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Sample records for nf-kappab p65 subunit

  1. Short communication: molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-κB unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-κB (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-κB promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function.

  2. Short communication: molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-κB unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-κB (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-κB promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function. PMID:25770673

  3. The DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 Interacts with NF-κB Subunit p65 and Suppresses p65-Mediated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Song, Feifei; Guo, Liang; Ma, Li; Sun, Guihong; Liu, Dan; Guo, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    RNA helicase family members exhibit diverse cellular functions, including in transcription, pre-mRNA processing, RNA decay, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export and translation. The RNA helicase DEAD-box family member DDX3 has been characterized as a tumour-associated factor and a transcriptional co-activator/regulator. Here, we demonstrate that DDX3 interacts with the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit p65 and suppresses NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcriptional activity. The downregulation of DDX3 by RNA interference induces the upregulation of NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcription. The regulation of NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcriptional activity was further confirmed by the expression levels of its downstream cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, the binding of the ATP-dependent RNA helicase domain of DDX3 to the N-terminal Rel homology domain (RHD) of p65 is involved in the inhibition of NF-κB-regulated gene transcription. In summary, the results suggest that DDX3 functions to suppress the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB subunit p65. PMID:27736973

  4. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Mingshan; Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Zhiling; Wu, Qingyun; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xuejiao; and others

    2015-07-10

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys{sup 38} to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy.

  5. Requirement of the NF-κB Subunit p65/RelA for K-Ras-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Basseres, Daniela S.; Ebbs, Aaron; Levantini, Elena; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2010-01-01

    K-Ras-induced lung cancer is a very common disease, for which there are currently no effective therapies. Because therapy directly targeting the activity of oncogenic Ras has been unsuccessful, a different approach for novel therapy design is to identify critical Ras downstream oncogenic targets. Given that oncogenic Ras proteins activate the transcription factor NF-κB, and the importance of NF-κB in oncogenesis, we hypothesized that NF-κB would be an important K-Ras target in lung cancer. To address this hypothesis, we generated an NF-κB-EGFP reporter mouse model of K-Ras-induced lung cancer and determined that K-Ras activates NF-κB in lung tumors in situ. Furthermore, a mouse model was generated where activation of oncogenic K-Ras in lung cells was coupled with inactivation of the NF-κB subunit p65/RelA. In this model, deletion of p65/RelA reduces the number of K-Ras-induced lung tumors both in the presence and absence of the tumor suppressor p53. Lung tumors with loss of p65/RelA have higher numbers of apoptotic cells, reduced spread and lower grade. Using lung cell lines expressing oncogenic K-Ras, we show that NF-κB is activated in these cells in a K-Ras-dependent manner and that NF-κB activation by K-Ras requires IKKβ kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of the NF-κB subunit p65/RelA in K-Ras induced lung transformation and identify IKKβ as a potential therapeutic target for K-Ras-induced lung cancer. PMID:20406971

  6. SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit and cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yu Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Lee, Sang Yong; Han, Myung Kwan; Kim, Duk Hoon; Kim, Won

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cisplatin increases acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit in HK2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced p65 acetylation and -cytotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resveratrol decreased cisplatin-induced cell viability through deacetylation of p65. -- Abstract: As the increased acetylation of p65 is linked to nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation, the regulation of p65 acetylation can be a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is an important issue in chemotherapy of cancer patients. SIRT1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +})-dependent protein deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as inflammatory injury and the control of multidrug resistance in cancer. However, there is no report on the effect of SIRT1 overexpression on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B and cell injury. To investigate the effect of SIRT1 in on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B and cell injury, HK2 cells were exposed with SIRT1 overexpression, LacZ adenovirus or dominant negative adenovirus after treatment with cisplatin. While protein expression of SIRT1 was decreased by cisplatin treatment compared with control buffer treatment, acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit was significantly increased after treatment with cisplatin. Overexpression of SIRT1 ameliorated the increased acetylation of p65 of NF-{kappa}B during cisplatin treatment and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. Further, treatment of cisplatin-treated HK2 cells with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, also decreased acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit and cisplatin-induced increase of the cell viability in HK2 cells. Our findings suggests that the regulation of acetylation of p65 of NF-{kappa}B through SIRT1 can be a possible target to attenuate cisplatin-induced renal cell damage.

  7. Ctenopharyngodon idella NF-κB subunit p65 modulates the transcription of IκBα in CIK cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizhou; Zhu, Youlin; Xu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiangqin; Hou, Qunhao; Xu, Qun; Sun, Zhicheng; Mi, Yichuan; Hu, Chengyu

    2016-07-01

    NF-κB is an important transcription factor for regulating the multiple inflammatory and immune related gene transcription. It can bind with the nuclear factor κB site within the promoter of target genes to regulate their transcriptions. p65, the all-important subunit of NF-κB, is ubiquitously expressed in cells. In the present study, we cloned and identified the p65 subunit from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (named Cip65) by homologous cloning and RACE technique. The full length of Cip65 cDNA is 2481 bp along with 9 bp 5' UTR, 639 bp 3' UTR and the largest open reading frame (1833 bp) encoding a polypeptide of 610 amino acids with a well conserved Rel-homology domain (RHD) in N-terminal and a putative transcription activation domain (TAD) in C-terminal. Cip65 gathers with other teleost p65 proteins to form a fish-specific clade clearly distinct from those of mammalian and amphibian counterparts on the phylogenetic tree. In CIK (C. idellus kidney) cells, the expression of Cip65 was significantly up-regulated under the stimulation with Poly I:C. As one member of the NF-κB inhibitor protein (IκB) family, IκBα can dominate the activity of NF-κB by interacting with it. To study the molecular mechanisms of negative feedback loop of NF-κB signaling in fish, we cloned grass carp IκBα (CiIκBα) promoter sequence. CiIκBα promoter is 414 bp in length containing two RelA binding sites and a putative atypical TATA-box. Meanwhile, Cip65 and its mutant proteins including C-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔC) and N-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔN) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind resin. In vitro, Cip65 rather than Cip65-ΔC and Cip65-ΔN showed high affinity with CiIκBα promoter sequence by gel mobility shift assays. In vivo, the cotransfection of pcDNA3.1-Cip65 (or pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔC, pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔN respectively) with pGL3-CiIκBα and pRL-TK renilla

  8. Vitamin D3 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced placental inflammation through reinforcing interaction between vitamin D receptor and nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Zheng-Mei; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-06-12

    It is increasingly recognized that vitamin D3 (VitD3) has an anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the effects of maternal VitD3 supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced placental inflammation and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (100 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)15-17. In VitD3 + LPS group, pregnant mice were orally administered with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) before LPS injection. As expected, maternal LPS exposure caused placental inflammation and fetal IUGR. Interestingly, pretreatment with VitD3 repressed placental inflammation and protected against LPS-induced fetal IUGR. Further analysis showed that pretreatment with VitD3, which activated placental vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, specifically suppressed LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and significantly blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in trophoblast gaint cells of the labyrinth layer. Conversely, LPS, which activated placental NF-κB signaling, suppressed placental VDR activation and its target gene expression. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced physical interaction between placental VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. The further study demonstrates that VitD3 inhibits placental NF-κB signaling in VDR-dependent manner. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, the present study provides evidence for roles of VDR as a key regulator of placental inflammation.

  9. FBI-1 enhances transcription of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive E-selectin gene by nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Kang, Jae-Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Yim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jung-Min; Heo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Yeun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2005-07-29

    The POZ domain is a highly conserved protein-protein interaction motif found in many regulatory proteins. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in the expression of a variety of genes in response to infection, inflammation, and stressful conditions. We found that the POZ domain of FBI-1 (factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of human immunodeficiency virus-1) interacted with the Rel homology domain of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB in both in vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays. FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of E-selectin genes in HeLa cells upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation and overcame gene repression by IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain of FBI-1, which is a dominant-negative form of FBI-1, repressed NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, and the repression was cooperative with IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain tagged with a nuclear localization sequence polypeptide of FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-responsive gene transcription, suggesting that the molecular interaction between the POZ domain and the Rel homology domain of p65 and the nuclear localization by the nuclear localization sequence are important in the transcription enhancement mediated by FBI-1. Confocal microscopy showed that FBI-1 increased NF-kappaB movement into the nucleus and increased the stability of NF-kappaB in the nucleus, which enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of the E-selectin gene. FBI-1 also interacted with IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta.

  10. The p65 (RelA) Subunit of NF-κB Interacts with the Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Corepressors HDAC1 and HDAC2 To Negatively Regulate Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, Brian P.; Westerheide, Sandy D.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of NF-κB transactivation function is controlled at several levels, including interactions with coactivator proteins. Here we show that the transactivation function of NF-κB is also regulated through interaction of the p65 (RelA) subunit with histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor proteins. Our results show that inhibition of HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) results in an increase in both basal and induced expression of an integrated NF-κB-dependent reporter gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays show that TSA treatment causes hyperacetylation of the wild-type integrated NF-κB-dependent reporter but not of a mutant version in which the NF-κB binding sites were mutated. Expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 repressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-κB-dependent gene expression. Consistent with this, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 target NF-κB through a direct association of HDAC1 with the Rel homology domain of p65. HDAC2 does not interact with NF-κB directly but can regulate NF-κB activity through its association with HDAC1. Finally, we show that inhibition of HDAC activity with TSA causes an increase in both basal and TNF-induced expression of the NF-κB-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene. Similar to the wild-type integrated NF-κB-dependent reporter, ChIP assays showed that TSA treatment resulted in hyperacetylation of the IL-8 promoter. These data indicate that the transactivation function of NF-κB is regulated in part through its association with HDAC corepressor proteins. Moreover, it suggests that the association of NF-κB with the HDAC1 and HDAC2 corepressor proteins functions to repress expression of NF-κB-regulated genes as well as to control the induced level of expression of these genes. PMID:11564889

  11. Binding of NF-kappaB p65 subunit to the promoter elements is involved in LPS-induced transactivation of miRNA genes in human biliary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Gong, Ai-Yu; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The majority of human miRNA genes is transcribed by polymerase II and can be classified as class II genes similar to protein-coding genes. Whereas current research on miRNAs has focused on the physiological and pathological functions, the molecular mechanisms underlying their transcriptional regulation are largely unknown. We recently reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters mature miRNA expression profile in human biliary epithelial cells. In this study, we tested the role of transcription factor NF-κB in LPS-induced transcription of select miRNA genes. Of the majority of LPS-up-regulated mature miRNAs in cultured human biliary epithelial cells, potential NF-κB binding sites were identified in the putative promoter elements of their corresponding genes. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by SC-514, an IKK2 inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced up-regulation of a subset of pri-miRNAs, including pri-miR-17-92, pri-miR-125b-1, pri-miR-21, pri-miR-23b-27b-24-1, pri-miR-30b, pri-miR-130a and pri-miR-29a. Moreover, direct binding of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter elements of mir-17-92, mir-125b-1, mir-21, mir-23b-27b-24-1, mir-30b and mir-130a genes was identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and confirmed by the luciferase reporter assay. Thus, a subset of miRNA genes is regulated in human biliary epithelial cells through NF-κB activation induced by LPS, suggesting a role of the NF-κB pathway in the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes. PMID:20144951

  12. Metalloprotease NleC Suppresses Host NF-κB/Inflammatory Responses by Cleaving p65 and Interfering with the p65/RPS3 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai; Sun, Xin; Yu, Hongbing; Zheng, Wenxin; Sham, Ho Pan; Johnson, Kaitlin; Bailey, Scott; Vallance, Bruce A.; Wan, Fengyi

    2015-01-01

    Attaching/Effacing (A/E) pathogens including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and the rodent equivalent Citrobacter rodentium are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. Upon infection, a myriad of virulence proteins (effectors) encoded by A/E pathogens are injected through their conserved type III secretion systems (T3SS) into host cells where they interfere with cell signaling cascades, in particular the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway that orchestrates both innate and adaptive immune responses for host defense. Among the T3SS-secreted non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effectors, NleC, a metalloprotease, has been recently elucidated to modulate host NF-κB signaling by cleaving NF-κB Rel subunits. However, it remains elusive how NleC recognizes NF-κB Rel subunits and how the NleC-mediated cleavage impacts on host immune responses in infected cells and animals. In this study, we show that NleC specifically targets p65/RelA through an interaction with a unique N-terminal sequence in p65. NleC cleaves p65 in intestinal epithelial cells, albeit a small percentage of the molecule, to generate the p651–38 fragment during C. rodentium infection in cultured cells. Moreover, the NleC-mediated p65 cleavage substantially affects the expression of a subset of NF-κB target genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, immune cell infiltration in the colon, and tissue injury in C. rodentium-infected mice. Mechanistically, the NleC cleavage-generated p651–38 fragment interferes with the interaction between p65 and ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), a ‘specifier’ subunit of NF-κB that confers a subset of proinflammatory gene transcription, which amplifies the effect of cleaving only a small percentage of p65 to modulate NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism for A/E pathogens to specifically block NF-κB signaling and inflammatory responses by cleaving a small percentage of

  13. Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65.

    PubMed Central

    Tugal, H B; van Leeuwen, F; Apps, D K; Haywood, J; Phillips, J H

    1991-01-01

    The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. The protein (apparent molecular mass 67 kDa; pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. This domain contains both the epitope for the monoclonal antibody cgm67 and the calmodulin-binding site. The 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of this fragment are identical to part of the rat p65 sequence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1719959

  14. Selection and characterization of anti-NF-κB p65 RNA aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Susan E.; Maher, L. James

    2008-01-01

    NF-κB transcription factors include a group of five mammalian proteins that form hetero- or homodimers and regulate hundreds of target genes involved in acute inflammation, HIV-1 transcription activation, and resistance to cancer therapy. We previously used in vitro selection to develop a small RNA aptamer (anti-p50) that binds the DNA-binding domain of NF-κB p502 with low nanomolar affinity but does not bind NF-κB p652. Here, we report the in vitro selection of anti-NF-κB p65 RNA aptamers using parallel in vitro selections with either a fully randomized RNA library or a degenerate RNA library based on the primary sequence of the 31-nucleotide anti-p50 RNA aptamer. We report the characterization of these aptamers with respect to NF-κB target specificity, affinity, minimal sequence requirements, secondary structure, and competition with DNA κB sites. These results expand opportunities for artificial inhibition of NF-κB transcription factor dimers containing p65 subunits. PMID:18426920

  15. Resveratrol ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress in diabetes through deacetylation of NFkB-p65 and histone 3.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Pankaj K; Deepthi, Nancy; Sultana, Razia; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has recently gained attention for protective effects against metabolic and cardiac diseases. The beneficial effects of resveratrol have been linked to sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) activation. However, little is known about the effect of resveratrol in cardiac complications associated with diabetes. Here, we have demonstrated that resveratrol ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy, electrocardiographic abnormalities and oxidative stress in the fructose-fed diabetic rat heart. Mechanistic studies revealed that fructose feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats over a period of 8 weeks leads to cardiac hypertrophy and increased oxidative stress through increased activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and reactive oxygen species production. We found increased activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) p-65 along with decreased SIRT-1 activity in the diabetic heart. Resveratrol activates SIRT-1, which deacetylates NFkB-p65 at lysine 310 and histone 3 (H3) at lysine 9 position. SIRT1 activation leads to decreased binding of NFkB-p65 to DNA and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress through reduced transcription of NADPH oxidase subunits. In vitro analysis also revealed that SIRT-1 activation by resveratrol is associated with decreased NFkB-p65 activity and NOX transcription. Similarly, knockdown or inhibition of SIRT1 in H9C2 cells increased acetylation of NFkB-p65 K310 and H3K9. Overall, our data demonstrated that SIRT-1 activation by resveratrol leads to deacetylation of both NFkB-p65 and H3, thereby attenuating cardiac oxidative stress and complications in diabetes. PMID:26298192

  16. A phosphomimetic mutant of RelA/p65 at Ser536 induces apoptosis and senescence: An implication for tumor-suppressive role of Ser536 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yiwen; Li, Xiaoning; He, Yingchun; Huang, Chenfei; Shen, Yi; Cao, Yu; Huang, Dan; Cai, Chuan; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Ziqi; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

    2016-03-01

    Hundreds of NF-κB inhibitors have been developed for cancer therapy, but their clinical efficacy is unsatisfactory. Here we show that the phosphorylation activation at Ser536 of RelA/p65 protein, a main subunit in the NF-κB family, may play a tumor-suppressive role. In normal colon mucosa, RelA/p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 was increasingly increased with the maturation and apoptotic shedding of epithelial cells, but the phosphorylation at Ser536 was decreased in colon cancer. In colon (HCT116 p53 wt and p53 -/-), breast (MCF7), and prostate (LNCaP and DU145) cancer cells, a phosphomimetic mutation of RelA/p65 at Ser536 (named p65/S536D) triggered dramatic apoptosis through affecting expression of a wide range of cell death/survival genes, such as Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bcl-2 and survivin. In HCT116 cells, p65/S536D mutant upregulated Fas, insulted mitochondrial membrane potential, and triggered cleavage and activation of caspase-3, 7, 8 and 9. A FasL neutralizing antibody (NOK1) prevented cell death induced by the p65/S536D. A pan inhibitor of caspases, Z-VAD-FMK (20 μM), blocked caspase-mediated mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This p65/S536D also triggered senescence in HCT116 cells through a p16-dependent pathway, but not in MFC7 due to lack of p16. Intratumoral delivery of the p65/S536D effectively suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Together our data suggest that the phosphorylation of RelA/p65 at Ser536 may confer it a tumor-suppressive role by inducing apoptosis and senescence, highlighting the importance of discriminating the function and active status of individual active sites in RelA/p65 when NF-κB inhibitors are considered for targeted therapy of cancer.

  17. S-Nitrosylation of NF-κB p65 Inhibits TSH-Induced Na(+)/I(-) Symporter Expression.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Juan Pablo; Peyret, Victoria; Nazar, Magalí; Romero, Jorge Miguel; Lucero, Ariel Maximiliano; Montesinos, María del Mar; Bocco, José Luis; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Masini-Repiso, Ana María

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide variety of cellular physiological processes. In thyroid cells, NO-synthase III-endogenously produced NO reduces TSH-stimulated thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Further studies indicate that NO induces thyroid dedifferentiation, because NO donors repress TSH-stimulated iodide (I(-)) uptake. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the NO-inhibited Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated I(-) uptake in thyroid cells. We showed that NO donors reduce I(-) uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, which correlates with decreased NIS protein expression. NO-reduced I(-) uptake results from transcriptional repression of NIS gene rather than posttranslational modifications reducing functional NIS expression at the plasma membrane. We observed that NO donors repress TSH-induced NIS gene expression by reducing the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB subunit p65. NO-promoted p65 S-nitrosylation reduces p65-mediated transactivation of the NIS promoter in response to TSH stimulation. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that NO plays a role as an inhibitory signal to counterbalance TSH-stimulated nuclear factor-κB activation, thus modulating thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

  18. Ibrutinib inhibits BTK-driven NF-κB p65 activity to overcome bortezomib-resistance in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Murray, Megan Y; Zaitseva, Lyubov; Auger, Martin J; Craig, Jenny Io; MacEwan, David J; Rushworth, Stuart A; Bowles, Kristian M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a haematologic malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Over the last 10-15 y the introduction of the proteasome-inhibitor bortezomib has improved MM prognosis, however relapse due to bortezomib-resistance is inevitable and the disease, at present, remains incurable. To model bortezomib-resistant MM we generated bortezomib-resistant MM cell lines (n = 4 ) and utilised primary malignant plasma cells from patients relapsing after bortezomib treatment (n = 6 ). We identified enhanced Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) activity in bortezomib-resistant MM cells and found that inhibition of BTK, either pharmacologically with ibrutinib (0.5 μM) or via lenti-viral miRNA-targeted BTK interference, re-sensitized previously bortezomib-resistant MM cells to further bortezomib therapy at a physiologically relevant concentration (5 nM). Further analysis of pro-survival signaling revealed a role for the NF-κB p65 subunit in MM bortezomib-resistance, thus a combination of BTK and NF-κB p65 inhibition, either pharmacologically or via further lenti-viral miRNA NF-κB p65 interference, also restored sensitivity to bortezomib, significantly reducing cell viability (37.5 ± 6 .9 %, ANOVA P ≤ 0 .001). Accordingly, we propose the clinical evaluation of a bortezomib/ibrutinib combination therapy, including in patients resistant to single-agent bortezomib.

  19. BZLF1, an Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein, induces p65 nuclear translocation while inhibiting p65 transcriptional function

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Thomas E.; Kenney, Shannon C. . E-mail: shann@med.unc.edu

    2004-10-25

    We have previously demonstrated that the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early BZLF1 protein interacts with, and is inhibited by, the NF-{kappa}B family member p65. However, the effects of BZLF1 on NF-{kappa}B activity have not been intensively studied. Here we show that BZLF1 inhibits p65-dependent gene expression. BZLF1 inhibited the ability of IL-1, as well as transfected p65, to activate the expression of two different NF-{kappa}B-responsive genes, ICAM-1 and I{kappa}B-{alpha}. BZLF1 also reduced the constitutive level of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein in HeLa and A549 cells, and increased the amount of nuclear NF-{kappa}B to a similar extent as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) treatment. In spite of this BZLF1-associated increase in the nuclear form of NF-{kappa}B, BZLF1 did not induce binding of NF-{kappa}B to NF-{kappa}B responsive promoters (as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay) in vivo, although TNF-{alpha} treatment induced NF-{kappa}B binding as expected. Overexpression of p65 dramatically inhibited the lytic replication cycle of EBV in 293-EBV cells, confirming that NF-{kappa}B also inhibits BZLF1 transcriptional function. Our results are consistent with a model in which BZLF1 inhibits the transcriptional function of p65, resulting in decreased transcription of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, decreased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein, and subsequent translocation of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. This nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B may promote viral latency by negatively regulating BZLF1 transcriptional activity. In situations where p65 activity is limiting in comparison to BZLF1, the ability of BZLF1 to inhibit p65 transcriptional function may protect the virus from the host immune system during the lytic form of infection.

  20. NF-κB p65 and c-Rel control epidermal development and immune homeostasis in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Dainichi, Teruki; Oh, Hyunju; Heise, Nicole; Klein, Ulf; Schmid, Roland M.; Hayden, Matthew S.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease in which activated immune cells and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF are well-known mediators of pathogenesis. The transcription factor NF-κB is a key regulator of TNF production and TNF-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and both the psoriatic transcriptome and genetic susceptibility further implicate NF-κB in psoriasis etiopathology. However, the role of NF-κB in psoriasis remains controversial. We analyzed the function of canonical NF-κB in the epidermis using CRE-mediated deletion of p65 and c-Rel in keratinocytes. In contrast to animals lacking p65 or c-Rel alone, mice lacking both subunits developed severe dermatitis after birth. Consistent with partial histological similarity to human psoriasis, this condition could be prevented by anti-TNF treatment. Moreover, regulatory T cells in lesional skin played an important role in disease remission. Our results demonstrate that canonical NF-κB in keratinocytes is essential for the maintenance of skin immune homeostasis and is protective against spontaneous dermatitis. PMID:25681334

  1. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 with p65 ribozyme protects H9c2 cells from oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    SUN, Zhan; MA, Yi-Tong; CHEN, Bang-Dang; LIU, Fen

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is a major mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It can trigger inflammatory cascades which are primarily mediated via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The NF-κB transcription factor family includes several subunits (p50, p52, p65, c-Rel, and Rel B) that respond to myocardial ischemia. It has been proved that persistent myocyte NF-κB p65 activation in heart failure exacerbates cardiac remodeling. Mechods A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein and anti-NF-κB p65 ribozyme (AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP) was constructed. The cells were assessed by MTT assay, Annexin V–propidium iodide dual staining to study apoptosis. The expression of P65 and P50 were assessed by Western blot to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Results After stimulation with H2O2 for 6 h, H9c2 cells viability decreased significantly, a large fraction of cells underwent apoptosis. We observed a rescue of H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis in pretreatment with AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP. Moreover, AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP decreased H2O2-induced P65 expression. Conclusions AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP protects H9c2 cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis through down-regulation of P65 expression. These observations indicate that AAV9-R65-CMV-eGFP has the potential to exert cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress, which might be of great importance to clinical efficacy for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25593580

  2. Single-particle tracking uncovers dynamics of glutamate-induced retrograde transport of NF-κB p65 in living neurons.

    PubMed

    Widera, Darius; Klenke, Christin; Nair, Deepak; Heidbreder, Meike; Malkusch, Sebastian; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Retrograde transport of NF-κB from the synapse to the nucleus in neurons is mediated by the dynein/dynactin motor complex and can be triggered by synaptic activation. The caliber of axons is highly variable ranging down to 100 nm, aggravating the investigation of transport processes in neurites of living neurons using conventional light microscopy. We quantified for the first time the transport of the NF-κB subunit p65 using high-density single-particle tracking in combination with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins in living mouse hippocampal neurons. We detected an increase of the mean diffusion coefficient ([Formula: see text]) in neurites from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] after stimulation with glutamate. We further observed that the relative amount of retrogradely transported p65 molecules is increased after stimulation. Glutamate treatment resulted in an increase of the mean retrograde velocity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], whereas a velocity increase from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] was observed for anterogradely transported p65. This study demonstrates for the first time that glutamate stimulation leads to an increased mobility of single NF-κB p65 molecules in neurites of living hippocampal neurons. PMID:27226975

  3. Single-particle tracking uncovers dynamics of glutamate-induced retrograde transport of NF-κB p65 in living neurons.

    PubMed

    Widera, Darius; Klenke, Christin; Nair, Deepak; Heidbreder, Meike; Malkusch, Sebastian; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Retrograde transport of NF-κB from the synapse to the nucleus in neurons is mediated by the dynein/dynactin motor complex and can be triggered by synaptic activation. The caliber of axons is highly variable ranging down to 100 nm, aggravating the investigation of transport processes in neurites of living neurons using conventional light microscopy. We quantified for the first time the transport of the NF-κB subunit p65 using high-density single-particle tracking in combination with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins in living mouse hippocampal neurons. We detected an increase of the mean diffusion coefficient ([Formula: see text]) in neurites from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] after stimulation with glutamate. We further observed that the relative amount of retrogradely transported p65 molecules is increased after stimulation. Glutamate treatment resulted in an increase of the mean retrograde velocity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], whereas a velocity increase from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] was observed for anterogradely transported p65. This study demonstrates for the first time that glutamate stimulation leads to an increased mobility of single NF-κB p65 molecules in neurites of living hippocampal neurons.

  4. Nuclear NF-κB p65 phosphorylation at Serine 276 by protein kinase A contributes to the malignant phenotype of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Pattatheyil; Brown, Matthew; Ehsanian, Reza; Chen, Zhong; Van Waes, Carter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Aberrant nuclear activation and phosphorylation of the canonical NF-κB subunit RELA/p65 at Serine-536 by Inhibitor Kappa B Kinase is prevalent in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the role of other kinases in NF-κB activation has not been well defined. Here, we investigated the prevalence and function of p65-Ser276 phosphorylation by Protein Kinase A (PKA) in the malignant phenotype, gene transactivation, and as a potential target for therapy. Experimental Design Phospho and total p65 protein expression and localization was determined in HNSCC tissue array and in cell lines. The effects of PKA inhibitor H-89 on cell proliferation and cell cycle and of H-89 and PKA specific siRNA knockdown on NF-κB activation and downstream gene expression were examined. Results Nuclear NF-κB p65 phosphorylated at Ser276 was prevalent in HNSCC and adjacent dysplastic mucosa, but localized to the cytoplasm in normal mucosa. In HNSCC lines, TNF-α significantly increased while H-89 inhibited constitutive and TNF-α induced nuclear p65-Ser276 phosphorylation, and significantly suppressed NF-κB and target gene IL-8 reporter activity. Knock down of PKA by siRNA inhibited NF-κB, IL-8 and BCL-XL reporter gene activities. H-89 suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell death and blocked the cell cycle in G1/S phase. Consistent with its biological effects, H-89 down-modulated expression of NF-κB related genes Cyclin D1, BCL2, BCL-XL, COX2, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as induced cell cycle inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1, while suppressing proliferative marker Ki67. Conclusions NF-κB RELA Ser276 phosphorylation by PKA promotes the malignant phenotype and holds potential as a therapeutic target in HNSCC. PMID:19789307

  5. NF-kappaB p65-Dependent Transactivation of miRNA Genes following Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Stimulates Epithelial Cell Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Gong, Ai-Yu; Drescher, Kristen M.; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and causes diarrheal disease worldwide. Innate epithelial immune responses are key mediators of the host's defense to C. parvum. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Using an in vitro model of human cryptosporidiosis, we analyzed C. parvum-induced miRNA expression in biliary epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes). Our results demonstrated differential alterations in the mature miRNA expression profile in cholangiocytes following C. parvum infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Database analysis of C. parvum-upregulated miRNAs revealed potential NF-κB binding sites in the promoter elements of a subset of miRNA genes. We demonstrated that mir-125b-1, mir-21, mir-30b, and mir-23b-27b-24-1 cluster genes were transactivated through promoter binding of the NF-κB p65 subunit following C. parvum infection. In contrast, C. parvum transactivated mir-30c and mir-16 genes in cholangiocytes in a p65-independent manner. Importantly, functional inhibition of selected p65-dependent miRNAs in cholangiocytes increased C. parvum burden. Thus, we have identified a panel of miRNAs regulated through promoter binding of the NF-κB p65 subunit in human cholangiocytes in response to C. parvum infection, a process that may be relevant to the regulation of epithelial anti-microbial defense in general. PMID:19997496

  6. NF-kappaB p65-dependent transactivation of miRNA genes following Cryptosporidium parvum infection stimulates epithelial cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Liu, Jun; Gong, Ai-Yu; Drescher, Kristen M; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and causes diarrheal disease worldwide. Innate epithelial immune responses are key mediators of the host's defense to C. parvum. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Using an in vitro model of human cryptosporidiosis, we analyzed C. parvum-induced miRNA expression in biliary epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes). Our results demonstrated differential alterations in the mature miRNA expression profile in cholangiocytes following C. parvum infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Database analysis of C. parvum-upregulated miRNAs revealed potential NF-kappaB binding sites in the promoter elements of a subset of miRNA genes. We demonstrated that mir-125b-1, mir-21, mir-30b, and mir-23b-27b-24-1 cluster genes were transactivated through promoter binding of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit following C. parvum infection. In contrast, C. parvum transactivated mir-30c and mir-16 genes in cholangiocytes in a p65-independent manner. Importantly, functional inhibition of selected p65-dependent miRNAs in cholangiocytes increased C. parvum burden. Thus, we have identified a panel of miRNAs regulated through promoter binding of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit in human cholangiocytes in response to C. parvum infection, a process that may be relevant to the regulation of epithelial anti-microbial defense in general.

  7. ZBTB2 increases PDK4 expression by transcriptional repression of RelA/p65

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Jeong, Deok-yoon; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Kim, Kunhong; Kim, Se-Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The NF-κB is found in almost all animal cell types and is involved in a myriad of cellular responses. Aberrant expression of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory diseases and improper development. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of the NF-κB family member gene RelA/p65. Sp1 plays a key role in the expression of the RelA/p65 gene. ZBTB2 represses transcription of the gene by inhibiting Sp1 binding to a Sp1-binding GC-box in the RelA/p65 proximal promoter (bp, −31 to −21). Moreover, recent studies revealed that RelA/p65 directly binds to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α) to decrease transcriptional activation of the PGC1α target gene PDK4, whose gene product inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a key regulator of TCA cycle flux. Accordingly, we observed that RelA/p65 repression by ZBTB2 indirectly results in increased PDK4 expression, which inhibits PDH. Consequently, in cells with ectopic ZBTB2, the concentrations of pyruvate and lactate were higher than those in normal cells, indicating changes in glucose metabolism flux favoring glycolysis over the TCA cycle. Knockdown of ZBTB2 in mouse xenografts decreased tumor growth. ZBTB2 may increase cell proliferation by reprogramming glucose metabolic pathways to favor glycolysis by upregulating PDK4 expression via repression of RelA/p65 expression. PMID:25609694

  8. TDP-43 Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Blocking p65 Nuclear Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyan; Cynader, Max S.; Jia, William

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that has been found to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43’s involvement in nuclear factor-kappaB pathways has been reported in both neurons and microglial cells. The NF-κB pathway targets hundreds of genes, many of which are involved in inflammation, immunity and cancer. p50/p65 (p50/RelA) heterodimers, as the major Rel complex in the NF-κB family, are induced by diverse external physiological stimuli and modulate transcriptional activity in almost all cell types. Both p65 and TDP-43 translocation occur through the classic nuclear transportation system. In this study, we report that TDP-43 overexpression prevents TNF-α induced p65 nuclear translocation in a dose dependent manner, and that this further inhibits p65 transactivation activity. The inhibition by TDP-43 does not occur through preventing IκB degradation but probably by competing for the nuclear transporter-importin α3 (KPNA4). This competition is dependent on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TDP-43. Silencing TDP-43 using a specific siRNA also increased p65 nuclear localization upon TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that endogenous TDP-43 may be a default suppressor of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicate that TDP-43 may play an important role in regulating the levels of NF-κB activity by controlling the nuclear translocation of p65. PMID:26571498

  9. TDP-43 Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Blocking p65 Nuclear Translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyan; Cynader, Max S; Jia, William

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that has been found to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43's involvement in nuclear factor-kappaB pathways has been reported in both neurons and microglial cells. The NF-κB pathway targets hundreds of genes, many of which are involved in inflammation, immunity and cancer. p50/p65 (p50/RelA) heterodimers, as the major Rel complex in the NF-κB family, are induced by diverse external physiological stimuli and modulate transcriptional activity in almost all cell types. Both p65 and TDP-43 translocation occur through the classic nuclear transportation system. In this study, we report that TDP-43 overexpression prevents TNF-α induced p65 nuclear translocation in a dose dependent manner, and that this further inhibits p65 transactivation activity. The inhibition by TDP-43 does not occur through preventing IκB degradation but probably by competing for the nuclear transporter-importin α3 (KPNA4). This competition is dependent on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TDP-43. Silencing TDP-43 using a specific siRNA also increased p65 nuclear localization upon TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that endogenous TDP-43 may be a default suppressor of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicate that TDP-43 may play an important role in regulating the levels of NF-κB activity by controlling the nuclear translocation of p65. PMID:26571498

  10. Metadherin, p50, and p65 expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Bravou, Vasiliki; Papanastasopoulos, Panagiotis; Lilis, Ioannis; Aroukatos, Panagiotis; Papachristou, Dionysios; Kounelis, Sophia; Papadaki, Helen

    2014-01-01

    NF-κB signaling promotes cancer progression in a large number of malignancies. Metadherin, a coactivator of the NF-κB transcription complex, was recently identified to regulate different signaling pathways that are closely related to cancer. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of p50, p65, and metadherin in 30 ovarian carcinomas, 15 borderline ovarian tumours, and 31 benign ovarian cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas exhibited significantly higher expression of all 3 markers compared to benign ovarian tumours. Borderline ovarian tumours demonstrated significantly higher expression for all 3 markers compared to benign cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas demonstrated significantly higher expression of p50 and metadherin compared to borderline ovarian tumours, whereas no significant difference was noted in p65 expression between ovarian carcinomas and borderline ovarian tumours. There was a strong correlation with the expression levels of p50, p65, and metadherin, whereas no correlation was observed with either grade or stage. Strong p50, p65, and metadherin expression was associated with a high probability to distinguish ovarian carcinomas over borderline and benign ovarian tumours, as well as borderline ovarian tumours over benign ovarian neoplasms. A gradual increase in the expression of these molecules is noted when moving across the spectrum of ovarian carcinogenesis, from borderline ovarian tumours to epithelial carcinomas.

  11. Inflammatory stimuli induce inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the deacetylase SIRT1 to increase acetylation and activation of p53 and p65.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Shohei; Chang, Kyungho; Sakai, Michihiro; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Marina; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Ichinose, Fumito; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Ishigami, Akihito; Ito, Hideki; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Stamler, Jonathan S; Kaneki, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation increases the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO), which can modify proteins by S-nitrosylation. Enhanced NO production increases the activities of the transcription factors p53 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in several models of disease-associated inflammation. S-nitrosylation inhibits the activity of the protein deacetylase SIRT1. SIRT1 limits apoptosis and inflammation by deacetylating p53 and p65 (also known as RelA), a subunit of NF-κB. We showed in multiple cultured mammalian cell lines that NO donors or inflammatory stimuli induced S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 within CXXC motifs, which inhibited SIRT1 by disrupting its ability to bind zinc. Inhibition of SIRT1 reduced deacetylation and promoted activation of p53 and p65, leading to apoptosis and increased expression of proinflammatory genes. In rodent models of systemic inflammation, Parkinson's disease, or aging-related muscular atrophy, S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 correlated with increased acetylation of p53 and p65 and activation of p53 and NF-κB target genes, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 may represent a proinflammatory switch common to many diseases and aging. PMID:25389371

  12. Inflammatory stimuli induce inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the deacetylase SIRT1 to increase acetylation and activation of p53 and p65

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Shohei; Chang, Kyungho; Sakai, Michihiro; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Marina; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Ichinose, Fumito; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Ishigami, Akihito; Ito, Hideki; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Starr, Marlene E.; Saito, Hiroshi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Kaneki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation increases the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO), which can modify proteins by S-nitrosylation. Enhanced NO production increases the activities of the transcription factors p53 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in several models of disease-associated inflammation. S-Nitrosylation inhibits the activity of the protein deacetylase SIRT1. SIRT1 limits apoptosis and inflammation by deacetylating p53 and p65 (also known as RelA), a subunit of NF-κB. We showed in multiple cultured mammalian cell lines that NO donors or inflammatory stimuli induced S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 within CXXC motifs, which inhibited SIRT1 by disrupting its ability to bind zinc. Inhibition of SIRT1 reduced deacetylation and promoted activation of p53 and p65, leading to apoptosis and increased expression of proinflammatory genes. In rodent models of systemic inflammation, Parkinson’s disease, or aging-related muscular atrophy, S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 correlated with increased acetylation of p53 and p65 and activation of p53 and NF-κB target genes, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 may represent a proinflammatory switch common to many diseases and aging. PMID:25389371

  13. Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma progression via mediating p65 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Tao, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Peng; Sha, Manqi; Ma, Yong; Geng, Xiaoping; Feng, Lijie; Shen, Yujun; Yu, Yifan; Wang, Siying; Fang, Shengyun; Shen, Yuxian

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins participate in a post-translational modification called SUMOylation and regulate a variety of intracellular processes, such as targeting proteins for nuclear import. The nuclear transport of p65 results in the activation of NF-κB, and p65 contains several SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs). However, the relationship between p65 and SUMO1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the potential roles of SUMO1 in HCC via the regulation of p65 subcellular localization. We found that either SUMO1- or p65-positive immunoreactivity was remarkably increased in the nuclei of tumor tissues in HCC patients compared with non-tumor tissues, and further analysis suggested a correlation between SUMO1- and nuclear p65-positive immunoreactivities (R = 0.851, P = 0.002). We also verified the interaction between p65 and SUMO1 in HCC by co-immunoprecipitation. TNF-α and hypoxia increased SUMO1 protein levels and enhanced SUMO1-modified p65 SUMOylation. Moreover, the knockdown of SUMO1 decreased p65 nuclear translocation and inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity. Further the results of this study revealed that the knockdown of SUMO1 suppressed the proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells. These results suggest that SUMO1 contributes to HCC progression by promoting p65 nuclear translocation and regulating NF-κB activity. PMID:26993772

  14. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via suppression of NF-{kappa}B p65 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nawa, Yuko; Miura, Naoki; Shrestha, Binita; Tancharoen, Salunya; Sameshima, Hisayo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2009-03-06

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages by activating NF-{kappa}B, which contributes to the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6. 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide formed from starch and glycogen, exhibits anti-oxidant activity and enhances insulin secretion. This study examined the effects of 1,5-AF on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Before LPS challenge, mice were pretreated with 1,5-AF (38.5 mg/kg). We found that 1,5-AF pretreatment attenuated cytokine release into the serum, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Furthermore, pretreatment with 1,5-AF (500 {mu}g/ml) attenuated cytokine release, and 1,5-AF directly inhibited the nuclear translocalization of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. This inhibition was responsible for decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation on Ser536 of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit, which is a posttranslational modification involved in the non-canonical pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,5-AF occurs via inactivation of NF-{kappa}B.

