP's functions with mobility support. A global hierarchical framework model for the mobility management of wireless networks is presented, in which the mobility management is divided into two complementary tasks: macro mobility and micro mobility. As the macro mobility solution, a basic principle of Mobile IP is introduced, together with the optimal schemes and the advances in IPv6. The disadvantages of the Mobile IP on solving the micro mobility problem are analyzed, on the basis of which three main proposals are discussed as the micro mobility solutions for mobile communications, including Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP), Cellular IP, and Handoff-Aware Wireless Access Internet Infrastructure (HAWAII). A unified model is also described in which the different micro mobility solutions can coexist simultaneously in mobile networks.

  19. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  20. Recent progress in the study of the next generation Internet in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Jianping; Wu, Qian; Xu, Ke

    2013-03-28

    The Internet has become a major part of the global communications infrastructure supporting modern-day socio-economic development, social progress and technological innovation. Invented 30 years ago, today the Internet is facing severe challenges. Many countries have funded research projects on the new-generation Internet, such as GENI, FIND, FIRE and CNGI, in an effort to solve these challenges. In addition, over the past few years, the networking research community has engaged in an ongoing conversation about how to move the Internet forward, and there are now two different approaches towards Internet research. The first approach is based on using the existing Internet architecture to solve the major technical challenges-this is called 'evolutionary' research. The other, which is called the 'clean slate', involves the design of an entirely new Internet architecture. In the first part of this paper, the basic features of the next generation Internet and its principal contradictions are analysed. Then a survey of recent progress in the study of the next generation Internet in China is discussed. Finally, the focus and direction for the next step in research are presented as based on fundamental research into the international next generation Internet architecture, and the many new innovative demands placed on Internet architecture in recent years.

  1. THE MICROLENSING PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE OF 87 LENSED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool for probing the physical properties of quasar accretion disks and properties of the lens galaxy such as its dark matter fraction and mean stellar mass. Unfortunately, the number of lensed quasars ({approx}90) exceeds our monitoring capabilities. Thus, estimating their microlensing properties is important for identifying good microlensing candidates as well as for the expectations of future surveys. In this work, we estimate the microlensing properties of a sample of 87 lensed quasars. While the median Einstein radius crossing timescale is 20.6 years, the median source crossing timescale is 7.3 months. Broadly speaking, this means that on {approx}10 year timescales roughly half the lenses will be quiescent, with the source in a broad demagnified valley, and roughly half will be active with the source lying in the caustic ridges. We also found that the location of the lens system relative to the cosmic microwave background dipole has a modest effect on microlensing timescales, and in theory microlensing could be used to confirm the kinematic origin of the dipole. As a corollary of our study we analyzed the accretion rate parameters in a sub-sample of 32 lensed quasars. At fixed black hole mass, it is possible to sample a broad range of luminosities (i.e., Eddington factors) if it becomes feasible to monitor fainter lenses.

  2. Extrasolar planets detections and statistics through gravitational microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, A.

    2014-10-01

    -mass objects, including free-floating planets of about Jupiter's mass, were also detected trough microlensing. Detections and non-detections inform us on the abundance of planets as a function of planetary mass and orbital distance. Recent microlensing studies imply that low-mass planets, in particular super-Earths, are far more abundant than giant planets, and reveal that there are, on average, one or more bound planets per Milky Way star. Future microlensing surveys will dramatically increase the number of microlensing alerts, thus providing unprecedented constraints on the planetary mass function, down to the mass of the Earth.

  3. Developing Next Generation Natural Fracture Detection and Prediction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the ''Next Generation'' project was to develop technology that will provide a quantitative description of natural fracture properties and locations in low-permeability reservoirs. The development of this technology has consistently been ranked as one of the highest priority needs by industry. Numerous researchers and resource assessment groups have stated that the ability to identify area where intense clusters of natural fractures co-exist with gas-charged sands, the so called ''sweet spots'', will be the key to unlocking the vast quantities of gas in-place contained in these low-permeability gas basins. To meet this technology need, the ''Next Generation'' project was undertaken with three performance criteria in mind: (1) provide an integrated assessment of the burial and tectonic stresses in a basin responsible for natural fracture genesis (using seismic data, a significantly modified application of geomechanics, and a discrete natural fracture generation model); (2) link the assessment of natural fracture properties and locations to the reservoir's fluid, storage and flow properties; and, (3) provide a reservoir simulation-based calculation of the gas (and water) production capacity of a naturally fractured reservoir system. Phase III of the ''Next Generation'' project entailed the performance of a field demonstration of the software in an ''exploration'' setting. The search for an Industry Partner willing to host an exploratory field demonstration was unsuccessful and Phase III was canceled effective May, 31, 2005. The failure to find an Industry Partner can be attributed to severe changes in the petroleum industry competitive environment between 1999 when the project was initiated and 2005 when further demonstration efforts were halted. The software was employed in portions of other, non-exploratory, projects underway during the development time period, and insights gained will be summarized here in lieu of a full field demonstration.

  4. Investigation of Next-Generation Earth Radiation Budget Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Katherine L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.

  5. Defining next-generation products: an inside look.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, B; Walleigh, R

    1997-01-01

    The continued success of technology-based companies depends on their proficiency in creating next-generation products and their derivatives. So getting such products out the door on schedule must be routine for such companies, right? Not quite. The authors recently engaged in a detailed study--in which they had access to sensitive internal information and to candid interviews with people at every level--of 28 next-generation product-development projects in 14 leading high-tech companies. They found that most of the companies were unable to complete such projects on schedule. And the companies also had difficulty developing the derivative products needed to fill the gaps in the market that their next-generation products would create. The problem in every case, the authors discovered, was rooted in the product definition phase. And not coincidentally, the successful companies in the study had all learned how to handle the technical and marketplace uncertainties in their product definition processes. The authors have discerned from the actions of those companies a set of best practices that can measurably improve the definition phase of any company's product-development process. They have grouped the techniques into three categories and carefully lay out the steps that companies need to take as they work through each stage. The best practices revealed here are not a magic formula for rapid, successful new-product definition. But they can help companies capture new markets without major delays. And that is good news for any manager facing the uncertainty that goes with developing products for a global marketplace.

  6. THE NEXT GENERATION SAFEGUARDS PROFESSIONAL NETWORK: PROGRESS AND NEXT STEPS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernosek, Alena V; Lynch, Patrick D; Scholz, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    President Obama has repeatedly stated that the United States must ensure that the international safeguards regime, as embodied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has 'the authority, information, people, and technology it needs to do its job.' The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) works to implement the President's vision through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), a program to revitalize the U.S. DOE national laboratories safeguards technology and human capital base so that the United States can more effectively support the IAEA and ensure that it meets current and emerging challenges to the international safeguards system. In 2009, in response to the human capital development goals of NGSI, young safeguards professionals within the Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory launched the Next Generation Safeguards Professional Network (NGSPN). The purpose of this initiative is to establish working relationships and to foster collaboration and communication among the next generation of safeguards leaders. The NGSPN is an organization for, and of, young professionals pursuing careers in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation - as well as mid-career professionals new to the field - whether working within the U.S. DOE national laboratory complex, U.S. government agencies, academia, or industry or at the IAEA. The NGSPN is actively supported by the NNSA, boasts more than 70 members, maintains a website and newsletter, and has held two national meetings as well as an NGSPN session and panel at the July 2010 Institute of Nuclear Material Management Annual Meeting. This paper discusses the network; its significance, goals and objectives; developments and progress to date; and future plans.

  7. The AE9/AP9 Next Generation Radiation Specification Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Ginet, Gregory; Huston, Stuart; Byers, David

    A significant effort is under way to develop the next-generation trapped proton and electron models for satellite design, AP-9 and AE-9, respectively. The primary objectives of the effort are to 1) improve the overall accuracy of the models; 2) provide indicators of the uncertainty in the model due to natural variability and instrument uncertainty; 3) cover a broad energy range including hot plasma, relativistic electrons and highly energetic protons; and 4) provide complete spatial coverage. In this paper we will present background, demonstration and initial feedback from a limited-release beta version of the model.

  8. Ba-hexaferrite Films for Next Generation Microwave Devices (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Harris,V.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Yoon, S.; Sakai, T.; Geiler, A.; Yang, A.; He, Y.; Ziemer, K.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices require ferrite films to be thick (>300 {mu}m), self-biased (high remanent magnetization), and low loss in the microwave and millimeter wave bands. Here we examine recent advances in the processing of thick Ba-hexaferrite (M-type) films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), liquid-phase epitaxy, and screen printing. These techniques are compared and contrasted as to their suitability for microwave materials processing and industrial production. Recent advances include the PLD growth of BaM on wide-band-gap semiconductor substrates and the development of thick, self-biased, low-loss BaM films by screen printing.

  9. NGSS and the Next Generation of Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2014-03-01

    This article centers on the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and their implications for teacher development, particularly at the undergraduate level. After an introduction to NGSS and the influence of standards in the educational system, the article addresses specific educational shifts—interconnecting science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts; recognizing learning progressions; including engineering; addressing the nature of science, coordinating with Common Core State Standards. The article continues with a general discussion of reforming teacher education programs and a concluding discussion of basic competencies and personal qualities of effective science teachers.

  10. Next generation barcode tagged sequencing for monitoring microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Katy; Tetu, Sasha G; Elbourne, Liam D H

    2014-01-01

    Microbial identification using 16S rDNA variable regions has become increasingly popular over the past decade. The application of next-generation amplicon sequencing to these regions allows microbial communities to be sequenced in far greater depth than previous techniques, as well as allowing for the identification of unculturable or rare organisms within a sample. Multiplexing can be used to sequence multiple samples in tandem through the use of sample-specific identification sequences which are attached to each amplicon, making this a cost-effective method for large-scale microbial identification experiments.

  11. Next Generation Patient Monitor Powered by In-Silico Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Baronov, Dimitar; McManus, Michael; Butler, Evan; Chung, Douglas; Almodovar, Melvin C.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a next generation patient monitoring technology that relies on objective and continuous data analytics to alleviate the data overload in the critical care unit. The technology provides the foundation for increasing the consistency and efficacy of data use in clinical practice and improving outcomes. This paper presents results for applying the approach to the hemodynamic monitoring of infants immediately following cardiac surgery and demonstrates its efficacy of estimating the probability of inadequate systemic oxygen delivery, which is an essential risk attribute in the management of critically ill patients. PMID:26737282

  12. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  13. DNA extraction from vegetative tissue for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    The quality of extracted DNA is crucial for several applications in molecular biology. If the DNA is to be used for next-generation sequencing (NGS), then microgram quantities of good-quality DNA is required. In addition, the DNA must substantially be of high molecular weight so that it can be used for library preparation and NGS sequencing. Contaminating phenol or starch in the isolated DNA can be easily removed by filtration through kit-based cartridges. In this chapter we describe a simple two-reagent DNA extraction protocol which yields a high quality and quantity of DNA which can be used for different applications including NGS.

  14. Next-Generation Technologies for Multiomics Approaches Including Interactome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto-Sato, Etsuko

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-speed analytical techniques such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays allows high-throughput analysis of biological information at a low cost. These techniques contribute to medical and bioscience advancements and provide new avenues for scientific research. Here, we outline a variety of new innovative techniques and discuss their use in omics research (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and interactomics). We also discuss the possible applications of these methods, including an interactome sequencing technology that we developed, in future medical and life science research. PMID:25649523

  15. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  17. Protecting against plague: towards a next-generation vaccine.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2013-04-01

    The causative organism of plague is the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Advances in understanding the complex pathogenesis of plague infection have led to the identification of the F1- and V-antigens as key components of a next-generation vaccine for plague, which have the potential to be effective against all forms of the disease. Here we review the roles of F1- and V-antigens in the context of the range of virulence mechanisms deployed by Y. pestis, in order to develop a greater understanding of the protective immune responses required to protect against plague.

  18. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  19. Optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews optical coherent technologies in next generation access networks with the use of radio over fiber (RoF), which offer key enabling technologies of wired and wireless integrated and/or converged broadband access networks to accommodate rapidly widespread cloud computing services. We describe technical issues on conventional RoF based on subcarrier modulation (SCM) and their countermeasures. Two examples of RoF access networks with optical coherent technologies to solve the technical issues are introduced; a video distribution system with FM conversion and wired and wireless integrated wide-area access network with photonic up- and down-conversion.

  20. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  1. Adaptive multidimensional modulation and multiplexing for next generation optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvijetic, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The overall spectral efficiency in optical transmission systems needs to be enhanced by employment of advanced modulation, multiplexing, and coding schemes, as well as the advanced detection techniques. In parallel, novel networking concepts with the griddles and elastic bandwidth allocation are needed to increase the network dynamics and flexibility. In this paper we discuss multidimensional modulation, multiplexing, and coding schemes, which are enablers not only of the information capacity increase, but also for the next generation elastic high-speed optical networking and outline possible future directions and application scenario in different networking segments.

  2. Controls concepts for next generation reuseable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.; Musgrave, Jefferey L.; Ray, Asok

    1995-01-01

    Three primary issues will drive the design and control used in next generation reuseable rocket engines. In addition to steady-state and dynamic performance, the requirements for increased durability, reliability and operability (with faults) will dictate which new controls and design technologies and features will be brought to bear. An array of concepts which have been brought forward will be tested against the measures of cost and benefit as reflected in the above 'ilities'. This paper examines some of the new concepts and looks for metrics to judge their value.

  3. Towards Human Centred Manufacturing Systems in the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Hata, Seiji

    Nowadays agile market is in common, and the fundamental technology supporting next-generation production system requires further development of machine and information technologies to establish “human friendly technology" and a bridging of these technologies together. IMS-HUTOP project proposes a new product life cycle that respects the human nature of individuals, and establishes the elemental technologies necessary for acquiring, modelling and evaluating various human factors in an effort to achieve the HUTOP cycle. In this paper we propose a human centred and human friendly manufacturing system, which has been proposed in the IMS-HUTOP project.

  4. Discovering the Majorana neutrino: The next generation of experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, L. A.

    2015-07-15

    The discovery of a Majorana neutrino would be revolutionary with far-reaching consequences in both particle physics and cosmology. The only feasible experiments to determine the Majorana nature of the neutrino are searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay. The next generation of double-beta decay experiments are being prepared. The general goal is to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay throughout the parameter space corresponding to the inverted hierarchy for neutrino mass. There are a several strong proposals for how to achieve this goal. The status of these efforts is reviewed.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  6. Clinical Next Generation Sequencing for Precision Medicine in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ling; Wang, Wanheng; Li, Alvin; Kansal, Rina; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hong; Li, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in genomic medicine has been driven by low cost, high throughput sequencing and rapid advances in our understanding of the genetic bases of human diseases. Today, the NGS method has dominated sequencing space in genomic research, and quickly entered clinical practice. Because unique features of NGS perfectly meet the clinical reality (need to do more with less), the NGS technology is becoming a driving force to realize the dream of precision medicine. This article describes the strengths of NGS, NGS panels used in precision medicine, current applications of NGS in cytology, and its challenges and future directions for routine clinical use. PMID:27006629

  7. Airframe Technology Development for Next Generation Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airframe subproject within NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program has the responsibility to develop airframe technology for both rocket and airbreathing vehicles for access to space. The Airframe sub-project pushes the state-of-the-art in airframe technology for low-cost, reliable, and safe space transportation. Both low and medium technology readiness level (TRL) activities are being pursued. The key technical areas being addressed include design and integration, hot and integrated structures, cryogenic tanks, and thermal protection systems. Each of the technologies in these areas are discussed in this paper.

  8. Next-generation sequencing in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Matthew; Dorschner, Michael; Tsuang, Debby

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating lifelong illness that lacks a cure and poses a worldwide public health burden. The disease is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical and genetic presentation that complicates research efforts to identify causative genetic variations. This review examines the potential of current findings in schizophrenia and in other related neuropsychiatric disorders for application in next-generation technologies, particularly whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These approaches may lead to the discovery of underlying genetic factors for schizophrenia and may thereby identify and target novel therapeutic targets for this devastating disorder.

  9. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  10. Towards Manufacturing/Distribution Systems in the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, Hiroyasu; Kaihara, Toshiya; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    Nowadays agile market is in common, and the fundamental technology supporting next-generation production system requires further development of machine and information technologies to establish “human technology” and a bridging of these technologies together. IMS-HUTOP project proposes a new product life cycle that respects the human nature of individuals, and establishes the elemental technologies necessary for acquiring, modelling and evaluating various human factors in an effort to achieve the HUTOP cycle. In this paper we propose a human centred KANSEI manufacturing system, which has been proposed in the IMS-HUTOP project with 5 work packages.