  15. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tongyi; Zhang, Ben; Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  16. Vaccinia virus inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression downstream of p65 translocation.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Rebecca P; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Veyer, David L; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2014-03-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators and type I interferon. Consequently, viruses have evolved many mechanisms to block its activation. The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes numerous inhibitors of NF-κB activation that target multiple points in the signaling pathway. A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-κB activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. In this study, we constructed a recombinant vv811 lacking the recently described NF-κB inhibitor A49 (vv811ΔA49), yielding a virus that lacked all currently described inhibitors downstream of TNF-α and IL-1β. Unlike vv811, vv811ΔA49 no longer inhibited degradation of the phosphorylated inhibitor of κBα and p65 translocated into the nucleus. However, despite this translocation, vv811ΔA49 still inhibited TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. This inhibition did not require late viral gene expression. These findings indicate the presence of another inhibitor of NF-κB that is expressed early during infection and acts by a novel mechanism downstream of p65 translocation into the nucleus.

  17. PAFR activation of NF-κB p65 or p105 precursor dictates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses during TLR activation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Edson K; Filgueiras, Luciano Ribeiro; Rios, Francisco J; Serezani, Carlos H; Jancar, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in many diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether PAFR signaling changes the macrophages responsiveness to agonists of TLR2 (Pam3Cys), TLR4 (LPS), and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C). Exogenous PAF inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-6, and TNF-α) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in macrophages challenged with Pam3Cys and LPS, but not with Poly (I:C). PAF did not affect mRNA expression of MyD88, suggesting that PAF acts downstream the adaptor. PAF inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and increased NF-κB p105 phosphorylation, which is processed in the proteasome to generate p50 subunit. The PAF potentiation of IL-10 production was dependent on proteasome processing but independent of NF-κB transactivation domain. Inhibition of p50 abolished the PAF-induced IL-10 production. These findings indicate that the impaired transcriptional activity of the p65 subunit and the enhanced p105 phosphorylation induced by PAF are responsible for down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up regulation of IL-10, respectively, in LPS-challenged macrophages. Together, our data unveil a heretofore unrecognized role for PAFR in modulating activation of NF-κB in macrophages. PMID:27554194

  18. PAFR activation of NF-κB p65 or p105 precursor dictates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses during TLR activation in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Edson K.; Filgueiras, Luciano Ribeiro; Rios, Francisco J.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Jancar, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in many diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether PAFR signaling changes the macrophages responsiveness to agonists of TLR2 (Pam3Cys), TLR4 (LPS), and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C). Exogenous PAF inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-6, and TNF-α) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in macrophages challenged with Pam3Cys and LPS, but not with Poly (I:C). PAF did not affect mRNA expression of MyD88, suggesting that PAF acts downstream the adaptor. PAF inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and increased NF-κB p105 phosphorylation, which is processed in the proteasome to generate p50 subunit. The PAF potentiation of IL-10 production was dependent on proteasome processing but independent of NF-κB transactivation domain. Inhibition of p50 abolished the PAF-induced IL-10 production. These findings indicate that the impaired transcriptional activity of the p65 subunit and the enhanced p105 phosphorylation induced by PAF are responsible for down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up regulation of IL-10, respectively, in LPS-challenged macrophages. Together, our data unveil a heretofore unrecognized role for PAFR in modulating activation of NF-κB in macrophages. PMID:27554194

  19. Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Binding to RelA(p65).

    PubMed

    Du, Haiwei; Yin, Peiqi; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Leiliang; Jin, Qi; Zhu, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-κB signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer p65/p50, the predominant form of NF-κB. We also show that picornavirus 2C family proteins inhibit NF-κB activation and associate with p65 and IKKβ. Our findings provide a novel mechanism how EV71 antagonizes innate immunity.

  20. Baicalin attenuates focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury through inhibition of nuclear factor {kappa}B p65 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xia; Qu, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ying; Sheng, Xie-Huang; Cheng, Fang; Jiang, E-Nang; Wang, Jian-hua; Bu, Wen; Liu, Zhao-Ping

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Permanent NF-{kappa}B p65 activation contributes to the infarction after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. {yields} Baicalin can markedly inhibit the nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65 expression and m RNA levels after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. {yields} Baicalin decreased the cerebral infarction area via inhibiting the activation of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. -- Abstract: Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of baicalin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Baicalin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was intravenously injected after ischemia onset. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the neurological deficit was scored and infarct volume was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the histopathological changes of cortex and hippocampus neurons. We examined the levels of NF-{kappa}B p65 in ischemic cortexes by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. The results showed that the neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased from 2.0 {+-} 0.7 to 1.2 {+-} 0.4 and the volume of infarction was reduced by 25% after baicalin injection. Histopathological examination showed that the increase of neurons with pycnotic shape and condensed nuclear in cortex and hippocampus were not observed in baicalin treated animals. Further examination showed that NF-{kappa}B p65 in cortex was increased after ischemia reperfusion injury, indicating the molecular mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. The level of NF-{kappa}B p65 was decreased by 73% after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin might be useful as a potential neuroprotective agent in stroke therapy. The neuroprotective effects of baicalin may relate to inhibition of NF-{kappa}B p65.

  1. Regulation of Rela/p65 and Endothelial Cell Inflammation by Proline-Rich Tyrosine Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Bijli, Kaiser M; Fazal, Fabeha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) in the mechanism of NF-κB activation and endothelial cell (EC) inflammation induced by thrombin, a procoagulant serine protease released in high amounts during sepsis and other inflammatory conditions. Stimulation of ECs with thrombin resulted in a time-dependent activation of Pyk2. RNA interference knockdown of Pyk2 attenuated thrombin-induced activity of NF-κB and expression of its target genes, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Pyk2 knockdown impaired thrombin-induced activation of IκB kinase (IKK) and phosphorylation (Ser32 and Ser36) of IkappaBα, but, surprisingly, failed to prevent IκBα degradation. However, depletion of IKKα or IKKβ was effective in inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation/degradation, as expected. Intriguingly, Pyk2 knockdown impaired nuclear translocation and DNA binding of RelA/p65, despite the inability to prevent IκBα degradation. In addition, Pyk2 knockdown was associated with inhibition of RelA/p65 phosphorylation at Ser536, which is important for transcriptional activity of RelA/p65. Depletion of IKKα or IKKβ each impaired RelA/p65 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data identify Pyk2 as a critical regulator of EC inflammation by virtue of engaging IKK to promote the release and the transcriptional capacity of RelA/p65, and, additionally, by its ability to facilitate the nuclear translocation of the released RelA/p65. Thus, specific targeting of Pyk2 may be an effective anti-inflammatory strategy in vascular diseases associated with EC inflammation and intravascular coagulation. PMID:22842493

  2. Macrophage TCF-4 co-activates p65 to potentiate chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xia; Hou, Along; Wang, Rui; Liu, Da; Xiang, Wei; Xie, Qingyun; Zhang, Bo; Gan, Lixia; Zheng, Wei; Miao, Hongming

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor 4 (TCF-4) was recently identified as a candidate gene for the cause of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the TCF-4 transgene in macrophages aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, characterized by the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, liver and white adipose tissue, as well as a proinflammatory profile of immune cells in visceral fats in mice. Mechanistically, TCF-4 functioned as a co-activator of p65 to amplify the saturated free fatty acid (FFA)-stimulated promoter activity, mRNA transcription and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in primary macrophages. Blockage of p65 with a specific interfering RNA or inhibitor could prevent TCF-4-enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in FFA/lipopolysaccharide-treated primary macrophages. The p65 inhibitor could abolish macrophage TCF-4 transgene-aggravated systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD-treated mice. In addition, we demonstrated that the mRNA expression of TCF-4 in the peripheral blood monocytes from humans was positively correlated to the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor α, IL-6 and fasting plasma glucose. In summary, we identified TCF-4 as a co-activator of p65 in the potentiation of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and aggravation of HFD-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:27129186

  3. Genistein inhibits phorbol ester-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of p65/RelA in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Do-Hee; Na, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Haegeman, Guy; Surh, Young-Joon

    2014-10-01

    Genistein, an isoflavone present in soy products, has chemopreventive effects on mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of genistein on phorbol ester-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) that plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of cultured human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells with genistein reduced COX-2 expression induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). There are multiple lines of evidence supporting that the induction of COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-κB. Genistein failed to inhibit TPA-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB as well as degradation of IκB. However, genistein abrogated the TPA-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB as determined by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and its interaction with cAMP regulatory element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and TATA-binding protein (TBP). TPA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Likewise, pharmacologic inhibition or dominant negative mutation of ERK suppressed phosphorylation of p65. The above findings, taken together, suggest that genistein inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in MCF10A cells by blocking ERK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 and its subsequent interaction with CBP and TBP.

  4. The type III effectors NleE and NleB from enteropathogenic E. coli and OspZ from Shigella block nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65.

    PubMed

    Newton, Hayley J; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Badea, Luminita; Kelly, Michelle; Lucas, Mark; Holloway, Gavan; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Dunstone, Michelle A; Sloan, Joan; Whisstock, James C; Kaper, James B; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Jans, David A; Frankel, Gad; Phillips, Alan D; Coulson, Barbara S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2010-05-01

    Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. Here we found that the type III effectors, NleE from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and OspZ from Shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, to the host cell nucleus. NF-kappaB inhibition by NleE was associated with decreased IL-8 expression in EPEC-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Ectopically expressed NleE also blocked nuclear translocation of p65 and c-Rel, but not p50 or STAT1/2. NleE homologues from other attaching and effacing pathogens as well OspZ from Shigella flexneri 6 and Shigella boydii, also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and p65 nuclear import; however, a truncated form of OspZ from S. flexneri 2a that carries a 36 amino acid deletion at the C-terminus had no inhibitory activity. We determined that the C-termini of NleE and full length OspZ were functionally interchangeable and identified a six amino acid motif, IDSY(M/I)K, that was important for both NleE- and OspZ-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. We also established that NleB, encoded directly upstream from NleE, suppressed NF-kappaB activation. Whereas NleE inhibited both TNFalpha and IL-1beta stimulated p65 nuclear translocation and IkappaB degradation, NleB inhibited the TNFalpha pathway only. Neither NleE nor NleB inhibited AP-1 activation, suggesting that the modulatory activity of the effectors was specific for NF-kappaB signaling. Overall our data show that EPEC and Shigella have evolved similar T3SS-dependent means to manipulate host inflammatory pathways by interfering with the activation of selected host transcriptional regulators.

  5. Dysregulated miR-34a-SIRT1-acetyl p65 axis is a potential mediator of immune activation in the colon during chronic SIV infection of rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahesh; Kumar, Vinay; Lackner, Andrew A.; Alvarez, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation, a hallmark of progressive HIV/SIV infection causes disruption of the GI epithelial barrier, microbial translocation and generalized immune activation/inflammation driving AIDS progression. Apart from protein regulators, recent studies strongly suggest critical roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating and managing certain aspects of the inflammatory process. To examine their immunoregulatory role, we profiled miRNA expression in colon from 12 chronic SIV-infected and 4 control macaques. After applying multiple comparisons correction, 10 (3-up and 7-down) miRNAs showed differential expression. Most notably, miR-34a showed significant upregulation in both epithelial and lamina propria leukocyte (LPL) compartments. Intense γH2AX expression in colonic epithelium and LPL confirmed the contribution of DNA damage response in driving miR-34a upregulation. SIRT1 mRNA and protein decreased significantly in both colonic epithelium and LPL. Luciferase reporter assays validated rhesus macaque SIRT1 as a direct miR-34a target. Decreased SIRT1 expression was associated with constitutively enhanced expression of the transcriptionally active form of the p65 (acetylated on lysine 310) subunit of NFκB exclusively in the LPL compartment. The intensity and number of acetylated-p65+ cells was markedly elevated in LPLs of chronically SIV-infected macaques compared to uninfected controls and localized to increased numbers of IgA+ and IgG+ plasma cells. These findings provide new insights into the potential role of the miR-34a-SIRT1-p65 axis in causing hyperactivation of the intestinal B cell system. Our results point to a possible mechanism where the normal immunosuppressive function of SIRT1 is inhibited by elevated miR-34a expression resulting in constitutive activation of acetylated-p65 (lysine 310). PMID:25452565

  6. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L.; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R.; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C. Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J.; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J.; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G.; Turner, Stephen J.; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4+ T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4+ T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  7. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G; Turner, Stephen J; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D; Rao, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4(+) T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4(+) T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  8. Structural Basis for Telomerase RNA Recognition and RNP Assembly by the Holoenzyme La Family Protein p65

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahavir; Wang, Zhonghua; Koo, Bon-Kyung; Patel, Anooj; Cascio, Duilio; Collins, Kathleen; Feigon, Juli

    2012-07-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex essential for maintenance of telomere DNA at linear chromosome ends. The catalytic core of Tetrahymena telomerase comprises a ternary complex of telomerase RNA (TER), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), and the essential La family protein p65. NMR and crystal structures of p65 C-terminal domain and its complex with stem IV of TER reveal that RNA recognition is achieved by a combination of single- and double-stranded RNA binding, which induces a 105{sup o} bend in TER. The domain is a cryptic, atypical RNA recognition motif with a disordered C-terminal extension that forms an {alpha} helix in the complex necessary for hierarchical assembly of TERT with p65-TER. This work provides the first structural insight into biogenesis and assembly of TER with a telomerase-specific protein. Additionally, our studies define a structurally homologous domain (xRRM) in genuine La and LARP7 proteins and suggest a general mode of RNA binding for biogenesis of their diverse RNA targets.

  9. Stepwise phosphorylation of p65 promotes NF-κB activation and NK cell responses during target cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Choi, Go-Eun; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kwon, Soon Jae; Kim, Sun Chang; Booth, Claire; Nichols, Kim E.; Kim, Hun Sik

    2016-01-01

    NF-κB is a key transcription factor that dictates the outcome of diverse immune responses. How NF-κB is regulated by multiple activating receptors that are engaged during natural killer (NK)-target cell contact remains undefined. Here we show that sole engagement of NKG2D, 2B4 or DNAM-1 is insufficient for NF-κB activation. Rather, cooperation between these receptors is required at the level of Vav1 for synergistic NF-κB activation. Vav1-dependent synergistic signalling requires a separate PI3K-Akt signal, primarily mediated by NKG2D or DNAM-1, for optimal p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Vav1 controls downstream p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Synergistic signalling is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) NK cells entailing 2B4 dysfunction and required for p65 phosphorylation by PI3K-Akt signal, suggesting stepwise signalling checkpoint for NF-κB activation. Thus, our study provides a framework explaining how signals from different activating receptors are coordinated to determine specificity and magnitude of NF-κB activation and NK cell responses. PMID:27221592

  10. Transcriptional activation of APAF1 by KAISO (ZBTB33) and p53 is attenuated by RelA/p65.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-In; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Hur, Sujin Susanne; Hur, Man-Wook

    2015-09-01

    KAISO, a member of the POK protein family, is induced by DNA-damaging agents to enhance apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Previously, we found that p53 interacts with KAISO, and acetylation of p53 lysine residues by p300 is modulated by KAISO. APAF1, the core molecule of the apoptosome, is transcriptionally activated by KAISO only in cells expressing p53, which binds to APAF1 promoter p53-response elements (p53REs). APAF1 transcriptional upregulation is further enhanced by KAISO augmentation of p53 binding to the APAF1 promoter distal p53RE#1 (bp, -765 to -739). Interestingly, a NF-κB response element, located close to the p53RE#1, mediates APAF1 transcriptional repression by affecting interaction between KAISO and p53. Ectopic RelA/p65 expression led to depletion of nuclear KAISO, with KAISO being mainly detected in the cytoplasm. RelA/p65 cytoplasmic sequestration of KAISO prevents its nuclear interaction with p53, decreasing APAF1 transcriptional activation by a p53-KAISO-p300 complex in cells exposed to genotoxic stresses. While KAISO enhances p53-dependent apoptosis by increasing APAF1 gene expression, RelA/p65 decreases apoptosis by blocking interaction between KAISO and p53. These findings have relevance to the phenomenon of cancer cells' diminished apoptotic capacity and the onset of chemotherapy resistance.

  11. Examination of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Qaiser, Fatima; Trembley, Janeen H; Sadiq, Sarah; Muhammad, Iqbal; Younis, Rubina; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Murtaza, Badar; Rector, Thomas S; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Protein kinase CK2 plays a critical role in cell growth, proliferation, and suppression of cell death. CK2 is overexpressed, especially in the nuclear compartment, in the majority of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). CK2-mediated activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 is a key step in cellular proliferation, resulting in translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. As CK2 expression and activity are also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we sought to increase the knowledge of CK2 function in benign and malignant prostate by examination of the relationships between nuclear CK2 and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression. The expression level and localization of CK2α and NF-κB p65 proteins in PCa and BPH tissue specimens was determined. Nuclear CK2α and NF-κB p65 protein levels are significantly higher in PCa compared with BPH, and these proteins are positively correlated with each other in both diseases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 levels correlated with Ki-67 or with cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 expression in BPH, but not in PCa. The findings provide information that combined analysis of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in prostate specimens relates to the disease status. Increased nuclear NF-κB p65 expression levels in PCa specifically related to nuclear CK2α levels, indicating a possible CK2-dependent relationship in malignancy. In contrast, nuclear NF-κB p65 protein levels related to both Ki-67 and cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels exclusively in BPH, suggesting a potential separate impact for NF-κB p65 function in proliferation for benign disease as opposed to malignant disease. PMID:27435858

  12. Allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppress NF-κB and Ets-1 DNA binding activity, and inhibit phosphorylated NF-κB p65 nuclear localization in CD4+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Obata, Fumiya; Kubo, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    CD8+ T-cells of asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers (AC) suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I)-restricted and -unrestricted manner. In order to investigate the mechanism of MHC-I-unrestricted CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV-1 suppression, we previously established allo-antigen stimulated CD8+T-cells from HIV-1-uninfected donors. These allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppressed HIV-1 replication in acutely infected autologous CD4+ T-cells when directly co-cultured. To elucidate the mechanism of HIV-1 replication suppression, we analyzed DNA-binding activity and phosphorylation of transcriptional factors associated with HIV-1 replication by electrophoresis mobility shift assay and Western blotting. When CD4+ T-cells were cultured with allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells, the reduction of NF-κB and Ets-1 DNA-binding activity was observed. Nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 and Ets-1 was suppressed in CD4+ T-cells. Although NF-κB p65 and Ets-1 are known to be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA), no difference was observed in the expression and phosphorylation of the PKA catalytic subunit in CD4+ T-cells cultured with PHA-treated CD8+ T-cells or allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells. Cyclic AMP is also known to enter through gap junctions, but the suppression of HIV-1 replication mediated by allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells was not affected by the gap junction inhibitor. The nuclear transport of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (Ser276) was inhibited only in CD4+ T-cells cultured with allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells. Our results indicate that allo-antigen stimulated CD8+ T-cells suppress the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 or Ets-1 in an antigen-nonspecific manner, and inhibit the nuclear transport of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (Ser276).

  13. NF-κB p65 repression by the sesquiterpene lactone, Helenalin, contributes to the induction of autophagy cell death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a vital role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, several anticancer agents were found to exert their anticancer effects by triggering autophagy. Emerging data suggest that autophagy represents a novel mechanism that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Pharmacologically active natural compounds such as those from marine, terrestrial plants and animals represent a promising resource for novel anticancer drugs. There are several prominent examples from the past proving the success of natural products and derivatives exhibiting anticancer activity. Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone has been demonstrated to have potent anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Albeit previous studies demonstrating helenalin’s multi modal action on cellular proliferative and apoptosis, the mechanisms underlying its action are largely unexplained. Methods To deduce the mechanistic action of helenalin, cancer cells were treated with the drug at various concentrations and time intervals. Using western blot, FACS analysis, overexpression and knockdown studies, cellular signaling pathways were interrogated focusing on apoptosis and autophagy markers. Results We show here that helenalin induces sub-G1 arrest, apoptosis, caspase cleavage and increases the levels of the autophagic markers. Suppression of caspase cleavage by the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, suppressed induction of LC3-B and Atg12 and reduced autophagic cell death, indicating caspase activity was essential for autophagic cell death induced by helenalin. Additionally, helenalin suppressed NF-κB p65 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. Exogenous overexpression of p65 was accompanied by reduced levels of cell death whereas siRNA mediated suppression led to augmented levels of caspase cleavage, autophagic cell death markers and increased cell death. Conclusions Taken together, these results show that helenalin mediated

  14. Coal dust contiguity-induced changes in the concentration of TNF- and NF- B p65 on the ocular surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, Z.Y.; Jin, X.D.; Gu, C.H.

    2009-07-01

    To observe the influence of coal dust on ocular surface of coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity on expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 and dry eye occurrence. Expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 in ocular surface were determined. Results showed tear production, BUT and lysozyme decreased for coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity. Coal dust exposure was linked to development of xerophthalmia, and induced a higher expression of NF- B p65 and TNF- perhaps as a mechanism to resist coal dust ocular surface injury.

  15. Chemosensitization of HepG2 cells by suppression of NF-κB/p65 gene transcription with specific-siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Wang, Si-Ye; Yao, Min; Sai, Wen-Li; Wu, Wei; Yang, Jun-Ling; Cai, Yin; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Yao, Deng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype formation in human HepG2 cells. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from human HepG2 or LO2 cells. NF-κB/p65 mRNA was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequencing. NF-κB/p65 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Specific-siRNA was transfected to HepG2 cells to knock down NF-κB/p65 expression. The effects on cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis were assessed, and the level of NF-κB/p65 or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HepG2 cells express NF-κB/p65 and express relatively less phosphorylated p65 (P-p65) and little P-gp. After treatment of HepG2 cells with different doses of doxorubicin, the expression of NF-κB/p65, P-p65, and especially P-gp were dose-dependently upregulated. After HepG2 cells were transfected with NF-κB/p65 siRNA (100 nmol/L), the expression of NF-κB/p65, P-p65, and P-gp were downregulated significantly and dose-dependently. The viability of HepG2 cells was decreased to 23% in the combination NF-κB/p65 siRNA (100 nmol/L) and doxorubicin (0.5 μmol/L) group and 47% in the doxorubicin (0.5 μmol/L) group (t = 7.043, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Knockdown of NF-κB/p65 with siRNA is an effective strategy for inhibiting HepG2 cell growth by downregulating P-gp expression associated chemosensitization and apoptosis induction. PMID:26668505

  16. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor and Type III Secreted Effectors Cooperate in Inhibition of p65 Nuclear Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Michael John; McCorrister, Stuart; Grant, Chris; Westmacott, Garrett; Fariss, Robert; Hu, Pingzhao; Zhao, Kaiqiong; Blake, Mary; Whitmire, Bill; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) is hypothesized to be an important secreted virulence factor; however, challenges in denaturing its proteolytic activity have hampered attempts to identify its legitimate targets. Here, we use a genetic and proteomic approach to identify authentic CPAF targets. Human epithelial cells infected with CPAF-sufficient and CPAF-deficient chlamydiae were lysed using known CPAF-denaturing conditions. Their protein profiles were analyzed using isobaric mass tags and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative analysis of CPAF-sufficient and CPAF-deficient infections identified a limited number of CPAF host and chlamydial protein targets. Host targets were primarily interferon-stimulated gene products, whereas chlamydial targets were type III secreted proteins. We provide evidence supporting a cooperative role for CPAF and type III secreted effectors in blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, resulting in decreased beta interferon and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. Genetic complementation of null organisms with CPAF restored p65 nuclear translocation inhibition and proteolysis of chlamydial type III secreted effector proteins (T3SEs). We propose that CPAF and T3SEs cooperate in the inhibition of host innate immunity. PMID:27677792

  17. Perinatal asphyxia leads to PARP-1 overactivity, p65 translocation, IL-1β and TNF-α overexpression, and apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonatal rats: prevention by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration.

    PubMed

    Neira-Peña, T; Rojas-Mancilla, E; Munoz-Vio, V; Perez, R; Gutierrez-Hernandez, M; Bustamante, D; Morales, P; Hermoso, M A; Gebicke-Haerter, P; Herrera-Marschitz, M

    2015-05-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a leading cause of neuronal damage in newborns, resulting in long-term neurological and cognitive deficits, in part due to impairment of mesostriatal and mesolimbic neurocircuitries. The insult can be as severe as to menace the integrity of the genome, triggering the overactivation of sentinel proteins, including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 overactivation implies increased energy demands, worsening the metabolic failure and depleting further NAD(+) availability. Using a global PA rat model, we report here evidence that hypoxia increases PARP-1 activity, triggering a signalling cascade leading to nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65, modulating the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory molecules, increasing apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonate rats, monitored with Western blots, qPCR, TUNEL and ELISA. PARP-1 activity increased immediately after PA, reaching a maximum 1-8 h after the insult, while activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway was observed 8 h after the insult, with a >twofold increase of p65 nuclear translocation. IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels were increased 24 h after the insult, together with a >twofold increase in apoptotic-like cell death. A single dose of the PARP-1 inhibitor nicotinamide (0.8 mmol/kg, i.p.), 1 h post delivery, prevented the effect of PA on PARP-1 activity, p65 translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptotic-like cell death. The present study demonstrates that PA leads to PARP-1 overactivation, increasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death in mesencephalon, effects prevented by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration, supporting the idea that PARP-1 inhibition represents a therapeutic target against the effects of PA.

  18. Determination of dissociation constant of the NFκB p50/p65 heterodimer using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in the living cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Manisha; Mikuni, Shintaro; Muto, Hideki; Kinjo, Masataka

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •We used two-laser-beam FCCS to determine the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of IPT domain of p50/p65 heterodimer in living cell. •Interaction of p50 and p65 was analyzed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of single living cell. •Binding affinity of p50/p65 heterodimer is higher in cytoplasm than that of nucleus. -- Abstract: Two-laser-beam fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) is promising technique that provides quantitative information about the interactions of biomolecules. The p50/p65 heterodimer is the most abundant and well understood of the NFκB dimers in most cells. However, the quantitative value of affinity, namely the K{sub d}, for the heterodimer in living cells is not known yet. To quantify the heterodimerization of the IPT domain of p50/p65 in the living cell, we used two-laser-beam FCCS. The K{sub d} values of mCherry{sub 2}- and EGFP-fused p50 and p65 were determined to be 0.46 μM in the cytoplasm and 1.06 μM in the nucleus of the living cell. These results suggest the different binding affinities of the p50/p65 heterodimer in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the living cell and different complex formation in each region.

  19. C/EBP beta blocks p65 phosphorylation and thereby NF-kappa B-mediated transcription in TNF-tolerant cells.

    PubMed

    Zwergal, Andreas; Quirling, Martina; Saugel, Bernd; Huth, Karin C; Sydlik, Carmen; Poli, Valeria; Neumeier, Dieter; Ziegler-Heitbrock, H W Löms; Brand, Korbinian

    2006-07-01

    TNF is a major mediator of inflammation, immunity, and apoptosis. Pre-exposure to TNF reduces sensitivity to restimulation, a phenomenon known as tolerance, considered as protective in sepsis, but also as a paradigm for immunoparalysis. Earlier experiments in TNF-tolerant cells display inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent IL-8 gene expression at the transcriptional level with potential involvement of C/EBPbeta. In this study, we have shown that a kappaB motive was sufficient to mediate transcriptional inhibition under TNF tolerance conditions in monocytic cells. Furthermore, in tolerant cells, TNF-induced NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation was markedly decreased, which was accompanied by the formation of C/EBPbeta-p65 complexes. Remarkably, in C/EBPbeta(-/-) cells incubated under the conditions of TNF tolerance, neither impairment of transcription nor inhibition of p65 phosphorylation was observed. Finally, we showed that C/EBPbeta overexpression reduced p65-mediated transactivation and that association of C/EBPbeta with p65 specifically prevented p65 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that C/EBPbeta is an essential signaling component for inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription in TNF-tolerant cells and suggest that this is caused by blockade of p65 phosphorylation. These results define a new molecular mechanism responsible for TNF tolerance in monocytic cells that may contribute to the unresponsiveness seen in patients with sepsis.

  20. Pentoxifylline and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induce apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells through a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL and phosphorylation of p65

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Oncology, the resistance of the cancerous cells to chemotherapy continues to be the principal limitation. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor plays an important role in tumor escape and resistance to chemotherapy and this factor regulates several pathways that promote tumor survival including some antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. In this study, we investigated, in U937 human leukemia cells, the effects of PTX and the MG132 proteasome inhibitor, drugs that can disrupt the NF-κB pathway. For this, we evaluated viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, p65 phosphorylation, and the modification in the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL antiapoptotic proteins. Results The two drugs affect the viability of the leukemia cells in a time-dependent manner. The greatest percentage of apoptosis was obtained with a combination of the drugs; likewise, PTX and MG132 induce G1 phase cell cycle arrest and cleavage of caspases -3,-8, -9 and cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane potential loss in U937 human leukemia cells. In these cells, PTX and the MG132 proteasome inhibitor decrease p65 (NF-κB subunit) phosphorylation and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. We also observed, with a combination of these drugs overexpression of a group of the proapoptotic genes BAX, DIABLO, and FAS while the genes BCL-XL, MCL-1, survivin, IκB, and P65 were downregulated. Conclusions The two drugs used induce apoptosis per se, this cytotoxicity was greater with combination of both drugs. These observations are related with the caspases -9, -3 cleavage and G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in p65 phosphorylation and Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. As well as this combination of drugs promotes the upregulation of the proapoptotic genes and downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. These observations strongly confirm

  1. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling. PMID:23054188

  2. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling.

  3. Subcellular distribution of 65,000 calmodulin-binding protein (p65) and synaptophysin (p38) in adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Fournier, S; Novas, M L; Trifaró, J M

    1989-10-01

    Both neuronal and endocrine cells contain secretory vesicles that store and release neurotransmitters and peptides. Neuronal cells release their secretory material from both small synaptic vesicles and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), whereas endocrine cells release secretory products from LDCVs. Neuronal small synaptic vesicles are known to express three integral membrane proteins: 65,000 calmodulin-binding protein (65-CMBP) (p65), synaptophysin (p38), and SV2. A controversial question surrounding these three proteins is whether they are present in LDCV membranes of endocrine and neuronal cells. Sucrose density centrifugation of adrenal medulla was performed to study and compare the subcellular distribution of two of these small synaptic vesicle proteins (65-CMBP and synaptophysin). Subsequent immunoblotting and 125I-Protein A binding experiments performed on the fractions obtained from sucrose gradients showed that 65-CMBP was present in fractions corresponding to granule membranes and intact chromaffin granules. Similar immunoblotting and 125I-Protein A binding experiments with synaptophysin antibodies showed that this protein was also present in intact granules and granule membrane fractions. However, an additional membrane component, equilibrating near the upper portion of the sucrose gradient, also showed strong immunoreactivity with anti-synaptophysin and high 125I-Protein A binding activity. In addition, immunoblotting experiments on purified plasma and granule membranes demonstrated that 65-CMBP was a component of both membranes, whereas synaptophysin was only present in granule membranes. Thus, there appears to be a different subcellular localization between 65-CMBP and synaptophysin in the chromaffin cell.

  4. Comparison of the effect of p65 siRNA and curcumin in promoting apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Zhang, Caifeng; Tian, Weihong; Jiang, Yanan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2012-07-01

    The activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. The role of the NF-κB pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains ill-defined. The objective was to detect whether p65siRNA and curcumin could promote ESCC cell apoptosis and increase the sensitivity of ESCC cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway, and to compared these two treatments. In the present study, the status of the NF-κB pathway, in the two ESCC cell lines Eca109 and EC9706, was analyzed and the ability of p65 siRNA and curcumin alone or in combination with 5-FU to modulate this pathway in vitro and in vivo was investigated. The results showed that the NF-κB signaling pathway in the ESCC cell lines was constitutively activated. Both p65 siRNA and curcumin mediated suppression of activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway via inhibition of the expression of p65 or IκBα phosphorylation in ESCC cell lines. The cells treated with combination of p65 siRNA or curcumin and 5-FU revealed a lower cell viability and higher apoptosis compared to those treated with 5-FU alone. In a human ESCC xenograft model, p65 siRNA or curcumin and 5-FU alone reduced the tumor volume, respectively, but their combination had the strongest anticancer effects. Curcumin was more effective than p65 siRNA in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results indicate that the constitutively activated NF-κB signaling pathway plays a crucial role in these two ESCC cell lines and both p65siRNA and curcumin can promote ESCC cell apoptosis and enhance the sensitivity to 5-FU through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It is still a long time before RNA interference will be used in the clinic. Therefore, curcumin is proved to be useful in the treatment of ESCC as it is a pharmacologically safe compound without side effects.

  5. N-terminal DNA-binding domains contribute to differential DNA-binding specificities of NF-kappa B p50 and p65.

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, M B; Ghosh, D; Trinh, F; Leonard, W J

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported that either oxidation or alkylation of NF-kappa B in vitro abrogates DNA binding. We used this phenomenon to help elucidate structural determinants of NF-kappa B binding. We now demonstrate that Cys-62 of NF-kappa B p50 mediates the redox effect and lies within an N-terminal region required for DNA binding but not for dimerization. Several point mutations in this region confer a transdominant negative binding phenotype to p50. The region is highly conserved in all Rel family proteins, and we have determined that it is also critical for DNA binding of NF-kappa B p65. Replacement of the N-terminal region of p65 with the corresponding region from p50 changes its DNA-binding specificity towards that of p50. These data suggest that the N-terminal regions of p50 and p65 are critical for DNA binding and help determine the DNA-binding specificities of p50 and p65. We have defined within the N-terminal region a sequence motif, R(F/G)(R/K)YXCE, which is present in Rel family proteins and also in zinc finger proteins capable of binding to kappa B sites. The potential significance of this finding is discussed. Images PMID:8423807

  6. Krüppel-like factor 6 is a co-activator of NF-κB that mediates p65-dependent transcription of selected downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Lei, Cao-Qi; Hu, Yun-Hong; Xia, Tian; Li, Mi; Zhong, Bo; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2014-05-01

    The transcription factor NF-κB plays a pivotal role in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes, including development, inflammation, and immunity. How NF-κB integrates activating signals to expression of specific sets of target genes is of great interest. Here, we identified Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) as a co-activator of NF-κB after TNFα and IL-1β stimulation. Overexpression of KLF6 enhanced TNFα- and IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB and transcription of a subset of downstream genes, whereas knockdown of KLF6 had opposite effects. KLF6 interacted with p65 in the nucleus and bound to the promoters of target genes. Upon IL-1β stimulation, KLF6 was recruited to promoters of a subset of NF-κB target genes in a p65-dependent manner, which was in turn required for the optimal binding of p65 to the target gene promoters. Our findings thus identified KLF6 as a previously unknown but essential co-activator of NF-κB and provided new insight into the molecular regulation of p65-dependent gene expression.

  7. PKCζ Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion by Regulating Expression of E-cadherin and Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) via NFκB-p65

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arindam; Danley, Marsha; Saha, Biswarup; Tawfik, Ossama; Paul, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    Atypical Protein Kinase C zeta (PKCζ) forms Partitioning-defective (PAR) polarity complex for apico-basal distribution of membrane proteins essential to maintain normal cellular junctional complexes and tissue homeostasis. Consistently, tumor suppressive role of PKCζ has been established for multiple human cancers. However, recent studies also indicate pro-oncogenic function of PKCζ without firm understanding of detailed molecular mechanism. Here we report a possible mechanism of oncogenic PKCζ signaling in the context of breast cancer. We observed that depletion of PKCζ promotes epithelial morphology in mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells. The induction of epithelial morphology is associated with significant upregulation of adherens junction (AJ) protein E-cadherin and tight junction (TJ) protein Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1). Functionally, depletion of PKCζ significantly inhibits invasion and metastatic progression. Consistently, we observed higher expression and activation of PKCζ signaling in invasive and metastatic breast cancers compared to non-invasive diseases. Mechanistically, an oncogenic PKCζ– NFκB-p65 signaling node might be involved to suppress E-cadherin and ZO-1 expression and ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of NFκB-p65 (S536E-NFκB-p65) significantly rescues invasive potential of PKCζ-depleted breast cancer cells. Thus, our study discovered a PKCζ - NFκB-p65 signaling pathway might be involved to alter cellular junctional dynamics for breast cancer invasive progression. PMID:26218882

  8. Chemopreventive activity of GEN-27, a genistein derivative, in colitis-associated cancer is mediated by p65-CDX2-β-catenin axis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Fan, Huimin; Li, Yan; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Jinrong; Ji, Hui; Hu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Nonresolving inflammation in the intestine predisposes individuals to colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), which leads to high morbidity and mortality. Here we show that genistein-27 (GEN-27), a derivative of genistein, inhibited proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inhibiting β-catenin activity. Our results showed that GEN-27 increased expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), and reduced β-catenin nuclear localization, which resulted from the inhibition of NF-κB/p65 nuclear localization and up-regulation of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2). Furthermore, GEN-27 decreased binding of p65 to the silencer region of CDX2 and increased binding of CDX2 to the promoter regions of APC and AXIN2, thus inhibiting the activation of β-catenin induced by TNF-α. Importantly, GEN-27 protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and tumor volume. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that dietary GEN-27 significantly decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, GEN-27 inhibited AOM/DSS-induced p65 and β-catenin nuclear translocation, while promoted the expression of CDX2, APC, and AXIN2. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the anti-proliferation effect of GEN-27 in vitro and the prevention of CAC in vivo is mediated by p65-CDX2-β-catenin axis via inhibiting β-catenin target genes. Our results imply that GEN-27 could be a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CAC. PMID:26910375

  9. Human Bocavirus NS1 and NS1-70 Proteins Inhibit TNF-α-Mediated Activation of NF-κB by targeting p65

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingshi; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Caishang; Liu, Yan; Hu, Qinxue; Ke, Xianliang; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV), a parvovirus, is a single-stranded DNA etiologic agent causing lower respiratory tract infections in young children worldwide. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors play crucial roles in clearance of invading viruses through activation of many physiological processes. Previous investigation showed that HBoV infection could significantly upregulate the level of TNF-α which is a strong NF-κB stimulator. Here we investigated whether HBoV proteins modulate TNF-α–mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. We showed that HBoV NS1 and NS1-70 proteins blocked NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-, IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)-, IκB kinase beta (IKKβ)-, constitutively active mutant of IKKβ (IKKβ SS/EE)-, or p65-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by NS1 and NS1-70. Furthermore, NS1 and NS1-70 didn’t interfere with TNF-α-mediated IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, nor p65 nuclear translocation. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction of both NS1 and NS1-70 with p65. Of note, NS1 but not NS1-70 inhibited TNF-α-mediated p65 phosphorylation at ser536. Our findings together indicate that HBoV NS1 and NS1-70 inhibit NF-κB activation. This is the first time that HBoV has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, revealing a potential immune-evasion mechanism that is likely important for HBoV pathogenesis. PMID:27329558

  10. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Controls NF-κB/p65 Transactivation and Enhances the Catabolic Effects of Inflammatory Cytokines on Cells of the Nucleus Pulposus*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Wen; Jiang, Shuai; Ye, Wei; Yang, Hao; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PHD) proteins are key in sensing tissue hypoxia. In nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, our previous work demonstrated that PHD isoforms have a differential contribution in controlling hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-α degradation and activity. Recently we have shown that a regulatory relationship exists between PHD3 and inflammatory cytokines in NP cells. With respect to PHD2, the most abundant PHD isoform in NP cells, very little is known concerning its function and regulation under inflammatory conditions that characterize intervertebral disc degeneration. Here, we show that PHD2 is a potent regulator of the catabolic activities of TNF-α; silencing of PHD2 significantly decreased TNF-α-induced expression of catabolic markers including SDC4, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS5, as well as several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while partially restoring aggrecan and collagen II expression. Use of NF-κB reporters with ShPHD2, SiHIF-1α, as well as p65−/−, PHD2−/−, and PHD3−/− cells, shows that PHD2 serves as a co-activator of NF-κB/p65 signaling in HIF-1-independent fashion. Immunoprecipitation of endogenous and exogenously expressed tagged proteins, as well as fluorescence microscopy, indicates that following TNF-α treatment, PHD2 interacts and co-localizes with p65. Conversely, loss of function experiments using lentivirally delivered Sh-p65, Sh-IKKβ, and NF-κB inhibitor confirmed that cytokine-dependent PHD2 expression in NP cells requires NF-κB signaling. These findings clearly demonstrate that PHD2 forms a regulatory circuit with TNF-α via NF-κB and thereby plays an important role in enhancing activity of this cytokine. We propose that during disc degeneration PHD2 may offer a therapeutic target to mitigate the deleterious actions of TNF-α, a key proinflammatory cytokine. PMID:25635047

  11. Inhibition of HSP90 Promotes Neural Stem Cell Survival from Oxidative Stress through Attenuating NF-κB/p65 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenkai; Zhou, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell survival after transplantation determines the efficiency of stem cell treatment, which develops as a novel potential therapy for several central nervous system (CNS) diseases in recent decades. The engrafted stem cells face the damage of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response at the lesion point in host. Among the damaging pathologies, oxidative stress directs stem cells to apoptosis and even death through several signalling pathways and DNA damage. However, the in-detail mechanism of stem cell survival from oxidative stress has not been revealed clearly. Here, in this study, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce the oxidative damage on neural stem cells (NSCs). The damage was in consequence demonstrated involving the activation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and NF-κB/p65 signalling pathways. Further application of the pharmacological inhibitors, respectively, targeting at each signalling indicated an upper-stream role of HSP90 upon NF-κB/p65 on NSCs survival. Preinhibition of HSP90 with the specific inhibitor displayed a significant protection on NSCs against oxidative stress. In conclusion, inhibition of HSP90 would attenuate NF-κB/p65 activation by oxidative induction and promote NSCs survival from oxidative damage. The HSP90/NF-κB mechanism provides a new evidence on rescuing NSCs from oxidative stress and also promotes the stem cell application on CNS pathologies.

  12. Dimethyl Fumarate Inhibits the Nuclear Factor κB Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells by Covalent Modification of p65 Protein.

    PubMed

    Kastrati, Irida; Siklos, Marton I; Calderon-Gierszal, Esther L; El-Shennawy, Lamiaa; Georgieva, Gergana; Thayer, Emily N; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Frasor, Jonna

    2016-02-12

    In breast tumors, activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathway promotes survival, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, stem cell-like properties, and resistance to therapy--all phenotypes of aggressive disease where therapy options remain limited. Adding an anti-inflammatory/anti-NFκB agent to breast cancer treatment would be beneficial, but no such drug is approved as either a monotherapy or adjuvant therapy. To address this need, we examined whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an anti-inflammatory drug already in clinical use for multiple sclerosis, can inhibit the NFκB pathway. We found that DMF effectively blocks NFκB activity in multiple breast cancer cell lines and abrogates NFκB-dependent mammosphere formation, indicating that DMF has anti-cancer stem cell properties. In addition, DMF inhibits cell proliferation and significantly impairs xenograft tumor growth. Mechanistically, DMF prevents p65 nuclear translocation and attenuates its DNA binding activity but has no effect on upstream proteins in the NFκB pathway. Dimethyl succinate, the inactive analog of DMF that lacks the electrophilic double bond of fumarate, is unable to inhibit NFκB activity. Also, the cell-permeable thiol N-acetyl l-cysteine, reverses DMF inhibition of the NFκB pathway, supporting the notion that the electrophile, DMF, acts via covalent modification. To determine whether DMF interacts directly with p65, we synthesized and used a novel chemical probe of DMF by incorporating an alkyne functionality and found that DMF covalently modifies p65, with cysteine 38 being essential for the activity of DMF. These results establish DMF as an NFκB inhibitor with anti-tumor activity that may add therapeutic value in the treatment of aggressive breast cancers. PMID:26683377

  13. A New Ligustrazine Derivative-Selective Cytotoxicity by Suppression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 Expression on Human Hepatoma Cells. Part 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenze; Yan, Wenqiang; Li, Bi; Xu, Bing; Gong, Yan; Chu, Fuhao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Yao, Qiuli; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    A new anticancer ligustrazine derivative, 3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methylester (T-OA, C38H58O3N2), was previously reported. It was synthesized via conjugating hepatoprotective and anticancer ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. We found that T-OA exerted its anticancer activity by preventing the expression of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in S180 mice. However, the selective cytotoxicity of T-OA on various kinds of cell lines has not been studied sufficiently. In the present study, compared with Cisplatin, T-OA was more toxic to human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402 (IC50 = 6.36 ± 1.56 µM) than other three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HT-29, BGC-823), and no toxicity was observed toward Madin–Darby canine kidney cell line MDCK (IC50 > 150 µM). The morphological changes of Bel-7402 cells demonstrated that T-OA had an apoptosis-inducing effect which had been substantiated using 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Combining the immumohistochemical staining, we found T-OA could prevent the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in Bel-7402 cells. Both of the proteins have been known to play roles in apoptosis and are mainly located in the nuclei. Moreover subcellular localization was performed to reveal that T-OA exerts in nuclei of Bel-7402 cells. The result was in accordance with the effects of down-regulating the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2. PMID:26193270

  14. Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Viral A238L-Mediated Inhibition of p65/RelA Acetylation and p300 Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Granja, Aitor G.; Sabina, Prado; Salas, María L.; Fresno, Manuel; Revilla, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Uncontrolled generation of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) can cause damage to host cells and inflammation, two undesirable events for virus spreading. African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection regulates iNOS-induced gene expression through the synthesis of the A238L virus protein. We here explored the role of A238L, an NF-κB and NFAT inhibitor, in the regulation of iNOS transcription in macrophages. NO production and iNOS mRNA and protein levels as well as iNOS promoter activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-gamma interferon (IFN-γ) treatment were down-regulated both during ASFV infection and in Raw 264.7 cells stably expressing the viral protein. Overexpression of p300, but not of a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) defective mutant, reverted the A238L-mediated inhibition of both basal and LPS-IFN-γ-induced iNOS promoter activity. Following stimulation with LPS-IFN-γ, p65 and p300 interaction was abolished in Raw-A238L cells. Expression of A238L also inhibited p65/relA and p300 binding to the distal NF-κB sequence of the iNOS promoter together with p65 acetylation. Finally, A238L abrogated p300 transactivation mediated by a GAL4-p300 construction. These results provide evidence for an unique viral mechanism involved in transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene expression. PMID:17041221

  15. The proline-rich P65 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a component of the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction and exhibits size polymorphism in the strains M129 and FH.

    PubMed Central

    Proft, T; Hilbert, H; Layh-Schmitt, G; Herrmann, R

    1995-01-01

    Previously, we described the identification of a novel Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129 protein, named P65 because of its apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (T. Proft and R. Herrmann, Mol. Microbiol. 13:337-348, 1994). DNA sequence analysis of the P65 open reading frame (orfp65), however, revealed an ORF encoding a protein with a molecular weight of 47,034. This discrepancy can be explained by the unusual amino acid composition of this protein. According to the deduced amino acid sequence, the N-terminal half of P65 contains several penta- and hexapeptides (DPNAY and DPNQAY) forming a proline-rich acidic domain. Secondary-structure predictions indicated beta-sheets and turns within that region, suggesting an extended and rigid conformation. Near the C terminus of P65 the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was found. This motif is known to play an important role in binding of extracellular matrix proteins to integrins. P65 could be located exclusively to the Triton X-100-insoluble cell fraction. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy and of immunoadsorption experiments indicated that P65 carries surface-exposed regions. Mild treatment of whole cells with proteases resulted in cleavage of a limited amount of P65 molecules, suggesting either that only a small percentage of P65 molecules are exposed on the surface or that protease cleavage is hampered by a compact protein conformation or by binding of an unknown component to P65. P65 exhibits size polymorphism in M. pneumoniae M129 and FH. This is caused by an intragenetic duplication of a 54-bp sequence within the FH orfp65. As a consequence, the number of DPNAY pentapeptides increased from 9 to 12 repeats in the FH strain. PMID:7768845

  16. Suppression of casein kinase 2 sensitizes tumor cells to antitumor TRAIL therapy by regulating the phosphorylation and localization of p65 in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gang, Xiaokun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Yingdi; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Liya; Zhao, Jingwen; Sun, Lin; Wang, Guixia

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. For PCa at the late hormone-refractory stage, substantial improvement in treatment strategies is critically needed. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent, but both intrinsic and acquired resistance to TRAIL poses a huge problem in establishing clinically effective TRAIL therapies. In the present study, we examined the role played by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the TRAIL‑induced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathway in a PCa cell line. Downregulation of CK2 combined with a sub-dose of TRAIL suppressed p65 phosphorylation at serine 536. The combination treatment of TRAIL and the CK2 inhibitor decreased p65 nuclear translocation. Under the treatment of a sub-dose of TRAIL, downregulation of CK2, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, decreased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of NF-κB downstream anti-apoptosis genes. Therefore, we provided novel molecular mechanistic insight reporting that CK2 regulates the sensitivity of PCa cells to the antitumor effect of TRAIL. This is important for understanding how the TRAIL pathway is disrupted in PCa and may help to develop an effective combinatorial therapy for PCa.

  17. Inhibition of Nuclear Transport of NF-ĸB p65 by the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Effector SpvD

    PubMed Central

    Rolhion, Nathalie; Furniss, R. Christopher D.; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ryan, Aindrias; Liu, Mei; Matthews, Sophie A.; Holden, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery. PMID:27232334

  18. Inhibition of Nuclear Transport of NF-ĸB p65 by the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Effector SpvD.

    PubMed

    Rolhion, Nathalie; Furniss, R Christopher D; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ryan, Aindrias; Liu, Mei; Matthews, Sophie A; Holden, David W

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery.

  19. Protective effect of tea polyphenols on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury via suppressing the activation of TLR4/NF-κB p65 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Li, Xu; Yu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Tan, Bin-Bin; Jiang, Lian-Hao; Wang, Ya-Xin; Liang, Yu; Zhang, Xiu-Shan; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Hai-Gen

    2014-05-25

    Tea polyphenols (TP) was investigated in rats for its protective effect on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RIRI). Rats were randomized into groups as follows: (I) sham group (n=10); (II) RIRI group (n=10); (III) RIRI+TP (100mg/kg) group (n=5); (IV) RIRI+TP (200mg/kg) group (n=5); (V) RIRI+TP+ Astragalus mongholicus aqueous extract (AMAE) (300 mg/kg+100mg/kg) group (n=5). For the IRI+TP groups, rats were orally given with tea polyphenols (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) once daily 10 days before induction of ischemia, followed by renal IRI. For the sham group and RIRI group, rats were orally given with equal volume of saline once daily 10 days before induction of ischemia, followed by renal IRI. Results showed that tea polyphenol pretreatment significantly suppressed ROS level and MDA release. On the other hand, in rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) showed recovery, whereas the levels of urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were reduced by administration of tea polyphenols orally for 10 days prior to ischemia-reperfusion. Moreover, tea polyphenol pretreatment significantly decreased TLR4 and NF-κB p65 protein expression levels in RIRI rats. At the same time, tea polyphenol pretreatment attenuated the increased level of serum IL-1β, IL-6, ICAM-1 and TNF-α, and enhanced IL-10 production in RIRI rats. Furthermore, tea polyphenol pretreatment significantly decreased renal epithelial tubular cell apoptosis induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion, alleviating renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. These results cumulatively indicate that tea polyphenol pretreatment could suppress the TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway, protecting renal tubular epithelial cells against ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis, which implies that antioxidants may be a potential and effective agent for prevention of the

  20. Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinshan; Guo, Cancan; Zhu, Yuzhen; Pang, Liping; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Ying; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Methods: Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine’s mRNA include TNF-α, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Results: Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Conclusions: Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-κB-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway

  1. SIRT2 inhibition exacerbates neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier disruption in experimental traumatic brain injury by enhancing NF-κB p65 acetylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Li-Yan; Nie, Hui; Ding, Jun; Ying, Wei-Hai; Tian, Heng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylases. In recent years, SIRT2 inhibition has emerged as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence of a specific role for SIRT2 in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated the effects of SIRT2 inhibition on experimental TBI using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. Adult male mice underwent CCI or sham surgery. A selective brain-permeable SIRT2 inhibitor, AK-7, was administrated 30 min before injury. The volume of the brain edema lesion and the water content of the brain were significantly increased in mice treated with AK-7 (20 mg/kg), compared with the vehicle group, following TBI (p < 0.05 at 1 day and p < 0.05 at 3 days, respectively). Concomitantly, AK-7 administration greatly worsened neurobehavioral deficits on days 3 and 7 after CCI. Furthermore, blood-brain barrier disruption and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activity increased following SIRT2 inhibition. AK-7 treatment increased TBI-induced microglial activation both in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by a large increase in the expression and release of inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistically, SIRT2 inhibition increased both K310 acetylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, leading to enhanced NF-κB activation and up-regulation of its target genes, including aquaporin 4 (AQP4), MMP-9, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Together, these data demonstrate that SIRT2 inhibition exacerbates TBI by increasing NF-κB p65 acetylation and activation. Our findings provide additional evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect of SIRT2. SIRT2 is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases. Our study suggests that the SIRT2 inhibitor AK-7 exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) via a potential mechanism involving increased acetylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, resulting in up-regulation of NF-κB target genes

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF NF-KAPPAB IN THE MARINE FISH STENOTOMUS CHRYSOPS AND EXAMINATION OF ITS ACTIVATION BY ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR AGONISTS. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Members of the Rel family of proteins have been identified in Drosophila, an echinoderm, Xenopus, birds and mammals. Dimers of Rel proteins form the transcription factor nuclear factor Morris Water Maze Training in Mice Elevates Hippocampal Levels of Transcription Factors Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Wanda M.; Pahlavan, Payam S.; Djordjevic, Jelena; McAllister, Danielle; Platt, Eric E.; Alashmali, Shoug; Bernstein, Michael J.; Suh, Miyoung; Albensi, Benedict C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified several transcription factors that regulate activity-dependent plasticity and memory, with cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) being the most well-studied. In neurons, CREB activation is influenced by the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered central to immunity but more recently implicated in memory. The transcription factor early growth response-2 (Egr-2), an NF-κB gene target, is also associated with learning and memory. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), an antioxidant transcription factor linked to NF-κB in pathological conditions, has not been studied in normal memory. Given that numerous transcription factors implicated in activity-dependent plasticity demonstrate connections to NF-κB, this study simultaneously evaluated protein levels of NF-κB, CREB, Egr-2, Nrf2, and actin in hippocampi from young (1 month-old) weanling CD1 mice after training in the Morris water maze, a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. After a 6-day acquisition period, time to locate the hidden platform decreased in the Morris water maze. Mice spent more time in the target vs. non-target quadrants of the maze, suggestive of recall of the platform location. Western blot data revealed a decrease in NF-κB p50 protein after training relative to controls, whereas NF-κB p65, Nrf2 and actin increased. Nrf2 levels were correlated with platform crosses in nearly all tested animals. These data demonstrate that training in a spatial memory task results in alterations in and associations with particular transcription factors in the hippocampus, including upregulation of NF-κB p65 and Nrf2. Training-induced increases in actin protein levels caution against its use as a loading control in immunoblot studies examining activity-dependent plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:26635523

  3. Morris Water Maze Training in Mice Elevates Hippocampal Levels of Transcription Factors Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65.

    PubMed

    Snow, Wanda M; Pahlavan, Payam S; Djordjevic, Jelena; McAllister, Danielle; Platt, Eric E; Alashmali, Shoug; Bernstein, Michael J; Suh, Miyoung; Albensi, Benedict C

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified several transcription factors that regulate activity-dependent plasticity and memory, with cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) being the most well-studied. In neurons, CREB activation is influenced by the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered central to immunity but more recently implicated in memory. The transcription factor early growth response-2 (Egr-2), an NF-κB gene target, is also associated with learning and memory. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), an antioxidant transcription factor linked to NF-κB in pathological conditions, has not been studied in normal memory. Given that numerous transcription factors implicated in activity-dependent plasticity demonstrate connections to NF-κB, this study simultaneously evaluated protein levels of NF-κB, CREB, Egr-2, Nrf2, and actin in hippocampi from young (1 month-old) weanling CD1 mice after training in the Morris water maze, a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. After a 6-day acquisition period, time to locate the hidden platform decreased in the Morris water maze. Mice spent more time in the target vs. non-target quadrants of the maze, suggestive of recall of the platform location. Western blot data revealed a decrease in NF-κB p50 protein after training relative to controls, whereas NF-κB p65, Nrf2 and actin increased. Nrf2 levels were correlated with platform crosses in nearly all tested animals. These data demonstrate that training in a spatial memory task results in alterations in and associations with particular transcription factors in the hippocampus, including upregulation of NF-κB p65 and Nrf2. Training-induced increases in actin protein levels caution against its use as a loading control in immunoblot studies examining activity-dependent plasticity, learning, and memory.

  4. Endothelial lipase is upregulated by interleukin-6 partly via the p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xin; Wu, Minghui; Jiang, Hong; Hao, Jing; Zhao, Qinghao; Zhu, Qing; Saren, Gaowa; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)-6 on the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and its potential signaling pathways in atherosclerosis, a primary culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established and treated as follows: i) Control group without any treatment; ii) recombinant human (rh)IL-6 treatment (10 ng/ml) for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h; iii) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitor (SB203580, 10 µmol/l) pretreatment for 1 h prior to rhIL-6 (10 ng/ml) treatment; iv) nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, 10 mmol/l) pretreatment for 1 h prior to rhIL-6 (10 ng/ml) treatment. EL levels were detected by immunocytochemical staining and western blot analysis. Proliferation of HUVECs was detected by immunostaining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and an MTT assay. p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 levels were detected by western blotting. The results showed that rhIL-6 treatment increased EL expression and proliferation of HUVECs. NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 protein levels also increased in a time-dependent manner in HUVECs after rhIL-6 treatment. NF-κB inhibitor and MAPK p38 inhibitor prevented the effects of rhIL-6 on EL expression. In conclusion, inflammatory factor IL-6 may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by increasing EL expression and the proliferation of endothelial cells via the p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:27430252

  5. Endothelial lipase is upregulated by interleukin-6 partly via the p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xin; Wu, Minghui; Jiang, Hong; Hao, Jing; Zhao, Qinghao; Zhu, Qing; Saren, Gaowa; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)‑6 on the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and its potential signaling pathways in atherosclerosis, a primary culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established and treated as follows: i) Control group without any treatment; ii) recombinant human (rh)IL‑6 treatment (10 ng/ml) for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h; iii) p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitor (SB203580, 10 µmol/l) pretreatment for 1 h prior to rhIL‑6 (10 ng/ml) treatment; iv) nuclear factor (NF)‑κB activation inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, 10 mmol/l) pretreatment for 1 h prior to rhIL‑6 (10 ng/ml) treatment. EL levels were detected by immunocytochemical staining and western blot analysis. Proliferation of HUVECs was detected by immunostaining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and an MTT assay. p38 MAPK and NF‑κB p65 levels were detected by western blotting. The results showed that rhIL‑6 treatment increased EL expression and proliferation of HUVECs. NF‑κB p65 and MAPK p38 protein levels also increased in a time‑dependent manner in HUVECs after rhIL‑6 treatment. NF‑κB inhibitor and MAPK p38 inhibitor prevented the effects of rhIL‑6 on EL expression. In conclusion, inflammatory factor IL‑6 may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by increasing EL expression and the proliferation of endothelial cells via the p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:27430252

  6. Suppression of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and tumor necrosis factor-α by Pongamia pinnata seed extract in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Madhura; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Mandal, Suvra; Kar, Manoj; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata is a plant known for its therapeutic usage in Indian traditional medicine. Despite the controversy regarding toxic flavonoid and erucic acid content, the seed of this plant is consumed in tribal medicine and its oil is used in Ayurveda to treat psoriasis and arthritis. This study explored the potential anti-arthritic effects of a P. pinnata seed (hexane) extract (PSE) at non-lethal doses in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model; possible mechanisms of any observed effects were also explored. After establishing the lethal doses arising from oral exposure to the extract, the material was administered per os daily at two doses (0.3 g/kg/day; 0.5 g/kg/day) to arthritic rats. Other rats received indomethacin or vehicle (control). Treatments were performed for a total of 14 days. One day after the final exposure, the rats were euthanized to permit harvest of various cells, blood, and tissues for analyses. Paw diameter and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the paws were evaluated as indices for edema and neutrophil infiltration into the tissue. The severity of arthritis in the experimental rats was assessed via measures of urinary hydroxyproline (HP) and glucosamine, and of serum pro-inflammatory TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10. The extent of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in peritoneal macrophages harvested from naïve rats and then treated in vitro was also assessed. The results indicated that exposure to PSE significantly decreased paw diameter, tissue myeloperoxidase level, and levels of urinary HP and glucosamine, as well as of serum TNFα and IL-10 in adjuvant-injected (arthritic) rats. In vitro PSE treatment also resulted in a marked inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in primary cultures of peritoneal macrophages. Thus, PSE appears to be able to prevent experimental arthritis, in part, by helping to maintain the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and by inhibiting NF-κB activation. PMID:23971718

  7. Microglial CX3CR1 promotes adult neurogenesis by inhibiting Sirt 1/p65 signaling independent of CX3CL1.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Sabine; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Spieß, Alena; Masuch, Annette; Erny, Daniel; Harsan, Laura A; Elverfeldt, Dominik V; Schwabenland, Marius; Biber, Knut; Staszewski, Ori; Lira, Sergio; Jung, Steffen; Prinz, Marco; Blank, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls. This phenotype was restricted to the DG and accompanied by reduced adult neurogenesis in cx3cr1 (-/-) mice. Remarkably, adult neurogenesis was not affected by the lack of the CX3CR1-ligand, fractalkine (CX3CL1). Mechanistically, pharmacological activation of SIRT1 improved adult neurogenesis in the DG together with an enhanced performance of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. The reverse condition was induced when SIRT1 was inhibited in cx3cr1 (-/-) mice, causing reduced adult neurogenesis and lowered hippocampal cognitive abilities. In conclusion, our data indicate that deletion of CX3CR1 from microglia under resting conditions modifies brain areas with elevated cellular turnover independent of CX3CL1. PMID:27639555

  8. Characterization and complete sequence of lactonase enzyme from Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolate P65 with potential activity against acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Masarra Mohammed; Aboshanab, Khaled Mohamed Anwar; Aboulwafa, Mohammad Mabrouk; Hassouna, Nadia Abdel-Haleem

    2013-01-01

    Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the most common class of quorum sensing signal molecules (autoinducers) that have been reported to be essential for virulence of many relevant pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. New approach for controlling infections of such bacteria is through quorum quenching. In this study, the acyl homoserine lactone inhibitory activity of the crude enzyme from a Bacillus weihenstephanensis-isolate P65 was characterized. The crude enzyme was found to have relatively high thermal stability and was stable in pH range 6 to 9. The crude enzyme extract was found to have lactonase activity of 36.3 U/mg total protein. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved within a range of 28-50°C and pH 6-9. None of the metals used enhanced the activity neither did EDTA inhibit it. However, a concentration of 10 mM Fe(+2) reduced the activity to 73.8%. Catalytic activity and kinetic constants were determined using hexanoyl homoserine lactone as a substrate. Studying enzyme substrate specificity using synthetic standard signals displayed broad spectrum of activity. The enzyme was found to be constitutive. Isolation and complete nucleotide sequence of the respective lactonase gene were done and submitted to the Genbank database under accession code KC823046.

  9. Bcl-3 suppresses Tax-induced NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation blockage in HTLV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinheng; Li, Junying; Huang, Yanmei; Song, Xiangfeng; Niu, Zhiguo; Gao, Zhitao; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-induced persistent activation of the NF-κB pathway is perceived as the primary cause of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive leukemia caused by HTLV-1. Although elevated oncoprotein Bcl-3 levels are found in many HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells, the role of Bcl-3 in the malignant progression caused by HTLV-1 retrovirus remains poorly understood. We confirmed, in the present study, that the Tax-induced NF-κB activation involves the regulation of Bcl-3. Both knockdown and overexpression of Bcl-3 inhibit the Tax-induced NF-κB activation. Similarly, excessive Bcl-3 inhibits the NF-κB/DNA binding activity and significantly decreases Tax-induced p65 nuclear translocation. The present results demonstrate the pleiotropic roles of Bcl-3 in Tax-induced NF-κB activation and indicate that a balance in the aberrant Bcl-3 expression may be established to play an important role in the maintenance of proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected and ATL cells.

  10. Green tea catechins alone or in combination alter functional parameters of human neutrophils via suppressing the activation of TLR-4/NFκB p65 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, M P; Morandi, A C; Otton, R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a mixture containing the four main catechins found in green tea, as well it separately, as modulators of the functional parameters of human neutrophils. The cells were obtained from peripheral blood of healthy individuals isolated and cultured with a mix: 30 μM of EGCG, 3 μM of EGC, 2 μM of ECG and 1.4 μM of EC, as well as each one alone. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of catechins, production of several reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), Nrf2, TLR4/IKK/NFκB, CD11b mRNA levels, intracellular calcium release, chemotactic and phagocytic capacity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and G6PDH activities, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and pro-inflammatory cytokines release, protein levels of TLR4, p38 MAPK, iNOS and p-65 NFκB. The actions of the catechins were evidenced by the reduction in inflammatory parameters, including the suppression of TLR4, NFκB and iNOS protein expression, decreased release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, migration capacity, MPO activity and HOCl production and the suppression of ROS, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite production, while inducing antioxidant enzyme activities and Nrf2 mRNA levels, phagocytic capacity and calcium release. Our results demonstrate that catechins present marked immunomodulatory actions, either alone or in combination.

  11. Hyperinvasive Meningococci Induce Intra-nuclear Cleavage of the NF-κB Protein p65/RelA by Meningococcal IgA Protease.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Anissa; Le Goff, Salomé; Antunes, Ana; Terrade, Aude; Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine

    2015-08-01

    Differential modulation of NF-κB during meningococcal infection is critical in innate immune response to meningococcal disease. Non-invasive isolates of Neisseria meningitidis provoke a sustained NF-κB activation in epithelial cells. However, the hyperinvasive isolates of the ST-11 clonal complex (ST-11) only induce an early NF-κB activation followed by a sustained activation of JNK and apoptosis. We show that this temporal activation of NF-κB was caused by specific cleavage at the C-terminal region of NF-κB p65/RelA component within the nucleus of infected cells. This cleavage was mediated by the secreted 150 kDa meningococcal ST-11 IgA protease carrying nuclear localisation signals (NLS) in its α-peptide moiety that allowed efficient intra-nuclear transport. In a collection of non-ST-11 healthy carriage isolates lacking NLS in the α-peptide, secreted IgA protease was devoid of intra-nuclear transport. This part of iga polymorphism allows non-invasive isolates lacking NLS, unlike hyperinvasive ST-11 isolates of N. meningitides habouring NLS in their α-peptide, to be carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx through selective eradication of their ability to induce apoptosis in infected epithelial cells. PMID:26241037

  12. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Nf-Κb P65 and Wnt/Β-Catenin in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Chen, Rongxia; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor that can cause systemic invasion; however, the exact etiology and molecular mechanism are unknown. Astaxanthin (ASX), a powerful antioxidant, has efficient anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other activities, and has great research prospects in cancer therapy. We selected the human hepatoma cell lines, LM3 and SMMC-7721, to study the anti-tumor effect and related mechanisms of ASX. The cell lines were treated with different concentrations of ASX, and its solvent DMSO as a control, for different time periods and the results were determined using CCK8, qRT-PCR, WB, apoptotic staining, and flow cytometry. ASX induced significant apoptosis of HCC cells, and its effect may have been caused by NF-κB p65 and Wnt/β-catenin down-regulation via negative activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK. Antitumor research on ASX has provided us with a potential therapy for patients with hepatomas. PMID:26404320

  13. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Association with mutual regulation of RelA (p65)/NF-{kappa}B and phospho-I{kappa}B in the CNS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Insun; Ha, Danbee; Ahn, Ginnae; Park, Eunjin; Joo, Haejin; Jee, Youngheun

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} The phosphorylation of RelA's inhibitory factor I{kappa}B and subsequent RelA activation are important to the disease process of EAE. {yields} The expression of RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B was markedly increased in the initiation and during the progression of EAE. {yields} TPCK-treated EAE mice showed lower incidence of EAE with less severe symptoms and quicker recovery than vehicle-treated EAE mice. {yields} TPCK significantly suppressed the MOG{sub 35-55}-specific T cell proliferation by reducing the production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-17 cytokines in EAE. {yields} The NF-{kappa}B cascade's activity increased gradually with the development of symptoms and brain pathology of EAE. -- Abstract: Recently emerging evidence that the NF-{kappa}B family plays an important role in autoimmune disease has produced very broad and sometimes paradoxical conclusions. In the present study, we elucidated that the activation of RelA (p65) of NF-{kappa}B and I{kappa}B dissociation assumes a distinct role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) progression by altering I{kappa}B phosphorylation and/or degradation. In the present study of factors that govern EAE, the presence and immunoreactivity of nuclear RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B were recorded at the initiation and peak stage, and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} progressed rapidly at an early stage then stabilized during recovery. The immunoreactivity to RelA and phospho-I{kappa}B occurred mainly in inflammatory cells and microglial cells but only slightly in astrocytes. Subsequently, the blockade of I{kappa}B dissociation from NF-{kappa}B reduced the severity of disease by decreasing antigen-specific T cell response and production of IL-17 in EAE. Thus, blocking the dissociation of I{kappa}B from NF-{kappa}B can be utilized as a strategy to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal pathway thereby to reduce the initiation, progression, and severity of EAE.

  14. Modification of the cysteine residues in IκBα kinase and NF-κB (p65) by xanthohumol leads to suppression of NF-κB–regulated gene products and potentiation of apoptosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Ahn, Kwang S.; Anand, Preetha; Krishnan, Sunil; Guha, Sushovan

    2009-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone isolated from hop plant, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiangiogenic properties through an undefined mechanism. Whether examined by intracellular esterase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA strand breaks, or caspase activation, we found that XN potentiated tumor necrosis factor–induced apoptosis in leukemia and myeloma cells. This enhancement of apoptosis correlated with down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) survivin, bcl-xL, XIAP, cIAP1, cIAP2, cylin D1, and c-myc. XN down-regulated both constitutive and inducible NF-κB activation, inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, suppression of p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB–dependent reporter gene transcription. XN directly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-induced IκBα kinase (IKK) activation and a reducing agent abolished this inhibition, indicating the role of cysteine residue. XN had no effect on the IKK activity when cysteine residue 179 of IKK was mutated to alanine. XN also directly inhibited binding of p65 to DNA, a reducing agent reversed this effect, and mutation of cysteine residue 38 to serine of p65 abolished this effect. Thus, our results show that modification of cysteine residues of IKK and p65 by XN leads to inhibition of the NF-κB activation pathway, suppression of antiapoptotic gene products, and potentiation of apoptosis in leukemia cells. PMID:18952893

  15. HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse precision-cut lung slices by attenuating NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Leus, Niek G J; van der Wouden, Petra E; van den Bosch, Thea; Hooghiemstra, Wouter T R; Ourailidou, Maria E; Kistemaker, Loes E M; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-05-15

    The increasing number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and increasing health problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. HDAC 3 has been reported to be an important player in inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB p65, which has been implicated in the pathology of COPD. Here, we applied the pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966, which attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression in models for inflammatory lung diseases. Consistent with this, a robust decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 was observed. HDAC 3 inhibition affected neither the acetylation status of NF-κB p65 nor histone H3 or histone H4. This indicates that HDAC 3 inhibition does not inhibit NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity by affecting its deacetylation but rather by inhibiting enzymatic activity of HDAC 3. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibition by inhibitors such as RGFP966 may provide a novel and effective approach toward development of therapeutics for inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26993378

  16. HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse precision-cut lung slices by attenuating NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Leus, Niek G.J.; van der Wouden, Petra E.; van den Bosch, Thea; Hooghiemstra, Wouter T.R.; Ourailidou, Maria E.; Kistemaker, Loes E.M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and increasing health problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. HDAC 3 has been reported to be an important player in inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB p65, which has been implicated in the pathology of COPD. Here, we applied the pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966, which attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression in models for inflammatory lung diseases. Consistent with this, a robust decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 was observed. HDAC 3 inhibition affected neither the acetylation status of NF-κB p65 nor histone H3 or histone H4. This indicates that HDAC 3 inhibition does not inhibit NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity by affecting its deacetylation but rather by inhibiting enzymatic activity of HDAC 3. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibition by inhibitors such as RGFP966 may provide a novel and effective approach toward development of therapeutics for inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26993378

  17. Simvastatin induces NFκB/p65 down-regulation and JNK1/c-Jun/ATF-2 activation, leading to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) but not MMP-2 down-regulation in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the signaling pathways associated with the effect of simvastatin on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 expression in human leukemia K562 cells. In sharp contrast to its insignificant effect on MMP-2, simvastatin down-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA levels in K562 cells. Simvastatin-induced Pin1 down-regulation evoked NFκB/p65 degradation. Meanwhile, simvastatin induced JNK-mediated c-Jun and ATF-2 activation. Over-expression of Pin1 suppressed simvastatin-induced MMP-9 down-regulation. Treatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) or knock-down of JNK1 reduced MMP-2 expression in simvastatin-treated cells. Simvastatin enhanced the binding of c-Jun/ATF-2 with the MMP-2 promoter. Down-regulation of c-Jun or ATF-2 by siRNA revealed that c-Jun/ATF-2 activation was crucial for MMP-2 expression. Suppression of p65 activation or knock-down of Pin1 by shRNA reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in K562 cells. Over-expression of constitutively active JNK1 rescued MMP-2 expression in Pin1 shRNA-transfected cells. Simvastatin treatment also suppressed MMP-9 but not MMP-2 expression in human leukemia U937 and KU812 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that simvastatin-induced p65 instability leads to MMP-9 down-regulation in leukemia cells, while simvastatin-induced JNK1/c-Jun/ATF-2 activation maintains the MMP-2 expression underlying p65 down-regulation.

  18. Integrin-linked Kinase Modulates Lipopolysaccharide- and Helicobacter pylori-induced Nuclear Factor κB-activated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production via Regulation of p65 Serine 536 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Afsar U.; Sarvestani, Soroush T.; Gantier, Michael P.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Hannigan, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinase that regulates cellular responses to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. ILK is involved in cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and cell signaling. ILK signaling has also been implicated in oncogenesis and progression of cancers. However, its role in the innate immune system remains unknown. Here, we show that ILK mediates pro-inflammatory signaling in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ILK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages selectively blocks LPS-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). ILK is required for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and transcriptional induction of TNF-α. The modulation of LPS-induced TNF-α synthesis by ILK does not involve the classical NF-κB pathway, because IκB-α degradation and p65 nuclear translocation are both unaffected by ILK inhibition. Instead, ILK is involved in an alternative activation of NF-κB signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-536. Furthermore, ILK-mediated alternative NF-κB activation through p65 Ser-536 phosphorylation also occurs during Helicobacter pylori infection in macrophages and gastric cancer cells. Moreover, ILK is required for H. pylori-induced TNF-α secretion in macrophages. Although ILK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-536 is independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway during LPS stimulation, upon H. pylori infection this event is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our findings implicate ILK as a critical regulatory molecule for the NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathway, which is essential for innate immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25100717

  19. Integrin-linked kinase modulates lipopolysaccharide- and Helicobacter pylori-induced nuclear factor κB-activated tumor necrosis factor-α production via regulation of p65 serine 536 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Afsar U; Sarvestani, Soroush T; Gantier, Michael P; Williams, Bryan R G; Hannigan, Gregory E

    2014-10-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinase that regulates cellular responses to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. ILK is involved in cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and cell signaling. ILK signaling has also been implicated in oncogenesis and progression of cancers. However, its role in the innate immune system remains unknown. Here, we show that ILK mediates pro-inflammatory signaling in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ILK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages selectively blocks LPS-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). ILK is required for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and transcriptional induction of TNF-α. The modulation of LPS-induced TNF-α synthesis by ILK does not involve the classical NF-κB pathway, because IκB-α degradation and p65 nuclear translocation are both unaffected by ILK inhibition. Instead, ILK is involved in an alternative activation of NF-κB signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-536. Furthermore, ILK-mediated alternative NF-κB activation through p65 Ser-536 phosphorylation also occurs during Helicobacter pylori infection in macrophages and gastric cancer cells. Moreover, ILK is required for H. pylori-induced TNF-α secretion in macrophages. Although ILK-mediated phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-536 is independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway during LPS stimulation, upon H. pylori infection this event is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our findings implicate ILK as a critical regulatory molecule for the NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathway, which is essential for innate immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25100717

  1. Antitumor effect of COOH-terminal polypeptide of human TERT is associated with the declined expression of hTERT and NF-κB p65 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Chen, Jiasheng; Cao, Ying; Xie, Baoping; Li, Hongwei; Zhou, Pingzheng; Qiu, Yuchang; Pang, Jianxin

    2015-12-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays an important role in the development of tumors and has been investigated as a potent target for anticancer therapy. In the present study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-EGFP-C197 which was capable of expressing COOH‑terminal polypeptide of hTERT (amino acid 936-1,132, termed as C197 for the reason that it contains 197 amino acids). Infection of HeLa cells with Ad-EGFP-C197 suppressed the activity of telomerase, decreased the expression of hTERT and NF-κB p65, and induced rapid growth delay and apoptosis of HeLa cells in vitro. In nude mice xenografted with HeLa tumors, injection of Ad-EGFP-C197 into the tumor nodule significantly slowed tumor growth and promoted tumor cell apoptosis, as well as reduced the expression of NF-κB p65 in tumor tissues. In the present study, we suggest that the antitumor effect of C197 is associated with the declined expression of hTERT and NF-κB p65. Our results highlight the potential of C197 in tumor therapy.

  2. Proteasome Inhibition Increases Recruitment of IκB Kinase β (IKKβ), S536P-p65, and Transcription Factor EGR1 to Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Promoter, Resulting in Increased IL-8 Production in Ovarian Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Bipradeb; Gatla, Himavanth Reddy; Manna, Subrata; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Sanacora, Shannon; Poltoratsky, Vladimir; Vancura, Ales; Vancurova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) contributes to ovarian cancer progression through its induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Proteasome inhibition by bortezomib, which has been used as a frontline therapy in multiple myeloma, has shown only limited effectiveness in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. However, the responsible mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition dramatically increases the IL-8 expression and release in ovarian cancer cells. The responsible mechanism involves an increased nuclear accumulation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and an increased recruitment of the nuclear IKKβ, p65-phosphorylated at Ser-536, and the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR-1) to the endogenous IL-8 promoter. Coimmunoprecipitation studies identified the nuclear EGR-1 associated with IKKβ and with p65, with preferential binding to S536P-p65. Both IKKβ activity and EGR-1 expression are required for the increased IL-8 expression induced by proteasome inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. Interestingly, in multiple myeloma cells the IL-8 release is not increased by bortezomib. Together, these data indicate that the increased IL-8 release may represent one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the decreased effectiveness of proteasome inhibition in ovarian cancer treatment and identify IKKβ and EGR-1 as potential new targets in ovarian cancer combination therapies. PMID:24337575

  3. Expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein mRNA stimulated by glucocorticoids is attenuated via NF-κB p65 under ER stress in mouse hypothalamic cultures.

    PubMed

    Hagimoto, Shigeru; Arima, Hiroshi; Adachi, Koichi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2013-10-11

    There are several lines of evidence suggesting that glucocorticoid signaling in the hypothalamus plays an important role in energy balance, and recent studies suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus could affect signaling related to energy balance. In the present study, we examined the regulation of glucocorticoid signaling under ER stress in mouse hypothalamic organotypic cultures. Incubation of the hypothalamic explants with dexamethasone (DEX) significantly increased expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA, and treatment with thapsigargin (TG), an ER stressor, significantly attenuated DEX-induced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. TG treatment increased the levels of phospho-NF-κB p65 in hypothalamic cultures, and inhibitors of NF-κB p65 reversed the inhibitory effects of TG on NPY and AgRP expression. Our data thus demonstrated that glucocorticoid-stimulated NPY and AgRP expression was attenuated via NF-κB p65 pathways under ER stress, and suggest crosstalk between ER stress and inflammation in the hypothalamus.

  4. Structure of Tetrahymena telomerase reveals previously unknown subunits, functions, and interactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiansen; Chan, Henry; Cash, Darian D; Miracco, Edward J; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Upton, Heather E; Cascio, Duilio; O'Brien Johnson, Reid; Collins, Kathleen; Loo, Joseph A; Zhou, Z Hong; Feigon, Juli

    2015-10-30

    Telomerase helps maintain telomeres by processive synthesis of telomere repeat DNA at their 3'-ends, using an integral telomerase RNA (TER) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Tetrahymena telomerase at ~9 angstrom resolution. In addition to seven known holoenzyme proteins, we identify two additional proteins that form a complex (TEB) with single-stranded telomere DNA-binding protein Teb1, paralogous to heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA). The p75-p45-p19 subcomplex is identified as another RPA-related complex, CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1). This study reveals the paths of TER in the TERT-TER-p65 catalytic core and single-stranded DNA exit; extensive subunit interactions of the TERT essential N-terminal domain, p50, and TEB; and other subunit identities and structures, including p19 and p45C crystal structures. Our findings provide structural and mechanistic insights into telomerase holoenzyme function.