  11. Astrophysical applications of quasar microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, E.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present a quick overview of several examples that illustrate the application of quasar microlensing to various problems of great interest in Astrophysics and Cosmology. We start introducing the main tool for simulating quasar microlensing, the magnification map. Then, the flux magnification statistics obtained from the magnification maps is used to study the quasar accretion disk size and temperature profile with results that challenge the thin disk model. The microlensing flux magnification statistics is also useful to determine the radial slope of the dark matter distribution in lens galaxies. The extremely high microlensing magnification at caustics allows to scan with horizon scale accuracy the quasar accretion disk, spiraling around the central super massive black hole, resolving the innermost stable circular orbit. Finally, transverse peculiar velocities of the lens galaxies, of great interest in cosmology, can be inferred either counting peaks in the microlensing light curves or directly from astrometric measurements of the highly magnified relative motions between lensed quasar images.

  12. The Need for Next Generation of Radiochemists in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour Akbarzadeh; Steven Bakhtiar; Patricia Paviet-Hartmann

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, the nuclear industry employed approximately 120,000 people. Nearly 38 percent of the nuclear industry force will be eligible to retire within the next five years. To maintain the current work force, the industry will need to hire approximately 25,000 more workers by 2015.1 The federal government will also need nuclear workers in the future in its laboratories, the military and government programs. There is a need not only for the entire nuclear community to work with the academia to recruit and train students in a standardized way for employment at nuclear facilities. Several strategies are taking place in the USA, as an example, an initiative developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INEST) with four Centers of Research and Education (COREs) selected to address some of the most challenging issues facing nuclear energy today: (1) Fuels and Materials, (2) Space Nuclear Research, (3) Fuel Cycle, and (4) Safety and Licensing. Another example is the development of a radiochemistry program at two universities: the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) and Washington State University (WSU) to attract the next generation work force. This paper will solely focus on the next generation of radiochemists needed in the US and will give examples illustrating the needs as well as the current activities in the academia and in the national laboratories to fulfill national needs.

  13. Next Generation RadSafe™ Technology for SoCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liran, Tuvia; Ginosar, Ran; Dobkin, Reuven; Alon, Dov; Goldberg, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The next generation RadSafeTM technology is dedicated to advance System on Chip (SoC) devices for space applications of digital signal processing and micro-processors. The technology should maximize processing performance by combining advanced micro-architecture, advanced silicon technology and high speed interfacing to peripheral devices. However, the requirements for very high reliability, cost and availability limit the use of the most advanced technologies. TMFor the next generation RadSafe technology we selected the 0.13μm technology. It provides significant improvement of performance and power, while this technology is mature, and available for affordable price. The improved design infrastructure includes improvements of the standard cells, I/O cells, SRAMs and DLLs. The new cores include high speed SERDES and DDR I/F.An improved packaging technology, name RCpack™, is introduced. It provides improved pin count and signal integrity while complying with space requirements.The new capabilities will enable the implementation of space grade RC64 - a many-core processor that will provide 10G instructions per second [2], mostly for high performance signal processing.

  14. Standardization and quality management in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Endrullat, Christoph; Glökler, Jörn; Franke, Philipp; Frohme, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    DNA sequencing continues to evolve quickly even after > 30 years. Many new platforms suddenly appeared and former established systems have vanished in almost the same manner. Since establishment of next-generation sequencing devices, this progress gains momentum due to the continually growing demand for higher throughput, lower costs and better quality of data. In consequence of this rapid development, standardized procedures and data formats as well as comprehensive quality management considerations are still scarce. Here, we listed and summarized current standardization efforts and quality management initiatives from companies, organizations and societies in form of published studies and ongoing projects. These comprise on the one hand quality documentation issues like technical notes, accreditation checklists and guidelines for validation of sequencing workflows. On the other hand, general standard proposals and quality metrics are developed and applied to the sequencing workflow steps with the main focus on upstream processes. Finally, certain standard developments for downstream pipeline data handling, processing and storage are discussed in brief. These standardization approaches represent a first basis for continuing work in order to prospectively implement next-generation sequencing in important areas such as clinical diagnostics, where reliable results and fast processing is crucial. Additionally, these efforts will exert a decisive influence on traceability and reproducibility of sequence data.

  15. Next-generation optical wireless communications for data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2015-01-01

    Data centers collect and process information with a capacity that has been increasing from year to year at an almost exponential pace. Traditional fiber/cable data center network interconnections suffer from bandwidth overload, as well as flexibility and scalability issues. Therefore, a technology-shift from the fiber and cable to wireless has already been initiated in order to meet the required data-rate, flexibility and scalability demands for next-generation data center network interconnects. In addition, the shift to wireless reduces the volume allocated to the cabling/fiber and increases the cooling efficiency. Optical wireless communication (OWC), or free space optics (FSO), is one of the most effective wireless technologies that could be used in future data centers and could provide ultra-high capacity, very high cyber security and minimum latency, due to the low index of refraction of air in comparison to fiber technologies. In this paper we review the main concepts and configurations for next generation OWC for data centers. Two families of technologies are reviewed: the first technology regards interconnects between rack units in the same rack and the second technology regards the data center network that connects the server top of rack (TOR) to the switch. A comparison between different network technologies is presented.

  16. 25 years of endothelin research: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Lopes, Rhéure Alves Moreira; Cacioppo, Joseph; Desbiens, Louisane; Kamato, Danielle; Leurgans, Thomas; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Straube, Julia; Wurm, Raphael; Heiden, Susi; Ergul, Adviye; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    In the past three decades, endothelin and endothelin receptor antagonists have received great scientific and clinical interest, leading to the publication of more than 27,000 scientific articles since its discovery. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held on September 8-11, 2013, at Tokyo Campus of the University of Tsukuba in Japan. Close to 300 scientists from 25 countries from around the world came to Tokyo to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of the endothelin peptide discovered 25 years ago at the University of Tsukuba. This article summarizes some of the highlights of the conference, the anniversary celebration ceremony, and particularly the participation of next generation of endothelin researchers in endothelin science and the anniversary celebration. As a particular highlight, next generation endothelin researchers wrote a haiku (a traditional form of Japanese poetry originating from consisting of no more than three short verses and 27 on, or Japanese phonetic units) to describe the magic of endothelin science which they presented to the conference audience at the anniversary ceremony. The text of each haiku - both in its original language together with the English translation - is part of this article providing in an exemplary fashion how poetry can be bridged with science. Finally, we give an outlook towards the next 25 years of endothelin research.

  17. [Next generation sequencing for the diagnostics and epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Comas, Iñaki; Gil, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and malaria as the leading cause of death by an infectious disease worldwide. The reduction in the TB incidence is a modest 2% of cases per year, thus we will need 200 years to eradicate the disease. Part of the problem is that TB control tools are decades old and cannot anymore contribute to accelerate eradication of TB. New diagnostics, treatments and vaccines are urgently needed. Next generation sequencing has the potential to become one of these new tools. Genomic characterization of TB isolates is already showing its potential for epidemiology and diagnostics, particularly to identify drug resistance mutations. However, the experimental and bioinformatics skills needed are still far from being standardized and are not easy to incorporate as a routine in clinical laboratories. In this review we will describe current next generation sequencing approaches applied to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, their contribution to the diagnostics and epidemiology of the disease and the efforts that are being undertaken to make the technology accessible to public health and clinical microbiology laboratories.

  18. Next generation informatics for big data in precision medicine era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuji; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    The rise of data-intensive biology, advances in informatics technology, and changes in the way health care is delivered has created an compelling opportunity to allow us investigate biomedical questions in the context of "big data" and develop knowledge systems to support precision medicine. To promote such data mining and informatics technology development in precision medicine, we hosted two international informatics workshops in 2014: 1) the first workshop on Data Mining in Biomedical informatics and Healthcare, in conjunction with the 18th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD 2014), and 2) the first workshop on Translational biomedical and clinical informatics, in conjunction with the 8th International Conference on Systems Biology and the 4th Translational Bioinformatics Conference (ISB/TBC 2014). This thematic issue of BioData Mining presents a series of selected papers from these two international workshops, aiming to address the data mining needs in the informatics field due to the deluge of "big data" generated by next generation biotechnologies such as next generation sequencing, metabolomics, and proteomics, as well as the structured and unstructured biomedical and healthcare data from electronic health records. We are grateful for the BioData Mining's willingness to produce this forward-looking thematic issue.

  19. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  20. The NASA Education Enterprise: Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On April 12, 2002, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe opened a new window to the future of space exploration with these words in his Pioneering the Future address. Thus began the conceptual framework for structuring the new Education Enterprise. The Agency s mission is to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe in search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers as only NASA can. In adopting this mission, education became a core element and is now a vital part of every major NASA research and development mission. NASA s call to inspire the next generation of explorers is now resounding throughout the NASA community and schools of all levels all around the country. The goal is to capture student interest, nurture their natural curiosities, and intrigue their minds with new and exciting scientific research; as well as to provide educators with the creative tools they need to improve America s scientific literacy. The future of NASA begins with America s youngest scholars. According to Administrator O Keefe s address, if NASA does not motivate the youngest generation now, there is little prospect this generation will choose to pursue scientific disciplines later. Since embracing Administrator O Keefe s educational mandate over a year ago, NASA has been fully devoted to broadening its roadmap to motivation. The efforts have generated a whole new showcase of thoughtprovoking and fun learning opportunities, through printed material, Web sites and Webcasts, robotics, rocketry, aerospace design contests, and various other resources as only NASA can.

  1. Engineering Micromechanical Systems for the Next Generation Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen; Constandinou, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However treatment of these pathologies can only be achieved through conventional means. This paper describes the next generation WCE with increased functionality to enable targeted drug delivery in the small intestinal tract. A prototype microrobot fabricated in Nylon 6 is presented which is capable of resisting peristaltic pressure through the deployment of an integrated holding mechanism and delivering targeted therapy. The holding action is achieved by extending an “anchor” spanning a 60.4 mm circumference, for an 11.0 mm diameter WCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0 mm3 volume, including mechanics and actuator. A micropositioning mechanism is described which utilises a single micromotor to radially position and then deploy a needle 1.5 mm outside the microrobot's body to deliver a 1 mL dose of medication to a targeted site. An analysis of the mechanics required to drive the holding mechanism is presented and an overview of microactuators and the state of the art in WCE is discussed. It is envisaged that this novel functionality will empower the next generation of WCE to help diagnose and treat pathologies of the GI tract. PMID:26258143

  2. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

  3. Estimating individual admixture proportions from next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Inference of population structure and individual ancestry is important both for population genetics and for association studies. With next generation sequencing technologies it is possible to obtain genetic data for all accessible genetic variations in the genome. Existing methods for admixture analysis rely on known genotypes. However, individual genotypes cannot be inferred from low-depth sequencing data without introducing errors. This article presents a new method for inferring an individual's ancestry that takes the uncertainty introduced in next generation sequencing data into account. This is achieved by working directly with genotype likelihoods that contain all relevant information of the unobserved genotypes. Using simulations as well as publicly available sequencing data, we demonstrate that the presented method has great accuracy even for very low-depth data. At the same time, we demonstrate that applying existing methods to genotypes called from the same data can introduce severe biases. The presented method is implemented in the NGSadmix software available at http://www.popgen.dk/software.

  4. Women in Physics: The Next Generation At Our National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, Cheryl

    2001-04-01

    Just as a house must be built on a strong foundation, with each subsequent course of bricks placed upon those that went before, the advances of women in physics are built upon the accomplishments of those women who have gone before. How are we preparing for the next course of bricks? Where will the next generation of women in physics come from, and how are these women being prepared to take their place among your ranks? The United States Department of Energy is helping to mold the next generation of women in physics, in part, through the efforts of its fifteen national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Fermi, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Princeton Plasma Physics, Sandia, National Energy Technology Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This presentation will showcase some of the creative and innovative approaches these institutions are taking, from outreach to girls in elementary schools to executive appointments, to secure not only this nation's future, but that of women in physics.

  5. Hybrid Network Architectures for the Next Generation NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madubata, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To meet the needs of the 21st Century NAS, an integrated, network-centric infrastructure is essential that is characterized by secure, high bandwidth, digital communication systems that support precision navigation capable of reducing position errors for all aircraft to within a few meters. This system will also require precision surveillance systems capable of accurately locating all aircraft, and automatically detecting any deviations from an approved path within seconds and be able to deliver high resolution weather forecasts - critical to create 4- dimensional (space and time) profiles for up to 6 hours for all atmospheric conditions affecting aviation, including wake vortices. The 21st Century NAS will be characterized by highly accurate digital data bases depicting terrain, obstacle, and airport information no matter what visibility conditions exist. This research task will be to perform a high-level requirements analysis of the applications, information and services required by the next generation National Airspace System. The investigation and analysis is expected to lead to the development and design of several national network-centric communications architectures that would be capable of supporting the Next Generation NAS.

  6. Resolving Microlensing Events with Triggered VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Mansour; Broderick, Avery E.; Rahvar, Sohrab; Reid, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Microlensing events provide a unique capacity to study the stellar remnant population of the Galaxy. Optical microlensing suffers from a near-complete degeneracy between mass, velocity, and distance. However, a subpopulation of lensed stars, Mira variable stars, are also radio-bright, exhibiting strong SiO masers. These are sufficiently bright and compact to permit direct imaging using existing very long baseline interferometers such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We show that these events are relatively common, occurring at a rate of ≈ 2 {{yr}}-1 of which 0.1 {{yr}}-1 are associated with Galactic black holes. Features in the associated images, e.g., the Einstein ring, are sufficiently well resolved to fully reconstruct the lens properties, enabling the measurement of mass, distance, and tangential velocity of the lensing object to a precision better than 15%. Future radio microlensing surveys conducted with upcoming radio telescopes combined with modest improvements in the VLBA could increase the rate of Galactic black hole events to roughly 10 {{yr}}-1, sufficient to double the number of known stellar mass black holes in a couple of years, and permitting the construction of distribution functions of stellar mass black hole properties.

  7. Identification of conserved genomic regions and variation therein amongst Cetartiodactyla species using next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Next Generation Sequencing has created an opportunity to genetically characterize an individual both inexpensively and comprehensively. In earlier work produced in our collaboration [1], it was demonstrated that, for animals without a reference genome, their Next Generation Sequence data ...

  8. Polarimetry Microlensing of Close-in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Hundertmark, Markus

    2017-04-01

    A close-in giant planetary (CGP) system has a net polarization signal whose value varies depending on the orbital phase of the planet. This polarization signal is either caused by the stellar occultation or by reflected starlight from the surface of the orbiting planet. When the CGP system is located in the Galactic bulge, its polarization signal becomes too weak to be measured directly. One method for detecting and characterizing these weak polarization signatures due to distant CGP systems is gravitational microlensing. In this work, we focus on potential polarimetric observations of highly magnified microlensing events of CGP systems. When the lens is passing directly in front of the source star with its planetary companion, the polarimetric signature caused by the transiting planet is magnified. As a result, some distinct features in the polarimetry and light curves are produced. In the same way, microlensing amplifies the reflection-induced polarization signal. While the planet-induced perturbations are magnified whenever these polarimetric or photometric deviations vanish for a moment, the corresponding magnification factor of the polarization component(s) is related to the planet itself. Finding these exact times in the planet-induced perturbations helps us to characterize the planet. In order to evaluate the observability of such systems through polarimetric or photometric observations of high-magnification microlensing events, we simulate these events by considering confirmed CGP systems as their source stars and conclude that the efficiency for detecting the planet-induced signal with the state-of-the-art polarimetric instrument (FORS2/VLT) is less than 0.1%. Consequently, these planet-induced polarimetry perturbations can likely be detected under favorable conditions by the high-resolution and short-cadence polarimeters of the next generation.

  9. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar discs around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These discs which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these discs can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot discs which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of discs, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting discs is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disc geometrical parameters e.g. the disc inner radius and the lens trajectory with respect to the disc semimajor axis. On the other hand, the time-scale of polarimetric curves of these microlensing events generally increases while their photometric time-scale does not change. By performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that almost four optically thin discs around the Galactic bulge sources are detected (or even characterized) through photometry (or polarimetry) observations of high-magnification microlensing events during 10-yr monitoring of 150 million objects.