  5. β-Arrestin-1 protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress/p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis-mediated apoptosis via repressing p-p65/inducible nitric oxide synthase in portal hypertensive gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siwei; Li, Leijia; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Xiaoliang; Tao, Li; Lin, Xianyi; Tao, Jin; Huang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Wu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a serious cause of bleeding in patients, and is associated with portal hypertension. β-Arrestins (β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2) are well-established mediators of endocytosis of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ubiquitination, and G-protein-independent signaling. The role of β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of β-arr1 in PHG via its regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) apoptotic signaling. Gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in PHG patients and in PHG mouse models. The induction of β-arr1 and the ER stress/PUMA signaling pathway were investigated, and the mechanisms of β-arr1-regulated gastric mucosal apoptosis were analyzed in vivo and in vitro experiments. β-arr1 and ER stress/PUMA signaling elements were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse models. Blockage of ER stress demonstrably attenuated the mucosal apoptosis of PHG, while targeted deletion of β-arr1 significantly aggravated the injury and ER stress/PUMA-mediated apoptosis. β-arr1 limited the activation of p65 to repress TNF-α-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release, which could regulate ER stress/PUMA-mediated mucosal apoptosis in PHG. In vivo and in vitro experiments further demonstrated that β-arr1 protected against mucosal apoptosis by repressing TNF-α-induced iNOS expression via inhibiting the activation of p65. These results indicated that β-arr1 regulated ER stress/PUMA-induced mucosal epithelial apoptosis through suppression of the TNF-α/p65/iNOS signaling pathway activation and that β-arr1 is a potential therapeutic target for PHG.

  6. Fumaric Acid Esters Do Not Reduce Inflammatory NF-κB/p65 Nuclear Translocation, ICAM-1 Expression and T-Cell Adhesiveness of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Axel; Nehen, Mathias; Deiß, Annika; Buttmann, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is approved for disease-modifying treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Animal experiments suggested that part of its therapeutic effect is due to a reduction of T-cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by uncertain mechanisms. Here we evaluated whether DMF and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) modulate pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling and T-cell adhesiveness of nonimmortalized single donor human brain microvascular endothelial cells at low passages. Neither DMF nor MMF at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM blocked the IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65, whereas the higher concentration of DMF inhibited the nuclear entry of p65 in human umbilical vein endothelium cultured in parallel. DMF and MMF also did not alter the IL-1β-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK in brain endothelium. Furthermore, neither DMF nor MMF reduced the basal or IL-1β-inducible expression of ICAM-1. In accordance, both fumaric acid esters did not reduce the adhesion of activated Jurkat T cells to brain endothelium under basal or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, brain endothelial cells probably do not directly mediate a potential blocking effect of fumaric acid esters on the inflammatory infiltration of the CNS by T cells. PMID:26287168

  7. Fumaric Acid Esters Do Not Reduce Inflammatory NF-κB/p65 Nuclear Translocation, ICAM-1 Expression and T-Cell Adhesiveness of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Axel; Nehen, Mathias; Deiß, Annika; Buttmann, Mathias

    2015-08-13

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is approved for disease-modifying treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Animal experiments suggested that part of its therapeutic effect is due to a reduction of T-cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by uncertain mechanisms. Here we evaluated whether DMF and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) modulate pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling and T-cell adhesiveness of nonimmortalized single donor human brain microvascular endothelial cells at low passages. Neither DMF nor MMF at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM blocked the IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65, whereas the higher concentration of DMF inhibited the nuclear entry of p65 in human umbilical vein endothelium cultured in parallel. DMF and MMF also did not alter the IL-1β-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK in brain endothelium. Furthermore, neither DMF nor MMF reduced the basal or IL-1β-inducible expression of ICAM-1. In accordance, both fumaric acid esters did not reduce the adhesion of activated Jurkat T cells to brain endothelium under basal or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, brain endothelial cells probably do not directly mediate a potential blocking effect of fumaric acid esters on the inflammatory infiltration of the CNS by T cells.

  8. Interaction of factor XIII subunits.

    PubMed

    Katona, Eva; Pénzes, Krisztina; Csapó, Andrea; Fazakas, Ferenc; Udvardy, Miklós L; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Orosz, Zsuzsanna Z; Muszbek, László

    2014-03-13

    Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a heterotetramer consisting of 2 catalytic A subunits (FXIII-A2) and 2 protective/inhibitory B subunits (FXIII-B2). FXIII-B, a mosaic protein consisting of 10 sushi domains, significantly prolongs the lifespan of catalytic subunits in the circulation and prevents their slow progressive activation in plasmatic conditions. In this study, the biochemistry of the interaction between the 2 FXIII subunits was investigated. Using a surface plasmon resonance technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding assay, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for the interaction was established in the range of 10(-10) M. Based on the measured Kd, it was calculated that in plasma approximately 1% of FXIII-A2 should be in free form. This value was confirmed experimentally by measuring FXIII-A2 in plasma samples immunodepleted of FXIII-A2B2. Free plasma FXIII-A2 is functionally active, and when activated by thrombin and Ca(2+), it can cross-link fibrin. In cerebrospinal fluid and tears with much lower FXIII subunit concentrations, >80% of FXIII-A2 existed in free form. A monoclonal anti-FXIII-B antibody that prevented the interaction between the 2 subunits reacted with the recombinant combined first and second sushi domains of FXIII-B, and its epitope was localized to the peptide spanning positions 96 to 103 in the second sushi domain. PMID:24408323

  9. U6atac snRNA stem-loop interacts with U12 p65 RNA binding protein and is functionally interchangeable with the U12 apical stem-loop III

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagjit; Sikand, Kavleen; Conrad, Heike; Will, Cindy L.; Komar, Anton A.; Shukla, Girish C.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of catalytic core of the U12-dependent spliceosome involves U6atac and U12 interaction with the 5′ splice site and branch site regions of a U12-dependent intron, respectively. Beyond the formation of intermolecular helix I region between U6atac and U12 snRNAs, several other regions within these RNA molecules are predicted to form stem-loop structures. Our previous work demonstrated that the 3′ stem-loop region of U6atac snRNA contains a U12-dependent spliceosome-specific targeting activity. Here, we show a detailed structure-function analysis and requirement of a substructure of U6atac 3′ stem-loop in U12-dependent in vivo splicing. We show that the C-terminal RNA recognition motif of p65, a U12 snRNA binding protein, also binds to the distal 3′ stem-loop of U6atac. By using a binary splice site mutation suppressor assay we demonstrate that p65 protein-binding apical stem-loop of U12 snRNA can be replaced by this U6atac distal 3′ stem-loop. Furthermore, we tested the compatibility of the U6atac 3′ end from phylogenetically distant species in a human U6atac background, to establish the evolutionary relatedness of these structures and in vivo function. In summary, we demonstrate that RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions in the minor spliceosome are highly plastic as compared to the major spliceosome. PMID:27510544

  10. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  11. A soluble factor secreted by an HIV-1-resistant cell line blocks transcription through inactivating the DNA-binding capacity of the NF-kappa B p65/p50 dimer.

    PubMed

    Lesner, Adam; Li, Yuchang; Nitkiewicz, Jadwiga; Li, Guanhua; Kartvelishvili, Alex; Kartvelishvili, Magdalena; Simm, Malgorzata

    2005-08-15

    The identity and activity of several anti-HIV soluble factor(s) secreted by CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes have been determined; however, some of them still await definition. We have established an HIV-1-resistant, transformed CD4 T cell line that secretes HIV-1 resistance protein(s). Our studies indicate that this protein(s), called HIV-1 resistance factor (HRF), inhibits transcription of the virus by interfering with the activity of NF-kappaB. In the present report we identified the site at which HRF exerts this inhibition by evaluating a set of discrete events in NF-kappaB action. We tested the kappaB oligonucleotide binding activity in nuclei of resistant cells, nuclear translocation and binding to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat of p65 and p50 proteins from susceptible cells after exposure to HRF, and the binding of recombinant p50 to the kappaB oligonucleotide in vitro as affected by prior or simultaneous exposure to HRF. The results of this experimental schema indicate that HRF interacts with p50 after it enters the nucleus, but before its binding to DNA and that this interaction impedes the formation of an NF-kappaB-DNA complex required for the promotion of transcription. These findings suggest that HRF mediates a novel innate immune response to virus infection. PMID:16081828

  12. Structure of Tetrahymena telomerase reveals previously unknown subunits, functions, and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Chan, Henry; Cash, Darian D.; Miracco, Edward J.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Upton, Heather E.; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid O’Brien; Collins, Kathleen; Loo, Joseph A.; Zhou, Z. Hong; Feigon, Juli

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase helps maintain telomeres by processive synthesis of telomere repeat DNA at their 3′-ends, using an integral telomerase RNA (TER) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). We report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of Tetrahymena telomerase at ~9 angstrom resolution. In addition to seven known holoenzyme proteins, we identify two additional proteins that form a complex (TEB) with single-stranded telomere DNA-binding protein Teb1, paralogous to heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA). The p75-p45-p19 subcomplex is identified as another RPA-related complex, CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1). This study reveals the paths of TER in the TERT-TER-p65 catalytic core and single-stranded DNA exit; extensive subunit interactions of the TERT essential N-terminal domain, p50, and TEB; and other subunit identities and structures, including p19 and p45C crystal structures. Our findings provide structural and mechanistic insights into telomerase holoenzyme function. PMID:26472759

  13. Transcriptional regulation of microRNA-100, -146a, and -150 genes by p53 and NFκB p65/RelA in mouse striatal STHdh(Q7)/ Hdh(Q7) cells and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, N P

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) genes generally share many features common to those of protein coding genes. Various transcription factors (TFs) and co-regulators are also known to regulate miRNA genes. Here we identify novel p53 and NFκB p65/RelA responsive miRNAs and demonstrate that these 2 TFs bind to the regulatory sequences of miR-100, -146a and -150 in both mouse striatal and human cervical carcinoma cells and regulate their expression. p53 represses the miRNAs while NFκB p65/RelA induces them. Further, we provide evidence that exogenous p53 inhibits NFκB p65/RelA activity by reducing its nuclear content and competing with it for CBP binding. This suggests for the existence of a functional cross-talk between the 2 TFs in regulating miRNA expression. Moreover, promoter occupancy assay reveals that exogenous p53 excludes NFκB p65/RelA from its binding site in the upstream sequence of miR-100 gene thereby causing its repression. Thus, our work identifies novel p53 and NFκB p65/RelA responsive miRNAs in human and mouse and uncovers possible mechanisms of co-regulation of miR-100. It is to be mentioned here that cross-talks between p53 and NFκB p65/RelA have been observed to define the outcome of several biological processes and that the pro-apoptotic effect of p53 and the pro-survival functions of NFκB can be largely mediated via the biological roles of the miRNAs these TFs regulate. Our observation with cell lines thus provides an important platform upon which further work is to be done to establish the biological significance of such co-regulation of miRNAs by p53 and NFκB p65/RelA.

  14. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  15. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  16. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  17. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  18. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All...

  19. Deletion of Nuclear Factor kappa B p50 Subunit Decreases Inflammatory Response and Mildly Protects Neurons from Transient Forebrain Ischemia-induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rolova, Taisia; Dhungana, Hiramani; Korhonen, Paula; Valonen, Piia; Kolosowska, Natalia; Konttinen, Henna; Kanninen, Katja; Tanila, Heikki; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia induces delayed death of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly in the CA2 and medial CA1 area. Early pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory response can ameliorate neuronal death, but it also inhibits processes leading to tissue regeneration. Therefore, research efforts are now directed to modulation of post-ischemic inflammation, with the aim to promote beneficial effects of inflammation and limit adverse effects. Transcription factor NF-κB plays a key role in the inflammation and cell survival/apoptosis pathways. In the brain, NF-κB is predominantly found in the form of a heterodimer of p65 (RelA) and p50 subunit, where p65 has a transactivation domain while p50 is chiefly involved in DNA binding. In this study, we subjected middle-aged Nfkb1 knockout mice (lacking p50 subunit) and wild-type controls of both sexs to 17 min of transient forebrain ischemia and assessed mouse performance in a panel of behavioral tests after two weeks of post-operative recovery. We found that ischemia failed to induce clear memory and motor deficits, but affected spontaneous locomotion in genotype- and sex-specific way. We also show that both the lack of the NF-κB p50 subunit and female sex independently protected CA2 hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced cell death. Additionally, the NF-κB p50 subunit deficiency significantly reduced ischemia-induced microgliosis, astrogliosis, and neurogenesis. Lower levels of hippocampal microgliosis significantly correlated with faster spatial learning. We conclude that NF-κB regulates the outcome of transient forebrain ischemia in middle-aged subjects in a sex-specific way, having an impact not only on neuronal death but also specific inflammatory responses and neurogenesis. PMID:27493832

  20. Subunit arrangement in beef heart complex III

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Halphen, D.; Lindorfer, M.A.; Capaldi, R.A.

    1988-09-06

    Beef heart mitochondrial complex III was separated into 12 polypeptide bands representing 11 different subunits by using the electrophoresis conditions described previously. Eight of the 12 polypeptide bands were identified from their NH/sub 2/-terminal sequences as obtained by electroblotting directly from the NaDodSO/sub 4/-polyacrylamide gel onto a solid support. The topology of the subunits in complex III was explored by three different approaches. (1) Protease digestion experiments of submitochrondial particles in the presence and absence of detergent showed that subunits II and VI are on the M side of the inner membrane and subunits V and XI on the C side. (2) Labeling experiments with the membrane-intercalated probes (/sup 125/I)TID and arylazidoPE indicated that cytochrome b is the predominant bilayer embedded subunit of complex III, while the non-heme iron protein appears to be peripherally located. (3) Cross-linking studies with carbodiimides and homobifunctional cleavable reagents demonstrated that near-neighbor pairs include subunits I+II, II+VI, III+VI, IV+V, V+X, and V+VII. The cytochrome c binding site was found to include subunits IV, VII, and X. The combined data are used to provide an updated model of the topology of beef heart complex III.

  1. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the design touting its simplicity and effectiveness. The objectives of this article are to summarize the basic tenets of respecting the philtral subunit, accurate measurement and planning, and tips for transitioning to this subunit approach.

  2. Cleft Lip Repair: The Hybrid Subunit Method.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    The unilateral cleft lip repair is one of the most rewarding and challenging of plastic surgery procedures. Surgeons have introduced a variety of straight line, geometric, and rotation-advancement designs, while in practice the majority of North American surgeons have been using hybrids of the rotation-advancement techniques. The anatomic subunit approach was introduced in 2005 by Fisher and has gained popularity, with early adopters of the design touting its simplicity and effectiveness. The objectives of this article are to summarize the basic tenets of respecting the philtral subunit, accurate measurement and planning, and tips for transitioning to this subunit approach. PMID:27097136

  3. Blockade of histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced RelA/p65 acetylation and NF-kappaB activation potentiates apoptosis in leukemia cells through a process mediated by oxidative damage, XIAP downregulation, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun; Rahmani, Mohamed; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2005-07-01

    NF-kappaB activation is reciprocally regulated by RelA/p65 acetylation and deacetylation, which are mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). Here we demonstrate that in leukemia cells, NF-kappaB activation by the HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) MS-275 and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid was associated with hyperacetylation and nuclear translocation of RelA/p65. The latter events, as well as the association of RelA/p65 with IkappaBalpha, were strikingly diminished by either coadministration of the IkappaBalpha phosphorylation inhibitor Bay 11-7082 (Bay) or transfection with an IkappaBalpha superrepressor. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by pharmacological inhibitors or genetic strategies markedly potentiated apoptosis induced by HDACIs, and this was accompanied by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, downregulation of Mn-superoxide dismutase and XIAP, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activation. Conversely, N-acetyl L-cysteine blocked apoptosis induced by Bay/HDACIs by abrogating ROS generation. Inhibition of JNK1 activation attenuated Bay/HDACI lethality without affecting NF-kappaB inactivation and ROS generation. Finally, XIAP overexpression dramatically protected cells against the Bay/HDACI regimen but failed to prevent ROS production and JNK1 activation. Together, these data suggest that HDACIs promote the accumulation of acetylated RelA/p65 in the nucleus, leading to NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, interference with these events by either pharmacological or genetic means leads to a dramatic increase in HDACI-mediated lethality through enhanced oxidative damage, downregulation of NF-kappaB-dependent antiapoptotic proteins, and stress-related JNK1 activation.

  4. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  5. Targeting Activation of Specific NF-κB Subunits Prevents Stress-Dependent Atherothrombotic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Zdenka; Kashif, Muhammed; Fleming, Thomas; Muhammad, Sajjad; Piel, David; von Bauer, Rüdiger; Bea, Florian; Herzig, Stephan; Zeier, Martin; Pizzi, Marina; Isermann, Berend; Hecker, Markus; Schwaninger, Markus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been shown to be a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated entirely, it has been shown previously that the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important component of stress-activated signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms of stress-induced NF-κB-mediated gene expression, using an in vitro and in vivo model of psychosocial stress. Induction of stress led to NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory (tissue factor, intracellular adhesive molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) and protective genes (manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) via p50, p65 or cRel. Selective inhibition of the different subunits and the respective kinases showed that inhibition of cRel leads to the reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein−/− (ApoE−/−) mice via suppression of proinflammatory gene expression. This observation may therefore provide a possible explanation for ineffectiveness of antioxidant therapies and suggests that selective targeting of cRel activation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of stress-related inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:23114885

  6. Novel subunit-subunit interactions in the structure of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Almassy, R J; Janson, C A; Hamlin, R; Xuong, N H; Eisenberg, D

    We present an atomic model for glutamine synthetase, an enzyme of central importance in bacterial nitrogen metabolism, from X-ray crystallography. The 12 identical subunits are arranged as the carbon atoms in two face-to-face benzene rings, with unusual subunit contacts. Our model, which places the active sites at the subunit interfaces, suggests a mechanism for the main functional role of glutamine synthetase: how the enzyme regulates the rate of synthesis of glutamine in response to covalent modification and feedback inhibition. PMID:2876389

  7. Complexes between nuclear factor-κB p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 are key actors in inducing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and immunoglobulin A production in CD40L plus interleukin-10-treated human blood B cells.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, S; Hamzeh-Cognasse, H; Richard, Y; Pozzetto, B; Cogné, M; Cognasse, F; Garraud, O

    2011-11-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor pathway plays an important role in many biological phenomena. STAT3 transcription is triggered by cytokine-associated signals. Here, we use isolated human B cells to analyse the role of STAT3 in interleukin (IL)-10 induced terminal B cell differentiation and in immunoglobulin (Ig)A production as a characteristic readout of IL-10 signalling. We identified optimal conditions for inducing in-vitro IgA production by purified blood naive B cells using IL-10 and soluble CD40L. We show that soluble CD40L consistently induces the phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 but not of STAT3, while IL-10 induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 but not of NF-κB p65. Interestingly, while soluble CD40L and IL-10 were synergistic in driving the terminal maturation of B cells into IgA-producing plasma cells, they did not co-operate earlier in the pathway with regard to the transcription factors NF-κB p65 or STAT3. Blocking either NF-κB p65 or STAT3 profoundly altered the production of IgA and mRNA for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme strictly necessary for Ig heavy chain recombination. Finally, the STAT3 pathway was directly activated by IL-10, while IL-6, the main cytokine otherwise known for activating the STAT3 pathway, did not appear to be involved in IL-10-induced-STAT3 activation. Our results suggest that STAT3 and NF-κB pathways co-operate in IgA production, with soluble CD40L rapidly activating the NF-κB pathway, probably rendering STAT3 probably more reactive to IL-10 signalling. This novel role for STAT3 in B cell development reveals a potential therapeutic or vaccine target for eliciting IgA humoral responses at mucosal interfaces.

  8. CCL20 is elevated during obesity and differentially regulated by NF-κB subunits in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Susan J.; Karlstad, Michael D.; Regal, Kellie M.; Sparer, Tim E.; Lu, Danhong; Elks, Carrie M.; Grant, Ryan W.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Burk, David H.; J. Jason, Collier

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced leukocytic infiltration into pancreatic islets contributes to inflammation-based diminutions in functional β-cell mass. Insulitis (aka islet inflammation), which can be present in both T1DM and T2DM, is one factor influencing pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction. IL-1β, an inflammatory mediator in both T1DM and T2DM, acutely (within 1h) induced expression of the CCL20 gene in rat and human islets and clonal β-cell lines. Transcriptional induction of CCL20 required the p65 subunit of NF-κB to replace the p50 subunit at two functional κB sites within the CCL20 proximal gene promoter. The NF-κB p50 subunit prevents CCL20 gene expression during unstimulated conditions and overexpression of p50 reduces CCL20, but enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transcript accumulation after exposure to IL-1β. We also identified differential recruitment of specific co-activator molecules to the CCL20 gene promoter, when compared with the CCL2 and COX2 genes, revealing distinct transcriptional requirements for individual NF-κB responsive genes. Moreover, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ individually increased the expression of CCR6, the receptor for CCL20, on the surface of human neutrophils. We further found that the chemokine CCL20 is elevated in serum from both genetically obese db/db mice and in C57BL6/J mice fed a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results are consistent with a possible activation of the CCL20-CCR6 axis in diseases with inflammatory components. Thus, interfering with this signaling pathway, either at the level of NF-κB-mediated chemokine production, or downstream receptor activation, could be a potential therapeutic target to offset inflammation-associated tissue dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25882704

  9. Involvement of proteasomal subunits zeta and iota in RNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Petit, F; Jarrousse, A S; Dahlmann, B; Sobek, A; Hendil, K B; Buri, J; Briand, Y; Schmid, H P

    1997-01-01

    We have identified two distinct subunits of 20 S proteasomes that are associated with RNase activity. Proteasome subunits zeta and iota, eluted from two-dimensional Western blots, hydrolysed tobacco mosaic virus RNA, whereas none of the other subunits degraded this substrate under the same conditions. Additionally, proteasomes were dissociated by 6 M urea, and subunit zeta, containing the highest RNase activity, was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Purified subunit zeta migrated as a single spot on two-dimensional PAGE with a molecular mass of approx. 28 kDa. Addition of anti-(subunit zeta) antibodies led to the co-precipitation of this proteasome subunit and nuclease activity. This is the first evidence that proteasomal alpha-type subunits are associated with an enzymic activity, and our results provide further evidence that proteasomes may be involved in cellular RNA metabolism. PMID:9337855

  10. Isolation of the alpha subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins by affinity chromatography with immobilized beta gamma subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, I H; Sternweis, P C

    1989-01-01

    Immobilized beta gamma subunits of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to isolate alpha subunits from solubilized membranes of bovine tissues and to separate specific alpha subunits based on their differential affinities for beta gamma subunits. The beta gamma subunits were cross-linked to omega-aminobutyl agarose. Up to 7 nmol of alpha subunit could bind to each milliliter of beta gamma-agarose and be recovered by elution with AIF4-. This affinity resin effectively separated the alpha subunits of Gi1 and Gi2 from "contaminating" alpha subunits of Go, the most abundant G protein in bovine brain, by taking advantage of the apparent lower affinity of the alpha subunits of Go for beta gamma subunits. The beta gamma-agarose was also used to isolate mixtures of alpha subunits from cholate extracts of membranes from different bovine tissues. alpha subunits of 39-41 kDa (in various ratios) as well as the alpha subunits of Gs were purified. The yields from extracts exceeded 60% for all alpha subunits examined and apparently represented the relative content of alpha subunits in the tissues. This technique can rapidly isolate and identify, from a small amount of sample, the endogenous G proteins in various tissues and cells. So far, only polypeptides in the range of 39-52 kDa have been detected with this approach. If other GTP-binding proteins interact with these beta gamma subunits, the interaction is either of low affinity or mechanistically unique from the alpha subunits isolated in this study. Images PMID:2510152

  11. Dissociation of ribosomes into large and small subunits.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-04-01

    Structural and functional studies of ribosomal subunits require the dissociation of intact ribosomes into individual small and large ribosomal subunits. The dissociation of the prokaryotic 70S ribosomes into the 50S and 30S subunits is achieved by dialysis against a buffer containing a lower Mg(2+) concentration. Eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are dissociated into 60S and 40S subunits by incubation in a buffer containing puromycin and higher KCl and Mg(2+) concentrations.

  12. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  13. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs. PMID:24755349

  14. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  15. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs.

  16. Subunit organization in cytoplasmic dynein subcomplexes

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen J.; Bonilla, Myriam; Rodgers, Michael E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    2002-01-01

    Because cytoplasmic dynein plays numerous critical roles in eukaryotic cells, determining the subunit composition and the organization and functions of the subunits within dynein are important goals. This has been difficult partly because of accessory polypeptide heterogeneity of dynein populations. The motor domain containing heavy chains of cytoplasmic dynein are associated with multiple intermediate, light intermediate, and light chain accessory polypeptides. We examined the organization of these subunits within cytoplasmic dynein by separating the molecule into two distinct subcomplexes. These subcomplexes were competent to reassemble into a molecule with dynein-like properties. One subcomplex was composed of the dynein heavy and light intermediate chains whereas the other subcomplex was composed of the intermediate and light chains. The intermediate and light chain subcomplex could be further separated into two pools, only one of which contained dynein light chains. The two pools had distinct intermediate chain compositions, suggesting that intermediate chain isoforms have different light chain–binding properties. When the two intermediate chain pools were characterized by analytical velocity sedimentation, at least four molecular components were seen: intermediate chain monomers, intermediate chain dimers, intermediate chain monomers with bound light chains, and a mixture of intermediate chain dimers with assorted bound light chains. These data provide new insights into the compositional heterogeneity and assembly of the cytoplasmic dynein complex and suggest that individual dynein molecules have distinct molecular compositions in vivo. PMID:11967380

  17. Arrangement of subunits in microribbons from Giardia.

    PubMed

    Holberton, D V

    1981-02-01

    Ultrasound has been used to disperse the cytoplasm of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis trophozoites, releasing disk cytoskeletons for negative staining and study by electron microscopy. Sonication also breaks down the corss-bridges uniting microribbons in disks. Individual ribbons and small bundles of these structures, are found in these preparations and have been imaged both from their edges and in flat face view. The outer layers of ribbons are 2 sheets of regularly arranged globular subunits, held apart by a fibrous inner core. The axial repeat of the microribbon is 15 nm, which is also the distance separating cross-bridge sites along ribbons. Pronounced striping at this interval is a feature of ribbon faces where they are joined in bundles. Subunits in the outer layer are arranged in vertical protofilaments that are set orthogonally to the long axis of the ribbon. Protofilaments bind tannic acid and are seen clearly in sectioned ribbons. Three protofilaments fit into the 15-nm longitudinal spacing. Optical diffraction patterns from ribbon images are dominated by orders of the 15-nm periodicity, including the third-order reflexions expected from protofilaments spacings. Fourth-order reflexions indicate that the ribbon core may also be structured. Ribbon face images give rise to a strong 4-nm layer line, corresponding to the vertical spacing of subunits in protofilaments. Neighbouring protofilaments are staggered by about 0.67 nm. The lattices found in ribbons are consistent with studies of cytoskeleton composition.

  18. MUTAGENICITY OF P&#65H-CONTAMINATED SOILS DURING BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of contaminated soils is considered an effective method for reducing potential health hazards. Although it is assumed that (bio)remediation is a detoxifying process, degradation products of compounds such as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) can be more toxic th...

  19. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes for producing the A and B subunits of cholera toxin and preparations containing so-obtained subunit or subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Harford, N.; De Wilde, M.

    1987-05-19

    A recombinant DNA molecule is described comprising at least a portion coding for subunits A and B of cholera toxin, or a fragment or derivative of the portion wherein the fragment or derivative codes for a polypeptide have an activity which can induce an immune response to subunit A; can induce an immune response to subunit A and cause epithelial cell penetration and the enzymatic effect leading to net loss of fluid into the gut lumen; can bind to the membrane receptor for the B subunit of cholera toxin; can induce an immune response to subunit B; can induce an immune response to subunit B and bind to the membrane receptor; or has a combination of the activities.

  20. Na+ Channel β Subunits: Overachievers of the Ion Channel Family

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, William J.; Isom, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in mammals contain a pore-forming α subunit and one or more β subunits. There are five mammalian β subunits in total: β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4, encoded by four genes: SCN1B–SCN4B. With the exception of the SCN1B splice variant, β1B, the β subunits are type I topology transmembrane proteins. In contrast, β1B lacks a transmembrane domain and is a secreted protein. A growing body of work shows that VGSC β subunits are multifunctional. While they do not form the ion channel pore, β subunits alter gating, voltage-dependence, and kinetics of VGSCα subunits and thus regulate cellular excitability in vivo. In addition to their roles in channel modulation, β subunits are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and regulate cell adhesion and migration. β subunits are also substrates for sequential proteolytic cleavage by secretases. An example of the multifunctional nature of β subunits is β1, encoded by SCN1B, that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development, and whose function is dependent on Na+ current and γ-secretase activity. Functional deletion of SCN1B results in Dravet Syndrome, a severe and intractable pediatric epileptic encephalopathy. β subunits are emerging as key players in a wide variety of physiopathologies, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and cancer. β subunits mediate multiple signaling pathways on different timescales, regulating electrical excitability, adhesion, migration, pathfinding, and transcription. Importantly, some β subunit functions may operate independently of α subunits. Thus, β subunits perform critical roles during development and disease. As such, they may prove useful in disease diagnosis and therapy. PMID:22007171

  1. PKA catalytic subunit mutations in adrenocortical Cushing's adenoma impair association with the regulatory subunit.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Hannawacker, Annette; Lyga, Sandra; Bathon, Kerstin; Zabel, Ulrike; Ronchi, Cristina; Beuschlein, Felix; Reincke, Martin; Lorenz, Kristina; Allolio, Bruno; Kisker, Caroline; Fassnacht, Martin; Lohse, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified a high prevalence of mutations affecting the catalytic (Cα) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. The two identified mutations (Leu206Arg and Leu199_Cys200insTrp) are associated with increased PKA catalytic activity, but the underlying mechanisms are highly controversial. Here we utilize a combination of biochemical and optical assays, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells, to analyze the consequences of the two mutations with respect to the formation of the PKA holoenzyme and its regulation by cAMP. Our results indicate that neither mutant can form a stable PKA complex, due to the location of the mutations at the interface between the catalytic and the regulatory subunits. We conclude that the two mutations cause high basal catalytic activity and lack of regulation by cAMP through interference of complex formation between the regulatory and the catalytic subunits of PKA. PMID:25477193

  2. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  3. Subunit Arrangement and Function in NMDA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa,H.; Singh, S.; Mancusso, R.; Gouaux, E.

    2005-01-01

    Excitatory neurotransmission mediated by NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors is fundamental to the physiology of the mammalian central nervous system. These receptors are heteromeric ion channels that for activation require binding of glycine and glutamate to the NR1 and NR2 subunits, respectively. NMDA receptor function is characterized by slow channel opening and deactivation, and the resulting influx of cations initiates signal transduction cascades that are crucial to higher functions including learning and memory. Here we report crystal structures of the ligand-binding core of NR2A with glutamate and that of the NR1-NR2A heterodimer with glutamate and glycine. The NR2A-glutamate complex defines the determinants of glutamate and NMDA recognition, and the NR1-NR2A heterodimer suggests a mechanism for ligand-induced ion channel opening. Analysis of the heterodimer interface, together with biochemical and electrophysiological experiments, confirms that the NR1-NR2A heterodimer is the functional unit in tetrameric NMDA receptors and that tyrosine 535 of NR1, located in the subunit interface, modulates the rate of ion channel deactivation.

  4. Strong cooperativity between subunits in voltage-gated proton channels

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Koch, Hans P.; Drum, Ben M.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-activated proton (HV) channels are essential components in the innate immune response. HV channels are dimeric proteins with one proton permeation pathway per subunit. It is not known how HV channels are activated by voltage and whether there is any cooperativity between subunits during voltage activation. Using cysteine accessibility measurements and voltage clamp fluorometry, we show data that are consistent with that the fourth transmembrane segment S4 functions as the voltage sensor in HV channels from Ciona intestinalis. Surprisingly, in a dimeric HV channel, S4 in both subunits have to move to activate the two proton permeation pathways. In contrast, if HV subunits are prevented from dimerizing, then the movement of a single S4 is sufficient to activate the proton permeation pathway in a subunit. These results suggest a strong cooperativity between subunits in dimeric HV channels. PMID:20023639

  5. Subunit stoichiometry of the chloroplast photosystem I complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, B.D.; Malkin, R.

    1988-05-25

    A native photosystem I (PS I) complex and a PS I core complex depleted of antenna subunits has been isolated from the uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled aquatic higher plant, Lemna. These complexes have been analyzed for their subunit stoichiometry by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results for both preparations indicate that one copy of each high molecular mass subunit is present per PS I complex and that a single copy of most low molecular mass subunits is also present. These results suggest that iron-sulfur center X, an early PS I electron acceptor proposed to bind to the high molecular mass subunits, contains a single (4Fe-4S) cluster which is bound to a dimeric structure of high molecular mass subunits, each providing 2 cysteine residues to coordinate this cluster.

  6. Subunit structure of the phycobiliproteins of blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Glazer, A N; Cohen-Bazire, G

    1971-07-01

    The phycobiliproteins of the blue-green algae Synechococcus sp. and Aphanocapsu sp. were characterized with respect to homogeneity, isoelectric point, and subunit composition. Each of the biliproteins consisted of two different noncovalently associated subunits, with molecular weights of about 20,000 and 16,000 for phycocyanin, 17,500 and 15,500 for allophycocyanin, and 22,000 and 20,000 for phycoerythrin. Covalently bound chromophore was associated with each subunit.

  7. Diversity of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits in plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are present in most eukaryotes and mediate signaling in numerous biological processes. In plants, Gγ subunits were shown to provide functional selectivity to G-proteins. Three unconventional Gγ subunits were recently reported in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean but no structural analysis has been reported so far. Their relationship with conventional Gγ subunits and taxonomical distribution has not been yet demonstrated. Results After an extensive similarity search through plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes we assembled over 200 non-redundant proteins related to the known Gγ subunits. Structural analysis of these sequences revealed that most of them lack the obligatory C-terminal prenylation motif (CaaX). According to their C-terminal structures we classified the plant Gγ subunits into three distinct types. Type A consists of Gγ subunits with a putative prenylation motif. Type B subunits lack a prenylation motif and do not have any cysteine residues in the C-terminal region, while type C subunits contain an extended C-terminal domain highly enriched with cysteines. Comparative analysis of C-terminal domains of the proteins, intron-exon arrangement of the corresponding genes and phylogenetic studies suggested a common origin of all plant Gγ subunits. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses suggest that types C and B most probably originated independently from type A ancestors. We speculate on a potential mechanism used by those Gγ subunits lacking isoprenylation motifs to anchor the Gβγ dimer to the plasma membrane and propose a new flexible nomenclature for plant Gγ subunits. Finally, in the light of our new classification, we give a word of caution about the interpretation of Gγ research in Arabidopsis and its generalization to other plant species. PMID:23113884

  8. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  9. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    PubMed Central

    Tandrup Schmidt, Signe; Foged, Camilla; Smith Korsholm, Karen; Rades, Thomas; Christensen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the specific PRR

  10. The light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Núria; Chillarón, Josep; Bartoccioni, Paola; Fernández, Esperanza; Bendahan, Annie; Zorzano, Antonio; Kanner, Baruch; Palacín, Manuel; Bertran, Joan

    2002-01-01

    The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non-glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. System bo,+ exchanges dibasic for neutral amino acids. It is composed of rBAT and bo,+AT, the latter being the polytopic membrane subunit. Mutations in either of them cause malfunction of the system, leading to cystinuria. bo,+AT-reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the bo,+ substrates inside the liposomes. rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of bo,+AT, but it was not required for reconstituted bo,+AT transport activity. No system bo,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. The reconstituted bo,+AT showed kinetic asymmetry. Expressing the cystinuria-specific mutant A354T of bo,+AT in HeLa cells together with rBAT resulted in defective arginine uptake in whole cells, which was paralleled by the reconstituted bo,+AT activity. Thus, subunit bo,+AT by itself is sufficient to catalyse transmembrane amino acid exchange. The polytopic subunits may also be the catalytic part in other heteromeric transporters. PMID:12234930

  11. Epitopes from two soybean glycinin subunits antigenic in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Glycinin is a seed storage protein in soybean (Glycine max) that is allergenic in pigs. Glycinin is a hexamer composed of subunits consisting of a basic and acidic portion joined by disulfide bridges. There are 5 glycinin subunits designated Gy1-Gy5. Results: Twenty seven out of 30 pi...

  12. The Development and Institutionalization of Subunit Power in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeker, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effects of founding events on the evolution of subunit importance in the semiconductor industry from 1958 to 1985. Distributions of power and subunit importance represent not only influences of current conditions, but also vestiges of earlier events, including the institution's founding. Includes 55 references. (MLH)

  13. Proteopedia Entry: The Large Ribosomal Subunit of "Haloarcula Marismortui"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decatur, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a "Proteopedia" page that shows the refined version of the structure of the "Haloarcula" large ribosomal subunit as solved by the laboratories of Thomas Steitz and Peter Moore. The landmark structure is of great impact as it is the first atomic-resolution structure of the highly conserved ribosomal subunit which harbors…

  14. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  15. A revised model for AMP-activated protein kinase structure: The alpha-subunit binds to both the beta- and gamma-subunits although there is no direct binding between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-11-24

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor for cellular metabolic energy state. It is activated by a high AMP/ATP ratio and leads to metabolic changes that conserve energy and utilize alternative cellular fuel sources. The kinase is composed of a heterotrimeric protein complex containing a catalytic alpha-subunit, an AMP-binding gamma-subunit, and a scaffolding beta-subunit thought to bind directly both the alpha- and gamma-subunits. Here, we use coimmunoprecipitation of proteins in transiently transfected cells to show that the alpha2-subunit binds directly not only to the beta-subunit, confirming previous work, but also to the gamma1-subunit. Deletion analysis of the alpha2-subunit reveals that the C-terminal 386-552 residues are sufficient to bind to the beta-subunit. The gamma1-subunit binds directly to the alpha2-subunit at two interaction sites, one within the catalytic domain consisting of alpha2 amino acids 1-312 and a second within residues 386-552. Binding of the alpha2 and the gamma1-subunits was not affected by 400 mum AMP or ATP. Furthermore, we show that the beta-subunit C terminus is essential for binding to the alpha2-subunit but, in contrast to previous work, the beta-subunit does not bind directly to the gamma1-subunit. Taken together, this study presents a new model for AMPK heterotrimer structure where through its C terminus the beta-subunit binds to the alpha-subunit that, in turn, binds to the gamma-subunit. There is no direct interaction between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

  16. Synaptic GABAA Receptor Clustering without the γ2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Rapid activation of postsynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is crucial in many neuronal functions, including the synchronization of neuronal ensembles and controlling the precise timing of action potentials. Although the γ2 subunit is believed to be essential for the postsynaptic clustering of GABAARs, synaptic currents have been detected in neurons obtained from γ2−/− mice. To determine the role of the γ2 subunit in synaptic GABAAR enrichment, we performed a spatially and temporally controlled γ2 subunit deletion by injecting Cre-expressing viral vectors into the neocortex of GABAARγ277Ilox mice. Whole-cell recordings revealed the presence of miniature IPSCs in Cre+ layer 2/3 pyramidal cells (PCs) with unchanged amplitudes and rise times, but significantly prolonged decays. Such slowly decaying currents could be evoked in PCs by action potentials in presynaptic fast-spiking interneurons. Freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling revealed the presence of the α1 and β3 subunits in perisomatic synapses of cells that lack the γ2 subunit. Miniature IPSCs in Cre+ PCs were insensitive to low concentrations of flurazepam, providing a pharmacological confirmation of the lack of the γ2 subunit. Receptors assembled from only αβ subunits were unlikely because Zn2+ did not block the synaptic currents. Pharmacological experiments indicated that the αβγ3 receptor, rather than the αβδ, αβε, or αβγ1 receptors, was responsible for the slowly decaying IPSCs. Our data demonstrate the presence of IPSCs and the synaptic enrichment of the α1 and β3 subunits and suggest that the γ3 subunit is the most likely candidate for clustering GABAARs at synapses in the absence of the γ2 subunit. PMID:25080584

  17. Modification of K+ channel–drug interactions by ancillary subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Glenna C L; Rasmusson, Randall L

    2008-01-01

    Reconciling ion channel α-subunit expression with native ionic currents and their pharmacological sensitivity in target organs has proved difficult. In native tissue, many K+ channel α-subunits co-assemble with ancillary subunits, which can profoundly affect physiological parameters including gating kinetics and pharmacological interactions. In this review, we examine the link between voltage-gated potassium ion channel pharmacology and the biophysics of ancillary subunits. We propose that ancillary subunits can modify the interaction between pore blockers and ion channels by three distinct mechanisms: changes in (1) binding site accessibility; (2) orientation of pore-lining residues; (3) the ability of the channel to undergo post-binding conformational changes. Each of these subunit-induced changes has implications for gating, drug affinity and use dependence of their respective channel complexes. A single subunit may modulate its associated α-subunit by more than one of these mechanisms. Voltage-gated potassium channels are the site of action of many therapeutic drugs. In addition, potassium channels interact with drugs whose primary target is another channel, e.g. the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, the sodium channel blocker quinidine, etc. Even when K+ channel block is the intended mode of action, block of related channels in non-target organs, e.g. the heart, can result in major and potentially lethal side-effects. Understanding factors that determine specificity, use dependence and other properties of K+ channel drug binding are therefore of vital clinical importance. Ancillary subunits play a key role in determining these properties in native tissue, and so understanding channel–subunit interactions is vital to understanding clinical pharmacology. PMID:18096604

  18. Structural modeling of the catalytic subunit-regulatory subunit dimeric complex of the camp-dependent protein kinase.