  10. Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

    2007-05-04

    Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

  11. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  12. Engineering the Next Generation of Clinical Deep Brain Stimulation Technology

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Cameron C.; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Shamir, Reuben R.; Lempka, Scott F.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved into a powerful clinical therapy for a range of neurological disorders, but even with impressive clinical growth, DBS technology has been relatively stagnant over its history. However, enhanced collaborations between neural engineers, neuroscientists, physicists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons are beginning to address some of the limitations of current DBS technology. These interactions have helped to develop novel ideas for the next generation of clinical DBS systems. This review attempts collate some of that progress and with two goals in mind. First, provide a general description of current clinical DBS practices, geared toward educating biomedical engineers and computer scientists on a field that needs their expertise and attention. Second, describe some of the technological developments that are currently underway in surgical targeting, stimulation parameter selection, stimulation protocols, and stimulation hardware that are being directly evaluated for near term clinical application. PMID:25161150

  13. Retinal prostheses: progress toward the next generation implants

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Diego

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, various clinical trials proved the capability of visual prostheses, in particular retinal implants, to restore a useful form of vision. These encouraging results promoted the emerging of several strategies for neuronal stimulation aiming at the restoration of sight. Besides the traditional approach based on electrical stimulation through metal electrodes in the different areas of the visual path (e.g., the visual cortex, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the optic nerve, and the retina), novel concepts for neuronal stimulation have been mostly exploited as building blocks of the next generation of retinal implants. This review is focused on critically discussing recent major advancements in the field of retinal stimulation with particular attention to the findings in the application of novel concepts and materials. Last, the major challenges in the field and their clinical implications will be outlined. PMID:26347602

  14. Scientific and Technical Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is part of the Origins program and is the key mission to discover the origins of galaxies in the Universe. It is essential that scientific requirements be translated into technical specifications at the beginning of the program and that there is technical participation by astronomers in the design and modeling of the observatory. During the active time period of this grant, the PI participated in the NGST program at GSFC by participating in the development of the Design Reference Mission, the development of the full end-to-end model of the observatory, the design trade-off based on the modeling, the Science Instrument Module definition and modeling, the study of proto-mission and test-bed development, and by participating in meetings including quarterly reviews and support of the NGST SWG. This work was documented in a series of NGST Monographs that are available on the NGST web site.

  15. Application of next-generation sequencing technology in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  16. Next generation sequencing in epigenetics: insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Meaburn, Emma; Schulz, Reiner

    2012-04-01

    The epigenetics community was an early adopter of next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS-based studies have provided detailed and comprehensive views of epigenetic modifications for the genomes of many species and cell types. Recently, DNA methylation has attracted much attention due to the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine and its role in epigenetic reprogramming and pluripotency. This renewed interest has been concomitant with methodological progress enabling, for example, high coverage and single base resolution profiling of the mammalian methylome in small numbers of cells. We summarise this progress and highlight resulting key findings about the complexity of eukaryotic DNA methylation, its role in metazoan genome evolution, epigenetic reprogramming, and its close ties with histone modifications in the context of transcription. Finally, we discuss how fundamental insights gained by NGS, particularly the discovery of widespread allele-specific epigenetic variation in the human genome, have the potential to significantly contribute to the understanding of human common complex diseases.

  17. Optical Property Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Deshpande, Mukund S.; Pierson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation white thermal control coatings were developed via the Small Business Innovative Research program utilizing lithium silicate chemistry as a binder. Doping of the binder with additives yielded a powder that was plasma spray capable and that could be applied to light weight polymers and carbon-carbon composite surfaces. The plasma sprayed coating had acceptable beginning-of-life and end-of-live optical properties, as indicated by a successful 1.5 year exposure to the space environment in low Earth orbit. Recent studies also showed the coating to be durable to simulated space environments consisting of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons, 4.5 MeV electrons, and thermal cycling. Large scale deposition was demonstrated on a polymer matrix composite radiator panel, leading to the selection of the coating for use on the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

  18. Next-Generation Space Telescope design reference mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric P.; Mather, John C.; Stockman, Hervey S.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Burg, Richard

    1998-08-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Design Reference Mission (DRM) represents a suite of potential astronomical programs and targets along with their expected physical properties, and desired observation modes. This broad science program is being used to drive the observatory design in a way as fundamental as traditional engineering parameters. Astronomers use the DRM to communicate their desires in a quantitative fashion to the engineers who will eventually construct the observatory. The DRM is also the primary tool used to measure the relative value of NGST mission architectures and technological readiness of the program. Specifically, the fraction of the DRM completed by a given observatory configuration in a given time is, to first order, a measure of the value of the design. Those designs which complete a higher fraction of the observations listed below are more capable than those complete lesser fractions.

  19. Next Generation Thermal Barrier Coatings for the Gas Turbine Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Li, Xin-Hai; Tricoire, Aurélien; Dorfman, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the next generation of production ready air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a low conductivity and long lifetime. A number of coating architectures were produced using commercially available plasma spray guns. Modifications were made to powder chemistry, including high purity powders, dysprosia stabilized zirconia powders, and powders containing porosity formers. Agglomerated & sintered and homogenized oven spheroidized powder morphologies were used to attain beneficial microstructures. Dual layer coatings were produced using the two powders. Laser flash technique was used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the coating systems from room temperature to 1200 °C. Tests were performed on as-sprayed samples and samples were heat treated for 100 h at 1150 °C. Thermal conductivity results were correlated to the coating microstructure using image analysis of porosity and cracks. The results show the influence of beneficial porosity on reducing the thermal conductivity of the produced coatings.

  20. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  1. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

  2. Executing Medical Guidelines on the Web: Towards Next Generation Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; Des, J.; Fernandez-Prieto, M. J.; Perez, R.; Paniagua, H.

    There is still a lack of full integration between current Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and medical guidelines that encapsulate evidence-based medicine. Thus, general practitioners (GPs) and specialised physicians still have to read document-based medical guidelines and decide among various options for managing common non-life-threatening conditions where the selection of the most appropriate therapeutic option for each individual patient can be a difficult task. This paper presents a simulation framework and computational test-bed, called V.A.F. Framework, for supporting simulations of clinical situations that boosted the integration between Health Level Seven (HL7) and Semantic Web technologies (OWL, SWRL, and OWL-S) to achieve content layer interoperability between online clinical cases and medical guidelines, and therefore, it proves that higher integration between EHRs and evidence-based medicine can be accomplished which could lead to a next generation of healthcare systems that provide more support to physicians and increase patients' safety.

  3. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  4. Satellite communications for the next generation telecommunication services and networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite communications can play an important role in provisioning the next-generation telecommunication services and networks, provided the protocols specifying these services and networks are satellite-compatible and the satellite subnetworks, consisting of earth stations interconnected by the processor and the switch on board the satellite, interwork effectively with the terrestrial networks. The specific parameters and procedures of frame relay and broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) protocols which are impacted by a satellite delay. Congestion and resource management functions for frame relay and B-ISDN are discussed in detail, describing the division of these functions between earth stations and on board the satellite. Specific onboard and ground functions are identified as potential candidates for their implementation via neural network technology.

  5. Structural Modeling of the Next Generation Space Telescope's Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulet, J. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, astronomical observations made with space telescopes have dramatically increased our understanding of the history of the universe. In particular, the cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have yielded observations that cannot be achieved at ground-based observatories. We now have views of the universe before galaxies existed (from COBE) and views of young galaxies (from HST). But none of the existing observatories can provide views of the period in which the galaxies were born, about 100 million to one billion years after the "big bang". NASA expects the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) to fill this gap. An investigation into the structural modeling of the primary mirror of the NGST, its methodology and results are presented.

  6. Metrology/viewing system for next generation fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Spampinato, P.T.; Barry, R.E.; Chesser, J.B.; Menon, M.M.; Dagher, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    Next generation fusion reactors require accurate measuring systems to verify sub-millimeter alignment of plasma-facing components in the reactor vessel. A metrology system capable of achieving such accuracy must be compatible with the vessel environment of high gamma radiation, high vacuum, elevated temperature, and magnetic field. This environment requires that the system must be remotely deployed. A coherent, frequency modulated laser radar system is being integrated with a remotely operated deployment system to meet these requirements. The metrology/viewing system consists of a compact laser transceiver optics module which is linked through fiber optics to the laser source and imaging units that are located outside of the harsh environment. The deployment mechanism is a telescopic-mast positioning system. This paper identifies the requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor metrology and viewing system, and describes a remotely operated precision ranging and surface mapping system.

  7. Building Scientific Community Support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Robeck, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards offer an opportunity to teach Earth and space science in ways that are closer to how scientists practice, and more relevant to students and to societal issues. However, the level of scientific community involvement required to capitalize on this opportunity is high. Building on the results of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level , this presentation proposes a set of mechanisms and practices by which the NGSS Earth and space science community can support NGSS implementation at the national, state and local levels. Based on work with summit attendees, classroom teachers, informal educators and undergraduate faculty, this presentation proposes ways to build a network of practitioners with shared communication, approaches and resources. A set of mechanisms whereby the community can build relationships and share practices will be described, along with an emerging set of strategies for supporting groups as they take the first steps into implementation.

  8. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  9. Next generation sequencing technologies for insect virus discovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Bonning, Bryony C

    2011-10-01

    Insects are commonly infected with multiple viruses including those that cause sublethal, asymptomatic, and latent infections. Traditional methods for virus isolation typically lack the sensitivity required for detection of such viruses that are present at low abundance. In this respect, next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized methods for the discovery and identification of new viruses from insects. Here we review both traditional and modern methods for virus discovery, and outline analysis of transcriptome and small RNA data for identification of viral sequences. We will introduce methods for de novo assembly of viral sequences, identification of potential viral sequences from BLAST data, and bioinformatics for generating full-length or near full-length viral genome sequences. We will also discuss implications of the ubiquity of viruses in insects and in insect cell lines. All of the methods described in this article can also apply to the discovery of viruses in other organisms.

  10. Context Aware Programmable Trackers for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro

    This work introduces and proposes the concept of context aware programmable trackers for the next generation Internet. The proposed solution gives ground for the development of advanced applications based on the P2P paradigm and will foster collaborative efforts among several network entities (e.g. P2P applications and ISPs). The proposed concept of context aware programmable trackers allows that several peer selection strategies might be supported by a P2P tracker entity able to improve the peer selection decisions according with pre-defined objectives and external inputs provided by specific services. The flexible, adaptive and enhanced peer selection semantics that might be achieved by the proposed solution will contribute for devising novel P2P based services and business models for the future Internet.

  11. NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain Dynamometer Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Douglas; Halse, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Advances in wind turbine drivetrain technologies are necessary to improve reliability and reduce the cost of energy for land-based and offshore wind turbines. The NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain team developed a geared, medium-speed drivetrain that is lighter, more reliable and more efficient than existing designs. One of the objectives of Phase II of the project was to complete the detailed design, fabrication, and dynamometer testing of a 750 kilowatt (kW) drivetrain that includes the key gearbox innovations designed by Romax Technology and power converter innovations designed by DNV Kema Renewables. The purpose of this document is to summarize these tests completed in NREL's National Wind Technology Center 2.5 megawatt (MW) dynamometer.

  12. Microfluidics for genome-wide studies involving next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Travis W.; Lu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized how molecular biology studies are conducted. Its decreasing cost and increasing throughput permit profiling of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic features for a wide range of applications. Microfluidics has been proven to be highly complementary to NGS technology with its unique capabilities for handling small volumes of samples and providing platforms for automation, integration, and multiplexing. In this article, we review recent progress on applying microfluidics to facilitate genome-wide studies. We emphasize on several technical aspects of NGS and how they benefit from coupling with microfluidic technology. We also summarize recent efforts on developing microfluidic technology for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies, with emphasis on single cell analysis. We envision rapid growth in these directions, driven by the needs for testing scarce primary cell samples from patients in the context of precision medicine.

  13. Actionable Diagnosis of Neuroleptospirosis by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael R.; Naccache, Samia N.; Samayoa, Erik; Biagtan, Mark; Bashir, Hiba; Yu, Guixia; Salamat, Shahriar M.; Somasekar, Sneha; Federman, Scot; Miller, Steve; Sokolic, Robert; Garabedian, Elizabeth; Candotti, Fabio; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Reed, Kurt D.; Meyer, Teresa L.; Seroogy, Christine M.; Galloway, Renee; Henderson, Sheryl L.; Gern, James E.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 sequence reads (0.016%) corresponding to leptospira infection. Clinical assays for leptospirosis were negative. Targeted antimicrobial agents were administered, and the patient was discharged home 32 days later with a status close to his premorbid condition. Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) subsequently confirmed evidence of Leptospira santarosai infection. PMID:24896819

  14. AGU's response to the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm; Passow, Michael; Asher, Pranoti

    2012-06-01

    A team of expert writers and lead states, headed by the nonproft education reform organization Achieve (http://www.achieve.org), is in the process of developing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). As a critical stakeholder with a strategic interest in talent pool development, AGU has been interested and involved in the development of the standards since early in the process. AGU members such as Michael Wysession and Ramon Lopez are on the writing team. AGU members and the public are encouraged to read and comment on the standards at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The frst draft comment period recently closed; however, a comment period on the second draft will open in fall 2012.

  15. Final Report for "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data"

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, Alexander

    2012-11-13

    The project "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data" adds block-structured (mosaic) grid support, parallel processing, and 2D/3D curvilinear interpolation to the open-source UV-CDAT climate data analysis tool. Block structured grid support complies to the Gridspec extension submitted to the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions. It contains two parts: aggregation of data spread over multiple mosaic tiles (M-SPEC) and aggregation of temporal data stored in different files (F-SPEC). Together, M-SPEC and F-SPEC allow users to interact with data stored in multiple files as if the data were in a single file. For computational expensive tasks, a flexible, multi-dimensional, multi-type distributed array class allows users to process data in parallel using remote memory access. Both nodal and cell based interpolation is supported; users can choose between different interpolation libraries including ESMF and LibCF depending on the their particular needs.

  16. Development of Composite Technologies for the European Next Generation Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Javad; van der Bas, Finn

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), in conjunction with national Research and Technology programs, Dutch Space has undertaken the development of composite technologies for application in the Europe's next generation launcher, Ariane 6. The efforts have focused on development of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Engine Thrust Frame (ETF) for the upper-stage of Ariane6 launcher. These new technologies are expected to improve performance and to lower cost of development and exploitation of the launcher. Although the first targeted application is the thrust frame, the developed technologies are set to be generic in the sense that they can be applied to other structures of the launcher, e.g. inter-stage structures.This paper addresses the design, analysis, manufacturing and testing activities related to the composite technology developments.

  17. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  18. Utility of Next Generation Sequencing in Clinical Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Nikita; Soden, Sarah; Swanson, Douglas; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that present with very similar symptoms, complicating definitive diagnosis. More than 240 genes have hitherto been associated with PIDs, of which more than 30 have been identified in the last 3 years. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomes or exomes of informative families has played a central role in the discovery of novel PID genes. Furthermore, NGS has the potential to transform clinical molecular testing for established PIDs, allowing all PID differential diagnoses to be tested at once, leading to increased diagnostic yield, while decreasing both the time and cost of obtaining a molecular diagnosis. Given that treatment of PID varies by disease gene, early achievement of a molecular diagnosis is likely to enhance treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25149170

  19. Hydrogen Production from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. Patterson; C. Park

    2008-03-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor that will be capable of producing hydrogen, electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial use. The project has initiated the conceptual design phase and when completed will demonstrate the viability of hydrogen generation using nuclear produced process heat. This paper explains how industry and the U.S. Government are cooperating to advance nuclear hydrogen technology. It also describes the issues being explored and the results of recent R&D including materials development and testing, thermal-fluids research, and systems analysis. The paper also describes the hydrogen production technologies being considered (including various thermochemical processes and high-temperature electrolysis).

  20. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  1. NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

    2003-10-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  2. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  4. NASDA next generation Aquatic Habitat for Space Shuttle and ISS.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, M; Ochiai, T; Kamigaichi, S; Ishioka, N; Uchida, S; Kono, Y; Sakimura, T

    2003-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grew to adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing in Genetic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Denise; Tekin, Mustafa; Blanton, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the $1000 genome has the potential to revolutionize the identification of genes and their mutations underlying genetic disorders. This is especially true for extremely heterogeneous Mendelian conditions such as deafness, where the mutation, and indeed the gene, may be private. The recent technological advances in target-enrichment methods and next generation sequencing offer a unique opportunity to break through the barriers of limitations imposed by gene arrays. These approaches now allow for the complete analysis of all known deafness-causing genes and will result in a new wave of discoveries of the remaining genes for Mendelian disorders. In this review, we describe commonly used genomic technologies as well as the application of these technologies to the genetic diagnosis of hearing loss (HL) and to the discovery of novel genes for syndromic and nonsyndromic HL. PMID:23738631

  6. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  7. The AGATA Spectrometer: next generation gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J.; AGATA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. The spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for electromagnetic nuclear radiation. The tracking technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances and the spectrometer is now operational. AGATA has been operated in a series of scientific campaigns at Legnaro National Laboratory in Italy and GSI in Germany and is presently being assembled at GANIL in France. The status of the instrument will be reviewed.

  8. Engineering the next generation of clinical deep brain stimulation technology.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Cameron C; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Shamir, Reuben R; Lempka, Scott F

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved into a powerful clinical therapy for a range of neurological disorders, but even with impressive clinical growth, DBS technology has been relatively stagnant over its history. However, enhanced collaborations between neural engineers, neuroscientists, physicists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons are beginning to address some of the limitations of current DBS technology. These interactions have helped to develop novel ideas for the next generation of clinical DBS systems. This review attempts collate some of that progress with two goals in mind. First, provide a general description of current clinical DBS practices, geared toward educating biomedical engineers and computer scientists on a field that needs their expertise and attention. Second, describe some of the technological developments that are currently underway in surgical targeting, stimulation parameter selection, stimulation protocols, and stimulation hardware that are being directly evaluated for near term clinical application.

  9. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  10. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production. PMID:21936941

  11. Next-generation sequencing and large genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Joseph; Tischler, German; Ning, Zemin

    2012-01-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) revolution has drastically reduced time and cost requirements for sequencing of large genomes, and also qualitatively changed the problem of assembly. This article reviews the state of the art in de novo genome assembly, paying particular attention to mammalian-sized genomes. The strengths and weaknesses of the main sequencing platforms are highlighted, leading to a discussion of assembly and the new challenges associated with NGS data. Current approaches to assembly are outlined and the various software packages available are introduced and compared. The question of whether quality assemblies can be produced using short-read NGS data alone, or whether it must be combined with more expensive sequencing techniques, is considered. Prospects for future assemblers and tests of assembly performance are also discussed. PMID:22676195

  12. From GOCE to the Next Generation Gravity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Stefano; Allasio, Andrea; Anselmi, Alberto; Dionisio, Sabrina; Mottini, Sergio; Parisch, Manilo; Massotti, Luca; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    ESA’s gravity mission GOCE, carried out with extraordinary success between 2009 and 2013, was the result of more than twenty years of system studies and technology developments in which Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) always played a major role. Already while GOCE was being developed, ESA began promoting preparatory studies for a Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM). While GOCE aimed to provide a high resolution static map of Earth’s gravity, the objective of NGGM is long-term monitoring of the time-variable gravity field with high temporal and spatial resolution. The new mission implies new measurement techniques and instrumentation, a new mission scenario and different spacecraft design drivers. Despite the differences, however, the achievements of GOCE (demonstration of long-duration wide-band drag free control, ultra-sensitive accelerometers, stable noncryogenic temperature control in low earth orbit, etc.) stand as the basis on which the new mission is being created.

  13. The Next-Generation Power Electronics Technology for Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents an overview of the next-generation power electronics technology for the Japanese-version smart grid. It focuses on a grid-level battery energy storage system, a grid-level STATCOM (STATic synchronous COMpensator), and a 6.6-kV BTB (Back-To-Back) system for power flow control between two power distribution feeders. These power electronic devices play an important role in achieving load frequency control and voltage regulation. Their circuit configurations based on modular multilevel cascade PWM converters are characterized by flexible system design, low voltage steps, and low EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) emission. Their downscaled laboratory models are designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the circuit configurations and control methods.

  14. Design Considerations for the Next Generation of General Aviation Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of research conducted at NASA Langley Research Center during two summer programs during 1994 and 1995. These programs were the NASA Advanced Design Program and the Langley Research Summer Scholars program. The work was incorporated in a three phase project at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University which focused on development of the next generation Primary Flight Trainer, as well as in ERAU's participation in the AGATE General Aviation Design Competition. The project was conducted as part of the ERAU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics as well as the AGATE competition. A design study was completed which encompassed the incorporation of existing conventional technologies and advanced technologies into PFT designs and advanced GA aircraft designs. Multiple aircraft configurations were also examined throughout the ADP/AGATE. Evaluations of the various technologies and configurations studied will be made and recommendations will be included.

  15. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  16. Next-generation sequencing: big data meets high performance computing.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bertil; Hildebrandt, Andreas

    2017-02-02

    The progress of next-generation sequencing has a major impact on medical and genomic research. This high-throughput technology can now produce billions of short DNA or RNA fragments in excess of a few terabytes of data in a single run. This leads to massive datasets used by a wide range of applications including personalized cancer treatment and precision medicine. In addition to the hugely increased throughput, the cost of using high-throughput technologies has been dramatically decreasing. A low sequencing cost of around US$1000 per genome has now rendered large population-scale projects feasible. However, to make effective use of the produced data, the design of big data algorithms and their efficient implementation on modern high performance computing systems is required.

  17. Next Generation Device Grade Silicon-Germanium on Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohns, Callum G.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mallinson, Christopher F.; Watts, John F.; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Reed, Graham T.; Gardes, Frederic Y.

    2015-01-01

    High quality single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator has the potential to facilitate the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. Using a rapid melt growth technique we engineer tailored single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator structures with near constant composition over large areas. The proposed structures avoid the problem of laterally graded SiGe compositions, caused by preferential Si rich solid formation, encountered in straight SiGe wires by providing radiating elements distributed along the structures. This method enables the fabrication of multiple single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator layers of different compositions, on the same Si wafer, using only a single deposition process and a single anneal process, simply by modifying the structural design and/or the anneal temperature. This facilitates a host of device designs, within a relatively simple growth environment, as compared to the complexities of other methods, and also offers flexibility in device designs within that growth environment. PMID:25656076

  18. Towards the Next Generation of Space Environment Prediction Capabilities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since its establishment more than 15 years ago, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is serving as an assess point to expanding collection of state-of-the-art space environment models and frameworks as well as a hub for collaborative development of next generation space weather forecasting systems. In partnership with model developers and international research and operational communities the CCMC integrates new data streams and models from diverse sources into end-to-end space weather impacts predictive systems, identifies week links in data-model & model-model coupling and leads community efforts to fill those gaps. The presentation will highlight latest developments, progress in CCMC-led community-wide projects on testing, prototyping, and validation of models, forecasting techniques and procedures and outline ideas on accelerating implementation of new capabilities in space weather operations.

  19. Report on the international workshop on next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Many laboratories around the world have begun vigorous research programs on a next generation linear collider (NLC). However, it has been recognized that the research towards NLC is beyond the capabilities of any one laboratory presently. This workshop was organized to begin a series of workshops that address this problem. Specifically, the main goals of the workshop were to discuss research programs of the various laboratories around the world, to identify common areas of interest in the various NLC designs, and finally to advance these programs by collaboration. The particular topics discussed briefly in this paper are: parameters, rf power, structures, final focus, beam dynamics, damping rings, and instrumentation. 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Clinical Application of Targeted Next Generation Sequencing for Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Fontanges, Quitterie; De Mendonca, Ricardo; Salmon, Isabelle; Le Mercier, Marie; D’Haene, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Promising targeted therapy and personalized medicine are making molecular profiling of tumours a priority. For colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, international guidelines made RAS (KRAS and NRAS) status a prerequisite for the use of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents (anti-EGFR). Daily, new data emerge on the theranostic and prognostic role of molecular biomarkers, which is a strong incentive for a validated, sensitive and broadly available molecular screening test in order to implement and improve multi-modal therapy strategy and clinical trials. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has begun to supplant other technologies for genomic profiling. Targeted NGS is a method that allows parallel sequencing of thousands of short DNA sequences in a single test offering a cost-effective approach for detecting multiple genetic alterations with a minimum amount of DNA. In the present review, we collected data concerning the clinical application of NGS technology in the setting of colorectal cancer. PMID:27999270

  1. Multi-Intelligence Analytics for Next Generation Analysts (MIAGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Waltz, Ed

    2016-05-01

    Current analysts are inundated with large volumes of data from which extraction, exploitation, and indexing are required. A future need for next-generation analysts is an appropriate balance between machine analytics from raw data and the ability of the user to interact with information through automation. Many quantitative intelligence tools and techniques have been developed which are examined towards matching analyst opportunities with recent technical trends such as big data, access to information, and visualization. The concepts and techniques summarized are derived from discussions with real analysts, documented trends of technical developments, and methods to engage future analysts with multiintelligence services. For example, qualitative techniques should be matched against physical, cognitive, and contextual quantitative analytics for intelligence reporting. Future trends include enabling knowledge search, collaborative situational sharing, and agile support for empirical decision-making and analytical reasoning.

  2. Investigation of next generation engine for reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Akira; Kishimoto, Kenji; Atsumi, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    A new investigation on next generation engines for fully Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is under way in Japan. The RLV requires not only high specific impulse of the propulsion but also significant improvements in thrust-to weight ratio at liftoff, life cycle capability and operability. This paper will describe the conceptual outline on a new engine research program for RLV based on the main component characteristics of the LE-7A engine. This engine will be driven with tap off cycle or gas generator cycle, not staged combustion, in order to increase sea level thrust-to-weight ratio. Extendible nozzle will be also installed to enhance the vacuum specific impulse. In addition, this paper will present a new concept of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) to boost air breathing spaceplane. The LACE engine has significantly higher specific impulse and sea level thrust-to weight ratio than rocket engine.

  3. Optical-system design for next-generation pushbroom sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mika, A. M.; Richard, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Next-generation pushbroom sensors for earth observation require high-performance optics that provide high spatial resolution over wide fields of view. Specifically, blur diameters on the order of 10 to 15 microns are needed over 5 to 15 deg fields. In addition to this fundamental level of optical performance, other characteristics, such as spatial coregistration of spectral bands, flat focal plane, telecentricity, and workable pupil location are significant instrument design considerations. The detector-assembly design, optical line-of-sight pointing method and sensor packaging all hinge on these secondary attributes. Moreover, the need for broad spectral coverage, ranging from 0.4 to 12.5 microns, places an additional constraint on optical design. This paper presents alternative design forms that are candidates for wide-field pushbroom sensors, and discusses the instrument-design tradeoffs that are linked to the selection of these alternate optical approaches.

  4. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  5. Next Generation GPS Ground Control Segment (OCX) Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Harvey, Nate; Miller, Kevin; Romans, Larry; Weiss, Jan; Doyle, Larry; Solorzano, Tara; Petzinger, John; Stell, Al

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, a Raytheon-led team was selected by The Air Force to develop, implement, and operate the next generation GPS ground control segment (OCX). To meet and exceed the demanding OCX navigation performance requirements, the Raytheon team partnered with ITT (Navigation lead) and JPL to adapt major elements of JPL's navigation technology, proven in the operations of the Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. Key design goals for the navigation subsystem include accurate ephemeris and clock accuracy (user range error), ease of model upgrades, and a smooth and safe transition from the legacy system to OCX.We will describe key elements of the innovative architecture of the OCX navigation subsystem,and demonstrate the anticipated performance of the system through high fidelity simulations withactual GPS measurements.

  6. Next Generation Sequencing Technologies for Insect Virus Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2011-01-01

    Insects are commonly infected with multiple viruses including those that cause sublethal, asymptomatic, and latent infections. Traditional methods for virus isolation typically lack the sensitivity required for detection of such viruses that are present at low abundance. In this respect, next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized methods for the discovery and identification of new viruses from insects. Here we review both traditional and modern methods for virus discovery, and outline analysis of transcriptome and small RNA data for identification of viral sequences. We will introduce methods for de novo assembly of viral sequences, identification of potential viral sequences from BLAST data, and bioinformatics for generating full-length or near full-length viral genome sequences. We will also discuss implications of the ubiquity of viruses in insects and in insect cell lines. All of the methods described in this article can also apply to the discovery of viruses in other organisms. PMID:22069519

  7. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. PMID:25462152

  8. Concept for a next-generation drop tower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Gierse, Andreas; Greif, Andreas; Lutz, Torsten; Mawn, Simon; Siemer, Jan; Eigenbrod, Christian; von Kampen, Peter; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-03-01

    The concept for a next-generation drop tower system is presented that is motivated by the scientific demand for much higher experiment repetition. This demand resulted in repetition rates of over 100 experiments per day which exceed the current capabilities of operating drop towers by far. High experiment repetition rates can for instance be realized through the novel application of a guided electro-magnetic linear drive system in a fully automatic drop tower operation. Such a new kind of drop tower system combines beneficial technologies of different free fall systems like freely falling drop capsules, capsule-in-capsule systems, and the vertical parabola method as already utilized in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system. This proposed next-generation drop tower system named GraviTower Bremen does not only enable experiments with an outstanding microgravity quality (10-6 g, where g is the Earth's gravitational acceleration) and a duration of 6 s but also novel experiments under partial gravity conditions (0.1 g to 0.4 g) matching those of Moon or Mars with durations of up to 8.5 s. Due to its linear drive system the GraviTower allows the same very low initial acceleration and following deceleration loads onto the experiment. These can be selected according to the experiment's needs with only 1.5 g or 4 g. The engine power of the linear drive system allows also large payload dimensions and masses. The features and capabilities of the proposed GraviTower Bremen combine all advantages of current drop towers and represent the next technological step forward in ground-based research under space conditions.

  9. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  10. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (<10-6 Torr), and environmental temperature fluctuations are compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  11. Next-generation wideband multimode fibers for data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balemarthy, Kasyapa; Shubochkin, Roman; Sun, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Short-reach optical links such as those used in data centers pre-dominantly employ VCSELs together with laser- optimized OM4 and OM3 multimode fiber (MMF), mainly due to their reliability, energy-efficiency and low end-to-end system cost. The IEEE 802.3bm specification for 100Gbps Ethernet utilizes four parallel MMFs each operating at a serial data rate of 25Gbps. Due to the rapidly increasing internet traffic, the IEEE P802.3bs Task Force is working towards a 400Gbps Ethernet standard requiring a commensurate increase in the number of parallel fibers deployed. Using 16 parallel lanes, while feasible, is not the most efficient use of cabling. One solution to the data rate - cable density problem is the use of shortwave wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM) near 850nm. For example, employing four wavelengths separated by ~30nm (with an operational window of ~840-950nm) results in a four-fold increase in the per-fiber data rate. Furthermore, SWDM can be combined with the parallel solution to support 400Gbps with the same cable density as the current 100Gbps Ethernet solution using OM4 fiber. Conventional laser-optimized OM4 gives diminished performance at the longer wavelengths compared to 850nm. Shifting the OM4 optimization wavelength to longer wavelengths sacrifices the 850nm performance. In this paper, we present next-generation wideband multimode fibers (NG-WBMMF) that are optimized for SWDM operation using a novel design approach employing multiple dopants. We have fabricated and characterized a wideband MMF that is OM4 compliant over the 850-950nm wavelength window. BER measurements demonstrate that this next-generation WB MMF satisfies the pre-FEC requirement of 5 × 10-5 even after transmission over 300m.

  12. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Hidden Diversity of Zooplankton Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Rachel A.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Background Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. Methodology/Principle Findings Plankton net hauls (200 µm) were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. Conclusions Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may become increasingly

  13. 76 FR 49776 - The Development and Evaluation of Next-Generation Smallpox Vaccines; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Development and Evaluation of Next-Generation Smallpox... workshop entitled ``The Development and Evaluation of Next-Generation Smallpox Vaccines.'' The purpose of... evaluation of next-generation smallpox vaccines. The public workshop will include presentations on the...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE microlensing events in Galactic Bulge (Udalski+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Zebrun, K.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P.

    2006-09-01

    We present the Catalog of microlensing events detected toward the Galactic bulge in three observing seasons, 1997-1999, during the OGLE-II microlensing survey. The search for microlensing events was performed using a database of about 4x109 photometric measurements of about 20.5 million stars from the Galactic bulge. The Catalog comprises 214 microlensing events found in the fields covering about 11 square degrees on the sky and distributed in different parts of the Galactic bulge. The sample includes 20 binary microlensing events, 14 of them are caustic crossing. In one case a double star is likely lensed. We present distribution of the basic parameters of microlensing events and show preliminary rate of microlensing in different regions of the Galactic bulge. The latter reveals clear dependence on the Galactic coordinates. The dependence on l indicates that the majority of lenses toward the Galactic bulge are located in the Galactic bar. Models of the Galactic bar seem to reasonably predict the observed spatial distribution of microlensing events in the Galactic bulge. All data presented in the Catalog and photometry of all events are available from the OGLE Internet archive. (3 data files).