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, C-S; Gallagher, S. C.; Walsh, D. A.; Trewhella, J.

    2001-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a multifunctional kinase that serves as a prototype for understanding second messenger signaling and protein phosphorylation. In the absence of a cAMP signal, PKA exists as a dimer of dimers, consisting of two regulatory (R) and two catalystic (C) subunits. Based on experimentally derived data (i.e., crystal structures of the R and C subunits, mutagenesis data identifying points of subunit-subunit contacts), the neutron scattering derived model for the heterodimer (Zhao et al., 1998) and using a set of computational approaches (homology modeling, Monte Carlo simulation), they have developed a high-resolution model of the RII{alpha}-C{alpha} dimer. The nature of the subunit-subunit interface was studied. The model reveals an averaged size dimer interface (2100 Angstrom{sup 2}) that is distant from the pseudo-substrate binding site on the C subunit. The additional contacts made by the pseudosubstrate increases the stability of the dimeric complex. Based on a set of R-C dimer structures derived using a simulated annealing approach, specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between the two subunits and were identified.

  19. Subunit dissociations in natural and recombinant hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Manning, L R; Jenkins, W T; Hess, J R; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Manning, J M

    1996-04-01

    A precise and rapid procedure employing gel filtration on Superose-12 to measure the tetramer-dimer dissociation constants of some natural and recombinant hemoglobins in the oxy conformation is described. Natural sickle hemoglobin was chosen to verify the validity of the results by comparing the values with those reported using an independent method not based on gel filtration. Recombinant sickle hemoglobin, as well as a sickle double mutant with a substitution at the Val-6(beta) receptor site, had approximately the same dissociation constant as natural sickle hemoglobin. Of the two recombinant hemoglobins with amino acid replacements in the alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface, one was found to be extensively dissociated and the other completely dissociated. In addition, the absence of an effect of the allosteric regulators DPG and IHP on the dissociation constant was demonstrated. Thus, a tetramer dissociation constant can now be determined readily and used together with other criteria for characterization of hemoglobins and their interaction with small regulatory molecules. PMID:8845768

  20. α6 integrin subunit regulates cerebellar development

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Giovanni; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Pfister, Véronique; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding several basal lamina components as well as their cellular receptors disrupt normal deposition and remodeling of the cortical basement membrane resulting in a disorganized cerebral and cerebellar cortex. The α6 integrin was the first α subunit associated with cortical lamination defects and formation of neural ectopias. In order to understand the precise role of α6 integrin in the central nervous system (CNS), we have generated mutant mice carrying specific deletion of α6 integrin in neuronal and glia precursors by crossing α6 conditional knockout mice with Nestin-Cre line. Cerebral cortex development occurred properly in the resulting α6fl/fl;nestin-Cre mutant animals. Interestingly, however, cerebellum displayed foliation pattern defects although granule cell (GC) proliferation and migration were not affected. Intriguingly, analysis of Bergmann glial (BG) scaffold revealed abnormalities in fibers morphology associated with reduced processes outgrowth and altered actin cytoskeleton. Overall, these data show that α6 integrin receptors are required in BG cells to provide a proper fissure formation during cerebellum morphogenesis. PMID:23722246

  1. Gel-based chemical cross-linking analysis of 20S proteasome subunit-subunit interactions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Xiong, Hua; Che, Jing; Xi, Qing-Song; Huang, Liu; Xiong, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a pivotal role in breast tumorigenesis by controlling transcription factors, thus promoting cell cycle growth, and degradation of tumor suppressor proteins. However, breast cancer patients have failed to benefit from proteasome inhibitor treatment partially due to proteasome heterogeneity, which is poorly understood in malignant breast neoplasm. Chemical crosslinking is an increasingly important tool for mapping protein three-dimensional structures and proteinprotein interactions. In the present study, two cross-linkers, bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)) and its water-insoluble analog disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), were used to map the subunit-subunit interactions in 20S proteasome core particle (CP) from MDA-MB-231 cells. Different types of gel electrophoresis technologies were used. In combination with chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we applied these gel electrophoresis technologies to the study of the noncovalent interactions among 20S proteasome subunits. Firstly, the CP subunit isoforms were profiled. Subsequently, using native/SDSPAGE, it was observed that 0.5 mmol/L BS(3) was a relatively optimal cross-linking concentration for CP subunit-subunit interaction study. 2-DE analysis of the cross-linked CP revealed that α1 might preinteract with α2, and α3 might pre-interact with α4. Moreover, there were different subtypes of α1α2 and α3α4 due to proteasome heterogeneity. There was no significant difference in cross-linking pattern for CP subunits between BS(3) and DSS. Taken together, the gel-based characterization in combination with chemical cross-linking could serve as a tool for the study of subunit interactions within a multi-subunit protein complex. The heterogeneity of 20S proteasome subunit observed in breast cancer cells may provide some key information for proteasome inhibition strategy. PMID:27465334

  2. Molecular Evolution of Multi-subunit RNA Polymerases: Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, William J.; Darst, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription in all cellular organisms is performed by multi-subunit, DNA-dependent RNA polymerases that synthesize RNA from DNA templates. Previous sequence and structural studies have elucidated the importance of shared regions common to all multi-subunit RNA polymerases. In addition RNA polymerases contain multiple lineage-specific domain insertions involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. We have created comprehensive multiple sequence alignments using all available sequence data for the multi-subunit RNA polymerase large subunits, including the bacterial β and β′ subunits and their homologues from archaebacterial RNA polymerases, the eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the nuclear-cytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA Virus RNA polymerases, and plant plastid RNA polymerases. In order to overcome technical difficulties inherent to the large subunit sequences, including large sequence length, small and large lineage-specific insertions, split subunits, and fused proteins, we created an automated and customizable sequence retrieval and processing system. In addition, we used our alignments to create a more expansive set of shared sequence regions and bacterial lineage-specific domain insertions. We also analyzed the intergenic gap between the bacterial β and β′ genes. PMID:19895820

  3. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases have homologous core subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, D; Nonet, M; Young, R A

    1987-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are complex aggregates whose component subunits are functionally ill-defined. The gene that encodes the 140,000-dalton subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II was isolated and studied in detail to obtain clues to the protein's function. This gene, RPB2, exists in a single copy in the haploid genome. Disruption of the gene is lethal to the yeast cell. RPB2 encodes a protein of 138,750 daltons, which contains sequences implicated in binding purine nucleotides and zinc ions and exhibits striking sequence homology with the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These observations suggest that the yeast and the E. coli subunit have similar roles in RNA synthesis, as the beta subunit contains binding sites for nucleotide substrates and a portion of the catalytic site for RNA synthesis. The subunit homologies reported here, and those observed previously with the largest RNA polymerase subunit, indicate that components of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase "core" enzyme have counterparts in eukaryotic RNA polymerases. PMID:3547406

  4. RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Woychik, N; Liao, S M; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    RNA polymerase II subunit composition, stoichiometry, and phosphorylation were investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by attaching an epitope coding sequence to a well-characterized RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB3) and by immunoprecipitating the product of this gene with its associated polypeptides. The immunopurified enzyme catalyzed alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA synthesis in vitro. The 10 polypeptides that immunoprecipitated were identical in size and number to those previously described for RNA polymerase II purified by conventional column chromatography. The relative stoichiometry of the subunits was deduced from knowledge of the sequence of the subunits and from the extent of labeling with [35S]methionine. Immunoprecipitation from 32P-labeled cell extracts revealed that three of the subunits, RPB1, RPB2, and RPB6, are phosphorylated in vivo. Phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of RPB1 could be distinguished; approximately half of the RNA polymerase II molecules contained a phosphorylated RPB1 subunit. These results more precisely define the subunit composition and phosphorylation of a eucaryotic RNA polymerase II enzyme. Images PMID:2183013

  5. Purification of glucagon by subunit exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carrea, G; Pasta, P; Antonini, E

    1985-05-01

    Glucagon was immobilized onto Sepharose matrices activated with CNBr or tresyl chloride, as a function of several parameters including pH of coupling, concentration of added polypeptide, and presence or absence of urea. The hormone was linked to the matrix through a single point per molecule, namely, the epsilon -amino group of Lys(12) when the coupling was carried out at alkaline pH, or the imidazole group of His(1) when the coupling was carried out at acidic pH. Glucagon immobilized at alkaline pH interacted specifically with soluble glucogon. The extent of self-association was similar to that of free glucagon, which exists in solution in a monomer-trimer equilibrium whose association constant is highly dependent on the characteristics of the buffer (pH, ionic strength, and nature of anions). The immobilized hormone proved to be suitable for the purification of the free one from a pancreatic extract. After a preliminary treatment with charcoal-dextran, the extract was percolated on a glucagon-Sepharose column under associating conditions (high concentrations of salting out anions and alkaline pH) and then, following a washing to remove extraneous compounds, the specifically bound hormone was eluted under dissociating conditions (low ionic strength). The subunit exchange chromatography of the extract gave a ca. 90% pure product. The overall recovery of the process was ca. 66%. The leakage of immobilized hormone was 40% in the case of CNBr activation of Sepharose and 15% in the case of tresyl chloride activation, after an eight-day treatment under working conditions.

  6. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    PubMed

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  7. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  8. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    A database on large ribosomal subunit RNA is made available. It contains 258 sequences. It provides sequence, alignment and secondary structure information in computer-readable formats. Files can be obtained using ftp. PMID:7524023

  9. Genetic Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunit Families

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles. PMID:16440056

  10. The Linkage Between Oxygenation and Subunit Dissociation in Human Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Ackers, Gary K.; Halvorson, Herbert R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of subunit dissociation as a means of probing intersubunit contact energy changes which accompany cooperative ligand binding has been studied for the case of human hemoglobin. An analysis is presented delineating the information that can be obtained from the linkage relationships between ligand binding and subunit dissociation of hemoglobin tetramers into dimers. The analysis defines (a) the variation of the saturation function, Ȳ, with total protein concentration, (b) the variation of the subunit dissociation constant xK2 with ligand concentration (X) and (c) the correlations between changes in dimer-dimer contact energy and the sequential ligand binding steps. Sensitivity of the linkage function has been explored by numerical simulation. It is shown that subunit dissociation may appreciably affect oxygenation curves under usual conditions of measurement and that relying solely on either xK2 or Ȳ may lead to incorrect picutres of the energetics, whereas the combination defines the system much more exactly. PMID:4530985

  11. Ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Purification and subunit structure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Susan S.; Rigby, Peter W. J.; Hartley, Brian S.

    1974-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase has been purified to homogeneity from several strains of Klebsiella aerogenes. One strain yields 3–6g of pure enzyme from 1kg of cells. The enzyme is a tetramer of four subunits, mol.wt. 27000. Preliminary studies of the activity of the enzyme are reported. Peptide `maps' together with the amino acid composition indicate that the subunits are identical. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4618776

  12. Subunit-Specific Trafficking of GABAA Receptors during Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Goodkin, Howard P.; Joshi, Suchitra; Mtchedlishvili, Zakaria; Brar, Jasmit; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that a reduced surface expression of GABAA receptors (GABARs) contributes to the pathogenesis of status epilepticus (SE), a condition characterized by prolonged seizures. This hypothesis was based on the finding that prolonged epileptiform bursting (repetitive bursts of prolonged depolarizations with superimposed action potentials) in cultures of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons (dissociated cultures) results in the increased intracellular accumulation of GABARs. However, it is not known whether this rapid modification in the surface-expressed GABAR pool results from selective, subunit-dependent or nonselective, subunit-independent internalization of GABARs. In hippocampal slices obtained from animals undergoing prolonged SE (SE-treated slices), we found that the surface expression of the GABARβ2/3 and γ2 subunits was reduced, whereas that of the δ subunit was not. Complementary electrophysiological recordings from dentate granule cells in SE-treated slices demonstrated a reduction in GABAR-mediated synaptic inhibition, but not tonic inhibition. A reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit, but not the δ subunit was also observed in dissociated cultures and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures when incubated in an elevated KCl external medium or an elevated KCl external medium supplemented with NMDA, respectively. Additional studies demonstrated that the reduction in the surface expression of the γ2 subunit was independent of direct ligand binding of the GABAR. These findings demonstrate that the regulation of surface-expressed GABAR pool during SE is subunit-specific and occurs independent of ligand binding. The differential modulation of the surface expression of GABARs during SE has potential implications for the treatment of this neurological emergency. PMID:18322097

  13. Properties of the subunits of wheat germ initiation factor 3.

    PubMed

    Heufler, C; Browning, K S; Ravel, J M

    1988-11-10

    Wheat germ initiation factor 3 (eukaryotic initiation factor 3, eIF-3) contains ten non-identical subunits (p116, p107, p87, p83, p56, p45, p41, p36, p34 and p28). Monoclonal antibodies to all except two of the subunits (p41 and p28) were obtained. None of the monoclonal antibodies react with more than one subunit, and only monoclonal antibodies to p36 inhibit the ability of eIF-3 to support initiation of polypeptide synthesis. Two of the subunits (p116 and p107) are highly basic polypeptides (pI greater than or equal to 8); five (p87, p56, p45, p34 and p28) are acidic polypeptides (pI = 5.4-6.1); and three (p83, p41 and p36) appear to exist in more than one isoelectric form. Eight of the subunits of eIF-3 are iodinated rapidly in vitro; the highest incorporation is into p56 and the lowest incorporation is into p28. No incorporation into p41 or p28 is observed. When eIF-3 is treated with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide, approx. 30 alkyl groups per eIF-3 are incorporated, and the eIF-3 is inactivated. No incorporation into p83 or p28 is observed; incorporation of the alkyl groups into the other eight subunits occurs at different rates. The rate of inactivation of eIF-3 by N-ethylmaleimide is slower than the overall rate of incorporation of alkyl groups. eIF-3 is stable between pH 5.5 and 10. Below pH 5.5, eIF-3 is inactivated and precipitation of protein occurs. Partial dissociation of the subunits and inactivation of eIF-3 is obtained by treatment with 2 M urea. Attempts to reassociate the subunits into an active particle were unsuccessful.

  14. Transcriptional regulators of Na,K-ATPase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqin; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic α-subunit, the β-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids, and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits has been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease. PMID:26579519

  15. Effects of Detergents on Ribosomal Precursor Subunits of Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Body, Barbara A.; Brownstein, Bernard H.

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction. PMID:412833

  16. Effects of detergents on ribosomal precursor subunits of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Body, A; Brownstein, B H

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction.

  17. Phosphorylation of ATPase subunits of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Mason, G G; Murray, R Z; Pappin, D; Rivett, A J

    1998-07-01

    The 26S proteasome complex plays a major role in the non-lysosomal degradation of intracellular proteins. Purified 26S proteasomes give a pattern of more than 40 spots on 2D-PAGE gels. The positions of subunits have been identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides and by immunoblotting with subunit-specific antipeptide antibodies. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from [32P]phosphate-labelled human embryo lung L-132 cells revealed the presence of at least three major phosphorylated polypeptides among the regulatory subunits as well as the C8 and C9 components of the core 20S proteasome. Comparison with the positions of the regulatory polypeptides revealed a minor phosphorylated form to be S7 (MSS1). Antibodies against S4, S6 (TBP7) and S12 (MOV34) all cross-reacted at the position of major phosphorylated polypeptides suggesting that several of the ATPase subunits may be phosphorylated. The phosphorylation of S4 was confirmed by double immunoprecipitation experiments in which 26S proteasomes were immunoprecipitated as above and dissociated and then S4 was immunoprecipitated with subunit-specific antibodies. Antibodies against the non-ATPase subunit S10, which has been suggested by others to be phosphorylated, did not coincide with the position of a phosphorylated polypeptide. Some differences were observed in the 2D-PAGE pattern of proteasomes immunoprecipitated from cultured cells compared to purified rat liver 26S proteasomes suggesting possible differences in subunit compositions of 26S proteasomes.

  18. Cytochrome c oxidase: Evolution of control via nuclear subunit addition☆

    PubMed Central

    Pierron, Denis; Wildman, Derek E.; Hüttemann, Maik; Markondapatnaikuni, Gopi Chand; Aras, Siddhesh; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2014-01-01

    According to theory, present eukaryotic cells originated from a beneficial association between two free-living cells. Due to this endosymbiotic event the pre-eukaryotic cell gained access to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which produces more than 15 times as much ATP as glycolysis. Because cellular ATP needs fluctuate and OXPHOS both requires and produces entities that can be toxic for eukaryotic cells such as ROS or NADH, we propose that the success of endosymbiosis has largely depended on the regulation of endosymbiont OXPHOS. Several studies have presented cytochrome c oxidase as a key regulator of OXPHOS; for example, COX is the only complex of mammalian OXPHOS with known tissue-specific isoforms of nuclear encoded subunits. We here discuss current knowledge about the origin of nuclear encoded subunits and the appearance of different isozymes promoted by tissue and cellular environments such as hypoxia. We also review evidence for recent selective pressure acting on COX among vertebrates, particularly in primate lineages, and discuss the unique pattern of co-evolution between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Finally, even though the addition of nuclear encoded subunits was a major event in eukaryotic COX evolution, this does not lead to emergence of a more efficient COX, as might be expected from an anthropocentric point of view, for the “higher” organism possessing large brains and muscles. The main function of these subunits appears to be “only” to control the activity of the mitochondrial subunits. We propose that this control function is an as yet underappreciated key point of evolution. Moreover, the importance of regulating energy supply may have caused the addition of subunits encoded by the nucleus in a process comparable to a “domestication scenario” such that the host tends to control more and more tightly the ancestral activity of COX performed by the mtDNA encoded subunits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  19. Critical Role of cRel Subunit of NF-κB in Sepsis Survival ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Courtine, Emilie; Pène, Frédéric; Cagnard, Nicolas; Toubiana, Julie; Fitting, Catherine; Brocheton, Jessy; Rousseau, Christophe; Gerondakis, Steve; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Ouaaz, Fatah; Mira, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    NF-κB is a critical regulator of gene expression during severe infections. NF-κB comprises homo- and heterodimers of proteins from the Rel family. Among them, p50 and p65 have been clearly implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In contrast, the role of cRel in sepsis is still controversial and has been poorly studied in single-pathogen infections. We aimed to investigate the consequences of cRel deficiency in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. We have approached the underlying mechanisms of host defense by analyzing bacterial clearance, systemic inflammation, and the distribution of spleen dendritic cell subsets. Moreover, by using a genome-wide technology, we have also analyzed the CLP-induced modifications in gene expression profiles both in wild-type (wt) and in rel−/− mice. The absence of cRel enhances mortality due to polymicrobial sepsis. Despite normal pathogen clearance, cRel deficiency leads to an altered systemic inflammatory response associated with a sustained loss of the spleen lymphoid dendritic cells. Furthermore, a whole-blood microarray study reveals that the differential outcome between wt and rel−/− mice during sepsis is preceded by remarkable changes in the expression of hundreds of genes involved in aspects of host-pathogen interaction, such as host survival and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, cRel is a key NF-κB member required for host antimicrobial defenses and a regulatory transcription subunit that controls the inflammatory and immune responses in severe infection. PMID:21343350

  20. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  1. Synaptic localization of NMDA receptor subunits in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E L; Hack, I; Brandstätter, J H; Wässle, H

    2000-04-24

    The distribution and synaptic clustering of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were studied in the rat retina by using subunit specific antisera. A punctate immunofluorescence was observed in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) for all subunits tested, and electron microscopy confirmed that the immunoreactive puncta represent labeling of receptors clustered at postsynaptic sites. Double labeling of sections revealed that NMDA receptor clusters within the IPL are composed of different subunit combinations: NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, and in a small number of synapses NR1/NR2A/NR2B. The majority of NMDA receptor clusters were colocalized with the postsynaptic density proteins PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP 102. Double labeling of the NMDA receptor subunit specific antisera with protein kinase C (PKC), a marker of rod bipolar cells, revealed very little colocalization at the rod bipolar cell axon terminal. This suggests that NMDA receptors are important in mediating neurotransmission within the cone bipolar cell pathways of the IPL. The postsynaptic neurons are a subset of amacrine cells and most ganglion cells. Usually only one of the two postsynaptic processes at the bipolar cell ribbon synapses expressed NMDA receptors. In the outer plexiform layer (OPL), punctate immunofluoresence was observed for the NR1C2; subunit, which was shown by electron microscopy to be localized presynaptically within both rod and cone photoreceptor terminals.

  2. A distinct holoenzyme organization for two-subunit pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Philip H.; Jo, Jeanyoung; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Min-Han; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Tong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) has important roles in metabolism and is crucial for virulence for some pathogenic bacteria. PC contains biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) components. It is a single-chain enzyme in eukaryotes and most bacteria, and functions as a 500 kD homo-tetramer. In contrast, PC is a two-subunit enzyme in a collection of Gram-negative bacteria, with the α subunit containing the BC and the β subunit the CT and BCCP domains, and it is believed that the holoenzyme has α4β4 stoichiometry. We report here the crystal structures of a two-subunit PC from Methylobacillus flagellatus. Surprisingly, our structures reveal an α2β4 stoichiometry, and the overall architecture of the holoenzyme is strikingly different from that of the homo-tetrameric PCs. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies confirm the stoichiometry and other structural observations. Our functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa show that its two-subunit PC is important for colony morphogenesis. PMID:27708276

  3. GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ratra, G S; Casida, J E

    2001-07-01

    Three observations on the 4-[(3)H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([(3)H]EBOB) binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor indicate the specific target for insecticide action in human brain and a possible mechanism for selectivity. First, from published data, alpha-endosulfan, lindane and fipronil compete for the [(3)H]EBOB binding site with affinities of 0.3--7 nM in both human recombinant homooligomeric beta 3 receptors and housefly head membranes. Second, from structure-activity studies, including new data, GABAergic insecticide binding potency on the pentameric receptor formed from the beta 3 subunit correlates well with that on the housefly receptor (r=0.88, n=20). This conserved inhibitor specificity is consistent with known sequence homologies in the housefly GABA receptor and the human GABA(A) receptor beta 3 subunit. Third, as mostly new findings, various combinations of alpha 1, alpha 6, and gamma 2 subunits coexpressed with a beta 1 or beta 3 subunit confer differential insecticide binding sensitivity, particularly to fipronil, indicating that subunit composition is a major factor in insecticide selectivity.

  4. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit.

  5. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Keegan J.; Royal, Joshua M.; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction. PMID:25802972

  6. Chromosomal localization of human RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, J.; Wintzerith, M.; Vigneron, M.; Kedinger, C. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N.; Depetris, D. )

    1994-04-01

    The eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (or B) is composed of 10 to 14 polypeptides ranging from 220 to 10 kDa. To gain further insight into the molecular structure and function of these subunits, the authors have undertaken the molecular cloning of nucleotide sequences corresponding to the human enzyme. The cDNAs of five subunits (hRPB220, hRPB140, hRPB33, hRPB25, and hRPB14.5) have been isolated. Using in situ hybridization, they show that the genes of these subunits have distinct chromosomal locations (17p13, 4q12, 16q13-q21, 19p13.3, and 19q12, respectively). Thus, if assembly of active polymerase molecules requires coordinated expression from these independent genes, mechanisms that ensure tight coregulation of the corresponding promoters must exist. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines.

  8. KAP, the accessory subunit of kinesin-2, binds the predicted coiled-coil stalk of the motor subunits.

    PubMed

    Doodhi, Harinath; Ghosal, Debnath; Krishnamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Jana, Swadhin C; Shamala, Divya; Bhaduri, Anirban; Sowdhamini, R; Ray, Krishanu

    2009-03-17

    Kinesin-2 is an anterograde motor involved in intraflagellar transport and certain other intracellular transport processes. It consists of two different motor subunits and an accessory protein KAP (kinesin accessory protein). The motor subunits were shown to bind each other through the coiled-coil stalk domains, while KAP was proposed to bind the tail domains of the motor subunits. Although several genetic studies established that KAP plays an important role in kinesin-2 functions, its exact role remains unclear. Here, we report the results of a systematic analysis of the KAP binding sites by using recombinant Drosophila kinesin-2 subunits as well as the endogenous proteins. These show that at least one of the coiled-coil stalks is sufficient to bind the N-terminal region of DmKAP. The soluble complex involving the recombinant kinesin-2 fragments is reconstituted in vitro at high salt concentrations, suggesting that the interaction is primarily nonionic. Furthermore, independent distant homology modeling indicated that DmKAP may bind along the coiled-coil stalks through a combination of predominantly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. These observations led us to propose that KAP would stabilize the motor subunit heterodimer and help assemble a greater kinesin-2 complex in vivo. PMID:19161286

  9. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  10. Sequence of a functional invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit which can form a chimeric receptor with a vertebrate alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R J; Vreugdenhil, E; Zaman, S H; Bhandal, N S; Usherwood, P N; Barnard, E A; Darlison, M G

    1991-01-01

    The sequence of an invertebrate GABAA receptor subunit is described. This was deduced from a cDNA which was isolated from the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis and which corresponds to a transcript of extremely low abundance. The cDNA was isolated using short exonic sequences from part of the corresponding gene in combination with a variant of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) known as RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The mature polypeptide has a predicted molecular weight of 54,569 Daltons and exhibits approximately 50% identity to vertebrate GABAA receptor beta subunits. The six intron-exon boundaries determined to date in the molluscan gene occur at the same relative positions as those found in vertebrate GABAA receptor genes. Functional expression, in Xenopus oocytes, of the molluscan cDNA alone results in the formation of GABA-activated chloride ion channels that have a finite open probability even in the absence of agonist. These GABA-evoked currents can be reversibly blocked by the vertebrate GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Surprisingly, the molluscan beta subunit is capable of replacing vertebrate beta subunits in co-expression experiments with the bovine GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit. These findings suggest that invertebrate GABAA receptors exist in vivo as hetero-oligomeric complexes. PMID:1655414

  11. G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Strathmann, M P; Simon, M I

    1991-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) are central to the signaling processes of multicellular organisms. We have explored the diversity of the G protein subunits in mammals and found evidence for a large family of genes that encode the alpha subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons show that the different alpha subunits fall into at least three classes. These classes have been conserved in animals separated by considerable evolutionary distances; they are present in mammals, Drosophila, and nematodes. We have now obtained cDNA clones encoding two murine alpha subunits, G alpha 12 and G alpha 13, that define a fourth class. The translation products are predicted to have molecular masses of 44 kDa and to be insensitive to ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They share 67% amino acid sequence identity with each other and less than 45% identity with other alpha subunits. Their transcripts can be detected in every tissue examined, although the relative levels of the G alpha 13 message appear somewhat variable. Images PMID:1905812

  12. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  13. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  14. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines.

  15. Micelle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Trimaille, Thomas; Verrier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the development of subunit vaccines with purified or recombinant antigens for cancer and infectious diseases, the design of improved and safe adjuvants able to efficiently target the antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, represents a crucial challenge. Nanoparticle-based antigen delivery systems have been identified as an innovative strategy to improve the efficacy of subunit vaccines. Among them, self-assembled micellar nanoparticles from amphiphilic (macro)molecules have recently emerged as promising candidates. In this short review, we report on the recent research findings highlighting the versatility and potential of such systems in vaccine delivery. PMID:26426060

  16. Efficient reconstitution of functional Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits from a complete set of recombinant small subunit ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Culver, G M; Noller, H F

    1999-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the 30S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli can be reconstituted in vitro from individually purified ribosomal proteins and 16S ribosomal RNA, which were isolated from natural 30S subunits. We have developed a 30S subunit reconstitution system that uses only recombinant ribosomal protein components. The genes encoding E. coli ribosomal proteins S2-S21 were cloned, and all twenty of the individual proteins were overexpressed and purified. Reconstitution, following standard procedures, using the complete set of recombinant proteins and purified 16S ribosomal RNA is highly inefficient. Efficient reconstitution of 30S subunits using these components requires sequential addition of proteins, following either the 30S subunit assembly map (Mizushima & Nomura, 1970, Nature 226:1214-1218; Held et al., 1974, J Biol Chem 249:3103-3111) or following the order of protein assembly predicted from in vitro assembly kinetics (Powers et al., 1993, J MoI Biol 232:362-374). In the first procedure, the proteins were divided into three groups, Group I (S4, S7, S8, S15, S17, and S20), Group II (S5, S6, S9, Sll, S12, S13, S16, S18, and S19), and Group III (S2, S3, S10, S14, and S21), which were sequentially added to 16S rRNA with a 20 min incubation at 42 degrees C following the addition of each group. In the second procedure, the proteins were divided into Group I (S4, S6, S11, S15, S16, S17, S18, and S20), Group II (S7, S8, S9, S13, and S19), Group II' (S5 and S12) and Group III (S2, S3, S10, S14, and S21). Similarly efficient reconstitution is observed whether the proteins are grouped according to the assembly map or according to the results of in vitro 30S subunit assembly kinetics. Although reconstitution of 30S subunits using the recombinant proteins is slightly less efficient than reconstitution using a mixture of total proteins isolated from 30S subunits, it is much more efficient than reconstitution using proteins that were individually isolated

  17. GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate stress resilience.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Olivia F; Felice, Daniela; Galimberti, Stefano; Savignac, Hélène M; Bravo, Javier A; Crowley, Tadhg; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2014-10-21

    Stressful life events increase the susceptibility to developing psychiatric disorders such as depression; however, many individuals are resilient to such negative effects of stress. Determining the neurobiology underlying this resilience is instrumental to the development of novel and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. GABAB receptors are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression. These receptors are predominantly expressed as heterodimers of a GABAB(2) subunit with either a GABAB(1a) or a GABAB(1b) subunit. Here we show that mice lacking the GABAB(1b) receptor isoform are more resilient to both early-life stress and chronic psychosocial stress in adulthood, whereas mice lacking GABAB(1a) receptors are more susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia and social avoidance compared with wild-type mice. In addition, increased hippocampal expression of the GABAB(1b) receptor subunit is associated with a depression-like phenotype in the helpless H/Rouen genetic mouse model of depression. Stress resilience in GABAB(1b)(-/-) mice is coupled with increased proliferation and survival of newly born cells in the adult ventral hippocampus and increased stress-induced c-Fos activation in the hippocampus following early-life stress. Taken together, the data suggest that GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate the deleterious effects of stress and, thus, may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  18. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host.

  19. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-01

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior. PMID:27551100

  20. Insecticidal Pilin Subunit from the Insect Pathogen Xenorhabdus nematophila

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Choudhury, Devapriya; Birah, Ajanta; Reddy, M. K.; Gupta, Gorakh Prasad; Banerjee, Nirupama

    2004-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila is an insect pathogen and produces protein toxins which kill the larval host. Previously, we characterized an orally toxic, large, outer membrane-associated protein complex from the culture medium of X. nematophila. Here, we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of a 17-kDa pilin subunit of X. nematophila isolated from that protein complex. The gene was amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was refolded in vitro in the absence of its cognate chaperone by using a urea gradient. The protein oligomerized during in vitro refolding, forming multimers. Point mutations in the conserved N-terminal residues of the pilin protein greatly destabilized its oligomeric organization, demonstrating the importance of the N terminus in refolding and oligomerization of the pilin subunit by donor strand complementation. The recombinant protein was cytotoxic to cultured Helicoverpa armigera larval hemocytes, causing agglutination and subsequent release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The agglutination of larval cells by the 17-kDa protein was inhibited by several sugar derivatives. The biological activity of the purified recombinant protein indicated that it has a conformation similar to that of the native protein. The 17-kDa pilin subunit was found to be orally toxic to fourth- or fifth-instar larvae of an important crop pest, H. armigera, causing extensive damage to the midgut epithelial membrane. To our knowledge, this is first report describing an insecticidal pilin subunit of a bacterium. PMID:15375127

  1. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    PubMed

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  2. CMF70 is a subunit of the dynein regulatory complex.

    PubMed

    Kabututu, Zakayi P; Thayer, Michelle; Melehani, Jason H; Hill, Kent L

    2010-10-15

    Flagellar motility drives propulsion of several important pathogens and is essential for human development and physiology. Motility of the eukaryotic flagellum requires coordinate regulation of thousands of dynein motors arrayed along the axoneme, but the proteins underlying dynein regulation are largely unknown. The dynein regulatory complex, DRC, is recognized as a focal point of axonemal dynein regulation, but only a single DRC subunit, trypanin/PF2, is currently known. The component of motile flagella 70 protein, CMF70, is broadly and uniquely conserved among organisms with motile flagella, suggesting a role in axonemal motility. Here we demonstrate that CMF70 is part of the DRC from Trypanosoma brucei. CMF70 is located along the flagellum, co-sediments with trypanin in sucrose gradients and co-immunoprecipitates with trypanin. RNAi knockdown of CMF70 causes motility defects in a wild-type background and suppresses flagellar paralysis in cells with central pair defects, thus meeting the functional definition of a DRC subunit. Trypanin and CMF70 are mutually conserved in at least five of six extant eukaryotic clades, indicating that the DRC was probably present in the last common eukaryotic ancestor. We have identified only the second known subunit of this ubiquitous dynein regulatory system, highlighting the utility of combined genomic and functional analyses for identifying novel subunits of axonemal sub-complexes. PMID:20876659

  3. Production of Heteromeric Transmembrane Receptors with Defined Subunit Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Tomas; Furukawa, Hiro

    2016-05-01

    Signal transduction across cell membranes often requires assembly of heteromeric receptors with defined stoichiometry. In this issue of Structure, Morales-Perez et al. (2016) present elegant methods for the expression of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with a defined α4β2 stoichiometry involving controlled baculovirus-mediated transduction and subunit counting by measurement of two fluorescent signals.

  4. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  5. GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Olivia F.; Felice, Daniela; Galimberti, Stefano; Savignac, Hélène M.; Bravo, Javier A.; Crowley, Tadhg; El Yacoubi, Malika; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events increase the susceptibility to developing psychiatric disorders such as depression; however, many individuals are resilient to such negative effects of stress. Determining the neurobiology underlying this resilience is instrumental to the development of novel and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. GABAB receptors are emerging therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression. These receptors are predominantly expressed as heterodimers of a GABAB(2) subunit with either a GABAB(1a) or a GABAB(1b) subunit. Here we show that mice lacking the GABAB(1b) receptor isoform are more resilient to both early-life stress and chronic psychosocial stress in adulthood, whereas mice lacking GABAB(1a) receptors are more susceptible to stress-induced anhedonia and social avoidance compared with wild-type mice. In addition, increased hippocampal expression of the GABAB(1b) receptor subunit is associated with a depression-like phenotype in the helpless H/Rouen genetic mouse model of depression. Stress resilience in GABAB(1b)−/− mice is coupled with increased proliferation and survival of newly born cells in the adult ventral hippocampus and increased stress-induced c-Fos activation in the hippocampus following early-life stress. Taken together, the data suggest that GABAB(1) receptor subunit isoforms differentially regulate the deleterious effects of stress and, thus, may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:25288769

  6. Chemical crosslinking of the subunits of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Debyser, Z.; De Clercq, E.

    1996-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is composed of two subunits of 66 and 51 kDa in a 1 to 1 ratio. Because dimerization is a prerequisite for enzymatic activity, interference with the dimerization process could constitute an alternative antiviral strategy for RT inhibition. Here we describe an in vitro assay for the study of the dimerization state of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase based on chemical crosslinking of the subunits with dimethylsuberimidate. Crosslinking results in the formation of covalent bonds between the subunits, so that the crosslinked species can be resolved by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked RT species with molecular weight greater than that of the dimeric form accumulate during a 1-15-min time course. Initial evidence suggests that those high molecular weight species represent trimers and tetramers and may be the result of intramolecular crosslinking of the subunits of a higher-order RT oligomer. A peptide that corresponds to part of the tryptophan repeat motif in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT inhibits crosslink formation as well as enzymatic activity. The crosslinking assay thus allows the investigation of the effect of inhibitors on the dimerization of HIV-1 RT. PMID:8745406

  7. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  8. The Biochemistry, Ultrastructure, and Subunit Assembly Mechanism of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that play crucial roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Our knowledge about the ultrastructure and subunit assembly mechanisms of intact AMPA-Rs was very limited. However, the new studies using single particle EM and X-ray crystallography are revealing important insights. For example, the tetrameric crystal structure of the GluA2cryst construct provided the atomic view of the intact receptor. In addition, the single particle EM structures of the subunit assembly intermediates revealed the conformational requirement for the dimer-to-tetramer transition during the maturation of AMPA-Rs. These new data in the field provide new models and interpretations. In the brain, the native AMPA-R complexes contain auxiliary subunits that influence subunit assembly, gating, and trafficking of the AMPA-Rs. Understanding the mechanisms of the auxiliary subunits will become increasingly important to precisely describe the function of AMPA-Rs in the brain. The AMPA-R proteomics studies continuously reveal a previously unexpected degree of molecular heterogeneity of the complex. Because the AMPA-Rs are important drug targets for treating various neurological and psychiatric diseases, it is likely that these new native complexes will require detailed mechanistic analysis in the future. The current ultrastructural data on the receptors and the receptor-expressing stable cell lines that were developed during the course of these studies are useful resources for high throughput drug screening and further drug designing. Moreover, we are getting closer to understanding the precise mechanisms of AMPA-R-mediated synaptic plasticity. PMID:21080238

  9. Regulation of Na,K-ATPase Subunit Abundance by Translational Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Rebecca J.; Kaplan, Jack H.