  15. A new parameter space study of cosmological microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    Cosmological gravitational microlensing is a useful technique for understanding the structure of the inner parts of a quasar, especially the accretion disc and the central supermassive black hole. So far, most of the cosmological microlensing studies have focused on single objects from ˜90 currently known lensed quasars. However, present and planned all-sky surveys are expected to discover thousands of new lensed systems. Using a graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated ray-shooting code, we have generated 2550 magnification maps uniformly across the convergence (κ) and shear (γ) parameter space of interest to microlensing. We examine the effect of random realizations of the microlens positions on map properties such as the magnification probability distribution (MPD). It is shown that for most of the parameter space a single map is representative of an average behaviour. All of the simulations have been carried out on the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysics Research.

  16. Possibly high amplification microlensing event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, Michal; Udalski, Andrzej

    1998-06-01

    The OGLE team informs about a microlensing event in progress - OGLE-1998-BUL-18 (17:54:21.79, -29:53:24.0, J2000) which is presently about 2 days before maximum. It is relatively bright star (I0=15.5), rising rapidly. Preliminary microlensing fit to the light curve predicts large maximum magnification to be reached on JD=2450971.831 (1998-06-07.33 UT) Follow-up observations, both photometric and spectroscopic, are strongly encouraged.

  17. BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-04-15

    We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.

  18. Next Generation Laser-Compton Gamma-ray Beam Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Since late 1970s, laser driven Compton gamma-ray beam facilities have been developed, contradicted and operated around the world for basic science research in nuclear physics and astrophysics, and for applied research in the areas of national security and industrial applications. Currently, TUNL's High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) located at Duke University campus is the most intense Compton gamma-ray beam facility dedicated for scientific research. Driven by a high power storage ring Free-Electron Laser (FEL), HIGS produces nearly monochromatic, highly polarized gamma-ray beams from 1 to 100 MeV, with its peak performance of total flux up to few 1E10 g/s and a spectral flux of more than 1E3 g/s/eV in the few MeV to 10 MeV region. The next generation Compton gamma-ray sources will be developed using advanced laser technologies. This talk will provide an overview of new Compton gamma-beam projects, including the ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics) project in Romania and the HIGS upgrade project - HIGS2. Since late 1970s, laser driven Compton gamma-ray beam facilities have been developed, contradicted and operated around the world for basic science research in nuclear physics and astrophysics, and for applied research in the areas of national security and industrial applications. Currently, TUNL's High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) located at Duke University campus is the most intense Compton gamma-ray beam facility dedicated for scientific research. Driven by a high power storage ring Free-Electron Laser (FEL), HIGS produces nearly monochromatic, highly polarized gamma-ray beams from 1 to 100 MeV, with its peak performance of total flux up to few 1E10 g/s and a spectral flux of more than 1E3 g/s/eV in the few MeV to 10 MeV region. The next generation Compton gamma-ray sources will be developed using advanced laser technologies. This talk will provide an overview of new Compton gamma-beam projects, including the ELI-NP (Extreme Light

  19. Microbiome Selection Could Spur Next-Generation Plant Breeding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka

    2016-01-01

    “No plant is an island too…” Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbors in different plant tissues, i.e., the ‘plant microbiome,’ form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont.’ The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding. In this perspective, we propose bottom–up approach to co-propagate the co-evolved, the plant along with the target microbiome, through – (i) reciprocal soil transplantation method, or (ii) artificial ecosystem selection method of synthetic microbiome inocula, or (iii) by exploration of

  20. AgMIP: Next Generation Models and Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Next steps in developing next-generation crop models fall into several categories: significant improvements in simulation of important crop processes and responses to stress; extension from simplified crop models to complex cropping systems models; and scaling up from site-based models to landscape, national, continental, and global scales. Crop processes that require major leaps in understanding and simulation in order to narrow uncertainties around how crops will respond to changing atmospheric conditions include genetics; carbon, temperature, water, and nitrogen; ozone; and nutrition. The field of crop modeling has been built on a single crop-by-crop approach. It is now time to create a new paradigm, moving from 'crop' to 'cropping system.' A first step is to set up the simulation technology so that modelers can rapidly incorporate multiple crops within fields, and multiple crops over time. Then the response of these more complex cropping systems can be tested under different sustainable intensification management strategies utilizing the updated simulation environments. Model improvements for diseases, pests, and weeds include developing process-based models for important diseases, frameworks for coupling air-borne diseases to crop models, gathering significantly more data on crop impacts, and enabling the evaluation of pest management strategies. Most smallholder farming in the world involves integrated crop-livestock systems that cannot be represented by crop modeling alone. Thus, next-generation cropping system models need to include key linkages to livestock. Livestock linkages to be incorporated include growth and productivity models for grasslands and rangelands as well as the usual annual crops. There are several approaches for scaling up, including use of gridded models and development of simpler quasi-empirical models for landscape-scale analysis. On the assessment side, AgMIP is leading a community process for coordinated contributions to IPCC AR6

  1. Impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF CPC processing

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-02-21

    As part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic-side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and new strip acid will be deployed. Processing will begin with a blend of the current solvent and the NGS. Compositional changes in the NGS solvent and blending with the current solvent require review of previously performed work to determine if additional experimental work is required to address any impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The composition change involved the substitution of the N,N’-dicyclohexyl-N”-isotridecylguanidine LIX® 79 guanidine suppressor with N,N’,N”-tris (3,7-dimethyloctyl) guanidine (TiDG) guanidine suppressor. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by DWPF to evaluate any impacts to offgas generation, solvent buildup or carryover, chemical, thermal, and radiolytic stability of the blended and pure TiDG based NGS. Previous work has been performed by SRNL to evaluate impacts to CPC processing using the next generation solvent containing LIX® 79 suppressor with boric acid strip effluent. Based on previous experimental work and current literature, the following conclusions are made for processing in the CPC: No mechanism for a change in the catalytic hydrogen evolution in the CPC was identified for the NGS TiDG based solvent; The transition from the LIX® 79 based suppressor to the TiDG based suppressor is not expected to have any impact on solvent or Isopar® L accumulation; Transitioning from the current solvent to the TiDG based NGS is not expected to have an impact on solvent carryover or partitioning; No changes to the chemical stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; No changes to the thermal stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; A “worst case” scenario was examined in which all of the hydrogen atoms from the TiDG based NGS and blended solvent form hydrogen gas in the

  2. Designing the Next Generation Global Geodetic Network for GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; König, Daniel; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. National Research Council report "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource" (2010) recommended that we 'make a long-term commitment to maintain the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) to ensure its continuity and stability'. It further determined that to ensure this, a network of about ~30 globally distributed "core" observatories with state of the art equipment was necessary and should be deployed over the next decade or so. The findings were based on simulation studies using conceptual networks where Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) equipment of the next generation quality were deployed and operated 24/7. Since then, GGOS—the Global Geodetic Observing System, has embarked in an international effort to organize this future network, soliciting contributions from around the world, through an open solicitation "Call for Proposals—CfP". After a critical number of proposals were received, the results were evaluated and a data base was established where the likely sites are ranked in terms of the available equipment, local environment and weather, probability of completion and the relevant date, etc. The renewal process is expected to evolve smoothly over many years, from the current (legacy) state to the next generation ("GGOS-class") equipment. In order to design the optimal distribution of the proposed sites and to determine any gaps in the final network, simulations have been called for again, only this time the site locations are identical to those listed in the compiled data base, and the equipment at each site is in accordance to what is described in the data base for each point in time. The main objective of the simulations addresses the quality of the ITRF product from a network we expect to have in place about five and ten years after the NRC report (2016/2020). A secondary but equally important simulation task is the study of trade-offs when deploying new

  3. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  4. Design reliability assurance program for Korean next generation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Beom-Su; Han, Jin-Kyu; Na, Jang Hwan; Yoo, Kyung Yeong

    1997-12-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) project is to develop standardized nuclear power plant design for the construction of future nuclear power plants in Korea. The main purpose of the KNGR project is to develop the advanced nuclear power plants, which enhance safety and economics significantly through the incorporation of design concepts for severe accident prevention and mitigation, supplementary passive safety concept, simplification and application of modularization and so on. For those, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and availability study will be performed at the early stage of the design, and the Design Reliability Assurance Program (D-RAP) is applied in the development of the KNGR to ensure that the safety and availability evaluated in the PSA and availability study at the early phase of the design is maintained through the detailed design, construction, procurement and operation of the plants. This paper presents the D-RAP concept that could be applied at the stage of the basic design of the nuclear power plants, based on the models for the reference plants and/or similar plants. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries from damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Adrian W; Heyn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized ancient DNA research, especially when combined with high-throughput target enrichment methods. However, attaining high sequencing depth and accuracy from samples often remains problematic due to the damaged state of ancient DNA, in particular the extremely low copy number of ancient DNA and the abundance of uracil residues derived from cytosine deamination that lead to miscoding errors. It is therefore critical to use a highly efficient procedure for conversion of a raw DNA extract into an adaptor-ligated sequencing library, and equally important to reduce errors from uracil residues. We present a protocol for NGS library preparation that allows highly efficient conversion of DNA fragments into an adaptor-ligated form. The protocol incorporates an option to remove the vast majority of uracil miscoding lesions as part of the library preparation process. The procedure requires only two spin column purification steps and no gel purification or bead handling. Starting from an aliquot of DNA extract, a finished, highly amplified library can be generated in 5 h, or under 3 h if uracil removal is not required.

  6. SAMSIN: the next-generation servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.H.; Jennrich, C.E.; Korpi, K.W.

    1985-11-01

    The Central Research Laboratories (CRL) Division of Sargent Industries is now developing SAMSIN, a next-generation servo-manipulator. SAMSIN is an acronym for Servo-Actuated Manipulator Systems with Intelligent Networks. This paper discusses the objectives of this development and describes the key features of the servo-manipulator system. There are three main objectives in the SAMSIN development: adaptability, reliability, and maintainability. SAMSIN utilizes standard Sargent/CRL sealed master and slave manipulator arms as well as newly developed compact versions. The mechanical arms have more than 20 yr of successful performance in industrial applications such as hot cells, high vacuums, fuel pools, and explosives handling. The servo-actuator package is in a protective enclosure, which may be sealed in various ways from the remote environment. The force limiting characteristics of the servo-actuators extend motion tendon life. Protective bootings increase the reliability of the arms in an environment that is high in airborne contamination. These bootings also simplify the decontamination of the system. The modularity in construction permits quick removal and replacement of slave arms, wrist joints, tong fingers, and actuator packages for maintenance. SAMSIN utilizes readily available off-the-shelf actuator and control system components. Each manipulator motion uses the same actuator and control system components.

  7. Optical Communications Study for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), part of NASA's Origins program, is a follow on to the Hubble Space Telescope expected to provide timely new science along with answering fundamental questions. NGST is a large diameter, infrared optimized telescope with imaging and spectrographic detectors which will be used to help study the origin of galaxies. Due to the large data NGST will collect, Goddard Space Flight Center has considered the use of optical communications for data downlink. The Optical Communications Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has performed a study on optical communications systems for NGST. The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits gained through the use of optical communication technologies. Studies were performed for each of four proposed NGST orbits. The orbits considered were an elliptical orbit about the semi stable second Lagrangian point, a 1 by 3 AU elliptic orbit around the sun, a 1 AU drift orbit, and a 1 AU drift orbit at a 15 degree incline to the ecliptic plane. An appropriate optical communications system was determined for each orbit. Systems were evaluated in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost for each of the four proposed orbits.

  8. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in virology.

    PubMed

    Radford, Alan D; Chapman, David; Dixon, Linda; Chantrey, Julian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil

    2012-09-01

    The progress of science is punctuated by the advent of revolutionary technologies that provide new ways and scales to formulate scientific questions and advance knowledge. Following on from electron microscopy, cell culture and PCR, next-generation sequencing is one of these methodologies that is now changing the way that we understand viruses, particularly in the areas of genome sequencing, evolution, ecology, discovery and transcriptomics. Possibilities for these methodologies are only limited by our scientific imagination and, to some extent, by their cost, which has restricted their use to relatively small numbers of samples. Challenges remain, including the storage and analysis of the large amounts of data generated. As the chemistries employed mature, costs will decrease. In addition, improved methods for analysis will become available, opening yet further applications in virology including routine diagnostic work on individuals, and new understanding of the interaction between viral and host transcriptomes. An exciting era of viral exploration has begun, and will set us new challenges to understand the role of newly discovered viral diversity in both disease and health.

  9. The FAST Project - A Next Generation UHECR Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Malacari, Max; Bellido, Jose A.; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Jiang, Jiaqi; Mandat, Dusan; Matalon, Ariel; Matthews, John N.; Motloch, Pavel; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, Paolo; Schovanek, Petr; Thomas, Stan B.; Travnicek, Petr

    2017-03-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST)b, addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report on the first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array (TA) site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube (PMT) at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. We also report on the status of the full-scale FAST prototype soon to be installed at the TA site, comprising a segmented spherical mirror of 1.6 m diameter and a 2 × 2 PMT camera.

  10. Pattern Recognition on Read Positioning in Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Boseon; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness and the utility of the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology are based on the assumption that the DNA or cDNA cleavage required to generate short sequence reads is random. Several previous reports suggest the existence of sequencing bias of NGS reads. To address this question in greater detail, we analyze NGS data from four organisms with different GC content, Plasmodium falciparum (19.39%), Arabidopsis thaliana (36.03%), Homo sapiens (40.91%) and Streptomyces coelicolor (72.00%). Using machine learning techniques, we recognize the pattern that the NGS read start is positioned in the local region where the nucleotide distribution is dissimilar from the global nucleotide distribution. We also demonstrate that the mono-nucleotide distribution underestimates sequencing bias, and the recognized pattern is explained largely by the distribution of multi-nucleotides (di-, tri-, and tetra- nucleotides) rather than mono-nucleotides. This implies that the correction of sequencing bias needs to be performed on the basis of the multi-nucleotide distribution. Providing companion software to quantify the effect of the recognized pattern on read positioning, we exemplify that the bias correction based on the mono-nucleotide distribution may not be sufficient to clean sequencing bias. PMID:27299343

  11. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in Neurology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2014-12-01

    Genetic risk factors that underlie many rare and common neurological diseases remain poorly understood because of the multi-factorial and heterogeneous nature of these disorders. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully uncovered numerous susceptibility genes for these diseases, odds ratios associated with risk alleles are generally low and account for only a small proportion of estimated heritability. These results implicated that there are rare (present in <5% of the population) but not causative variants exist in the pathogenesis of these diseases, which usually have large effect size and cannot be captured by GWAS. With the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) have enabled the rapid identification of rare variants with large effect size, which made huge progress in understanding the basis of many Mendelian neurological conditions as well as complex neurological diseases. In this article, recent NGS-based studies that aimed to investigate genetic causes for neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinocerebellar ataxias, have been reviewed. In addition, we also discuss the future directions of NGS applications in this article.

  12. Learning gene regulatory networks from next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bochao; Xu, Suwa; Xiao, Guanghua; Lamba, Vishal; Liang, Faming

    2017-03-10

    In recent years, next generation sequencing (NGS) has gradually replaced microarray as the major platform in measuring gene expressions. Compared to microarray, NGS has many advantages, such as less noise and higher throughput. However, the discreteness of NGS data also challenges the existing statistical methodology. In particular, there still lacks an appropriate statistical method for reconstructing gene regulatory networks using NGS data in the literature. The existing local Poisson graphical model method is not consistent and can only infer certain local structures of the network. In this article, we propose a random effect model-based transformation to continuize NGS data and then we transform the continuized data to Gaussian via a semiparametric transformation and apply an equivalent partial correlation selection method to reconstruct gene regulatory networks. The proposed method is consistent. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can lead to much more accurate inference of gene regulatory networks than the local Poisson graphical model and other existing methods. The proposed data-continuized transformation fills the theoretical gap for how to transform discrete data to continuous data and facilitates NGS data analysis. The proposed data-continuized transformation also makes it feasible to integrate different types of data, such as microarray and RNA-seq data, in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks.

  13. Next-generation technologies and data analytical approaches for epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Mensaert, Klaas; Denil, Simon; Trooskens, Geert; Van Criekinge, Wim; Thas, Olivier; De Meyer, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetics refers to the collection of heritable features that modulate the genome-environment interaction without being encoded in the actual DNA sequence. While being mitotically and sometimes even meiotically transmitted, epigenetic traits often demonstrate extensive flexibility. This allows cells to acquire diverse gene expression patterns during differentiation, but also to adapt to a changing environment. However, epigenetic alterations are not always beneficial to the organism, as they are, for example, frequently identified in human diseases such as cancer. Accurate and cost-efficient genome-scale profiling of epigenetic features is thus of major importance to pinpoint these "epimutations," for example, to monitor the epigenetic impact of environmental exposure. Over the last decade, the field of epigenetics has been revolutionized by several innovative "epigenomics" technologies exactly addressing this need. In this review, we discuss and compare widely used next-generation methods to assess DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, noncoding RNA expression, histone modifications, and nucleosome positioning. Although recent methods are typically based on "second-generation" sequencing, we also pay attention to still commonly used array- and PCR-based methods, and look forward to the additional advantages of single-molecule sequencing. As the current bottleneck in epigenomics research is the analysis rather than generation of data, the basic difficulties and problem-solving strategies regarding data preprocessing and statistical analysis are introduced for the different technologies. Finally, we also consider the complications associated with epigenomic studies of species with yet unsequenced genomes and possible solutions.

  14. Next generation sequencing for disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Edward S; McElreavey, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are having a major impact on our understanding of the genetic causes of many human congenital disorders. Next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are particularly important for determining the inherited genetic changes leading to disorders of sex development (DSD). Knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in ovary or testis development is incomplete and, currently, a molecular diagnosis is made in a minority of DSD cases. Here, we review the different NGS strategies applied to the analysis of rare diseases and highlight the potential pitfalls and advantages that are associated with each approach. We also discuss the problems of variant calling as well as the challenges involved in the identification and interpretation of pathogenic mutations from NGS datasets. As clinics start to use NGS on a routine basis, a close collaboration between the molecular and clinical geneticists is essential. This is particularly relevant in the context of unsolicited genetic findings, where clear guidelines regarding counseling, truly informed consent and precise data interpretation will be invaluable.

  15. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-09-01

    It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs, insertion/deletions, mRNA) that cannot be analyzed simultaneously with the standard PCR-CE methods used today. The true variation in core forensic STR loci has been uncovered, and previously unknown STR alleles have been discovered. The detailed sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this review, we will give an introduction to NGS and single-molecule sequencing, and we will discuss the possible applications of NGS in forensic genetics.

  16. Next-generation sequencing: advances and applications in cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Serratì, Simona; De Summa, Simona; Pilato, Brunella; Petriella, Daniela; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Tommasi, Stefania; Pinto, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in cancer investigation. NGS allows massive parallel sequencing that affords maximal tumor genomic assessment. NGS approaches are different, and concern DNA and RNA analysis. DNA sequencing includes whole-genome, whole-exome, and targeted sequencing, which focuses on a selection of genes of interest for a specific disease. RNA sequencing facilitates the detection of alternative gene-spliced transcripts, posttranscriptional modifications, gene fusion, mutations/single-nucleotide polymorphisms, small and long noncoding RNAs, and changes in gene expression. Most applications are in the cancer research field, but lately NGS technology has been revolutionizing cancer molecular diagnostics, due to the many advantages it offers compared to traditional methods. There is greater knowledge on solid cancer diagnostics, and recent interest has been shown also in the field of hematologic cancer. In this review, we report the latest data on NGS diagnostic/predictive clinical applications in solid and hematologic cancers. Moreover, since the amount of NGS data produced is very large and their interpretation is very complex, we briefly discuss two bioinformatic aspects, variant-calling accuracy and copy-number variation detection, which are gaining a lot of importance in cancer-diagnostic assessment. PMID:27980425

  17. Unraveling genomic variation from next generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the content of a DNA sequence is critical to deeper understand and decode the genetic information for any biological system. As next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have become cheaper and more advanced in throughput over time, great innovations and breakthrough conclusions have been generated in various biological areas. Few of these areas, which get shaped by the new technological advances, involve evolution of species, microbial mapping, population genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAs), comparative genomics, variant analysis, gene expression, gene regulation, epigenetics and personalized medicine. While NGS techniques stand as key players in modern biological research, the analysis and the interpretation of the vast amount of data that gets produced is a not an easy or a trivial task and still remains a great challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Therefore, efficient tools to cope with information overload, tackle the high complexity and provide meaningful visualizations to make the knowledge extraction easier are essential. In this article, we briefly refer to the sequencing methodologies and the available equipment to serve these analyses and we describe the data formats of the files which get produced by them. We conclude with a thorough review of tools developed to efficiently store, analyze and visualize such data with emphasis in structural variation analysis and comparative genomics. We finally comment on their functionality, strengths and weaknesses and we discuss how future applications could further develop in this field. PMID:23885890

  18. Training the next generation of biomedical investigators in glycosciences

    PubMed Central

    Agre, Peter; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Bissell, Mina; Campbell, Kevin P.; Cummings, Richard D.; Desai, Umesh R.; Estes, Mary; Flotte, Terence; Fogleman, Guy; Gage, Fred; Ginsburg, David; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Hart, Gerald; Hascall, Vincent; Kiessling, Laura; Kornfeld, Stuart; Lowe, John; Magnani, John; Mahal, Lara K.; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Roberts, Richard J.; Sackstein, Robert; Sarkar, Rita; Schnaar, Ronald; Schwartz, Nancy; Varki, Ajit; Walt, David; Weissman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    This position statement originated from a working group meeting convened on April 15, 2015, by the NHLBI and incorporates follow-up contributions by the participants as well as other thought leaders subsequently consulted, who together represent research fields relevant to all branches of the NIH. The group was deliberately composed not only of individuals with a current research emphasis in the glycosciences, but also of many experts from other fields, who evinced a strong interest in being involved in the discussions. The original goal was to discuss the value of creating centers of excellence for training the next generation of biomedical investigators in the glycosciences. A broader theme that emerged was the urgent need to bring the glycosciences back into the mainstream of biology by integrating relevant education into the curricula of medical, graduate, and postgraduate training programs, thus generating a critical sustainable workforce that can advance the much-needed translation of glycosciences into a more complete understanding of biology and the enhanced practice of medicine. PMID:26829621

  19. The next generation of Palapa satellite (Palapa-C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Bambang

    The Indonesian Palapa Communication Satellite System was established in Aug. 1976 when the first satellite of Palapa A series (Palapa A1) began operation. The system is owned and operated by PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Telkom), which is a state owned company. The purpose of the system was to unify the telecommunications of the nation. Many years of operation have shown that satellite technology is the best solution for improving telecommunications in Indonesia. The system was started with 2 (two) satellites, each with 12 transponders (for a total of 24), and 40 earth stations. Now the system has 3 (three) satellites, each with 24 transponders (for a total of 72 transponders), and thousands of earth stations. The services have been extended to satisfy the requirements of the region as well as the original objectives. The use of satellite transponders in the region is increasing rapidly. In the next ten years, opportunities in the satellite communications business will become even more attractive. The next generation Palapa-C will incorporate improvements in capacity, quality, and coverage. The new frequency bands (ku- and Extended-C Band) will be used to meet the new transponder capacity requirements.

  20. Applications for next-generation sequencing in fish ecotoxicogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2012-01-01

    The new technologies for next-generation sequencing (NGS) and global gene expression analyses that are widely used in molecular medicine are increasingly applied to the field of fish biology. This has facilitated new directions to address research areas that could not be previously considered due to the lack of molecular information for ecologically relevant species. Over the past decade, the cost of NGS has decreased significantly, making it possible to use non-model fish species to investigate emerging environmental issues. NGS technologies have permitted researchers to obtain large amounts of raw data in short periods of time. There have also been significant improvements in bioinformatics to assemble the sequences and annotate the genes, thus facilitating the management of these large datasets.The combination of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics has improved our abilities to design custom microarrays and study the genome and transcriptome of a wide variety of organisms. Despite the promising results obtained using these techniques in fish studies, NGS technologies are currently underused in ecotoxicogenomics and few studies have employed these methods. These issues should be addressed in order to exploit the full potential of NGS in ecotoxicological studies and expand our understanding of the biology of non-model organisms. PMID:22539934

  1. Next generation sequencing: Coping with rare genetic diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Cram, David S; Zhou, Daixing

    2016-01-01

    Summary With a population of 1.4 billion, China shares the largest burden of rare genetic diseases worldwide. Current estimates suggest that there are over ten million individuals afflicted with chromosome disease syndromes and well over one million individuals with monogenic disease. Care of patients with rare genetic diseases remains a largely unmet need due to the paucity of available and affordable treatments. Over recent years, there is increasing recognition of the need for affirmative action by government, health providers, clinicians and patients. The advent of new next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome/exome sequencing, offers an unprecedented opportunity to provide large-scale population screening of the Chinese population to identify the molecular causes of rare genetic diseases. As a surrogate for lack of effective treatments, recent development and implementation of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in China has the greatest potential, as a single technology, for reducing the number of children born with rare genetic diseases. PMID:27672536

  2. A Proposal for a Next Generation European Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, K. H.; Carlile, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    We argue that it is not too early to begin the planning process for a next generation neutron source for Europe, even as the European Spallation Source is being constructed. We put forward three main arguments. Firstly, nowadays the period between the first scientific concept of a new facility being proposed and its actual realisation is approaching half a century. We show evidence for this. Secondly, there is a straightforward development of the short pulse/long pulse spallation concepts that will deliver gains in neutron brightness of more than a factor 30 over what the ESS will soon deliver and provide the optimum balance between resolution and intensity. We describe our concept, which is a spallation source where the proton pulse length is matched to the moderating time of slow neutrons. Thirdly, when we look at our colleagues in astronomy and high energy physics, we see that they have a totally different, more global and more ambitious approach to the coming generations of large facilities. We argue that it is time for the neutron community not simply to rest upon its laurels and take what is given but to be proactive..

  3. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing Techniques in Food Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Baltasar; Rachid, Caio T. C. C; Alegría, Ángel; Leite, Analy M. O; Peixoto, Raquel S; Delgado, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequencing as the first generation, in recent years there has been an explosion of newly-developed sequencing strategies, which are usually referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS techniques have high-throughputs and produce thousands or even millions of sequences at the same time. These sequences allow for the accurate identification of microbial taxa, including uncultivable organisms and those present in small numbers. In specific applications, NGS provides a complete inventory of all microbial operons and genes present or being expressed under different study conditions. NGS techniques are revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology and have recently been used to examine several food ecosystems. After a short introduction to the most common NGS systems and platforms, this review addresses how NGS techniques have been employed in the study of food microbiota and food fermentations, and discusses their limits and perspectives. The most important findings are reviewed, including those made in the study of the microbiota of milk, fermented dairy products, and plant-, meat- and fish-derived fermented foods. The knowledge that can be gained on microbial diversity, population structure and population dynamics via the use of these technologies could be vital in improving the monitoring and manipulation of foods and fermented food products. They should also improve their safety. PMID:25132799

  4. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  5. Planning the Next Generation of Arctic Ecosystem Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Hinzman, Larry D.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2011-04-01

    Climate Change Experiments in High-Latitude Ecosystems; Fairbanks, Alaska, 13-14 October 2010 ; A 2-day climate change workshop was held at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. The workshop, sponsored by Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was attended by 45 subject matter experts from universities, DOE national laboratories, and other federal and nongovernmental organizations. The workshop sought to engage the Arctic science community in planning for a proposed Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project in Alaska (http://ngee.ornl.gov/). The goal of this activity is to provide data, theory, and models to improve representations of high-latitude terrestrial processes in Earth system models. In particular, there is a need to better understand the processes by which warming may drive increased plant productivity and atmospheric carbon uptake and storage in biomass and soils, as well as those processes that may drive an increase in the release of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) through microbial decomposition of soil carbon stored in thawing permafrost. This understanding is required to quantify the important feedback mechanisms that define the role of terrestrial processes in regional and global climate.

  6. Next-generation ionomer encapsulants for thin film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyzewicz, Robin; Smith, C. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    The characteristic properties of newly developed ionomer-based encapsulants are highlighted along with an in-depth analysis of moisture ingress, electrical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these encapsulants with their high stiffness and strength have been found to allow the use of thinner glass and a possible shift from tempered to annealed glass. Lower-cost mounting options may be explored through full-module stress/deflection measurement capability and competencies developed in world-class finite-element modeling of system parameters. The superior electrical and moisture properties may allow modules to be produced without the use of an additional edge seal. These new materials have improved melt flow properties when compared to other encapsulant families such as EVA or PVB. This allows for faster processing which reduces production cost by shortening the lamination cycle. During the lamination process the sheets show excellent dimensional stability and low shrinkage behavior; and there is no need for curing, thus energy costs are lower due to lower lamination temperature. As advancement of technology proceeds across the entire PV industry, next generation ionomer encapsulants have been developed to keep up with the pace.

  7. BING: biomedical informatics pipeline for Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kriseman, Jeffrey; Busick, Christopher; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Dinu, Valentin

    2010-06-01

    High throughput parallel genomic sequencing (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) shifts the bottleneck in sequencing processes from experimental data production to computationally intensive informatics-based data analysis. This manuscript introduces a biomedical informatics pipeline (BING) for the analysis of NGS data that offers several novel computational approaches to 1. image alignment, 2. signal correlation, compensation, separation, and pixel-based cluster registration, 3. signal measurement and base calling, 4. quality control and accuracy measurement. These approaches address many of the informatics challenges, including image processing, computational performance, and accuracy. These new algorithms are benchmarked against the Illumina Genome Analysis Pipeline. BING is the one of the first software tools to perform pixel-based analysis of NGS data. When compared to the Illumina informatics tool, BING's pixel-based approach produces a significant increase in the number of sequence reads, while reducing the computational time per experiment and error rate (<2%). This approach has the potential of increasing the density and throughput of NGS technologies.

  8. Planning the Next Generation of Arctic Ecosystem Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, Larry D; Wilson, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Climate Change Experiments in High-Latitude Ecosystems; Fairbanks, Alaska, 13-14 October 2010; A 2-day climate change workshop was held at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. The workshop, sponsored by Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), was attended by 45 subject matter experts from universities, DOE national laboratories, and other federal and nongovernmental organizations. The workshop sought to engage the Arctic science community in planning for a proposed Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project in Alaska (http:// ngee.ornl.gov/). The goal of this activity is to provide data, theory, and models to improve representations of high-latitude terrestrial processes in Earth system models. In particular, there is a need to better understand the processes by which warming may drive increased plant productivity and atmospheric carbon uptake and storage in biomass and soils, as well as those processes that may drive an increase in the release of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) through microbial decomposition of soil carbon stored in thawing permafrost. This understanding is required to quantify the important feedback mechanisms that define the role of terrestrial processes in regional and global climate.

  9. Next Generation Very Large Array: The Cradle of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isella, Andrea; Hull, Charles L. H.; Moullet, Arielle; ngVLA Cradle of Life

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Five of them are highlighted as possible Key Science Projects: (1) Resolving the density structure and dynamics of the youngest HII regions and high-mass protostellar jets, (2) Unveiling binary/multiple protostars at higher resolution, (3) Mapping planet formation regions in nearby disks on scales down to 1 AU, (4) Studying the formation of complex molecules, and (5) Deep atmospheric mapping of giant planets in the Solar System. For each of these projects, we discuss the scientific importance and feasibility. The results presented here should be considered as the beginning of a more in-depth analysis of the science enabled by such a facility, and are by no means complete or exhaustive.

  10. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  11. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation.

    PubMed

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-04-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than daughters of women without an ectopic pregnancy, but a normal delivery rate.

  12. Probe microscopy for metrology of next generation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphris, Andrew D. L.; Zhao, Bin; Bastard, David; Bunday, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    As device geometries shrink and the number of transistors on the wafer grows, new metrology solutions are required to support the development and production of next generation structures for the 10 nm node and beyond. This paper presents an innovative probe based microscope, the Rapid Probe Microscope (RPM), which is capable of obtaining nondestructive high resolution sub-nm information in all 3 dimensions and in a vacuum environment. The RPM is a platform supporting a novel probe detection and actuation system. It enables new imaging modes which are optimized for profiling narrow high aspect ratio structures as found in semiconductor devices. Additionally, the RPM can be operated in a vacuum environment allowing in-situ hybrid metrology solutions, for example operating alongside a CD or defect review SEM. Results are presented showing the imaging of thin lines and trenches, < 20 nm in width, using both a SEM and RPM to provide complementary information about the lateral and vertical dimensions of the structures. Comparison of images collected with different probes and at different sample locations demonstrates the ability of the RPM to operate consistently with long probe life and at high speed which is required for use in the High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environment.

  13. Next Generation Space Telescope Integrated Science Module Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnurr, Richard G.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Jurotich, Matthew M.; Whitley, Raymond; Kalinowski, Keith J.; Love, Bruce W.; Travis, Jeffrey W.; Long, Knox S.