    2009-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is an αβ heterodimer responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in mammalian cells. We engineered Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing α1FLAG, β1FLAG, or β2MYC subunits via a tetracycline-regulated promoter and a line expressing both stable β1MYC and tetracycline-regulated β1FLAG to examine regulatory mechanisms of sodium pump subunit expression. When overexpression of exogenous β1FLAG increased total β subunit levels by >200% without changes in α subunit abundance, endogenous β1 subunit (β1E) abundance decreased. β1E down-regulation did not occur during β2MYC overexpression, indicating isoform specificity of the repression mechanism. Measurements of RNA stability and content indicated that decreased β subunit expression was not accompanied by any change in mRNA levels. In addition, the degradation rate of β subunits was not altered by β1FLAG overexpression. Cells stably expressing β1MYC, when induced to express β1FLAG subunits, showed reduced β1MYC and β1E subunit abundance, indicating that these effects occur via the coding sequences of the down-regulated polypeptides. In a similar way, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells overexpressing exogenous α1FLAG subunits exhibited a reduction of endogenous α1 subunits (α1E) with no change in α mRNA levels or β subunits. The reduction in α1E compensated for α1FLAG subunit expression, resulting in unchanged total α subunit abundance. Thus, regulation of α subunit expression maintained its native level, whereas β subunit was not as tightly regulated and its abundance could increase substantially over native levels. These effects also occurred in human embryonic kidney cells. These data are the first indication that cellular sodium pump subunit abundance is modulated by translational repression. This mechanism represents a novel, potentially important mechanism for regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. PMID:19553675

  10. Catalytic Subunit 1 of Protein Phosphatase 2A Is a Subunit of the STRIPAK Complex and Governs Fungal Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Anna; Krisp, Christoph; Wolters, Dirk A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The generation of complex three-dimensional structures is a key developmental step for most eukaryotic organisms. The details of the molecular machinery controlling this step remain to be determined. An excellent model system to study this general process is the generation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies in filamentous fungi like Sordaria macrospora. Fruiting body development is controlled by subunits of the highly conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which has been described in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans. The highly conserved heterotrimeric protein phosphatase PP2A is a subunit of STRIPAK. Here, catalytic subunit 1 of PP2A was functionally characterized. The Δpp2Ac1 strain is sterile, unable to undergo hyphal fusion, and devoid of ascogonial septation. Further, PP2Ac1, together with STRIPAK subunit PRO22, governs vegetative and stress-related growth. We revealed in vitro catalytic activity of wild-type PP2Ac1, and our in vivo analysis showed that inactive PP2Ac1 blocks the complementation of the sterile deletion strain. Tandem affinity purification, followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis, verified that PP2Ac1 is a subunit of STRIPAK. Further, these data indicate links between the STRIPAK complex and other developmental signaling pathways, implying the presence of a large interconnected signaling network that controls eukaryotic developmental processes. The insights gained in our study can be transferred to higher eukaryotes and will be important for understanding eukaryotic cellular development in general. PMID:27329756

  11. GABAA receptor beta subunit heterogeneity: functional expression of cloned cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ymer, S; Schofield, P R; Draguhn, A; Werner, P; Köhler, M; Seeburg, P H

    1989-01-01

    Cloned cDNAs encoding two new beta subunits of the rat and bovine GABAA receptor have been isolated using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on a highly conserved peptide sequence in the second transmembrane domain of GABAA receptor subunits. The beta 2 and beta 3 subunits share approximately 72% sequence identity with the previously characterized beta 1 polypeptide. Northern analysis showed that both beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs are more abundant in the brain than beta 1 mRNA. All three beta subunit encoding cDNAs were also identified in a library constructed from adrenal medulla RNA. Each beta subunit, when co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with an alpha subunit, forms functional GABAA receptors. These results, together with the known alpha subunit heterogeneity, suggest that a variety of related but functionally distinct GABAA receptor subtypes are generated by different subunit combinations. Images PMID:2548852

  12. Structure, subunit composition, and molecular weight of RD-114 RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kung, H J; Bailey, J M; Davidson, N; Nicolson, M O; McAllister, R M

    1975-01-01

    The properties and subunit composition of the RNA extracted from RD-114 virions have been studied. The RNA extracted from the virion has a sedimentation coefficient of 52S in a nondenaturing aqueous electrolyte. The estimated molecular weight by sedimentation in nondenaturing and weakly denaturing media is in the range 5.7 X 10(6) to 7.0 X 10(6). By electron microscopy, under moderately denaturing conditions, the 52S molecule is seen to be an extended single strand with a contour length of about 4.0 mum corresponding to a molecular weight of 5.74 X 10(6). It contains two characteristic secondary structure features: (i) a central Y- or T-shaped structure (the rabbit ears) with a molecular weight of 0.3 X 10(6), (ii) two symmetreically disposed loops on each side of and at equal distance from the center. The 52S molecule consists of two half-size molecules, with molecular weight 2.8 X 10(6), joined together within the central rabbit ears feature. Melting of the rabbit ears with concomitant dissociation of the 52S molecule into subunits, has been caused by either one of two strongly denaturing treatments: incubation in a mixture of CH3HgOH and glyoxal at room temperature, or thermal dissociation in a urea-formamide solvent. When half-size molecules are quenched from denaturing temperatures, a new off-center secondary structure feature termed the branch-like structure is seen. The dissociation behavior of the 52S complex and the molecular weight of the subunits have been confirmed by gel electrophoresis studies. The loop structures melt at fairly low temperatures; the dissociation of the 52S molecule into its two subunits occurs at a higher temperature corresponding to a base composition of about 63% guanosine plus cytosine. Polyadenylic acid mapping by electron microscopy shows that the 52S molecule contains two polyadenylic acid segments, one at each end. It thus appears that 52S RD-114 RNA consists of two 2.8 X 10(6) dalton subunits, each with a characteristic

  13. Arrangement of Kv1 alpha subunits dictates sensitivity to tetraethylammonium.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Ahmed; Shamotienko, Oleg; Dhochartaigh, Sorcha Ni; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Le Berre, Marie; Shaban, Hamdy; Wang, Jiafu; Sack, Jon T; Dolly, J Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Shaker-related Kv1 channels contain four channel-forming alpha subunits. Subfamily member Kv1.1 often occurs oligomerized with Kv1.2 alpha subunits in synaptic membranes, and so information was sought on the influence of their positions within tetramers on the channels' properties. Kv1.1 and 1.2 alpha genes were tandem linked in various arrangements, followed by expression as single-chain proteins in mammalian cells. As some concatenations reported previously seemed not to reliably position Kv1 subunits in their assemblies, the identity of expressed channels was methodically evaluated. Surface protein, isolated by biotinylation of intact transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, gave Kv1.1/1.2 reactivity on immunoblots with electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to full-length concatenated tetramers. There was no evidence of protein degradation, indicating that concatemers were delivered intact to the plasmalemma. Constructs with like genes adjacent (Kv1.1-1.1-1.2-1.2 or Kv1.2-1.2-1.1-1.1) yielded delayed-rectifying, voltage-dependent K(+) currents with activation parameters and inactivation kinetics slightly different from the diagonally positioned genes (Kv1.1-1.2-1.1-1.2 or 1.2-1.1-1.2-1.1). Pore-blocking petidergic toxins, alpha dendrotoxin, agitoxin-1, tityustoxin-Kalpha, and kaliotoxin, were unable to distinguish between the adjacent and diagonal concatamers. Unprecedentedly, external application of the pore-blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) differentially inhibited the adjacent versus diagonal subunit arrangements, with diagonal constructs having enhanced susceptibility. Concatenation did not directly alter the sensitivities of homomeric Kv1.1 or 1.2 channels to TEA or the toxins. TEA inhibition of currents generated by channels made up from dimers (Kv1.1-1.2 and/or Kv1.2-1.1) was similar to the adjacently arranged constructs. These collective findings indicate that assembly of alpha subunits can be directed by this optimized concatenation, and that subunit

  14. The mitochondrial F1ATPase alpha-subunit is necessary for efficient import of mitochondrial precursors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H; Douglas, M G

    1992-07-25

    The mitochondrial import and assembly of the F1ATPase subunits requires, respectively, the participation of the molecular chaperones hsp70SSA1 and hsp70SSC1 and other components operating on opposite sides of the mitochondrial membrane. In previous studies, both the homology and the assembly properties of the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (ATP1p) compared to the groEL homologue, hsp60, have led to the proposal that this subunit could exhibit chaperone-like activity. In this report the extent to which this subunit participates in protein transport has been determined by comparing import into mitochondria that lack the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (delta ATP1) versus mitochondria that lack the other major catalytic subunit, the F1ATPase beta-subunit (delta ATP2). Yeast mutants lacking the alpha-subunit but not the beta-subunit grow much more slowly than expected on fermentable carbon sources and exhibit delayed kinetics of protein import for several mitochondrial precursors such as the F1 beta subunit, hsp60MIF4 and subunits 4 and 5 of the cytochrome oxidase. In vitro and in vivo the F1 beta-subunit precursor accumulates as a translocation intermediate in absence of the F1 alpha-subunit. In the absence of both the ATPase subunits yeast grows at the same rate as a strain lacking only the beta-subunit, and import of mitochondrial precursors is restored to that of wild type. These data indicate that the F1 alpha-subunit likely functions as an "assembly partner" to influence protein import rather than functioning directly as a chaperone. These data are discussed in light of the relationship between the import and assembly of proteins in mitochondria.

  15. Regulation of expression of a soybean storage protein subunit gene. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Madison, J.T.

    1984-04-23

    We have found that the methionine repression of the ..beta..-subunit gene expression is not due to degradation of the ..beta..-subunit but is due to an effect on synthesis of the ..beta..-subunit. The effect of methionine on the synthesis of the ..beta..-is due to an inhibition of ..beta..-subunit mRNA synthesis. 3 references, 1 figure.

  16. The alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase are homologous: cDNA cloning and primary structure of the beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kilimann, M W; Zander, N F; Kuhn, C C; Crabb, J W; Meyer, H E; Heilmeyer, L M

    1988-01-01

    We have cloned cDNA molecules encoding the beta subunit of phosphorylase kinase (ATP:phosphorylase-b phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.38) from rabbit fast-twitch skeletal muscle and have determined the complete primary structure of the polypeptide by a combination of peptide and DNA sequencing. In the mature beta subunit, the initial methionine is replaced by an acetyl group. The subunit is composed of 1092 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 125,205 Da. Alignment of its sequence with the alpha subunit of phosphorylase kinase reveals extensive regions of homology, but each molecule also possesses unique sequences. Two of the three phosphorylation sites known for the beta subunit and all seven phosphorylation sites known for the alpha subunit are located in these unique domains. Images PMID:3200826

  17. Single subunit type of ferritin from visceral mass of Saccostrea cucullata: cloning, expression and cisplatin-subunit analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Lin, Qing; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2011-09-01

    Ferritin, the iron storage protein, plays a key role in iron metabolism. Here, we have cloned an inducible ferritin cDNA with 516 bp within the open reading frame fragment from the visceral mass of Saccostrea cucullata. The subunit sequence of the ferritin was predicted to be a polypeptide of 171 amino acids with a molecular weight (MW) of 19.9182 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.24. The cDNA sequence of S. cucullata ferritin was constructed into a pET-32a expression system for expressing its relative protein efficiently in the Escherichia coli BL21 strain under isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. The recombinant ferritin, which was further purified on a Ni-NTA resin column and digested with enterokinase, was detected as a single subunit of approximately MW 20 kDa using both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. S. cucullata ferritin (ScFer) showed 98% identity with Crassostrea gigas ferritin at the amino acid level. The secondary structure and phosphorylation sites of deduced amino acids were predicted with ExPASy proteomics tools and the NetPhos 2.0 server, respectively, and the subunit space structure of recombinant S. cucullata ferritin (rScFer) was built using the molecular operating environmental software system. The results of both in-gel digestion and identification using MALDI-TOF MS/MS showed that the recombinant protein was ScFer. ICP-MS indicated that rScFer subunit can directly bind to cisplatin[cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum(CDDP)], giving approximately 22.9 CDDP/ferritin subunit for forming a novel complex of CDDP-subunit, which suggests that it constructs a nanometer CDDP core-ferritin for developing a new drug of anti-cancer. The results of both the real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression of ScFer mRNA was up-regulated in the oyster under the stress of Cd(2+). In addition, the expression increment of ScFer mRNA under bacterial challenge indicated that ferritin participated in the immune response of S. cucullata. The

  18. Methodology to probe subunit interactions in ribonucleotide reductases†

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A Quamrul; Wang, Yongting; Plate, Lars; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2009-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides, providing the monomeric precursors required for DNA replication and repair. E. coli RNR is a 1:1 complex of two homodimeric subunits: α2 and β2. The interactions between α2 and β2 are thought to be largely associated with the C-terminal 20 amino acids (residues 356-375) of β2. To study subunit interactions, a single reactive cysteine has been introduced into each of fifteen positions along the C-terminal tail of β2. Each cysteine has been modified with the photo cross-linker benzophenone (BP) and the environmentally sensitive fluorophore, dimethylaminonaphthalene (DAN). Each construct has been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS PAGE and ESI-MS. Each BP-β2 has been incubated with 1 equivalent of α2, photolyzed, and the results analyzed quantitatively by SDS-PAGE. Each DAN-β2 was incubated with 50-fold excess of α2 and the emission maximum and intensity measured. A comparison of the results from the two sets of probes reveals that sites with most extensive cross-linking are also associated with the greatest changes in fluorescence. Titration of four different DAN-β2 variants (351, 356, 365 and 367) with α2 gave a Kd of ∼0.4 μM for subunit interaction. Disruption of the interaction of α2DAN-β2 complex is accompanied by a decrease in fluorescence intensity and can serve as a high throughput screen for inhibitors of subunit interactions. PMID:19012414

  19. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Caers, A; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ now provides a database of 496 large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. All these sequences are aligned, incorporate secondary structure information, and can be obtained in a number of formats. Other information about the sequences, such as literature references, accession numbers and taxonomic information is also available and searchable. If necessary, the data on the server can also be obtained by anonymous ftp. PMID:9399830

  20. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Our database on large ribosomal subunit RNA contained 334 sequences in July, 1995. All sequences in the database are aligned, taking into account secondary structure. The aligned sequences are provided, together with incorporated secondary structure information, in several computer-readable formats. These data can easily be obtained through the World Wide Web. The files in the database are also available via anonymous ftp. PMID:8594610

  1. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Caers, A; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1998-01-01

    About 8600 complete or nearly complete sequences are now available from the Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA. All these sequences are aligned with one another on the basis of the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The database can be consulted via the World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ PMID:9399829

  2. Yeast telomerase RNA: a flexible scaffold for protein subunits.

    PubMed

    Zappulla, David C; Cech, Thomas R

    2004-07-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, distinct regions of the 1.2-kb telomerase RNA (TLC1) bind to the catalytic subunit Est2p and to accessory proteins. In particular, a bulged stem structure binds the essential regulatory subunit Est1p. We now show that the Est1p-binding domain of the RNA can be moved to three distant locations with retention of telomerase function in vivo. We present the Est1p relocation experiment in the context of a working model for the secondary structure of the entire TLC1 RNA, based on thermodynamic considerations and comparative analysis of sequences from four species. The model for TLC1 has three long quasihelical arms that bind the Ku, Est1p, and Sm proteins. These arms emanate from a central catalytic core that contains the template and Est2p-binding region. Deletion mutagenesis provides evidence that the Sm arm exists in vivo and can be shortened by 42 predicted base pairs with retention of function; therefore, precise positioning of Sm proteins, like Est1p, is not required within telomerase. In the best-studied ribonucleoprotein enzyme, the ribosome, the RNAs have specific three-dimensional structures that orient the functional elements. In the case of yeast telomerase, we propose that the RNA serves a very different function, providing a flexible tether for the protein subunits. PMID:15226497

  3. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  4. Purification and subunit heterogeneity of pili of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S W; Way, A W; Osen, E G

    1986-01-01

    Pili were isolated and purified from Bordetella bronchiseptica. Electron microscopic observations revealed that pili are ubiquitous in this species. The occurrence of pili and flagella appeared to correlate with growth phase and colonial morphology. Pili were about 3 to 4 nm in diameter and morphologically similar to pili isolated from other gram-negative bacteria. Internal core structure was not evident. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified pili showed that up to three different pilus subunit variants could be observed on a single strain, depending on the colonial phase and culture condition. Enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot, however, showed that these subunit variants are serologically related. Mice vaccinated with purified pili were protected against a virulent intraperitoneal challenge of B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica pili were also found to be similar to Bordetella pertussis pili in morphology and in the molecular size and antigenic structure of pilus subunits. The intact pili of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis, however, appeared to have weak serological cross-reactivity. Images PMID:2867974

  5. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  6. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-15

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  7. Physicochemical properties of β and α'α subunits isolated from soybean β-conglycinin.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaoqun; Wang, Donghai; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2011-02-23

    Soy protein has shown great potential for use in biobased adhesives. β-Conglycinin is a major component of soy protein; it accounts for 30% of the total storage protein in soybean seeds. β-Conglycinin was isolated and purified, and its subunits' (β, α'α) physicochemical and adhesive properties were characterized. Crude β-conglycinin was isolated from soy flour and then purified by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The α'α and β subunits were isolated from the purified β-conglycinin by anion exchange chromatography. Yields of α'α subunits and β subunits from 140 g of soy flour were 1.86 g (1.3%) and 0.95 g (0.67%), respectively. The minimum solubility for α'α subunits, β subunits, and β-conglycinin occurred in pH ranges of 4.1-5.4, 3.5-7.0, and 4.8-5.3, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the β subunits existed as spherical hydrophobic clusters, whereas α'α subunits existed as uniformly discrete particles at pH 5.0. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that β subunits had higher thermal stability than α'α subunits. The pH had a lesser effect on adhesion strength of the β subunits than on that of the α'α subunits. The adhesives made from β subunits also showed greater water resistance than those from α'α subunits and β-conglycinin. Soy protein rich in β subunits is likely a good candidate for developing water-resistant adhesives.

  8. Two-subunit DNA escort mechanism and inactive subunit bypass in an ultra-fast ring ATPase

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ninning; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-10-09

    SpoIIIE is a homo-hexameric dsDNA translocase responsible for completing chromosome segregation in Bacillus subtilis . Here, we use a single-molecule approach to monitor SpoIIIE translocation when challenged with neutral-backbone DNA and non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs. We show that SpoIIIE makes multiple essential contacts with phosphates on the 5'→3' strand in the direction of translocation. Using DNA constructs with two neutral-backbone segments separated by a single charged base pair, we deduce that SpoIIIE’s step size is 2 bp. Finally, experiments with non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs suggest that SpoIIIE can operate with non-consecutive inactive subunits. We propose a two-subunit escort translocation mechanism thatmore » is strict enough to enable SpoIIIE to track one DNA strand, yet sufficiently compliant to permit the motor to bypass inactive subunits without arrest. We speculate that such a flexible mechanism arose for motors that, like SpoIIIE, constitute functional bottlenecks where the inactivation of even a single motor can be lethal for the cell.« less

  9. Developmental and Regulatory Functions of Na(+) Channel Non-pore-forming β Subunits.

    PubMed

    Winters, J J; Isom, L L

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) isolated from mammalian neurons are heterotrimeric complexes containing one pore-forming α subunit and two non-pore-forming β subunits. In excitable cells, VGSCs are responsible for the initiation of action potentials. VGSC β subunits are type I topology glycoproteins, containing an extracellular amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) domain with homology to many neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), a single transmembrane segment, and an intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain. VGSC β subunits are encoded by a gene family that is distinct from the α subunits. While α subunits are expressed in prokaryotes, β subunit orthologs did not arise until after the emergence of vertebrates. β subunits regulate the cell surface expression, subcellular localization, and gating properties of their associated α subunits. In addition, like many other Ig-CAMs, β subunits are involved in cell migration, neurite outgrowth, and axon pathfinding and may function in these roles in the absence of associated α subunits. In sum, these multifunctional proteins are critical for both channel regulation and central nervous system development. PMID:27586289

  10. Structure of subcomplex Iβ of mammalian respiratory complex I leads to new supernumerary subunit assignments

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiapeng; King, Martin S.; Yu, Minmin; Klipcan, Liron; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Hirst, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential respiratory enzyme. Mammalian complex I contains 45 subunits: 14 conserved “core” subunits and 31 “supernumerary” subunits. The structure of Bos taurus complex I, determined to 5-Å resolution by electron cryomicroscopy, described the structure of the mammalian core enzyme and allowed the assignment of 14 supernumerary subunits. Here, we describe the 6.8-Å resolution X-ray crystallography structure of subcomplex Iβ, a large portion of the membrane domain of B. taurus complex I that contains two core subunits and a cohort of supernumerary subunits. By comparing the structures and composition of subcomplex Iβ and complex I, supported by comparisons with Yarrowia lipolytica complex I, we propose assignments for eight further supernumerary subunits in the structure. Our new assignments include two CHCH-domain containing subunits that contain disulfide bridges between CX9C motifs; they are processed by the Mia40 oxidative-folding pathway in the intermembrane space and probably stabilize the membrane domain. We also assign subunit B22, an LYR protein, to the matrix face of the membrane domain. We reveal that subunit B22 anchors an acyl carrier protein (ACP) to the complex, replicating the LYR protein–ACP structural module that was identified previously in the hydrophilic domain. Thus, we significantly extend knowledge of how the mammalian supernumerary subunits are arranged around the core enzyme, and provide insights into their roles in biogenesis and regulation. PMID:26371297

  11. Effects of regulatory subunits on the kinetics of protein phosphatase 2A.

    PubMed

    Price, N E; Mumby, M C

    2000-09-19

    Both the scaffold (A) and the regulatory (R) subunits of protein phosphatase 2A regulate enzyme activity and specificity. Heterotrimeric enzymes containing different R-subunits differ in their specific activities for substrates. Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of a phosphopeptide by different oligomeric forms of PP2A were determined to begin to elucidate the molecular basis of regulatory subunit effects on phosphatase activity. Using steady state kinetics and the pH dependence of kinetic parameters, we have explored the effect of the A- and R-subunits on the kinetic and chemical mechanism of PP2A. The regulatory subunits affected a broad range of kinetic parameters. The C-subunit and AC dimer were qualitatively similar with respect to the product inhibition patterns and the pH dependence of kinetic parameters. However, a 22-fold decrease in rate and a 4.7-fold decrease in K(m) can be attributed to the presence of the A-subunit. The presence of the R2alpha (Balpha or PR55alpha) subunit caused an additional decrease in K(m) and changed the kinetic mechanism of peptide dephosphorylation. The R2alpha-subunit also caused significant changes in the pH dependence of kinetic parameters as compared to the free C subunit or AC heterodimer. The data support an important role for the regulatory subunits in determining both the affinity of PP2A heterotrimers for peptide substrates and the mechanism by which they are dephosphorylated.

  12. Reconstitution of thermostable ATPase capable of energy coupling from its purified subunits.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Okamoto, H; Sone, N; Hirata, H; Kagawa, Y

    1977-03-01

    Purified dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive ATPase (TF0-F1) from thermophilic bacterium PS3 is composed of a water soluble part with ATP hydrolytic activity (TF1) and a water insoluble moiety (TF0). All of the five subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) of TF1 were isolated. TF1 was reconstituted from the five subunits, which catalyzed an ATP-32Pi exchange and an ATP-driven enhancement of fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate, when adsorbed on proteoliposome inlaid with TF0 (TF3-vesicles). Subunit epsilon and/or delta became firmly bound to TF0-vesicles and there was no preferential sequence in the binding. Both subunits were required for binding of the remaining subunits of TF1 to TF0-vesicles, but they did not modify the high H+ -permeability of TF0-vesicles. The addition of gamma but they did not modify the high H+-permeability of TFO-vesicles. The addition of gamma subunit together with epsilon and delta subunits caused a marked decrease of H+ -permeability of TF0-vesicles, similar to that induced by TF1. We conclude tentatively that the epsilon and delta subunits connect TF0 and the other subunits forming a part of a proton pathway, gamma is a gate of proton flow coupled to ATP hydrolysis (or synthesis), and alpha and beta subunits contain the active site for energy transformation. A possible model of subunit structure of TF1 is proposed. PMID:139610

  13. Individual IKs channels at the surface of mammalian cells contain two KCNE1 accessory subunits

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Leigh D.; Xiong, Dazhi; Dai, Hui; Goldstein, Steve A. N.

    2014-01-01

    KCNE1 (E1) β-subunits assemble with KCNQ1 (Q1) voltage-gated K+ channel α-subunits to form IKslow (IKs) channels in the heart and ear. The number of E1 subunits in IKs channels has been an issue of ongoing debate. Here, we use single-molecule spectroscopy to demonstrate that surface IKs channels with human subunits contain two E1 and four Q1 subunits. This stoichiometry does not vary. Thus, IKs channels in cells with elevated levels of E1 carry no more than two E1 subunits. Cells with low levels of E1 produce IKs channels with two E1 subunits and Q1 channels with no E1 subunits—channels with one E1 do not appear to form or are restricted from surface expression. The plethora of models of cardiac function, transgenic animals, and drug screens based on variable E1 stoichiometry do not reflect physiology. PMID:24591645

  14. Individual subunits of bacterial luciferase are molten globules and interact with molecular chaperones.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, G C; Beckers, C J; Baase, W A; Dahlquist, F W

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the assembly of a large heterodimeric protein, bacterial luciferase, by mixing purified subunits expressed separately in bacteria. The individual subunits alpha and beta contain much (66% and 50%, respectively) of the alpha-helix content of the native heterodimer as measured by circular dichroism, yet the alpha subunit lacks observable tertiary structure as measured by NMR. These results are consistent with the alpha subunit existing in a molten globule or collapsed form prior to assembly. The molecular chaperone GroEL binds reversibly to both subunits prior to assembly. Since these observations were obtained under physiological conditions, we propose that the molten globule exists as a stable form during folding or assembly in the cell. Either the molten globule form of the subunits is an authentic folding intermediate or it is in rapid equilibrium with one. GroEL may function by facilitating assembly through stabilization of these incompletely folded subunits. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7902573

  15. Functional Diversification of Maize RNA Polymerase IV and V subtypes via Alternative Catalytic Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Brower-Toland, Brent; Krieger, Elysia K.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Irsigler, Andre; LaRue, Huachun; Brzeski, Jan; Mcginnis, Karen A.; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Chandler, Vicki L.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2014-10-01

    Unlike nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases I, II, and III, whose subunit compositions are conserved throughout eukaryotes, plant RNA polymerases IV and V are nonessential, Pol II-related enzymes whose subunit compositions are still evolving. Whereas Arabidopsis Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in four or five of their 12 subunits, respectively, and differ from one another in three subunits, proteomic ana- lyses show that maize Pols IV and V differ from Pol II in six subunits but differ from each other only in their largest subunits. Use of alternative catalytic second subunits, which are nonredundant for development and paramutation, yields at least two sub- types of Pol IV and three subtypes of Pol V in maize. Pol IV/Pol V associations with MOP1, RMR1, AGO121, Zm_DRD1/CHR127, SHH2a, and SHH2b extend parallels between paramutation in maize and the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis.

  16. Modulation of BK Channel Function by Auxiliary Beta and Gamma Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Yan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The large-conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and displays diverse biophysical or pharmacological characteristics. This diversity is in part conferred by channel modulation with different regulatory auxiliary subunits. To date, two distinct classes of BK channel auxiliary subunits have been identified: β subunits and γ subunits. Modulation of BK channels by the four auxiliary β (β1–β4) subunits has been well established and intensively investigated over the past two decades. The auxiliary γ subunits, however, were identified only very recently, which adds a new dimension to BK channel regulation and improves our understanding of the physiological functions of BK channels in various tissues and cell types. This chapter will review the current understanding of BK channel modulation by auxiliary β and γ subunits, especially the latest findings. PMID:27238261

  17. Arrangement of subunits in the proteolipid ring of the V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Cipriano, Daniel J; Forgac, Michael

    2007-11-23

    The vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are multisubunit complexes containing two domains. The V(1) domain (subunits A-H) is peripheral and carries out ATP hydrolysis. The V(0) domain (subunits a, c, c', c'', d, and e) is membrane-integral and carries out proton transport. In yeast, there are three proteolipid subunits as follows: subunit c (Vma3p), subunit c' (Vma11p), and subunit c'' (Vma16p). The proteolipid subunits form a six-membered ring containing single copies of subunits c' and c'' and four copies of subunit c. To determine the possible arrangements of proteolipid subunits in V(0) that give rise to a functional V-ATPase complex, a series of gene fusions was constructed to constrain the arrangement of pairs of subunits in the ring. Fusions containing c'' employed a truncated version of this protein lacking the first putative transmembrane helix (which we have shown previously to be functional), to ensure that the N and C termini of all subunits were located on the luminal side of the membrane. Fusion constructs were expressed in strains disrupted in c', c'', or both but containing a wild copy of c to ensure the presence of the required number of copies of subunit c. The c-c''(DeltaTM1), c''(DeltaTM1)-c', and c'-c constructs all complemented the vma(-) phenotype and gave rise to complexes possessing greater than 25% of wild-type levels of activity. By contrast, neither the c-c', the c'-c''(DeltaTM1), nor the c''(DeltaTM1)-c constructs complemented the vma(-) phenotype. These results suggest that functionally assembled V-ATPase complexes contain the proteolipid subunits arranged in a unique order in the ring.

  18. High-affinity ouabain binding by yeast cells expressing Na+, K(+)-ATPase alpha subunits and the gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Eakle, K A; Kim, K S; Kabalin, M A; Farley, R A

    1992-04-01

    Recently, a beta subunit for the rat gastric H+,K(+)-ATPase (HK beta), which is structurally similar to the beta subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, has been cloned and characterized. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we have tested the specificity of beta subunit assembly with different isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase. Coexpression in yeast cells of the HK beta with both the sheep alpha 1 subunit and the rat alpha 3 subunit isoforms of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 3, respectively) leads to the appearance of high-affinity ouabain-binding sites in yeast membranes. These ouabain-binding sites (alpha 1 plus HK beta, alpha 3 plus HK beta) have a high affinity for ouabain (Kd, 5-10 nM) and are expressed at levels similar to those formed with the rat beta 1 subunit of Na+, K(+)-ATPase (beta 1) (alpha 1 plus beta 1 or alpha 3 plus beta 1). Potassium acts as a specific antagonist of ouabain binding by alpha 1 plus HK beta and alpha 3 plus HK beta just like sodium pumps formed with beta 1. Sodium pumps formed with the HK beta, however, show quantitative differences in their affinity for ouabain and in the antagonism of K+ for ouabain binding. These data suggest that the structure of the beta subunit may play a role in sodium pump function. PMID:1313569

  19. Colocalization of HCN Channel Subunits in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Greenberg, Kenneth P.; Krempely, Kalen S.; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The current-passing pore of mammalian hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated ("HCN") channels is formed by subunit isoforms denoted HCN1-4. In various brain areas, antibodies directed against multiple isoforms bind to single neurons and the current ("Ih") passed during hyperpolarizations differs from that of heterologously expressed homomeric channels. By contrast, retinal rod, cone, and bipolar cells appear to use homomeric HCN channels. Here, we assess the generality of this pattern by examining HCN1 and HCN4 immunoreactivity in rat retinal ganglion cells, measuring Ih in dissociated cells, and testing whether HCN1 and HCN4 protein coimmunoprecipitate. Nearly half of the ganglion cells in whole-mounted retinae bound antibodies against both isoforms. Consistent with colocalization and physical association, 8-bromo-cAMP shifted the voltage-sensitivity of Ih less than that of HCN4 channels and more than that of HCN1 channels, and HCN1 coimmunoprecipitated with HCN4 from membrane fraction proteins. Lastly, the immunopositive somata ranged in diameter from the smallest to the largest in rat retina, the dendrites of immunopositive cells arborized at various levels of the inner plexiform layer and over fields of different diameters, and Ih activated with similar kinetics and proportions of fast and slow components in small, medium, and large somata. These results show that different HCN subunits colocalize in single retinal ganglion cells, identify a subunit that can reconcile native Ih properties with the previously reported presence of HCN4 in these cells, and indicate that Ih is biophysically similar in morphologically diverse retinal ganglion cells and differs from Ih in rods, cones, and bipolar cells. PMID:21456027

  20. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain of Subunit I, a Homolog of Subunit a, of V-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Sankaranarayanan; Vyas, Nand K.; Baker, Matthew L.; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2012-02-27

    Subunit 'a' is associated with the membrane-bound (VO) complex of eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase acidification machinery. It has also been shown recently to be involved in diverse membrane fusion/secretory functions independent of acidification. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal cytosolic domain from the Meiothermus ruber subunit 'I' homolog of subunit a. The structure is composed of a curved long central {alpha}-helix bundle capped on both ends by two lobes with similar {alpha}/{beta} architecture. Based on the structure, a reasonable model of its eukaryotic subunit a counterpart was obtained. The crystal structure and model fit well into reconstructions from electron microscopy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases, respectively, clarifying their orientations and interactions and revealing features that could enable subunit a to play a role in membrane fusion/secretion.

  2. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Van den Broeck, I; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1994-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contains (June 1994) 2824 nucleotide sequences. All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp on our server in Antwerp. A special effort was made to improve electronic retrieval and a program is supplied that allows to create different file formats. The database can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library. PMID:7524022

  3. Database on the structure of large ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    De Rijk, P; Van de Peer, Y; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The latest release of the large ribosomal subunit RNA database contains 429 sequences. All these sequences are aligned, and incorporate secondary structure information. The rRNA WWW Server at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ provides researchers with an easily accessible resource to obtain the data in this database in a number of computer-readable formats. A new query interface has been added to the server. If necessary, the data can also be obtained by anonymous ftp from the same site. PMID:9016517

  4. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Jansen, J; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1997-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA now offers more than 6000 nucleotide sequences (August 1996). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. For ease of use, the complete database is made available to the scientific community via World Wide Web at URL http://rrna.uia.ac.be/ssu/ . PMID:9016516

  5. Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Nicolaï, S; De Rijk, P; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences are stored in the form of an alignment based on the adopted secondary structure model, which in turn is corroborated by the observation of compensating substitutions in the alignment. Besides the primary and secondary structure information, literature references, accession numbers and detailed taxonomic information are also compiled. The complete database is made available to the scientific community through anonymous ftp and World Wide Web(WWW). PMID:8594609

  6. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 activity in bovine rod outer segments by the beta gamma subunits of transducin and its inhibition by the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Jelsema, C L; Axelrod, J

    1987-01-01

    In the rod outer segments (ROS) of bovine retina, light activation of phospholipase A2 has been shown to occur by a transducin-dependent mechanism. In this report, the transducin-mediated stimulation of phospholipase A2 is shown to require dissociation of the alpha beta gamma heterotrimer. Addition of transducin to dark-adapted transducin-poor ROS stimulated phospholipase A2 activity only with coincident exposure to white light or, in the dark, with addition of the hydrolysis-resistant GTP analog, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma-S]). Both light and GTP[gamma-S] induced dissociation of the transducin subunits and led to severalfold increases in the phospholipase A2 activity of transducin-rich, but not transducin-poor, ROS. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment of transducin, which stabilizes the associated state of this G protein, prevented the stimulation of phospholipase A2 by exogenous transducin in the presence of light. Addition of purified transducin subunits to dark-adapted transducin-poor ROS revealed that phospholipase A2 stimulation occurred by action of the beta gamma subunits. This is in contrast to the transducin-mediated increase in cGMP phosphodiesterase activity, where activation occurs by action of the alpha subunit. The alpha subunit, which itself slightly stimulated phospholipase A2 activity, inhibited the beta gamma-induced stimulation of phospholipase A2. This inhibition appears to be the result of subunit reassociation since addition of GTP[gamma-S] abolished the inhibitory effect of the alpha subunit on the beta gamma-induced increase in phospholipase A2, while pertussis toxin treatment of the subunits further inhibited phospholipase A2 activity. Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity by the transducin subunit is, therefore, a mode of action for these subunits in signal transduction. PMID:3108876

  7. Fluorescence measurements reveal stoichiometry of K+ channels formed by modulatory and delayed rectifier alpha-subunits.

    PubMed

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel; Soto, Florentina; Stocker, Martin

    2005-04-26

    Modulatory alpha-subunits, which comprise one-fourth of all voltagegated K(+) channel (Kv) alpha-subunits, do not assemble into homomeric channels, but selectively associate with delayed rectifier Kv2 subunits to form heteromeric channels of unknown stoichiometry. Their distinct expression patterns and unique functional properties have made these channels candidate molecular correlates for a broad set of native K(+) currents. Here, we combine FRET and electrophysiological measurements to determine the stoichiometry and geometry of heteromeric channels composed of the delayed rectifier Kv2.1 subunit and the modulatory Kv9.3 alpha-subunit. Kv channel alpha-subunits were fused with GFP variants, and heteromerization of different combinations of tagged and untagged alpha-subunits was studied. FRET, evaluated by acceptor photobleaching, was only observed upon formation of functional channels. Our results, obtained from two independent experimental paradigms, suggest the formation of heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels of fixed stoichiometry consisting of three Kv2.1 subunits and one Kv9.3 subunit. Strikingly, despite this uneven stoichiometry, we find that heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels maintain a pseudosymmetric arrangement of subunits around the central pore. PMID:15827117

  8. Fluorescence measurements reveal stoichiometry of K+ channels formed by modulatory and delayed rectifier α-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel; Soto, Florentina; Stocker, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Modulatory α-subunits, which comprise one-fourth of all voltagegated K+ channel (Kv) α-subunits, do not assemble into homomeric channels, but selectively associate with delayed rectifier Kv2 subunits to form heteromeric channels of unknown stoichiometry. Their distinct expression patterns and unique functional properties have made these channels candidate molecular correlates for a broad set of native K+ currents. Here, we combine FRET and electrophysiological measurements to determine the stoichiometry and geometry of heteromeric channels composed of the delayed rectifier Kv2.1 subunit and the modulatory Kv9.3 α-subunit. Kv channel α-subunits were fused with GFP variants, and heteromerization of different combinations of tagged and untagged α-subunits was studied. FRET, evaluated by acceptor photobleaching, was only observed upon formation of functional channels. Our results, obtained from two independent experimental paradigms, suggest the formation of heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels of fixed stoichiometry consisting of three Kv2.1 subunits and one Kv9.3 subunit. Strikingly, despite this uneven stoichiometry, we find that heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels maintain a pseudosymmetric arrangement of subunits around the central pore. PMID:15827117

  9. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  10. [Fluorescent derivatives of diphtheria toxin subunit B and their interaction with Vero cells].

    PubMed

    Kaberniuk, A A; Labyntsev, A Iu; Kolybo, D V; Oliĭnyk, O S; Redchuk, T A; Korotkevych, N V; Horchev, V F; Karakhim, S O; Komisarenko, S V

    2009-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin's B subunit provides toxin interaction with its receptor on the cell surface and translocation of toxin's A subunit from endosome to cytozole of sensitive cells. Functional analogues of B subunit with fluorescent label are considered as perspective tools for studying the above mentioned processes. The aim of the work was to obtain fluorescent B subunit analogues and to detect the specificity of their interaction with Vero line cells. B subunit fluorescent analogues were obtained in two different ways. The first one was B subunit chemical conjugation with fluorescein isothiocyanate and the second one was genetic fusion of recombinant B subunit chain with enhanced green fluorescent protein chain. Specific interaction of B subunit fluorescent derivatives with Vero cells was studied by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Using competitive analysis it was shown that B subunit fluorescent analogues possessed different affinity for cells. The affinity of EGFP-SbB was higher than FITC-SbB. Our results indicate the possibility to use the fluorescent derivatives of B subunit as tools for identification of diphtheria toxin's receptor (HB-EGF) expression on the cell surface as well as for studying the interaction and penetration of diphtheria toxin to the cell.

  11. Deciphering the function of the CNGB1b subunit in olfactory CNG channels

    PubMed Central

    Nache, Vasilica; Wongsamitkul, Nisa; Kusch, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Schwede, Frank; Benndorf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are key players in the signal transduction cascade of olfactory sensory neurons. The second messengers cAMP and cGMP directly activate these channels, generating a depolarizing receptor potential. Olfactory CNG channels are composed of two CNGA2 subunits and two modulatory subunits, CNGA4, and CNGB1b. So far the exact role of the modulatory subunits for channel activation is not fully understood. By measuring ligand binding and channel activation simultaneously, we show that in functional heterotetrameric channels not only the CNGA2 subunits and the CNGA4 subunit but also the CNGB1b subunit binds cyclic nucleotides and, moreover, also alone translates this signal to open the pore. In addition, we show that the CNGB1b subunit is the most sensitive subunit in a heterotetrameric channel to cyclic nucleotides and that it accelerates deactivation to a similar extent as does the CNGA4 subunit. In conclusion, the CNGB1b subunit participates in ligand-gated activation of olfactory CNG channels and, particularly, contributes to rapid termination of odorant signal in an olfactory sensory neuron. PMID:27405959

  12. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H

    1990-01-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. We propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits. Images PMID:2107547

  13. Soluble IL-6 Receptor and IL-27 Subunit p28 Protein Complex Mediate the Antiviral Response through the Type III IFN Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodan; Hao, Hua; Xia, Zhangchuan; Xu, Gang; Cao, Zhongying; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Ying

    2016-09-15

    Previously, we demonstrated that the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) plays an important role in the host antiviral response through induction of type I IFN and sIL-6R-mediated antiviral action via the IL-27 subunit p28; however, the mechanism that underlies sIL-6R and p28 antiviral action and whether type III IFN is involved remain unknown. In this study, we constructed a sIL-6R and p28 fusion protein (sIL-6R/p28 FP) and demonstrated that the fusion protein has stronger antiviral activity than sIL-6R alone. Consequently, knockout of sIL-6R inhibited virus-triggered IFN-λ1 expression. In addition, sIL-6R/p28 FP associated with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and TNFR-associated factor 6, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I adapter complex, and the antiviral activity mediated by sIL-6R/p28 FP was dependent on mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. Furthermore, significantly reduced binding of p50/p65 and IFN regulatory factor 3 to the IFN-λ1 promoter was observed in sIL-6R knockout cells compared with the control cells. Interestingly, a novel heterodimer of c-Fos and activating transcription factor 1 was identified as a crucial transcriptional activator of IFN-λ1 The sIL-6R/p28 FP upregulated IFN-λ1 expression by increasing the binding abilities of c-Fos and activating transcription factor 1 to the IFN-λ1 promoter via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the important role of sIL-6R/p28 FP in mediating virus-induced type III IFN production. PMID:27527594

  14. YC-1 binding to the β subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase overcomes allosteric inhibition by the α subunit.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Rahul; Fritz, Bradley G; The, Juliana; Issaian, Aaron; Weichsel, Andrzej; David, Cynthia L; Campbell, Eric; Hausrath, Andrew C; Rassouli-Taylor, Leida; Garcin, Elsa D; Gage, Matthew J; Montfort, William R

    2014-01-14

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein and the primary nitric oxide receptor. NO binding stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and making sGC an attractive target for drug discovery. YC-1 and related compounds stimulate sGC both independently and synergistically with NO and CO binding; however, where the compounds bind and how they work remain unknown. Using linked equilibrium binding measurements, surface plasmon resonance, and domain truncations in Manduca sexta and bovine sGC, we demonstrate that YC-1 binds near or directly to the heme-containing domain of the β subunit. In the absence of CO, YC-1 binds with a Kd of 9-21 μM, depending on the construct. In the presence of CO, these values decrease to 0.6-1.1 μM. Pfizer compound 25 bound ∼10-fold weaker than YC-1 in the absence of CO, whereas compound BAY 41-2272 bound particularly tightly in the presence of CO (Kd = 30-90 nM). Additionally, we found that CO binds much more weakly to heterodimeric sGC proteins (Kd = 50-100 μM) than to the isolated heme domain (Kd = 0.2 μM for Manduca β H-NOX/PAS). YC-1 greatly enhanced binding of CO to heterodimeric sGC, as expected (Kd ∼ 1 μM). These data indicate the α subunit induces a heme pocket conformation with a lower affinity for CO and NO. YC-1 family compounds bind near the heme domain, overcoming the α subunit effect and inducing a heme pocket conformation with high affinity. We propose this high-affinity conformation is required for the full-length protein to achieve high catalytic activity.