    1999-01-01

    The Data system for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Module (ISIM) is the primary data interface between the spacecraft, telescope, and science instrument systems. This poster includes block diagrams of the ISIM data system and its components derived during the pre-phase A Yardstick feasibility study. The poster details the hardware and software components used to acquire and process science data for the Yardstick instrument compliment, and depicts the baseline external interfaces to science instruments and other systems. This baseline data system is a fully redundant, high performance computing system. Each redundant computer contains three 150 MHz power PC processors. All processors execute a commercially available real time multi-tasking operating system supporting, preemptive multi-tasking, file management and network interfaces. These six processors in the system are networked together. The spacecraft interface baseline is an extension of the network, which links the six processors. The final selection for Processor busses, processor chips, network interfaces, and high-speed data interfaces will be made during mid 2002.

  14. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  15. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  16. Revealing the Complexity of Breast Cancer by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Verigos, John; Magklara, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years the increasing usage of “-omic” platforms, supported by next-generation sequencing, in the analysis of breast cancer samples has tremendously advanced our understanding of the disease. New driver and passenger mutations, rare chromosomal rearrangements and other genomic aberrations identified by whole genome and exome sequencing are providing missing pieces of the genomic architecture of breast cancer. High resolution maps of breast cancer methylomes and sequencing of the miRNA microworld are beginning to paint the epigenomic landscape of the disease. Transcriptomic profiling is giving us a glimpse into the gene regulatory networks that govern the fate of the breast cancer cell. At the same time, integrative analysis of sequencing data confirms an extensive intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity and plasticity in breast cancer arguing for a new approach to the problem. In this review, we report on the latest findings on the molecular characterization of breast cancer using NGS technologies, and we discuss their potential implications for the improvement of existing therapies. PMID:26561834

  17. Next-Generation Sequencing for Cancer Diagnostics: a Practical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Cliff; Doyle, Maria A; Tothill, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is arguably one of the most significant technological advances in the biological sciences of the last 30 years. The second generation sequencing platforms have advanced rapidly to the point that several genomes can now be sequenced simultaneously in a single instrument run in under two weeks. Targeted DNA enrichment methods allow even higher genome throughput at a reduced cost per sample. Medical research has embraced the technology and the cancer field is at the forefront of these efforts given the genetic aspects of the disease. World-wide efforts to catalogue mutations in multiple cancer types are underway and this is likely to lead to new discoveries that will be translated to new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. NGS is now maturing to the point where it is being considered by many laboratories for routine diagnostic use. The sensitivity, speed and reduced cost per sample make it a highly attractive platform compared to other sequencing modalities. Moreover, as we identify more genetic determinants of cancer there is a greater need to adopt multi-gene assays that can quickly and reliably sequence complete genes from individual patient samples. Whilst widespread and routine use of whole genome sequencing is likely to be a few years away, there are immediate opportunities to implement NGS for clinical use. Here we review the technology, methods and applications that can be immediately considered and some of the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:22147957

  18. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in virology

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David; Dixon, Linda; Chantrey, Julian; Darby, Alistair C.; Hall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The progress of science is punctuated by the advent of revolutionary technologies that provide new ways and scales to formulate scientific questions and advance knowledge. Following on from electron microscopy, cell culture and PCR, next-generation sequencing is one of these methodologies that is now changing the way that we understand viruses, particularly in the areas of genome sequencing, evolution, ecology, discovery and transcriptomics. Possibilities for these methodologies are only limited by our scientific imagination and, to some extent, by their cost, which has restricted their use to relatively small numbers of samples. Challenges remain, including the storage and analysis of the large amounts of data generated. As the chemistries employed mature, costs will decrease. In addition, improved methods for analysis will become available, opening yet further applications in virology including routine diagnostic work on individuals, and new understanding of the interaction between viral and host transcriptomes. An exciting era of viral exploration has begun, and will set us new challenges to understand the role of newly discovered viral diversity in both disease and health. PMID:22647373

  19. High-Throughput Microdissection for Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Armani, Michael D.; Fetsch, Patricia A.; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Tina Thu; Raffeld, Mark; Chen, Yun; O’Flaherty, Neil; Stussman, Rebecca; Blackler, Adele R.; Du, Qiang; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Roth, Mark J.; Filie, Armando C.; Roh, Michael H.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Hipp, Jason D.; Tangrea, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine promises to enhance patient treatment through the use of emerging molecular technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. However, current tools in surgical pathology lack the capability to efficiently isolate specific cell populations in complex tissues/tumors, which can confound molecular results. Expression microdissection (xMD) is an immuno-based cell/subcellular isolation tool that procures targets of interest from a cytological or histological specimen. In this study, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of xMD by rapidly isolating immunostained targets, including cytokeratin AE1/AE3, p53, and estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells and nuclei from tissue sections. Other targets procured included green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing fibroblasts, in situ hybridization positive Epstein-Barr virus nuclei, and silver stained fungi. In order to assess the effect on molecular data, xMD was utilized to isolate specific targets from a mixed population of cells where the targets constituted only 5% of the sample. Target enrichment from this admixed cell population prior to next-generation sequencing (NGS) produced a minimum 13-fold increase in mutation allele frequency detection. These data suggest a role for xMD in a wide range of molecular pathology studies, as well as in the clinical workflow for samples where tumor cell enrichment is needed, or for those with a relative paucity of target cells. PMID:26999048

  20. A next generation field-portable goniometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Justin D.; Bachmann, Charles M.; Faulring, Jason W.; Ruiz Torres, Andres J.

    2016-05-01

    Various field portable goniometers have been designed to capture in-situ measurements of a materials bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), each with a specific scientific purpose in mind.1-4 The Rochester Institute of Technology's (RIT) Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science recently created a novel instrument incorporating a wide variety of features into one compact apparatus in order to obtain very high accuracy BRDFs of short vegetation and sediments, even in undesirable conditions and austere environments. This next generation system integrates a dual-view design using two VNIR/SWIR pectroradiometers to capture target reflected radiance, as well as incoming radiance, to provide for better optical accuracy when measuring in non-ideal atmospheric conditions or when background illumination effects are non-negligible. The new, fully automated device also features a laser range finder to construct a surface roughness model of the target being measured, which enables the user to include inclination information into BRDF post-processing and further allows for roughness effects to be better studied for radiative transfer modeling. The highly portable design features automatic leveling, a precision engineered frame, and a variable measurement plane that allow for BRDF measurements on rugged, un-even terrain while still maintaining true angular measurements with respect to the target, all without sacrificing measurement speed. Despite the expanded capabilities and dual sensor suite, the system weighs less than 75 kg, which allows for excellent mobility and data collection on soft, silty clay or fine sand.

  1. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; ...

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopymore » in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.« less

  2. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, Derek; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, David G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, Franz J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, Vincent; McKinnon, Brian; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, Alessandro; Salgado, Carlos; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, Andrey V.; Sato, Toru; Schlüter, T.; da Silva, M. L.L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, Igor; Szczepaniak, Adam; Vassallo, A.; Walford, Natalie K.; Watts, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.

  3. Status of the Next-Generation OpenGGCM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Lin, L.; Maynard, K. R. M.; Wang, L.

    2014-12-01

    OpenGGCM is a global coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere - thermosphere model that has been in use for more than two decades, and which has since 2001 been available as a community model at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for model runs on demand. As new versions of the OpenGGCM are periodically released, here we will give an update on the features of the next generation, modularized, OpenGGCM model. New features of the model include: (1) more options for the MHD solver, including a modern van-Leer constrained-transport solver, (2) a Generalized Ohm's Law including the Hall term, (3) new physics models, in particular a 5-moment and 10-moment multi-fluid plasma description, (4) block-structured adaptive mesh refinement with support for staggered electric and magnetic fields for the constrained transport method, and (5) computational enhancements like command-line selectable modules and sub-models, parallel I/O, and checkpointing.

  4. Developing the Next Generation Shell Buckling Design Factors and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project was established in the spring of 2007 by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) in collaboration with the Constellation Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The SBKF project has the current goal of developing less-conservative, robust shell buckling design factors (a.k.a. knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for light-weight stiffened metallic launch vehicle (LV) structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s LV development and performance risks. In particular, it is expected that the results from this project will help reduce the reliance on testing, provide high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. The SBKF project objectives and approach used to develop and validate new design technologies are presented, and provide a glimpse into the future of design of the next generation of buckling-critical launch vehicle structures.

  5. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  6. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N.; Patrinos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic ‘pharmacogenomics assistant’. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal. PMID:25030607

  7. Next Generation Sequencing in Predicting Gene Function in Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Kim, Kye-Won; Lee, Choonseok; Costa, Michael A.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllum species are sources of (−)-podophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin lignan used for semi-synthesis of various powerful and extensively employed cancer-treating drugs. Its biosynthetic pathway, however, remains largely unknown, with the last unequivocally demonstrated intermediate being (−)-matairesinol. Herein, massively parallel sequencing of Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum transcriptomes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of the corresponding assemblies were carried out. Validation of the assembly process was first achieved through confirmation of assembled sequences with those of various genes previously established as involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis as well as other candidate biosynthetic pathway genes. This contribution describes characterization of two of the latter, namely the cytochrome P450s, CYP719A23 from P. hexandrum and CYP719A24 from P. peltatum. Both enzymes were capable of converting (−)-matairesinol into (−)-pluviatolide by catalyzing methylenedioxy bridge formation and did not act on other possible substrates tested. Interestingly, the enzymes described herein were highly similar to methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes from alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas candidates more similar to lignan biosynthetic enzymes were catalytically inactive with the substrates employed. This overall strategy has thus enabled facile further identification of enzymes putatively involved in (−)-podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and underscores the deductive power of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to probe and deduce medicinal plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23161544

  8. Next-generation dengue vaccines: novel strategies currently under development.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2011-10-01

    Dengue has become the most important arboviral infection worldwide with more than 30 million cases of dengue fever estimated to occur each year. The need for a dengue vaccine is great and several live attenuated dengue candidate vaccines are proceeding through clinical evaluation. The need to induce a balanced immune response against all four DENV serotypes with a single vaccine has been a challenge for dengue vaccine developers. A live attenuated DENV chimeric vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur has recently entered Phase III evaluation in numerous dengue-endemic regions of the world. Viral interference between serotypes contained in live vaccines has required up to three doses of the vaccine be given over a 12-month period of time. For this reason, novel DENV candidate vaccines are being developed with the goal of achieving a protective immune response with an immunization schedule that can be given over the course of a few months. These next-generation candidates include DNA vaccines, recombinant adenovirus vectored vaccines, alphavirus replicons, and sub-unit protein vaccines. Several of these novel candidates will be discussed.

  9. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  10. The impact of next-generation sequencing on genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Chiodini, Rod; Badr, Ahmed; Zhang, Genfa

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews basic concepts, general applications, and the potential impact of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies on genomics, with particular reference to currently available and possible future platforms and bioinformatics. NGS technologies have demonstrated the capacity to sequence DNA at unprecedented speed, thereby enabling previously unimaginable scientific achievements and novel biological applications. But, the massive data produced by NGS also presents a significant challenge for data storage, analyses, and management solutions. Advanced bioinformatic tools are essential for the successful application of NGS technology. As evidenced throughout this review, NGS technologies will have a striking impact on genomic research and the entire biological field. With its ability to tackle the unsolved challenges unconquered by previous genomic technologies, NGS is likely to unravel the complexity of the human genome in terms of genetic variations, some of which may be confined to susceptible loci for some common human conditions. The impact of NGS technologies on genomics will be far reaching and likely change the field for years to come. PMID:21477781

  11. Human identification by lice: A Next Generation Sequencing challenge.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Elena; Agostino, Alessandro; Vergani, Debora; Salata, Elena; Ciuna, Ignazio; Berti, Andrea; Caramelli, David; Lambiase, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Rapid and progressive advances in molecular biology techniques and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have opened new possibilities for analyses also in the identification of entomological matrixes. Insects and other arthropods are widespread in nature and those found at a crime scene can provide a useful contribution to forensic investigations. Entomological evidence is used by experts to define the postmortem interval (PMI), which is essentially based on morphological recognition of the insect and an estimation of its insect life cycle stage. However, molecular genotyping methods can also provide an important support for forensic entomological investigations when the identification of species or human genetic material is required. This case study concerns a collection of insects found in the house of a woman who died from unknown causes. Initially the insects were identified morphologically as belonging to the Pediculidae family, and then, human DNA was extracted and analyzed from their gastrointestinal tract. The application of the latest generation forensic DNA assays, such as the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kit and the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel (Applied Biosystems(®)), individuated the presence of human DNA in the samples and determined the genetic profile.

  12. Next generation radiotherapy biomaterials loaded with high-Z nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifter, Gizem

    This research investigates the dosimetric feasibility of using high-Z nanoparticles as localized radiosensitizers to boost the dose to the residual tumor cells during accelerated partial breast irradiation while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Analytical microdosimetry calculations were carried out to calculate dose enhancement (DEF) in the presence of high-Z nanoparticles. It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. In vitro release of GNPs was monitored over time by optical/spectroscopy methods as a function of various design parameters. The prototype smart biomaterials displayed sustained customizable release of NPs in-vitro, reaching a burst release profile approximately after 25 days. The results also show that customizable release profiles can be achievable by varying GNP concentrations that are embedded within smart biomaterials, as well as other design parameters. This would potentially allow customizable local dose boost resulting in diverse treatment planning opportunities for individual cases. Considered together, the results provide preliminary data for development of next generation of RT biomaterials, which can be employed at no additional inconvenience to RT patients.

  13. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    PubMed

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  15. BL3: A Next Generation Beam Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietfeldt, F. E.; Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Snow, W. M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Crawford, C. B.; Korsch, W.; Plaster, B.; Jones, G. L.; Collett, B.; Dewey, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    BL3 (Beam Lifetime 3) is a proposed next generation neutron lifetime experiment using the beam method. It continues a program, spanning more than three decades, of experiments at the ILL (France) and the NIST Center for Neutron Research that achieved the most precise beam method neutron lifetime measurements to date. A collimated cold neutron beam passes through a quasi-Penning trap where recoil protons from neutron decay are trapped. Periodically the trap is opened and these protons follow a bend in the magnetic field to a silicon detector. The same neutron beam passes through a thin-foil neutron counter that measures the neutron density. The ratio of neutron and proton count rates, along with efficiency factors, gives the neutron lifetime. The main goal of BL3 is to thoroughly investigate and test systematic effects in the beam method in an effort to address the current 4 σ discrepancy between the beam and bottle methods. It will employ a much larger, higher flux neutron beam, a large area position-sensitive proton detector, and an improved magnet design, with a proton trapping rate 100 times higher than past experiments. National Science Foundation, U.S. Dept. of Energy Office of Science.

  16. Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Mechanisms for Next Generation Communication Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2013-09-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a family of high precision Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Assemblies (EPGA) specifically targeting the next generation of satellite communication antenna technologies.The development and qualification of the first two EPGAs started some years ago. The purpose of this project has been to develop a gimbal based on a new rotary actuator technology achieving positioning performance superior to micro-stepping performance, to be used in highly accurate pointing and scanning mechanisms. The design also had to provide high stiffness and high load carrying capacity at the output stage.The design of this new line of gimbals is based on a rotary actuator with a high gear reduction ratio and high load carrying capacity output stage.Analysis of the latest missions, especially those for communication, earth observation and imaging, show that performance requirements for dual axis gimbals used for antenna pointing are becoming more and more demanding. Most recent Ka-band and future generation antenna technologies for smaller spot beams require finer resolutions of less than 0.003 degrees. Considerably larger solid core ( 3.0 meter diameter) and expandable wire-mesh ( 22 meter diameter) require higher load carrying capabilities and moment stiffness to sustain the launch and orbital maneuvering loads. The developed Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Assembly addresses those applications requiring small output step size, high precision pointing, and unpowered holding torque, which challenge the use of gimbals that use conventional rotary actuators.

  17. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic risk factors that underlie many rare and common neurological diseases remain poorly understood because of the multi-factorial and heterogeneous nature of these disorders. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully uncovered numerous susceptibility genes for these diseases, odds ratios associated with risk alleles are generally low and account for only a small proportion of estimated heritability. These results implicated that there are rare (present in <5% of the population) but not causative variants exist in the pathogenesis of these diseases, which usually have large effect size and cannot be captured by GWAS. With the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) have enabled the rapid identification of rare variants with large effect size, which made huge progress in understanding the basis of many Mendelian neurological conditions as well as complex neurological diseases. In this article, recent NGS-based studies that aimed to investigate genetic causes for neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinocerebellar ataxias, have been reviewed. In addition, we also discuss the future directions of NGS applications in this article. PMID:25568878

  18. Extended blood group molecular typing and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhugong; Liu, Meihong; Mercado, Teresita; Illoh, Orieji; Davey, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Several high-throughput multiplex blood group molecular typing platforms have been developed to predict blood group antigen phenotypes. These molecular systems support extended donor/patient matching by detecting commonly encountered blood group polymorphisms as well as rare alleles that determine the expression of blood group antigens. Extended molecular typing of a large number of blood donors by high-throughput platforms can increase the likelihood of identifying donor red blood cells that match those of recipients. This is especially important in the management of multiply-transfused patients who may have developed several alloantibodies. Nevertheless, current molecular techniques have limitations. For example, they detect only predefined genetic variants. In contrast, target enrichment next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology that provides comprehensive sequence information, focusing on specified genomic regions. Target enrichment NGS is able to assess genetic variations that cannot be achieved by traditional Sanger sequencing or other genotyping platforms. Target enrichment NGS has been used to detect both known and de novo genetic polymorphisms, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (insertions/deletions), and structural variations. This review discusses the methodology, advantages, and limitations of the current blood group genotyping techniques and describes various target enrichment NGS approaches that can be used to develop an extended blood group genotyping assay system.

  19. NG6: Integrated next generation sequencing storage and processing environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing platforms are now well implanted in sequencing centres and some laboratories. Upcoming smaller scale machines such as the 454 junior from Roche or the MiSeq from Illumina will increase the number of laboratories hosting a sequencer. In such a context, it is important to provide these teams with an easily manageable environment to store and process the produced reads. Results We describe a user-friendly information system able to manage large sets of sequencing data. It includes, on one hand, a workflow environment already containing pipelines adapted to different input formats (sff, fasta, fastq and qseq), different sequencers (Roche 454, Illumina HiSeq) and various analyses (quality control, assembly, alignment, diversity studies,…) and, on the other hand, a secured web site giving access to the results. The connected user will be able to download raw and processed data and browse through the analysis result statistics. The provided workflows can easily be modified or extended and new ones can be added. Ergatis is used as a workflow building, running and monitoring system. The analyses can be run locally or in a cluster environment using Sun Grid Engine. Conclusions NG6 is a complete information system designed to answer the needs of a sequencing platform. It provides a user-friendly interface to process, store and download high-throughput sequencing data. PMID:22958229

  20. Quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Vieira, Filipe G; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Linderoth, Tyler; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-11-01

    Over the past few years, new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased speed and reduced sequencing costs. However, the use of these sequencing technologies is often challenged by errors and biases associated with the bioinformatical methods used for analyzing the data. In particular, the use of naïve methods to identify polymorphic sites and infer genotypes can inflate downstream analyses. Recently, explicit modeling of genotype probability distributions has been proposed as a method for taking genotype call uncertainty into account. Based on this idea, we propose a novel method for quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data. In addition, we present a strategy for investigating population structure via principal components analysis. Through extensive simulations, we compare the new method herein proposed to approaches based on genotype calling and demonstrate a marked improvement in estimation accuracy for a wide range of conditions. We apply the method to a large-scale genomic data set of domesticated and wild silkworms sequenced at low coverage. We find that we can infer the fine-scale genetic structure of the sampled individuals, suggesting that employing this new method is useful for investigating the genetic relationships of populations sampled at low coverage.

  1. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2004-12-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  2. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  3. Applicability of Next Generation Sequencing Technology in Microsatellite Instability Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Chun; Love, Clare; Beshay, Victoria; Macrae, Finlay; Fox, Stephen; Waring, Paul; Taylor, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a useful marker for risk assessment, prediction of chemotherapy responsiveness and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Here, we describe a next generation sequencing approach for MSI testing using the MiSeq platform. Different from other MSI capturing strategies that are based on targeted gene capture, we utilize “deep resequencing”, where we focus the sequencing on only the microsatellite regions of interest. We sequenced a series of 44 colorectal tumours with normal controls for five MSI loci (BAT25, BAT26, BAT34c4, D18S55, D5S346) and a second series of six colorectal tumours (no control) with two mononucleotide loci (BAT25, BAT26). In the first series, we were able to determine 17 MSI-High, 1 MSI-Low and 26 microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours. In the second series, there were three MSI-High and three MSS tumours. Although there was some variation within individual markers, this NGS method produced the same overall MSI status for each tumour, as obtained with the traditional multiplex PCR-based method. PMID:25685876

  4. Integrating Communication and Navigation: Next Generation Broadcast Service (NGBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    NASA Goddard has been investing in technology demonstrations of a beacon service, now called Next Generation Broadcast Services (NGBS). NGBS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). NGBS will provide an S-band beacon messaging source and radio navigation available to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below, increasing the autonomy and resiliency of onboard communication and navigation. NGBS will deliver both one-way radiometric (Doppler and pseudorange) and fast forward data transport services to users. Portions of the overall forward data volume will be allocated for fixed message types while the remaining data volume will be left for user forward command data. The NGBS signal will reside within the 2106.43 MHz spectrum currently allocated for the Space Networks multiple access forward (MAF) service and a live service demonstration is currently being planned via the 2nd and 3rd generation TDRS satellites.

  5. Interferometric aperture synthesis for next generation passive millimetre wave imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Wilkinson, Peter; Taylor, Chris

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses the phase effects in the near-field associated with aperture synthesis imaging. The results explain why in some regions of the near-field it is possible to use Fourier transform techniques on a visibility function to create images. However, to generate images deep inside the near-field alternative processing techniques such as the G-matrix method are required. Algorithms based on this technique are used to process imagery from a proof of concept 22 GHz aperture synthesis imager [1]. Techniques for generating synthetic cross-correlations for the aperture synthesis technique are introduced and these are then validated using the image creation algorithms and real data from the proof of concept imager. Using these data the phenomenon of aliasing is explored. The simulation code is then used to illustrate how the effects of aliasing may be minimised by randomising the locations of the antennas over the aperture. The simulation tool is used to show how in the near field the technique can provide a range resolution in 3D imaging of a couple of millimetres when operating with a wavelength of 13 mm. Moving to illustrate the quality of images generated by a next generation aperture synthesis imagers, the software is extended to systems with hundreds of receiver channels.

  6. Next Generation Millimeter-Wave Radar for Safe Planetary Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, Brian D.; Sadowy, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Safe, precise landing on planetary bodies requires knowledge of altitude and velocity, and may require active detection and avoidance of hazardous terrain. Radar offers a superior solution to both problems due to its ability to operate at any time of day, through dust and engine plumes, and ability to detect velocity coherently. While previous efforts have focused on providing near term solutions to the safe landing problem, we are designing radar velocimeters and radar imagers for missions beyond the next decade. In this paper we identify the fundamental issues within each approach, at arrive at strawman sensor designs at a center frequency at or around 160 GHz (Gband). We find that a G-band radar velocimeter design is capable of sub-10 cm/s accuracy, and a G-band imager is capable of sub-0.5 degree resolution over a 28 degree field of view. From those designs, we arrive at the key technology requirements for the development of power and low noise amplifiers, signal distribution methods, and antenna arrays that enable the construction of these next generation sensors.

  7. Performance benchmarks for a next generation numerical dynamo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Heien, Eric; Aubert, Julien; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Avery, Margaret; Brown, Ben; Buffett, Bruce A.; Busse, Friedrich; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Davies, Christopher J.; Featherstone, Nicholas; Gastine, Thomas; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Gubbins, David; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Hollerbach, Rainer; Hwang, Lorraine J.; Jackson, Andrew; Jones, Chris A.; Jiang, Weiyuan; Kellogg, Louise H.; Kuang, Weijia; Landeau, Maylis; Marti, Philippe; Olson, Peter; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Sasaki, Youhei; Schaeffer, Nathanaël.; Simitev, Radostin D.; Sheyko, Andrey; Silva, Luis; Stanley, Sabine; Takahashi, Futoshi; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Wicht, Johannes; Willis, Ashley P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo have successfully represented many observable characteristics of the geomagnetic field, yielding insight into the fundamental processes that generate magnetic fields in the Earth's core. Because of limited spatial resolution, however, the diffusivities in numerical dynamo models are much larger than those in the Earth's core, and consequently, questions remain about how realistic these models are. The typical strategy used to address this issue has been to continue to increase the resolution of these quasi-laminar models with increasing computational resources, thus pushing them toward more realistic parameter regimes. We assess which methods are most promising for the next generation of supercomputers, which will offer access to O(106) processor cores for large problems. Here we report performance and accuracy benchmarks from 15 dynamo codes that employ a range of numerical and parallelization methods. Computational performance is assessed on the basis of weak and strong scaling behavior up to 16,384 processor cores. Extrapolations of our weak-scaling results indicate that dynamo codes that employ two-dimensional or three-dimensional domain decompositions can perform efficiently on up to ˜106 processor cores, paving the way for more realistic simulations in the next model generation.

  8. Impact of next generation sequencing techniques in food microbiology.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Baltasar; Rachid, Caio T C C; Alegría, Angel; Leite, Analy M O; Peixoto, Raquel S; Delgado, Susana

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequencing as the first generation, in recent years there has been an explosion of newly-developed sequencing strategies, which are usually referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS techniques have high-throughputs and produce thousands or even millions of sequences at the same time. These sequences allow for the accurate identification of microbial taxa, including uncultivable organisms and those present in small numbers. In specific applications, NGS provides a complete inventory of all microbial operons and genes present or being expressed under different study conditions. NGS techniques are revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology and have recently been used to examine several food ecosystems. After a short introduction to the most common NGS systems and platforms, this review addresses how NGS techniques have been employed in the study of food microbiota and food fermentations, and discusses their limits and perspectives. The most important findings are reviewed, including those made in the study of the microbiota of milk, fermented dairy products, and plant-, meat- and fish-derived fermented foods. The knowledge that can be gained on microbial diversity, population structure and population dynamics via the use of these technologies could be vital in improving the monitoring and manipulation of foods and fermented food products. They should also improve their safety.

  9. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  10. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  11. The HST/STIS Next Generation Spectral Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, M. D.; Silva, D.; Rayner, J.; Worthey, G.; Valdes, F.; Pickles, A.; Rose, J.; Carney, B.; Vacca, W.

    2006-01-01

    During Cycles 10, 12, and 13, we obtained STIS G230LB, G430L, and G750L spectra of 378 bright stars covering a wide range in abundance, effective temperature, and luminosity. This HST/STIS Next Generation Spectral Library was scheduled to reach its goal of 600 targets by the end of Cycle 13 when STIS came to an untimely end. Even at 2/3 complete, the library significantly improves the sampling of stellar atmosphere parameter space compared to most other spectral libraries by including the near-UV and significant numbers of metal poor and super-solar abundance stars. Numerous calibration challenges have been encountered, some expected, some not; these arise from the use of the E1 aperture location, non-standard wavelength calibration, and, most significantly, the serious contamination of the near-UV spectra by red light. Maximizing the utility of the library depends directly on overcoming or at least minimizing these problems, especially correcting the UV spectra.

  12. Recommendations on e-infrastructures for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, Ola; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Dahlberg, Johan; Dahlö, Martin; Kallio, Aleksi; Pireddu, Luca; Vezzi, Francesco; Korpelainen, Eija

    2016-06-07

    With ever-increasing amounts of data being produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments, the requirements placed on supporting e-infrastructures have grown. In this work, we provide recommendations based on the collective experiences from participants in the EU COST Action SeqAhead for the tasks of data preprocessing, upstream processing, data delivery, and downstream analysis, as well as long-term storage and archiving. We cover demands on computational and storage resources, networks, software stacks, automation of analysis, education, and also discuss emerging trends in the field. E-infrastructures for NGS require substantial effort to set up and maintain over time, and with sequencing technologies and best practices for data analysis evolving rapidly it is important to prioritize both processing capacity and e-infrastructure flexibility when making strategic decisions to support the data analysis demands of tomorrow. Due to increasingly demanding technical requirements we recommend that e-infrastructure development and maintenance be handled by a professional service unit, be it internal or external to the organization, and emphasis should be placed on collaboration between researchers and IT professionals.

  13. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Drake, A.J.; Cook, K.H.; Bennett, D.P.; Popowski, P.; Dalal, N.; Nikolaev, S.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C. Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Keller, S.C.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Stubbs, C.W.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  14. Minimum information for reporting next generation sequence genotyping (MIRING): Guidelines for reporting HLA and KIR genotyping via next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mack, Steven J; Milius, Robert P; Gifford, Benjamin D; Sauter, Jürgen; Hofmann, Jan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Robinson, James; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Turenchalk, Gregory S; Adai, Alex; Holcomb, Cherie; Rozemuller, Erik H; Penning, Maarten T; Heuer, Michael L; Wang, Chunlin; Salit, Marc L; Schmidt, Alexander H; Parham, Peter R; Müller, Carlheinz; Hague, Tim; Fischer, Gottfried; Fernandez-Viňa, Marcelo; Hollenbach, Jill A; Norman, Paul J; Maiers, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for HLA and KIR genotyping is rapidly advancing knowledge of genetic variation of these highly polymorphic loci. NGS genotyping is poised to replace older methods for clinical use, but standard methods for reporting and exchanging these new, high quality genotype data are needed. The Immunogenomic NGS Consortium, a broad collaboration of histocompatibility and immunogenetics clinicians, researchers, instrument manufacturers and software developers, has developed the Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines. MIRING is a checklist that specifies the content of NGS genotyping results as well as a set of messaging guidelines for reporting the results. A MIRING message includes five categories of structured information - message annotation, reference context, full genotype, consensus sequence and novel polymorphism - and references to three categories of accessory information - NGS platform documentation, read processing documentation and primary data. These eight categories of information ensure the long-term portability and broad application of this NGS data for all current histocompatibility and immunogenetics use cases. In addition, MIRING can be extended to allow the reporting of genotype data generated using pre-NGS technologies. Because genotyping results reported using MIRING are easily updated in accordance with reference and nomenclature databases, MIRING represents a bold departure from previous methods of reporting HLA and KIR genotyping results, which have provided static and less-portable data. More information about MIRING can be found online at miring.immunogenomics.org.

  15. What can next generation sequencing do for you? Next generation sequencing as a valuable tool in plant research.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, A; Gowik, U

    2010-11-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened fascinating opportunities for the analysis of plants with and without a sequenced genome on a genomic scale. During the last few years, NGS methods have become widely available and cost effective. They can be applied to a wide variety of biological questions, from the sequencing of complete eukaryotic genomes and transcriptomes, to the genome-scale analysis of DNA-protein interactions. In this review, we focus on the use of NGS for plant transcriptomics, including gene discovery, transcript quantification and marker discovery for non-model plants, as well as transcript annotation and quantification, small RNA discovery and antisense transcription analysis for model plants. We discuss the experimental design for analysis of plants with and without a sequenced genome, including considerations on sampling, RNA preparation, sequencing platforms and bioinformatics tools for data analysis. NGS technologies offer exciting new opportunities for the plant sciences, especially for work on plants without a sequenced genome, since large sequence resources can be generated at moderate cost.

  16. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  17. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    PubMed Central

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21–24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology. PMID:27617007

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  19. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  20. HeatWave: the next generation of thermography devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman; Vidas, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Energy sustainability is a major challenge of the 21st century. To reduce environmental impact, changes are required not only on the supply side of the energy chain by introducing renewable energy sources, but also on the demand side by reducing energy usage and improving energy efficiency. Currently, 2D thermal imaging is used for energy auditing, which measures the thermal radiation from the surfaces of objects and represents it as a set of color-mapped images that can be analysed for the purpose of energy efficiency monitoring. A limitation of such a method for energy auditing is that it lacks information on the geometry and location of objects with reference to each other, particularly across separate images. Such a limitation prevents any quantitative analysis to be done, for example, detecting any energy performance changes before and after retrofitting. To address these limitations, we have developed a next generation thermography device called Heat Wave. Heat Wave is a hand-held 3D thermography device that consists of a thermal camera, a range sensor and color camera, and can be used to generate precise 3D model of objects with augmented temperature and visible information. As an operator holding the device smoothly waves it around the objects of interest, Heat Wave can continuously track its own pose in space and integrate new information from the range and thermal and color cameras into a single, and precise 3D multi-modal model. Information from multiple viewpoints can be incorporated together to improve the accuracy, reliability and robustness of the global model. The approach also makes it possible to reduce any systematic errors associated with the estimation of surface temperature from the thermal images.