  15. Subunit gamma of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na(+) pump: interaction with other subunits/domains of the complex and binding site for the Zn(2+) metal ion.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Markus; Wild, Markus R; Dahinden, Pius; Dimroth, Peter

    2002-01-29

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na(+) pump of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an enzyme complex composed of the peripheral alpha subunit and the two integral membrane-bound subunits beta and gamma. The alpha subunit consists of the N-terminal carboxyltransferase domain and the C-terminal biotin domain, which are connected by a flexible proline/alanine-rich linker peptide. To probe interactions between the two domains of the alpha subunit and between alpha-subunit domains and the gamma subunit, the relevant polypeptides were synthesized in Escherichia coli and subjected to copurification studies. The two alpha-subunit domains had no distinct affinity toward each other and could, therefore, not be purified as a unit on avidin-sepharose. The two domains reacted together catalytically, however, performing the carboxyl transfer from oxaloacetate to protein-bound biotin. This reaction was enhanced up to 6-fold in the presence of the Zn(2+)-containing gamma subunit. On the basis of copurification with different tagged proteins, the C-terminal biotin domain but not the N-terminal carboxyltransferase domain of the alpha subunit formed a strong complex with the gamma subunit. Upon the mutation of gamma H78 to alanine, the binding affinity to subunit alpha was lost, indicating that this amino acid may be essential for formation of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase enzyme complex. The binding residues for the Zn(2+) metal ion were identified by site-directed and deletion mutagenesis. In the gamma D62A or gamma H77A mutant, the Zn(2+) content of the decarboxylase decreased to 35% or 10% of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Less than 5% of the Zn(2+) present in the wild-type enzyme was found if the two C-terminal gamma-subunit residues H82 and P83 were deleted. Corresponding with the reduced Zn(2+) contents in these mutants, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase activities were diminished. These results indicate that aspartate 62, histidine 77, and histidine 82 of the gamma subunit are ligands

  16. Genetic exploration of interactive domains in RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Okamura, S; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    The two large subunits of RNA polymerase II, RPB1 and RPB2, contain regions of extensive homology to the two large subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. These homologous regions may represent separate protein domains with unique functions. We investigated whether suppressor genetics could provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of RPB1 and RPB2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A plasmid shuffle method was used to screen thoroughly for mutations in RPB2 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb1-1, which is located in region H of RPB1. All six RPB2 mutations that suppress rpb1-1 were clustered in region I of RPB2. The location of these mutations and the observation that they were allele specific for suppression of rpb1-1 suggests an interaction between region H of RPB1 and region I of RPB2. A similar experiment was done to isolate and map mutations in RPB1 that suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation, rpb2-2, which occurs in region I of RPB2. These suppressor mutations were not clustered in a particular region. Thus, fine structure suppressor genetics can provide evidence for interactions between specific segments of two proteins, but the results of this type of analysis can depend on the conditional mutation to be suppressed. Images PMID:2183012

  17. Mechanisms underlying subunit independence in pyramidal neuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Behabadi, Bardia F.; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal neuron (PN) dendrites compartmentalize voltage signals and can generate local spikes, which has led to the proposal that their dendrites act as independent computational subunits within a multilayered processing scheme. However, when a PN is strongly activated, back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) sweeping outward from the soma synchronize dendritic membrane potentials many times per second. How PN dendrites maintain the independence of their voltage-dependent computations, despite these repeated voltage resets, remains unknown. Using a detailed compartmental model of a layer 5 PN, and an improved method for quantifying subunit independence that incorporates a more accurate model of dendritic integration, we first established that the output of each dendrite can be almost perfectly predicted by the intensity and spatial configuration of its own synaptic inputs, and is nearly invariant to the rate of bAP-mediated “cross-talk” from other dendrites over a 100-fold range. Then, through an analysis of conductance, voltage, and current waveforms within the model cell, we identify three biophysical mechanisms that together help make independent dendritic computation possible in a firing neuron, suggesting that a major subtype of neocortical neuron has been optimized for layered, compartmentalized processing under in-vivo–like spiking conditions. PMID:24357611

  18. Overexpression of neurofilament subunit M accelerates axonal transport of neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Tung, V W

    2000-06-01

    Neurofilaments are composed of three polypeptide subunits (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). They are the most abundant cytoskeletal element in large myelinated axons and play a central role in development of axonal caliber. To perform this role, neurofilaments are transported from their site of synthesis, the cell bodies, to the distal axons. Previous studies showed that overexpression of NF-M in transgenic mice led to accumulation of neurofilaments in neurons and a reduction in the number of neurofilaments in axons, suggesting that axonal transport of neurofilaments was slowed. To determine whether this was the case, we measured axonal transport velocities in the wild type and transgenic mice overexpressing NF-M by the classical pulse-labeling method using 35S-methionine. We found that neurofilament transport in peripheral motor axons can be described with a model consistent with two linear velocities. Contrary to expectations, both velocities were accelerated by overexpression of NF-M. These results suggest that subunit composition in neurofilaments play a regulatory role in neurofilament transport. In addition, these results show that there are regional differences in neurofilament transport along long axons and these differences may be the basis for selective regional accumulation of neurofilaments in various neurological disorders.

  19. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen.

  20. Thermostable Cross-Protective Subunit Vaccine against Brucella Species

    PubMed Central

    Barabé, Nicole D.; Grigat, Michelle L.; Lee, William E.; Poirier, Robert T.; Jager, Scott J.; Berger, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 105 CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. PMID:25320267

  1. Palmitoylation of the β4-subunit regulates surface expression of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel splice variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lie; Bi, Danlei; Tian, Lijun; McClafferty, Heather; Steeb, Franziska; Ruth, Peter; Knaus, Hans Guenther; Shipston, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Regulatory β-subunits of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in generating functional diversity and control of cell surface expression of the pore forming α-subunits. However, in contrast to α-subunits, the role of reversible post-translational modification of intracellular residues on β-subunit function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the human β4-subunit is S-acylated (palmitoylated) on a juxtamembrane cysteine residue (Cys-193) in the intracellular C terminus of the regulatory β-subunit. β4-Subunit palmitoylation is important for cell surface expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of the β4-subunit alone. Importantly, palmitoylated β4-subunits promote the ER exit and surface expression of the pore-forming α-subunit, whereas β4-subunits that cannot be palmitoylated do not increase ER exit or surface expression of α-subunits. Strikingly, however, this palmitoylation- and β4-dependent enhancement of α-subunit surface expression was only observed in α-subunits that contain a putative trafficking motif (… REVEDEC) at the very C terminus of the α-subunit. Engineering this trafficking motif to other C-terminal α-subunit splice variants results in α-subunits with reduced surface expression that can be rescued by palmitoylated, but not depalmitoylated, β4-subunits. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which palmitoylated β4-subunit controls surface expression of BK channels through masking of a trafficking motif in the C terminus of the α-subunit. As palmitoylation is dynamic, this mechanism would allow precise control of specific splice variants to the cell surface. Our data provide new insights into how complex interplay between the repertoire of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms controls cell surface expression of BK channels.

  2. Protein Kinase A Subunit Balance Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans and Mammalian Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Han, Ji Seul; Kong, Jinuk; Ji, Yul; Lv, Xuchao; Lee, Junho; Li, Peng; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-23

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits and involved in various physiological phenomena, including lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrated that the stoichiometric balance between catalytic and regulatory subunits is crucial for maintaining basal PKA activity and lipid homeostasis. To uncover the potential roles of each PKA subunit, Caenorhabditis elegans was used to investigate the effects of PKA subunit deficiency. In worms, suppression of PKA via RNAi resulted in severe phenotypes, including shortened life span, decreased egg laying, reduced locomotion, and altered lipid distribution. Similarly, in mammalian adipocytes, suppression of PKA regulatory subunits RIα and RIIβ via siRNAs potently stimulated PKA activity, leading to potentiated lipolysis without increasing cAMP levels. Nevertheless, insulin exerted anti-lipolytic effects and restored lipid droplet integrity by antagonizing PKA action. Together, these data implicate the importance of subunit stoichiometry as another regulatory mechanism of PKA activity and lipid metabolism.

  3. Protein Kinase A Subunit Balance Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans and Mammalian Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Han, Ji Seul; Kong, Jinuk; Ji, Yul; Lv, Xuchao; Lee, Junho; Li, Peng; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-23

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits and involved in various physiological phenomena, including lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrated that the stoichiometric balance between catalytic and regulatory subunits is crucial for maintaining basal PKA activity and lipid homeostasis. To uncover the potential roles of each PKA subunit, Caenorhabditis elegans was used to investigate the effects of PKA subunit deficiency. In worms, suppression of PKA via RNAi resulted in severe phenotypes, including shortened life span, decreased egg laying, reduced locomotion, and altered lipid distribution. Similarly, in mammalian adipocytes, suppression of PKA regulatory subunits RIα and RIIβ via siRNAs potently stimulated PKA activity, leading to potentiated lipolysis without increasing cAMP levels. Nevertheless, insulin exerted anti-lipolytic effects and restored lipid droplet integrity by antagonizing PKA action. Together, these data implicate the importance of subunit stoichiometry as another regulatory mechanism of PKA activity and lipid metabolism. PMID:27496951

  4. [Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of phycocyanin and its subunits purified from Anabaena variabilis CCC421].

    PubMed

    Chakdar, N; Sakha, S; Pabbi, S

    2014-01-01

    Phycocyanin, a high value pigment was purified from diazotrophic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis CCC421 using a strategy involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose column. 36% phycocyanin with a purity of 2.75 was recovered finally after anion exchange chromatography. Purified phycocyanin was found to contain 2 subunits of 17 and 18 kDa which were identified as a-and (3 subunits by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOE HPLC method using a C5 column coupled with fluorescence or photodiode-based detection was also developed to separate and detect the A. variabilis CCC421 phycocyanin subunits. The fluorescence method was more sensitive than photodiode one. The purified phycocyanin from A. variabilis CCC421 as well as its subunits was characterized with respect to absorption and IR spectra. Spectral characterization of the subunits revealed that alpha and beta subunits contained one and two phycocyanobilin groups as chromophores, respectively. PMID:25272755

  5. Operon structure and cotranslational subunit association direct protein assembly in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Yu-Wei; Minguez, Pablo; Bork, Peer; Auburger, Josef J; Guilbride, D Lys; Kramer, Günter; Bukau, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Assembly of protein complexes is considered a posttranslational process involving random collision of subunits. We show that within the Escherichia coli cytosol, bacterial luciferase subunits LuxA and LuxB assemble into complexes close to the site of subunit synthesis. Assembly efficiency decreases markedly if subunits are synthesized on separate messenger RNAs from genes integrated at distant chromosomal sites. Subunit assembly initiates cotranslationally on nascent LuxB in vivo. The ribosome-associated chaperone trigger factor delays the onset of cotranslational interactions until the LuxB dimer interface is fully exposed. Protein assembly is thus directly coupled to the translation process and involves spatially confined, actively chaperoned cotranslational subunit interactions. Bacterial gene organization into operons therefore reflects a fundamental cotranslational mechanism for spatial and temporal regulation that is vital to effective assembly of protein complexes. PMID:26405228

  6. The G protein alpha o subunit alters morphology, growth kinetics, and phospholipid metabolism of somatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, D B; Bonventre, J V; Neer, E J; Seidman, J G

    1989-01-01

    The physiological role of the alpha o subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein was investigated with a murine adrenal cell line (Y1) transfected with a rat alpha o cDNA cloned in a retroviral expression vector. The parental cell line lacked detectable alpha o subunit. Expression of the alpha o cDNA in transfected cell lines was confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The rat alpha o subunit interacted with murine beta and gamma subunits and associated with cell membranes. Y1 cells containing large amounts of alpha o subunit had altered cellular morphology and reduced rate of cell division. In addition, GTP-gamma S-stimulated release of arachidonic acid from these cells was significantly increased compared with that in control cells. The alpha o subunit appears directly or indirectly to regulate cellular proliferation, morphology, and phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:2511433

  7. Engineering of an active animal fatty acid synthase dimer with only one competent subunit.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anil K; Rangan, Vangipuram S; Witkowski, Andrzej; Smith, Stuart

    2003-02-01

    Animal fatty acid synthases are large polypeptides containing seven functional domains that are active only in the dimeric form. Inactivity of the monomeric form has long been attributed to the obligatory participation of domains from both subunits in catalysis of substrate loading and condensation reactions. However, we have engineered a fatty acid synthase containing one wild-type subunit and one subunit compromised by mutations in all seven functional domains that is active in fatty acid synthesis. This finding indicates that a single subunit, in the context of a dimer, is able to catalyze the entire biosynthetic pathway and suggests that, in the natural complex, each of the two subunits forms a scaffold that optimizes the conformation of the companion subunit.

  8. The NMDA receptor NR2A subunit regulates proliferation of MKN45 human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kanako; Kanno, Takeshi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Miwa, Hiroto; Tashiro, Chikara; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2008-03-07

    The present study investigated proliferation of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. The NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) inhibited proliferation of MKN45 cells, but not MKN28 cells. Of the NMDA subunits such as NR1, NR2 (2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D), and NR3 (3A and 3B), all the NMDA subunit mRNAs except for the NR2B subunit mRNA were expressed in both MKN28 and MKN45 cells. MKN45 cells were characterized by higher expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA, but MKN28 otherwise by higher expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA. MKN45 cell proliferation was also inhibited by silencing the NR2A subunit-targeted gene. For MKN45 cells, AP5 or knocking-down the NR2A subunit increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of cell cycling and decreased the proportion in the S/G{sub 2} phase. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that blockage of NMDA receptors including the NR2A subunit suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation due to cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} phase; in other words, the NR2A subunit promotes MKN45 cell proliferation by accelerating cell cycling.

  9. The Role of Auxiliary Subunits for the Functional Diversity of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein–protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein–protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity. J. Cell. Physiol. 999: 00–00, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2019–2031, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820299

  10. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  11. Identification of mitochondrial Complex II subunits SDH3 and SDH4 and ATP synthase subunits a and b in Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Tatsushi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    While most protist mitochondrial enzymes could be identified in database, the membrane anchor subunits of Complex II and F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase of malaria parasites are not annotated. Based on the presence of structural fingerprints or proteomics data from other protists, here we present their candidates. In contrast to canonical subunits, Plasmodium Complex II anchors have two transmembrane helices and may coordinate heme b via Tyr in place of His. Transmembrane helix IV of ATP synthase subunit a lacks an essential Arg residue. Membrane anchors of Plasmodium Complex II and ATP synthase are divergent from orthologs and promising targets for new chemotherapeutics.

  12. Purification and radioimmunoassay of rat lactate dehydrogenase A and B subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Beebee, T J; Carty, D S

    1982-01-01

    We have developed procedures for purifying lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from rat tissues that involve two affinity-chromatography steps and that facilitate the isolation of milligram quantities of highly purified proteins within 2--3 days. Antibodies raised against pure A and B subunits in rabbits and hens were used in radioimmunoassays and showed negligible cross-reactivity with heterologous subunits. The radioimmunoassays provide a sensitive method for measuring nanogram amounts of A-subunit and B-subunit polypeptides in tissue homogenates and were employed to characterize the enzyme purification procedures. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7138505

  13. Structure–Function Relationships in Fungal Large-Subunit Catalases

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.; Valdez, V; Rudino-Pinera, E; Horjales, E; Hansberg, W

    2009-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has two large-subunit catalases, CAT-1 and CAT-3. CAT-1 is associated with non-growing cells and accumulates particularly in asexual spores; CAT-3 is associated with growing cells and is induced under different stress conditions. It is our interest to elucidate the structure-function relationships in large-subunit catalases. Here we have determined the CAT-3 crystal structure and compared it with the previously determined CAT-1 structure. Similar to CAT-1, CAT-3 hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) saturation kinetics exhibited two components, consistent with the existence of two active sites: one saturated in the millimolar range and the other in the molar range. In the CAT-1 structure, we found three interesting features related to its unusual kinetics: (a) a constriction in the channel that conveys H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to the active site; (b) a covalent bond between the tyrosine, which forms the fifth coordination bound to the iron of the heme, and a vicinal cysteine; (c) oxidation of the pyrrole ring III to form a cis-hydroxyl group in C5 and a cis-{gamma}-spirolactone in C6. The site of heme oxidation marks the starts of the central channel that communicates to the central cavity and the shortest way products can exit the active site. CAT-3 has a similar constriction in its major channel, which could function as a gating system regulated by the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration before the gate. CAT-3 functional tyrosine is not covalently bonded, but has instead the electron relay mechanism described for the human catalase to divert electrons from it. Pyrrole ring III in CAT-3 is not oxidized as it is in other large-subunit catalases whose structure has been determined. Different in CAT-3 from these enzymes is an occupied central cavity. Results presented here indicate that CAT-3 and CAT-1 enzymes represent a functional group of catalases with distinctive structural characteristics that determine similar kinetics.

  14. Manipulation of Subunit Stoichiometry in Heteromeric Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Morales-Perez, Claudio L; Noviello, Colleen M; Hibbs, Ryan E

    2016-05-01

    The ability of oligomeric membrane proteins to assemble in different functional ratios of subunits is a common feature across many systems. Recombinant expression of hetero-oligomeric proteins with defined stoichiometries facilitates detailed structural and functional analyses, but remains a major challenge. Here we present two methods for overcoming this challenge: one for rapid virus titration and another for stoichiometry determination. When these methods are coupled, they allow for efficient dissection of the heteromer stoichiometry problem and optimization of homogeneous protein expression. We demonstrate the utility of the methods in a system that to date has proved resistant to atomic-scale structural study, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Leveraging these two methods, we have successfully expressed, purified, and grown diffraction-quality crystals of this challenging target.

  15. The unusually long small subunit ribosomal RNA of Phreatamoeba balamuthi.

    PubMed Central

    Hinkle, G; Leipe, D D; Nerad, T A; Sogin, M L

    1994-01-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the anaerobic amoeba Phreatamoeba balamuthi is the longest 16S-like rRNA sequenced to date. Secondary structure analysis suggests that the additional sequence is incorporated in canonical eukaryotic expansion regions and is not due to the presence of introns. Reverse transcriptase sequencing of total RNA extracts confirmed that two uncommonly long expansion regions are present in native P. balamuthi 16S-like rRNA. Primary sequence comparison and similar secondary structure indicate a 61 base stem and loop repeat within an expansion region; a mechanism whereby the repeat may have been incorporated is presented. P. balamuthi provides further evidence that 16S-like rRNA length does not correlate with phylogenetic position. PMID:8127686

  16. Structural diversity of eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNAs. Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Sogin, M L; Gunderson, J H

    1987-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the eukaryotic kingdom was assessed by comparing the structural and evolutionary diversity of 18-20S ribosomal RNA genes. The coding regions for cytoplasmic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes vary in length from 1753 to 2305 nucleotides, and they appear to be evolutionary mosaics in which highly and partially conserved sequences are interspersed among regions that display very high rates of genetic drift. Structural similarities between these gene sequences were used to establish a phylogenetic framework for the eukaryotes. The extent of sequence variation within the eukaryotes exceeds that displayed within the eubacterial or archaebacterial lines of descent. The kinetoplastids and euglenoids represent the earliest branchings among the eukaryotes. These branchings preceded the divergence of lineages leading to the slime molds and apicomplexans and far antedate a radiative period that gave rise to the plants, animals, fungi, and other protists.

  17. Exchangeability of the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase of Acetabularia acetabulum with the beta subunit of E. coli F1-ATPase: construction of the chimeric beta subunits and complementation studies.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Kadowaki, H; Ikeda, H; Moritani, C; Kanazawa, H

    1997-11-10

    The gene encoding the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase (aclB) was isolated from total RNA and poly(A)+ RNA of Acetabularia acetabulum and sequenced (total nucleotides of 3038 bp and an open reading frame with 478 amino acids). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to the beta subunit of the F type ATPases, but was different in the N-terminal 120 amino acids. The role of the N-terminal region was investigated using an F -ATPase beta-less mutant of E. coli, JP17. The JP17 strain expressing the aclB could not grow under conditions permitting oxidative phosphorylation, although ACLB was detected in the membrane fraction. The beta subunit was divided into three portions: amino acid position from 1 to 95 (portion A), 96 to 161 (portion B) and 162 to the C-terminus (portion C). The corresponding regions of ACLB were designated as portions A' (from 1 to 106), B' (from 107 to 172) and C' (from 173 to 478). Chimeric proteins with combinations of A-B'-C', A-B-C' and A'-B-C restored the function as the beta subunit in E. coli F0F1-complex, but those with combinations of A'-B'-C and A-B'-C had no function as the beta subunit. These findings suggested that portion B plays an important role in the assembly and function of the beta subunit in the F0F1-complex, while portion B' of ACLB exhibited inhibitory effects on assembly and function. In addition, portion A was also important for interaction of the beta subunit with the alpha subunit in E. coli F0F1-complex. These findings also suggested that the b subunit of the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase of A. acetabulum has a different function in the Cl(-)-translocating ATPase complex, although the primary structure resembled to the beta subunit of the F1-ATPase.

  18. Structural and functional consequences of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Rath, E M; Tsang, V H M; Duff, A P; Robinson, B G; Church, W B; Benn, D E; Dwight, T; Clifton-Bligh, R J

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, due to mutations of the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), has been implicated in the development of adrenal phaeochromocytomas, sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas, renal cell carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and more recently pituitary tumours. Underlying mechanisms behind germline SDH subunit B (SDHB) mutations and their associated risk of disease are not clear. To investigate genotype-phenotype correlation of SDH subunit B (SDHB) variants, a homology model for human SDH was developed from a crystallographic structure. SDHB mutations were mapped, and biochemical effects of these mutations were predicted in silico. Results of structural modelling indicated that many mutations within SDHB are predicted to cause either failure of functional SDHB expression (p.Arg27*, p.Arg90*, c.88delC and c.311delAinsGG), or disruption of the electron path (p.Cys101Tyr, p.Pro197Arg and p.Arg242His). GFP-tagged WT SDHB and mutant SDHB constructs were transfected (HEK293) to determine biological outcomes of these mutants in vitro. According to in silico predictions, specific SDHB mutations resulted in impaired mitochondrial localisation and/or SDH enzymatic activity. These results indicated strong genotype-functional correlation for SDHB variants. This study reveals new insights into the effects of SDHB mutations and the power of structural modelling in predicting biological consequences. We predict that our functional assessment of SDHB mutations will serve to better define specific consequences for SDH activity as well as to provide a much needed assay to distinguish pathogenic mutations from benign variants. PMID:25972245

  19. Gene Expression Switching of Receptor Subunits in Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Shira, Ossnat; Maor, Ronnie; Chechik, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic receptors in the human brain consist of multiple protein subunits, many of which have multiple variants, coded by different genes, and are differentially expressed across brain regions and developmental stages. The brain can tune the electrophysiological properties of synapses to regulate plasticity and information processing by switching from one protein variant to another. Such condition-dependent variant switch during development has been demonstrated in several neurotransmitter systems including NMDA and GABA. Here we systematically detect pairs of receptor-subunit variants that switch during the lifetime of the human brain by analyzing postmortem expression data collected in a population of donors at various ages and brain regions measured using microarray and RNA-seq. To further detect variant pairs that co-vary across subjects, we present a method to quantify age-corrected expression correlation in face of strong temporal trends. This is achieved by computing the correlations in the residual expression beyond a cubic-spline model of the population temporal trend, and can be seen as a nonlinear version of partial correlations. Using these methods, we detect multiple new pairs of context dependent variants. For instance, we find a switch from GLRA2 to GLRA3 that differs from the known switch in the rat. We also detect an early switch from HTR1A to HTR5A whose trends are negatively correlated and find that their age-corrected expression is strongly positively correlated. Finally, we observe that GRIN2B switch to GRIN2A occurs mostly during embryonic development, presumably earlier than observed in rodents. These results provide a systematic map of developmental switching in the neurotransmitter systems of the human brain. PMID:26636753

  20. Gene Expression Switching of Receptor Subunits in Human Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Bar-Shira, Ossnat; Maor, Ronnie; Chechik, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic receptors in the human brain consist of multiple protein subunits, many of which have multiple variants, coded by different genes, and are differentially expressed across brain regions and developmental stages. The brain can tune the electrophysiological properties of synapses to regulate plasticity and information processing by switching from one protein variant to another. Such condition-dependent variant switch during development has been demonstrated in several neurotransmitter systems including NMDA and GABA. Here we systematically detect pairs of receptor-subunit variants that switch during the lifetime of the human brain by analyzing postmortem expression data collected in a population of donors at various ages and brain regions measured using microarray and RNA-seq. To further detect variant pairs that co-vary across subjects, we present a method to quantify age-corrected expression correlation in face of strong temporal trends. This is achieved by computing the correlations in the residual expression beyond a cubic-spline model of the population temporal trend, and can be seen as a nonlinear version of partial correlations. Using these methods, we detect multiple new pairs of context dependent variants. For instance, we find a switch from GLRA2 to GLRA3 that differs from the known switch in the rat. We also detect an early switch from HTR1A to HTR5A whose trends are negatively correlated and find that their age-corrected expression is strongly positively correlated. Finally, we observe that GRIN2B switch to GRIN2A occurs mostly during embryonic development, presumably earlier than observed in rodents. These results provide a systematic map of developmental switching in the neurotransmitter systems of the human brain.

  1. Formalin-inactivated whole virus and recombinant subunit flavivirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Eckels, Kenneth H; Putnak, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of arthropod-borne, enveloped, RNA viruses that contain important human pathogens such as yellow fever (YF), Japanese encephalitis (JE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), West Nile (WN), and the dengue (DEN) viruses. Vaccination is the most effective means of disease prevention for these viral infections. A live-attenuated vaccine for YF, and inactivated vaccines for JE and TBE have significantly reduced the incidence of disease for these viruses, while licensed vaccines for DEN and WN are still lacking despite a significant disease burden associated with these infections. This review focuses on inactivated and recombinant subunit vaccines (non-replicating protein vaccines) in various stages of laboratory development and human testing. A purified, inactivated vaccine (PIV) candidate for DEN will soon be evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial, and a second-generation JE PIV produced using similar technology has advanced to phase 2/3 trials. The inactivated TBE vaccine used successfully in Europe for almost 30 years continues to be improved by additional purification, new stabilizers, an adjuvant, and better immunization schedules. The recent development of an inactivated WN vaccine for domestic animals demonstrates the possibility of producing a similar vaccine for human use. Advances in flavivirus gene expression technology have led to the production of several recombinant subunit antigen vaccine candidates in a variety of expression systems. Some of these vaccines have shown sufficient promise in animal models to be considered as candidates for evaluation in clinical trials. Feasibility of non-replicating flavivirus vaccines has been clearly demonstrated and further development is now warranted. PMID:14714438

  2. Proteomic analysis of transducin beta-subunit structural heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Clack, James W; Juhl, Martha; Rice, Carol A; Li, Junyu; Witzmann, Frank A

    2003-10-01

    Partially purified transducin was resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of several different spots believed to correspond to the 37 kDa beta-subunit of transducin (T(beta)) was performed. Spots were excised and proteolyzed using modified trypsin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was performed on the peptide mixture resulting from each spot. As many as six spots with different pI, ranging from 5.2 to 6.1, were observed when separated using 2-DE. MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting determined with high probability that all of the spots were the same gene product, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) beta-subunit 1 (GNB1; T(beta1)). This suggested that post-translational modification was responsible for the differences in pI. Phosphorylation experiments showed that at least one T(beta1) spot was phosphorylated in vitro with [gamma-(32)P]ATP by an endogenous kinase. Treatment of T(beta) with alkaline phosphatase caused a large change in the spot pattern of T(beta), suggesting that phosphorylated T(beta) is a substrate for alkaline phosphatase. We conclude that T(beta1) constitutes over 99% of the T(beta) expressed in bovine rod outer segments and displays structural heterogeneity that is due to post-translational modification. We also conclude that some, but not all, of the heterogeneity observed is due to phosphorylation of Tb1. PMID:14595696

  3. TM2 but not TM4 of subunit c'' interacts with TM7 of subunit a of the yeast V-ATPase as defined by disulfide-mediated cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Inoue, Takao; Forgac, Michael

    2004-10-22

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (or V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump which couples the energy released upon ATP hydrolysis to rotational movement of a ring of proteolipid subunits (c, c', and c'') relative to the integral subunit a. The proteolipid subunits each contain a single buried acidic residue that is essential for proton transport, with this residue located in TM4 of subunits c and c' and TM2 of subunit c''. Subunit c'' contains an additional buried acidic residue in TM4 that is not required for proton transport. The buried acidic residues of the proteolipid subunits are believed to interact with an essential arginine residue (Arg735) in TM7 of subunit a during proton translocation. We have previously shown that the helical face of TM7 of subunit a containing Arg735 interacts with the helical face of TM4 of subunit c' bordered by Glu145 and Leu147 (Kawasaki-Nishi et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 41908-41913). We have now analyzed interaction of subunits a and c'' using disulfide-mediated cross-linking. The results indicate that the helical face of TM7 of subunit a containing Arg735 interacts with the helical face of TM2 of subunit c'' centered on Ile105, with the essential glutamic acid residue (Glu108) located near the opposite border of this face compared with TM4 of subunit c'. By contrast, TM4 of subunit c'' does not form strong cross-links with TM7 of subunit a, suggesting that these transmembrane segments are not normally in close proximity. These results are discussed in terms of a model involving rotation of interacting helices in subunit a and the proteolipid subunits relative to each other.

  4. Cross-links between ribosomal proteins of 30S subunits in 70S tight couples and in 30S subunits.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J M; Boileau, G; Cover, J A; Traut, R R

    1983-08-01

    Ribosome 70S tight couples and 30S subunits derived from them were modified with 2-iminothiolane under conditions where about two sulfhydryl groups per protein were added to the ribosomal particles. The 70S and 30S particles were not treated with elevated concentrations of NH4Cl, in contrast to those used in earlier studies. The modified particles were oxidized to promote disulfide bond formation. Proteins were extracted from the cross-linked particles by using conditions to preclude disulfide interchange. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were fractionated on the basis of charge by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide/urea gels at pH 5.5. The proteins from sequential slices of the urea gels were analyzed by two-dimensional diagonal polyacrylamide/sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Final identification of proteins in cross-linked complexes was made by radioiodination of the proteins, followed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide/urea gel electrophoresis. Attention was focused on cross-links between 30S proteins. We report the identification of 27 cross-linked dimers and 2 trimers of 30S proteins, all but one of which were found in both 70S ribosomes and free 30S subunits in similar yield. Seven of the cross-links, S3-S13, S13-S21, S14-S19, S7-S12, S9-S13, S11-S21, and S6-S18-S21, have not been reported previously when 2-iminothiolane was used. Cross-links S3-S13, S13-S21, S7-S12, S11-S21, and S6-S18-S21 are reported for the first time. The identification of the seven new cross-links is illustrated and discussed in detail. Ten of the dimers reported in the earlier studies of Sommer & Traut (1976) [Sommer, A., & Traut, R. R. (1976) J. Mol. Biol. 106, 995-1015], using 30S subunits treated with high salt concentrations, were not found in the experiments reported here.

  5. Development of glutamatergic synapses in the rat retina: the postnatal expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hack, Iris; Koulen, Peter; Peichl, Leo; Brandstätter, Johann Helmut

    2002-01-01

    We examined the distribution of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 to GluR4, of the kainate receptor subunits GluR6/7 and KA2, and of the glutamate receptor subunits delta1/2, during postnatal development of the rat retina by immunocytochemistry and light microscopy using receptor subunit specific antisera. The various ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits were expressed early in postnatal rat retina, and most of the subunits, with the exception of delta1/2. were found in both synaptic layers of rat retina. The glutamate receptor subunits studied showed differences in their time of appearance, their spatial distribution patterns, and in their expression levels in the developing rat retina. Interestingly, most of the AMPA receptor subunits were expressed earlier than the kainate receptor subunits in the two synaptic layers of the retina, indicating that AMPA glutamate receptors play an important role in early postnatal glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We also studied the ultrastructural localization of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 to GluR4 by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy in the inner plexiform layer of the mature rat retina. Most of the subunits were found postsynaptic to the ribbon synapses of OFF-cone, ON-cone, and rod bipolar cells. The results of this study suggest an involvement of ionotropic glutamate receptors in processes of synaptic maturation and the formation of synaptic circuitries in the developing plexiform layers of the retina. Furthermore, AMPA and kainate receptors play a role in synaptic processing and in the development of both the scotopic and photopic pathways in the rat retina.

  6. Differential regulation of thyrotropin subunit apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of TSH apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone was studied by incubating pituitaries from normal and hypothyroid (3 weeks post-thyroidectomy) rats in medium containing (/sup 14/C)alanine and (/sup 3/H) glucosamine. After 6 h, samples were sequentially treated with anti-TSH beta to precipitate TSH and free TSH beta, anti-LH beta to clear the sample of LH and free LH beta, then anti-LH alpha to precipitate free alpha-subunit. Total proteins were acid precipitated. All precipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, which were then sliced and assayed by scintillation spectrometry. In hypothyroid pituitaries plus medium, (/sup 14/C)alanine incorporation in combined and free beta-subunits was 26 times normal and considerably greater than the 3.4-fold increase seen in total protein; combined and free alpha-subunits showed no specific increase in apoprotein synthesis. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine incorporation in combined alpha- and beta-subunits in hypothyroid samples was 13 and 21 times normal, respectively, and was greater than the 1.9-fold increase in total protein; free alpha-subunit showed no specific increase in carbohydrate synthesis. The glucosamine to alanine ratio, reflecting relative glycosylation of newly synthesized molecules, was increased in hypothyroidism for combined alpha-subunits, but not for combined beta-subunits, free alpha-subunits, or total proteins. In summary, short term hypothyroidism selectively stimulated TSH beta apoprotein synthesis and carbohydrate synthesis of combined alpha- and beta-subunits. Hypothyroidism also increased the relative glycosylation of combined alpha-subunit. Thus, thyroid hormone deficiency appears to alter the rate-limiting step in TSH assembly (i.e. beta-subunit synthesis) as well as the carbohydrate structure of TSH, which may play important roles in its biological function.

  7. Cytochrome oxidase subunit V gene of Neurospora crassa: DNA sequences, chromosomal mapping, and evidence that the cya-4 locus specifies the structural gene for subunit V.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, M S; Bertrand, H; Metzenberg, R L; RajBhandary, U L

    1989-01-01

    The sequences of cDNA and genomic DNA clones for Neurospora cytochrome oxidase subunit V show that the protein is synthesized as a 171-amino-acid precursor containing a 27-amino-acid N-terminal extension. The subunit V protein sequence is 34% identical to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subunit V; these proteins, as well as the corresponding bovine subunit, subunit IV, contain a single hydrophobic domain which most likely spans the inner mitochondrial membrane. The Neurospora crassa subunit V gene (cox5) contains two introns, 398 and 68 nucleotides long, which share the conserved intron boundaries 5'GTRNGT...CAG3' and the internal consensus sequence ACTRACA. Two short sequences, YGCCAG and YCCGTTY, are repeated four times each in the cox5 gene upstream of the mRNA 5' termini. The cox5 mRNA 5' ends are heterogeneous, with the major mRNA 5' end located 144 to 147 nucleotides upstream from the translational start site. The mRNA contains a 3'-untranslated region of 186 to 187 nucleotides. Using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism, we mapped the cox5 gene to linkage group IIR, close to the arg-5 locus. Since one of the mutations causing cytochrome oxidase deficiency in N. crassa, cya-4-23, also maps there, we transformed the cya-4-23 strain with the wild-type cox5 gene. In contrast to cya-4-23 cells, which grow slowly, cox5 transformants grew quickly, contained cytochrome oxidase, and had 8- to 11-fold-higher levels of subunit V in their mitochondria. These data suggest (i) that the cya-4 locus in N. crassa specifies structural information for cytochrome oxidase subunit V and (ii) that, in N. crassa, as in S. cerevisiae, deficiencies in the production of nuclearly encoded cytochrome oxidase subunits result in deficiency in cytochrome oxidase activity. Finally, we show that the lower levels of subunit V in cya-4-23 cells are most likely due to substantially reduced levels of translatable subunit V mRNA. Images PMID:2540423

  8. Valine 904, tyrosine 898, and cysteine 908 in Na,K-ATPase alpha subunits are important for assembly with beta subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, S G; Farley, R A

    1998-11-01

    A 26-amino acid sequence in an extracellular loop of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit between membrane-spanning segments 7 and 8 has been shown to bind to the beta subunit of Na,K-ATPase and to promote alphabeta assembly (Lemas, M. V., Hamrick, M., Takeyasu, K., and Fambrough, D. M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 8255-8259) When this 26-amino acid sequence of the rat Na,K-ATPase alpha3 subunit was replaced by the corresponding sequence of the rat gastric H,K-ATPase alpha subunit, the chimeric alpha subunit assembled preferentially with the rat gastric H,K-ATPase beta subunit (Wang, S.-G., Eakle, K. A., Levenson, R., and Farley, R. A. (1997) Am. J. Physiol. 272, C923-C930). In the present study, these 26 amino acids (Asn886-Ala911) of rat Na,K-ATPase alpha3 were replaced by the corresponding amino acids Asn908-Ala933 of rat distal colon H, K-ATPase. Site-directed mutagenesis of the chimeric alpha subunits and Na,K-ATPase alpha3 showed that Val904, Tyr898, and Cys908 in the Na,K-ATPase alpha3 subunit are key residues in alphabeta subunit interactions. The V904Q mutation in Na,K-ATPase alpha3 reduced the Bmax for ouabain binding and the ATPase activity of alpha3beta1 complexes by approximately 95%, and Y898R reduced the Bmax and ATPase activity by approximately 60%. The complementary mutations Q904V and R898Y increased the amount of ouabain bound by yeast membranes expressing the chimera with the colon H,K-ATPase sequence. The amount of ouabain bound by complexes assembled between Na, K-ATPase alpha3 containing the Y898R,C908G mutations and gastric H, K-ATPase beta was less than 10% of wild type Na,K-ATPase alpha3 expressed with the same beta subunit. The R898Y,G908C mutations in the chimeric alpha subunits also increased ouabain binding. PMID:9792642

  9. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  10. Amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit and computer modelling of the alpha and beta subunits of echicetin from the venom of Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper).

    PubMed

    Polgár, J; Magnenat, E M; Peitsch, M C; Wells, T N; Saqi, M S; Clemetson, K J

    1997-04-15

    Echicetin, a heterodimeric protein from the venom of Echis carinatus, binds to platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and so inhibits platelet aggregation or agglutination induced by various platelet agonists acting via GPIb. The amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of echicetin has been reported and found to belong to the recently identified snake venom subclass of the C-type lectin protein family. Echicetin alpha and beta subunits were purified. N-terminal sequence analysis provided direct evidence that the protein purified was echicetin. The paper presents the complete amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit and computer models of the alpha and beta subunits. The sequence of alpha echicetin is highly similar to the alpha and beta chains of various heterodimeric and homodimeric C-type lectins. Neither of the fully reduced and alkylated alpha or beta subunits of echicetin inhibited the platelet agglutination induced by von Willebrand factor-ristocetin or alpha-thrombin. Earlier reports about the inhibitory activity of reduced and alkylated echicetin beta subunit might have been due to partial reduction of the protein. PMID:9163349

  11. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens. PMID:19138084

  12. The ε Subunit of the Chloroplast Coupling Factor 1 from Euglena gracilis1

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Joseph S.

    1982-01-01

    The coupling factor from chloroplasts (CF1) of Euglena gracilis Z strain is an active ATPase in situ, and its activity cannot be increased by treatment with trypsin or heating as is the case with the CF1 from other sources. The smallest subunit of CF1, the ε subunit, is supposed to be involved in controlling the ATPase activity. We have devised a simple technique for rapid and large-scale isolation of this subunit. The ε subunit from Euglena CF1, although having only a limited inhibitory effect on Euglena CF1, drastically inhibited the ATPase activity of heat-activated spinach CF1. The inhibition of spinach CF1 could be reversed by passage through Sephadex G-50 or by a second heat activation. An antibody to the ε subunit of Euglena CF1 cross-reacted only weakly with CF1 from spinach, Sorghum, Kalanchoë, or Anacystis nidulans, but reacted well with whole Euglena CF1 in addition to its ε subunit. The antibody increased the ATPase activity of Euglena and Anacystis CF1 and of unactivated or partially activated spinach CF1. The results suggest that the function of the ε subunit in Euglena CF1 is similar to its function in CF1 from other sources. The data also suggest that changes induced in spinach CF1 by activation involves modifications in subunits other than the ε one. PMID:16662514

  13. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains.

    PubMed

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L

    2014-01-15

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA-protein particles evolved.

  14. Similar GABAA receptor subunit composition in somatic and axon initial segment synapses of hippocampal pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive GABAergic inputs from distinct interneurons. Previous experiments revealed input-specific differences in α1 and α2 subunit densities in perisomatic synapses, suggesting distinct IPSC decay kinetics. However, IPSC decays evoked by axo-axonic, parvalbumin- or cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells were found to be similar. Using replica immunogold labeling, here we show that all CA1 PC somatic and AIS synapses contain the α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 and γ2 subunits. In CA3 PCs, 90% of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the α1 subunit and all synapses are positive for the remaining five subunits. Somatic synapses form unimodal distributions based on their immunoreactivity for these subunits. The α2 subunit densities in somatic synapses facing Cav2.1 (i.e. parvalbumin) or Cav2.2 (cholecystokinin) positive presynaptic active zones are comparable. We conclude that perisomatic synapses made by three distinct interneuron types have similar GABAA receptor subunit content. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18426.001 PMID:27537197

  15. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens.

  16. Emerging evidence for specific neuronal functions of auxiliary calcium channel α2δ subunits

    PubMed Central

    Obermair, Gerald J.

    2015-01-01

    In nerve cells the ubiquitous second messenger calcium regulates a variety of vitally important functions including neurotransmitter release, gene regulation, and neuronal plasticity. The entry of calcium into cells is tightly regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels, which consist of a heteromultimeric complex of a pore forming α1, and the auxiliary β and α2δ subunits. Four genes (Cacna2d1-4) encode for the extracellular membrane-attached α2δ subunits (α2δ-1 to α2δ-4), out of which three isoforms (α2δ-1 to -3) are strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Over the years a wealth of studies has demonstrated the classical role of α2δ subunits in channel trafficking and calcium current modulation. Recent studies in specialized neuronal cell systems propose roles of α2δ subunits beyond the classical view and implicate α2δ subunits as important regulators of synapse formation. These findings are supported by the identification of novel human disease mutations associated with α2δ subunits and by the fact that α2δ subunits are the target of the anti-epileptic and anti-allodynic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin. Here we review the recently emerging evidence for specific as well as redundant neuronal roles of α2δ subunits and discuss the mechanisms for establishing and maintaining specificity. PMID:25504062

  17. A hierarchical model for assembly of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit domains

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Ohmayer, Uli; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Woolford, Joshua; Mbom, Bertrade; Lin, Lawrence; Woolford, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite having high-resolution structures for eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, it remained unclear how these ribonucleoprotein complexes are constructed in living cells. Nevertheless, knowing where ribosomal proteins interact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) provides a strategic platform to investigate the connection between spatial and temporal aspects of 60S subunit biogenesis. We previously found that the function of individual yeast large subunit ribosomal proteins (RPLs) in precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing correlates with their location in the structure of mature 60S subunits. This observation suggested that there is an order by which 60S subunits are formed. To test this model, we used proteomic approaches to assay changes in the levels of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors in preribosomes when RPLs functioning in early, middle, and late steps of pre-60S assembly are depleted. Our results demonstrate that structural domains of eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are formed in a hierarchical fashion. Assembly begins at the convex solvent side, followed by the polypeptide exit tunnel, the intersubunit side, and finally the central protuberance. This model provides an initial paradigm for the sequential assembly of eukaryotic 60S subunits. Our results reveal striking differences and similarities between assembly of bacterial and eukaryotic large ribosomal subunits, providing insights into how these RNA–protein particles evolved. PMID:24449272

  18. NMDA receptor surface mobility depends on NR2A-2B subunits

    PubMed Central

    Groc, Laurent; Heine, Martin; Cousins, Sarah L.; Stephenson, F. Anne; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent; Choquet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) varies during development, and this change is important in NMDAR-dependent signaling. In particular, synaptic NMDAR switch from containing mostly NR2B subunit to a mixture of NR2B and NR2A subunits. The pathways by which neurons differentially traffic NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs are poorly understood. Using single-particle and -molecule approaches and specific antibodies directed against NR2A and NR2B extracellular epitopes, we investigated the surface mobility of native NR2A and NR2B subunits at the surface of cultured neurons. The surface mobility of NMDARs depends on the NR2 subunit subtype, with NR2A-containing NMDARs being more stable than NR2B-containing ones, and NR2A subunit overexpression stabilizes surface NR2B-containing NMDARs. The developmental change in the synaptic surface content of NR2A and NR2B subunits was correlated with a developmental change in the time spent by the subunits within synapses. This suggests that the switch in synaptic NMDAR subtypes depends on the regulation of the receptor surface trafficking. PMID:17124177

  19. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  20. Identification of Four Distinct Subunit Types in the Unique 6×6 Hemocyanin of the Centipede Scutigera coleoptrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, W.; Markl, J.

    We isolated 6×6 hemocyanin, dissociated it into subunits, and examined it by electron microscopy. The subunits were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Single subunits were isolated by gel cutting from native PAGE and identified as hemocyanin by measuring their ultraviolet spectrum. A total of four distinct hemocyanin subunits were identified, and the subunit pattern of the three electrophoresis systems assigned to each other. The relative proportion of subunits a:b:c:d were 2 : 2 :>: 1 as determined by densitometry. Presumably, c and d act as linkers between hexamers.

  1. Intracellular dissociation and reassembly of prolyl 4-hydroxylase:the alpha-subunits associated with the immunoglobulin-heavy-chain binding protein (BiP) allowing reassembly with the beta-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    John, D C; Bulleid, N J

    1996-01-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4-H) consists of two distinct polypeptides; the catalytically more important alpha-subunit and the beta-subunit, which is identical to the multifunctional enzyme protein disulphide isomerase. The enzyme appears to be assembled in vivo into an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer from newly synthesized alpha-subunits associating with an endogenous pool of beta-subunits. Using a cell-free system, we have shown previously that enzyme assembly is redox-dependent and that assembled alpha-subunits are intramolecularly disulphide-bonded [John and Bulleid (1994) Biochemistry 33, 14018-14025]. Here we have studied this assembly process within intact cells by expressing both subunits in COS-1 cells. Newly synthesized alpha-subunits were shown to assemble with the beta-subunit, to form insoluble aggregates, or to remain soluble but not associate with the beta-subunit. Treatment of cells with dithiothreitol (DTT) led to dissociation of P4-H into subunits and on removal of DTT the enzyme reassembled. This reassembly was ATP-dependent, suggesting an interaction with an ATP-dependent chaperone. This was confirmed when immunoglobulin-heavy-chain binding protein (BiP) and alpha-subunits were co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies against the alpha-subunit and BiP, respectively. These results indicate that unassembled alpha-subunits are maintained in an assembly-competent form by interacting with the molecular chaperone BiP. PMID:8760347

  2. Protein kinase A catalytic subunit isoform PRKACA; History, function and physiology.

    PubMed

    Turnham, Rigney E; Scott, John D

    2016-02-15

    Our appreciation of the scope and influence of second messenger signaling has its origins in pioneering work on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Also called protein kinase A (PKA), this holoenzyme exists as a tetramer comprised of a regulatory (R) subunit dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. Upon binding of two molecules of the second messenger cAMP to each R subunit, a conformational change in the PKA holoenzyme occurs to release the C subunits. These active kinases phosphorylate downstream targets to propagate cAMP responsive cell signaling events. This article focuses on the discovery, structure, cellular location and physiological effects of the catalytic subunit alpha of protein kinase A (encoded by the gene PRKACA). We also explore the potential role of this essential gene as a molecular mediator of certain disease states.

  3. Localisation of the subunits of the photosynthetic reaction centers in the chromatophore membrane of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Zürrer, H; Snozzi, M; Hanselmann, K; Bachofen, R

    1977-05-11

    Reaction centers were isolated with the detergent lauryl dimethyl amine oxide from chromatophore membranes of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The subunit composition of these reaction centers is similar to the one obtained from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides: three subunits with the molecular weights of 21 000, 24 000 and 29 000. Reaction centers prepared from chromatophores labeled with 131I were heavely labeled in their large subunit (H). The smaller subunits (L and M) contained only little label. Sonication during labeling yielded a slightly higher incorporation of 131I in subunit H compared to the smaller ones. It is concluded that the H protein is largely exposed at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane but might also be accessible for iodination on the inside of the membrane while the L and M proteins are almost completely embedded in the membrane. Iodination of spheroplasts results in only a slight binding of 131I to chromatophores and reaction centers.

  4. Synthesis and processing of human chorionic gonadotropin subunits in cultured choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddon, R W; Hanson, C A; Addison, N J

    1979-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have identified the presence of partially glycosylated precursors of the alpha and beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in cultured JAR choriocarcinoma cells. The alpha subunit precursor has an apparent molecular weight (by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of 18,000 (compared to 22,000 for fully processed alpha subunit); the beta subunit precursor has an apparent molecular weight of 24,000 (fully processed, 34,000). Both of these precursors appear to have an intracellular half-life of at least 1 hr and to contain the mannose core but not the terminal carbohydrate sequences. Fully processed alpha and beta subunits do not accumulate intracellularly, indicating that further processing of the precursors is followed by rapid secretion. Images PMID:291927

  5. A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, T J

    1989-01-01

    A protein kinase from wheat germ that phosphorylates the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IIA has been partially purified and characterized. The kinase has a native molecular weight of about 200 kilodaltons. This kinase utilizes Mg2+ and ATP and transfers about 20 phosphates to the heptapeptide repeats Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Ser in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the 220-kilodalton subunit of soybean RNA polymerase II. This phosphorylation results in a mobility shift of the 220-kilodalton subunits of a variety of eukaryotic RNA polymerases to polypeptides ranging in size from greater than 220 kilodaltons to 240 kilodaltons on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The phosphorylation is highly specific to the heptapeptide repeats since a degraded subunit polypeptide of 180 kilodaltons that lacks the heptapeptide repeats is poorly phosphorylated. Synthetic heptapeptide repeat multimers inhibit the phosphorylation of the 220-kilodalton subunit. PMID:2535525

  6. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-08-01

    Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H(1) and H(2) from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H(1) and H(2) with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85-95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype-phenotype linkage. PMID:22869108

  7. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S.; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H1 and H2 from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H1 and H2 with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85–95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype–phenotype linkage. PMID:22869108

  8. Protein kinase A catalytic subunit isoform PRKACA; History, function and physiology.

    PubMed

    Turnham, Rigney E; Scott, John D

    2016-02-15

    Our appreciation of the scope and influence of second messenger signaling has its origins in pioneering work on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Also called protein kinase A (PKA), this holoenzyme exists as a tetramer comprised of a regulatory (R) subunit dimer and two catalytic (C) subunits. Upon binding of two molecules of the second messenger cAMP to each R subunit, a conformational change in the PKA holoenzyme occurs to release the C subunits. These active kinases phosphorylate downstream targets to propagate cAMP responsive cell signaling events. This article focuses on the discovery, structure, cellular location and physiological effects of the catalytic subunit alpha of protein kinase A (encoded by the gene PRKACA). We also explore the potential role of this essential gene as a molecular mediator of certain disease states. PMID:26687711

  9. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-08-01

    Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H(1) and H(2) from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H(1) and H(2) with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85-95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype-phenotype linkage.

  10. Balancing acts of two HEAT subunits of condensin I support dynamic assembly of chromosome axes.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2015-04-01

    Condensin I is a five-subunit protein complex that plays a central role in mitotic chromosome assembly and segregation in eukaryotes. To dissect its mechanism of action, we reconstituted wild-type and mutant complexes from recombinant subunits and tested their abilities to assemble chromosomes in Xenopus egg cell-free extracts depleted of endogenous condensins. We find that ATP binding and hydrolysis by SMC subunits have distinct contributions to the action of condensin I and that continuous ATP hydrolysis is required for structural maintenance of chromosomes. Mutant complexes lacking either one of two HEAT subunits produce abnormal chromosomes with highly characteristic defects and have contrasting structural effects on chromosome axes preassembled with the wild-type complex. We propose that balancing acts of the two HEAT subunits support dynamic assembly of chromosome axes under the control of the SMC ATPase cycle, thereby governing construction of rod-shaped chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

  11. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.

  12. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    DOE PAGES

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  13. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Nicole; Buryi, Vitali; Feron, Olivier; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Christen, Marie-Odile; Godfraind, Théophile

    1998-01-01

    CHO cells expressing the α1C-a subunit (cardiac isoform) and the α1C-b subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for α1C isoforms.Inward current evoked by the transfected α1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration.Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of α1C-b-subunit than of α1C-a-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of −100 mV than at −50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms.Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on α1C-a than on α1C-b subunit at Vh of −100 mV and −50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages.[3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the α1C-b than for the α1C-a subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the α1C-a subunit than for the α1C-b subunit.These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the α1C-a and α1C-b subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  14. ASSESSMENT OF SUBUNIT-DEPENDENT DIRECT GATING AND ALLOSTERIC MODULATORY EFFECTS OF CARISOPRODOL AT GABAA RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; González, Lorie A.; Dillon, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant, abuse of which has grown considerably in recent years. It directly activates and allosterically modulates α1β2γ2 GABAARs, although the site(s) of action are unknown. To gain insight into the actions of carisoprodol, subunit-dependent effects of this drug were assessed. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from HEK293 cells expressing α1β2, α1β3 or αxβzγ2 (where x = 1–6 and z = 1–3) GABAARs, and in receptors incorporating the δ subunit (modeling extrasynaptic receptors). The ability to directly gate and allosterically potentiate GABA-gated currents was observed for all configurations. Presence or absence of the γ2 subunit did not affect the ability of carisoprodol to directly gate or allosterically modulate the receptor. Presence of the β1 subunit conferred highest efficacy for direct activation relative to maximum GABA currents, while presence of the β2 subunit conferred highest efficacy for allosteric modulation of the GABA response. With regard to α subunits, carisoprodol was most efficacious at enhancing the actions of GABA in receptors incorporating the α1 subunit. The ability to directly gate the receptor was generally comparable regardless of the α subunit isoform, although receptors incorporating the α3 subunit showed significantly reduced direct gating efficacy and affinity. In extrasynaptic (α1β3δ and α4β3δ) receptors, carisoprodol had greater efficacy than GABA as a direct gating agonist. In addition, carisoprodol allosterically potentiated both EC20 and saturating GABA concentrations in these receptors. In assessing voltage-dependence, we found direct gating and inhibitory effects were insensitive to membrane voltage, whereas allosteric modulatory effects were affected by membrane voltage. Our findings demonstrate direct and allosteric effects of carisoprodol at synaptic and extrasynpatic GABAARs and that subunit isoform influences these effects. PMID:25896767

  15. Primary structure of the 5 S subunit of transcarboxylase as deduced from the genomic DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Thornton, C G; Kumar, G K; Shenoy, B C; Haase, F C; Phillips, N F; Park, V M; Magner, W J; Hejlik, D P; Wood, H G; Samols, D

    1993-09-13

    Transcarboxylase from Propionibacterium shermanii is a complex biotin-containing enzyme composed of 30 polypeptides of three different types. It is composed of six dimeric outer subunits associated with a central cylindrical hexameric subunit through 12 biotinyl subunits; three outer subunits on each face of the central hexamer. Each outer dimer is termed a 5 S subunit which associates with two biotinyl subunits. The enzyme catalyzes a two-step reaction in which methylmalonyl-CoA and pyruvate form propionyl-CoA and oxalacetate, the 5 S subunit specifically catalyzing one of these reactions. We report here the cloning, sequencing and expression of the monomer of the 5 S subunit. The gene was identified by matching amino acid sequences derived from isolated authentic 5 S peptides with the deduced sequence of an open reading frame present on a cloned P. shermanii genomic fragment known to contain the gene encoding the 1.3 S biotinyl subunit. The cloned 5 S gene encodes a protein of 519 amino acids, M(r) 57,793. The deduced sequence shows regions of extensive homology with that of pyruvate carboxylase and oxalacetate decarboxylase, two enzymes which catalyze the same or reverse reaction. A fragment was subcloned into pUC19 in an orientation such that the 5 S open reading frame could be expressed from the lac promoter of the vector. Crude extracts prepared from these cells contained an immunoreactive band on Western blots which co-migrated with authentic 5 S and were fully active in catalyzing the 5 S partial reaction. We conclude that we have cloned, sequenced and expressed the monomer of the 5 S subunit and that the expressed product is catalytically active. PMID:8365490

  16. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits.

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Buryi, V; Feron, O; Gomez, J P; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1998-11-01

    1. CHO cells expressing the alpha(1C-a) subunit (cardiac isoform) and the alpha(1C-b) subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for alpha1C isoforms. 2. Inward current evoked by the transfected alpha1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. 3. Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of alpha(1C-)b-subunit than of alpha(1C-a)-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of -100 mV than at -50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms. 4. Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on alpha(1C-a) than on alpha(1C-b) subunit at Vh of -100 mV and -50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages. 5. [3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-b) than for the alpha(1C-a) subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-a) subunit than for the alpha(1C-b) subunit. 6. These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the alpha(1C-a) and alpha(1C-b) subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  17. Cell-free synthesis and assembly of prolyl 4-hydroxylase: the role of the beta-subunit (PDI) in preventing misfolding and aggregation of the alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    John, D C; Grant, M E; Bulleid, N J

    1993-01-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4-H) catalyses a vital post-translational modification in the biosynthesis of collagen. The enzyme consists of two distinct polypeptides forming an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer (alpha = 64 kDa, beta = 60 kDa), the beta-subunit being identical to the multifunctional enzyme protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). By studying the cell-free synthesis of the rat alpha-subunit of P4-H we have shown that the alpha-subunit can be translocated, glycosylated and the signal peptide cleaved by dog pancreatic microsomal membranes to yield both singly and doubly glycosylated forms. When translations were carried out under conditions which prevent disulfide bond formation, the product synthesized formed aggregates which were associated with the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP). Translations carried out under conditions that promote disulfide bond formation yielded a product that was not associated with BiP but formed a complex with the endogenous beta-subunit (PDI). Complex formation was detected by co-precipitation of the newly synthesized alpha-subunit with antibodies raised against PDI, by sucrose gradient centrifugation and by chemical cross-linking. When microsomal vesicles were depleted of PDI, BiP and other soluble endoplasmic reticulum proteins, no complex formation was observed and the alpha-subunit aggregated even under conditions that promote disulfide bond formation. We have therefore demonstrated that the enzyme P4-H can be assembled at synthesis in a cell-free system and that the solubility of the alpha-subunit is dependent upon its association with PDI. Images PMID:8385607

  18. Extensions to the D-Cam sub-unit architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Padraig; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Multispectral imaging produces large amounts of data which extend processing, transmission and storage systems to their upper limits. Although there are several interface standards specific to image data acquisition, such as CameraLink, it is Firewire which provides a high-speed data bus, integrated control capability, without loss of flexibility, and which is commonly available as a low cost solution. The class of multispectral imaging requires a different treatment of the processing principals than standard imaging. The same spatial region is captured multiple times using different optical wavelengths. This technique finds application in such diverse areas as coastal monitoring, fruit sorting and automated agriculture. Modifications and additional features to the camera operating and configuration parameters are therefore required which are not generally present with conventional imaging sensors. This paper describes extensions to the IIDC Digital Camera (D-Cam) specification in the development of a Firewire technology platform for transmitting the data structures described and for providing real-time, online control of spectral information acquisition. Additionally, it describes how a set of registers in the sub-unit architecture of the Firewire protocol is augmented to accommodate the demands of a multispectral system. The extensions are specification conformant and do not alter underlining compliance with the base standard. The paper also describes the implementation of the extended D-Cam in the Firewire subsystem of a smart multispectral camera used in commercial applications.

  19. Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Yang; Bale, Jacob B; Gonen, Shane; Shi, Dan; Sheffler, William; Fong, Kimberly K; Nattermann, Una; Xu, Chunfu; Huang, Po-Ssu; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Yi, Sue; Davis, Trisha N; Gonen, Tamir; King, Neil P; Baker, David

    2016-07-01

    The icosahedron is the largest of the Platonic solids, and icosahedral protein structures are widely used in biological systems for packaging and transport. There has been considerable interest in repurposing such structures for applications ranging from targeted delivery to multivalent immunogen presentation. The ability to design proteins that self-assemble into precisely specified, highly ordered icosahedral structures would open the door to a new generation of protein containers with properties custom-tailored to specific applications. Here we describe the computational design of a 25-nanometre icosahedral nanocage that self-assembles from trimeric protein building blocks. The designed protein was produced in Escherichia coli, and found by electron microscopy to assemble into a homogenous population of icosahedral particles nearly identical to the design model. The particles are stable in 6.7 molar guanidine hydrochloride at up to 80 degrees Celsius, and undergo extremely abrupt, but reversible, disassembly between 2 molar and 2.25 molar guanidinium thiocyanate. The icosahedron is robust to genetic fusions: one or two copies of green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be fused to each of the 60 subunits to create highly fluorescent ‘standard candles’ for use in light microscopy, and a designed protein pentamer can be placed in the centre of each of the 20 pentameric faces to modulate the size of the entrance/exit channels of the cage. Such robust and customizable nanocages should have considerable utility in targeted drug delivery, vaccine design and synthetic biology. PMID:27309817

  20. Formation of Curvature Subunit of Carbon in Combustion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Zhou; Yao, Yang-Rong; Chen, Miao-Miao; Tian, Han-Rui; Xiao, Jun; Xu, Yun-Yan; Lin, Min-Song; Abella, Laura; Tian, Cheng-Bo; Gao, Cong-Li; Zhang, Qianyan; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-08-01

    Curvature prevalently exists in the world of carbon materials (e.g., fullerenes, buckyl bowls, carbon nanotubes, and onions), but traditional C2-addition mechanisms fail to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of carbon curvature starting from a pentagonal carbon ring in currently available chemical-physical processes such as combustion. Here, we show a complete series of nascent pentagon-incorporating C5-C18 that are online produced in the flame of acetylene-cyclopentadiene-oxygen and in situ captured by C60 or trapped as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for clarifying the growth of the curved subunit of C20H10. A mechanism regarding C1-substitution and C2-addition has been proposed for understanding the formation of curvature in carbon materials, as exemplified by the typical curved molecule containing a single pentagon completely surrounded by five hexagons. The present mechanism, supported by the intermediates characterized by X-ray crystallography as well as NMR, has been experimentally validated for the rational synthesis of curved molecule in the commercially useful combustion process.

  1. Molecular mechanics of 30S subunit head rotation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Srividya; Donohue, John Paul; Noller, Harry F

    2014-09-16

    During ribosomal translocation, a process central to the elongation phase of protein synthesis, movement of mRNA and tRNAs requires large-scale rotation of the head domain of the small (30S) subunit of the ribosome. It has generally been accepted that the head rotates by pivoting around the neck helix (h28) of 16S rRNA, its sole covalent connection to the body domain. Surprisingly, we observe that the calculated axis of rotation does not coincide with the neck. Instead, comparative structure analysis across 55 ribosome structures shows that 30S head movement results from flexing at two hinge points lying within conserved elements of 16S rRNA. Hinge 1, although located within the neck, moves by straightening of the kinked helix h28 at the point of contact with the mRNA. Hinge 2 lies within a three-way helix junction that extends to the body through a second, noncovalent connection; its movement results from flexing between helices h34 and h35 in a plane orthogonal to the movement of hinge 1. Concerted movement at these two hinges accounts for the observed magnitudes of head rotation. Our findings also explain the mode of action of spectinomycin, an antibiotic that blocks translocation by binding to hinge 2.

  2. Structure of the Tribolium castaneum Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis,A.; Schuller, A.; Skordalakes, E.

    2008-01-01

    A common hallmark of human cancers is the overexpression of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex that is responsible for maintaining the length and integrity of chromosome ends. Telomere length deregulation and telomerase activation is an early, and perhaps necessary, step in cancer cell evolution. Here we present the high-resolution structure of the Tribolium castaneum catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT. The protein consists of three highly conserved domains, organized into a ring-like structure that shares common features with retroviral reverse transcriptases, viral RNA polymerases and B-family DNA polymerases. Domain organization places motifs implicated in substrate binding and catalysis in the interior of the ring, which can accommodate seven to eight bases of double-stranded nucleic acid. Modelling of an RNA-DNA heteroduplex in the interior of this ring demonstrates a perfect fit between the protein and the nucleic acid substrate, and positions the 3'-end of the DNA primer at the active site of the enzyme, providing evidence for the formation of an active telomerase elongation complex.

  3. Subunit composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Asante, David; Stevenson, Nicola L.; Stephens, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytoplasmic dynein-2 is the motor for retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations in dynein-2 are known to cause skeletal ciliopathies. Here, we define for the first time the composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex. We show that the proteins encoded by the ciliopathy genes WDR34 and WDR60 are bona fide dynein-2 intermediate chains and are both required for dynein-2 function. In addition, we identify TCTEX1D2 as a unique dynein-2 light chain that is itself required for cilia function. We define several subunits common to both dynein-1 and dynein-2, including TCTEX-1 (also known as DYNLT1) and TCTEX-3 (also known as DYNLT3), roadblock-1 (also known as DYNLRB1) and roadblock-2 (also known as DYNLRB2), and LC8-1 and LC8-2 light chains (DYNLL1 and DYNLL2, respectively). We also find that NudCD3 associates with dynein-2 as it does with dynein-1. By contrast, the common dynein-1 regulators dynactin, LIS1 (also known as PAFAH1B1) and BICD2 are not found in association with dynein-2. These data explain why mutations in either WDR34 or WDR60 cause disease, as well as identifying TCTEX1D2 as a candidate ciliopathy gene. PMID:25205765

  4. NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Lü, Wei; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Goehring, April; Du, Juan; Song, Xianqiang; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present x-ray crystal structures of the GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino terminal and ligand binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbor a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ~2-fold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors. PMID:25008524

  5. Formation of Curvature Subunit of Carbon in Combustion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Zhou; Yao, Yang-Rong; Chen, Miao-Miao; Tian, Han-Rui; Xiao, Jun; Xu, Yun-Yan; Lin, Min-Song; Abella, Laura; Tian, Cheng-Bo; Gao, Cong-Li; Zhang, Qianyan; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-08-01

    Curvature prevalently exists in the world of carbon materials (e.g., fullerenes, buckyl bowls, carbon nanotubes, and onions), but traditional C2-addition mechanisms fail to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of carbon curvature starting from a pentagonal carbon ring in currently available chemical-physical processes such as combustion. Here, we show a complete series of nascent pentagon-incorporating C5-C18 that are online produced in the flame of acetylene-cyclopentadiene-oxygen and in situ captured by C60 or trapped as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for clarifying the growth of the curved subunit of C20H10. A mechanism regarding C1-substitution and C2-addition has been proposed for understanding the formation of curvature in carbon materials, as exemplified by the typical curved molecule containing a single pentagon completely surrounded by five hexagons. The present mechanism, supported by the intermediates characterized by X-ray crystallography as well as NMR, has been experimentally validated for the rational synthesis of curved molecule in the commercially useful combustion process. PMID:27377559

  6. Evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Adkins, R M; Honeycutt, R L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 Old World monkeys, 2 New World monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). Marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (Daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of dwarf lemurs (i.e., Cheirogaleus) with lorisiform primates. Stronger support was found for a sister-group relationship between the ring-tail lemur (Lemur catta) and the gentle lemurs (Hapalemur). In congruence with previous studies on COII, we found that the monkeys and apes have undergone a nearly two-fold increase in the rate of amino acid replacement relative to other primates. Although functionally important amino acids are generally conserved among all primates, the acceleration in amino acid replacements in higher primates is associated with increased variation in the amino terminal end of the protein. Additionally, the replacement of two carboxyl-bearing residues (glutamate and aspartate) at positions 114 and 115 may provide a partial explanation for the poor enzyme kinetics in cross-reactions between the cytochromes c and cytochrome c oxidases of higher primates and other mammals. PMID:8006990

  7. Subunit composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex.

    PubMed

    Asante, David; Stevenson, Nicola L; Stephens, David J

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein-2 is the motor for retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations in dynein-2 are known to cause skeletal ciliopathies. Here, we define for the first time the composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex. We show that the proteins encoded by the ciliopathy genes WDR34 and WDR60 are bona fide dynein-2 intermediate chains and are both required for dynein-2 function. In addition, we identify TCTEX1D2 as a unique dynein-2 light chain that is itself required for cilia function. We define several subunits common to both dynein-1 and dynein-2, including TCTEX-1 (also known as DYNLT1) and TCTEX-3 (also known as DYNLT3), roadblock-1 (also known as DYNLRB1) and roadblock-2 (also known as DYNLRB2), and LC8-1 and LC8-2 light chains (DYNLL1 and DYNLL2, respectively). We also find that NudCD3 associates with dynein-2 as it does with dynein-1. By contrast, the common dynein-1 regulators dynactin, LIS1 (also known as PAFAH1B1) and BICD2 are not found in association with dynein-2. These data explain why mutations in either WDR34 or WDR60 cause disease, as well as identifying TCTEX1D2 as a candidate ciliopathy gene.

  8. Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Yang; Bale, Jacob B.; Gonen, Shane; Shi, Dan; Sheffler, William; Fong, Kimberly K.; Nattermann, Una; Xu, Chunfu; Huang, Po-Ssu; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Yi, Sue; Davis, Trisha N.; Gonen, Tamir; King, Neil P.; Baker, David

    2016-07-01

    The icosahedron is the largest of the Platonic solids, and icosahedral protein structures are widely used in biological systems for packaging and transport. There has been considerable interest in repurposing such structures for applications ranging from targeted delivery to multivalent immunogen presentation. The ability to design proteins that self-assemble into precisely specified, highly ordered icosahedral structures would open the door to a new generation of protein containers with properties custom-tailored to specific applications. Here we describe the computational design of a 25-nanometre icosahedral nanocage that self-assembles from trimeric protein building blocks. The designed protein was produced in Escherichia coli, and found by electron microscopy to assemble into a homogenous population of icosahedral particles nearly identical to the design model. The particles are stable in 6.7 molar guanidine hydrochloride at up to 80 degrees Celsius, and undergo extremely abrupt, but reversible, disassembly between 2 molar and 2.25 molar guanidinium thiocyanate. The icosahedron is robust to genetic fusions: one or two copies of green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be fused to each of the 60 subunits to create highly fluorescent ‘standard candles’ for use in light microscopy, and a designed protein pentamer can be placed in the centre of each of the 20 pentameric faces to modulate the size of the entrance/exit channels of the cage. Such robust and customizable nanocages should have considerable utility in targeted drug delivery, vaccine design and synthetic biology.

  9. Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.

    PubMed

    Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Abalo, Xesús M; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations. PMID:22814267

  10. Subunit structure of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, N; Hess, B

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate reveals the occurrence of four components with the following molecular weights: alpha = 140000, beta = 130000, and alpha' = 92000, beta' = 87000. It was found that the alpha- and beta-components can be converted to the alpha' and beta' components by treatment of the native preparation with hyaluronidase. A comparison of the molecular weight obtained by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration with the results obtained by dodecylsulfate electrophoresis after treatment with hyaluronidase reveals that the alpha' and beta' components are the smallest molecular structures obtained upon dissociation of the native enzyme. The mechanism of action of hyaluronidase suggests a desensitization of the alpha and beta components of the enzyme towards dodecylsulfate. Thus, in the absence of hyaluronidase treatment; only an apparent molecular weight for the alpha and beta component is obtained. The analysis indicates that the native enzyme might be composed of four different subunits with an alpha, beta, alpha' and beta' configuration. It is not excluded that the native enzyme consists only of alpha- and beta-chains.

  11. Distinctive interactions of the Arabidopsis homolog of the 30 kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30) with other polyadenylation factor subunits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30 kD subunit of the mammalian Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (AtCPSF30) is an RNA-binding endonuclease that is associated with other Arabidopsis CPSF subunits (orthologs of the 160, 100, and 73 kD subunits of CPSF). In order to better u...

  12. N-terminal region of the large subunit of Leishmania donovani bisubunit topoisomerase I is involved in DNA relaxation and interaction with the smaller subunit.

    PubMed

    Das, Benu Brata; Sen, Nilkantha; Dasgupta, Somdeb Bose; Ganguly, Agneyo; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2005-04-22

    Leishmania donovani topoisomerase I is an unusual bisubunit enzyme. We have demonstrated earlier that the large and small subunit could be reconstituted in vitro to show topoisomerase I activity. We extend our biochemical study to evaluate the role of the large subunit in topoisomerase activity. The large subunit (LdTOP1L) shows a substantial degree of homology with the core DNA binding domain of the topoisomerase IB family. Two N-terminal truncation constructs, LdTOP1Delta39L (lacking amino acids 1-39) and LdTOP1Delta99L (lacking amino acids 1-99) of the large subunit were generated and mixed with intact small subunit (LdTOP1S). Our observations reveal that residues within amino acids 1-39 of the large subunit have significant roles in modulating topoisomerase I activity (i.e. in vitro DNA relaxation, camptothecin sensitivity, cleavage activity, and DNA binding affinity). Interestingly, the mutant LdTOP1Delta99LS was unable to show topoisomerase I activity. Investigation of the loss of activity indicates that LdTOP1Delta99L was unable to pull down glutathione S-transferase-LdTOP1S in an Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid co-immobilization experiment. For further analysis, we co-expressed LdTOP1L and LdTOP1S in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The lysate shows topoisomerase I activity. Immunoprecipitation revealed that LdTOP1L could interact with LdTOP1S, indicating the subunit interaction in bacterial cells, whereas immunoprecipitation of bacterial lysate co-expressing LdTOP1Delta99L and LdTOP1S reveals that LdTOP1Delta99L was significantly deficient at interacting with LdTOP1S to reconstitute topoisomerase I activity. This study demonstrates that heterodimerization between the large and small subunits of the bisubunit enzyme appears to be an absolute requirement for topoisomerase activity. The residue within amino acids 1-39 from the N-terminal end of the large subunit regulates DNA topology during relaxation by controlling noncovalent DNA binding or by

  13. Stabilization of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III ε subunit by the θ subunit favors in vivo assembly of the Pol III catalytic core.

    PubMed

    Conte, Emanuele; Vincelli, Gabriele; Schaaper, Roel M; Bressanin, Daniela; Stefan, Alessandra; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2012-07-15

    Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (HE) contains a core polymerase consisting of three subunits: α (polymerase), ε (3'-5' exonuclease), and θ. Genetic experiments suggested that θ subunit stabilizes the intrinsically labile ε subunit and, furthermore, that θ might affect the cellular amounts of Pol III core and HE. Here, we provide biochemical evidence supporting this model by analyzing the amounts of the relevant proteins. First, we show that a ΔholE strain (lacking θ subunit) displays reduced amounts of free ε. We also demonstrate the existence of a dimer of ε, which may be involved in the stabilization of the protein. Second, θ, when overexpressed, dissociates the ε dimer and significantly increases the amount of Pol III core. The stability of ε also depends on cellular chaperones, including DnaK. Here, we report that: (i) temperature shift-up of ΔdnaK strains leads to rapid depletion of ε, and (ii) overproduction of θ overcomes both the depletion of ε and the temperature sensitivity of the strain. Overall, our data suggest that ε is a critical factor in the assembly of Pol III core, and that this is role is strongly influenced by the θ subunit through its prevention of ε degradation.

  14. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  15. Identification of a gamma subunit associated with the adenylyl cyclase regulatory proteins Ns and Ni.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, J D; Codina, J; Risinger, R; Birnbaumer, L

    1984-02-25

    The subunit composition of the Ns and Ni, the human erythrocyte stimulatory and inhibitory regulatory proteins of adenylyl cyclase, respectively, were analyzed by a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing discontinuous urea and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis system designed for the study of low molecular weight polypeptides. This system disclosed that these proteins, in addition to their known alpha and beta subunits, contain an additional small peptide of apparent molecular weight of 5,000 (5K). This "5K peptide" is also present in preparations of another protein which we termed "40K protein" on the basis of its hydrodynamic behavior and whose primary protein constituent is the Mr 35,000 beta subunit of the above regulatory proteins. Analyzing Ni, the 5K peptide was functionally related to the protein by showing that its apparent Stokes radius changes from 5.9 to 5.1 nm after treatment with guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate and magnesium in parallel with the alpha and beta subunits. These data are interpreted as evidence for the existence of a third subunit associated with the regulatory proteins of adenylyl cyclase. We call this subunit gamma and propose a minimum subunit structure for these proteins of the alpha beta gamma type. PMID:6321456

  16. Small things considered: the small accessory subunits of RNA polymerase in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase core enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria consists of seven subunits. Whilst four of them (α2ββ′) are essential, three smaller subunits, δ, ε and ω (∼9–21.5 kDa), are considered accessory. Both δ and ω have been viewed as integral components of RNAP for several decades; however, ε has only recently been described. Functionally these three small subunits carry out a variety of tasks, imparting important, supportive effects on the transcriptional process of Gram-positive bacteria. While ω is thought to have a wide range of roles, reaching from maintaining structural integrity of RNAP to σ factor recruitment, the only suggested function for ε thus far is in protecting cells from phage infection. The third subunit, δ, has been shown to have distinct influences in maintaining transcriptional specificity, and thus has a key role in cellular fitness. Collectively, all three accessory subunits, although dispensable under laboratory conditions, are often thought to be crucial for proper RNAP function. Herein we provide an overview of the available literature on each subunit, summarizing landmark findings that have deepened our understanding of these proteins and their function, and outline future challenges in understanding the role of these small subunits in the transcriptional process. PMID:25878038

  17. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-08-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  18. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  19. A molecular biology-based approach to resolve the subunit orientation of lipoprotein lipase

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Howard; Yang, Dawn; Hill, John S.; Davis, Richard C.; Nikazy, Judith; Schotz, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    The subunit orientation of a dimeric enzyme influences the mechanism of action and function. To determine the subunit arrangement of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a molecular biology-based approach was initiated. An eight amino acid linker region was engineered between two LPL monomers and expressed in COS-7 cells. The resultant tandem-repeat molecule (LPLTR) was lipolytically active and had kinetic parameters, salt inhibition, cofactor-dependent activity, heparin-binding characteristics, and a functional unit size very similar to the expressed native human enzyme. By these criteria, LPLTR was the functional equivalent of native LPL. Considering the length of the linker peptide (no more than 24 Å), monomers in the tethered molecule were restricted to a head-to-tail subunit arrangement. Since LPLTR demonstrated native enzyme-like properties while constrained to this subunit arrangement, these results provide the first compelling evidence that native LPL monomers are arranged in a head-to-tail subunit orientation within the active dimer. Thus, LPL function in physiology, lipolysis, and binding to cell-surface components must now be addressed with this subunit orientation in mind. The utility of the tandem-repeat approach to resolve the subunit arrangement of an obligate dimer has been demonstrated with LPL and could be generalized for use with other oligomeric enzymes. PMID:9159117

  20. Tuning the biological activity profile of antibacterial polymers via subunit substitution pattern.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Chakraborty, Saswata; Lemke, Justin J; Hayouka, Zvi; Chow, Clara; Welch, Rodney A; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2014-03-19

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp(3) carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications. PMID:24601599

  1. Kv5, Kv6, Kv8, and Kv9 subunits: No simple silent bystanders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the electrically silent voltage-gated K+ (Kv) subfamilies (Kv5, Kv6, Kv8, and Kv9, collectively identified as electrically silent voltage-gated K+ channel [KvS] subunits) do not form functional homotetrameric channels but assemble with Kv2 subunits into heterotetrameric Kv2/KvS channels with unique biophysical properties. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed Kv2 subunits, KvS subunits show a more restricted expression. This raises the possibility that Kv2/KvS heterotetramers have tissue-specific functions, making them potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, I provide an overview of the expression of KvS subunits in different tissues and discuss their proposed role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. This overview demonstrates the importance of KvS subunits and Kv2/KvS heterotetramers in vivo and the importance of considering KvS subunits and Kv2/KvS heterotetramers in the development of novel treatments. PMID:26755771

  2. Coordinated nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and NMD3 in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Christopher R.; Lund, Elsebet; Kahan, Lawrence; Johnson, Arlen W.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2003-01-01

    60S and 40S ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleolus and exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm independently of each other. We show that in vertebrate cells, transport of both subunits requires the export receptor CRM1 and Ran·GTP. Export of 60S subunits is coupled with that of the nucleo- cytoplasmic shuttling protein NMD3. Human NMD3 (hNMD3) contains a CRM-1-dependent leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a complex, dispersed nuclear localization signal (NLS), the basic region of which is also required for nucleolar accumulation. When present in Xenopus oocytes, both wild-type and export-defective mutant hNMD3 proteins bind to newly made nuclear 60S pre-export particles at a late step of subunit maturation. The export-defective hNMD3, but not the wild-type protein, inhibits export of 60S subunits from oocyte nuclei. These results indicate that the NES mutant protein competes with endogenous wild-type frog NMD3 for binding to nascent 60S subunits, thereby preventing their export. We propose that NMD3 acts as an adaptor for CRM1–Ran·GTP-mediated 60S subunit export, by a mechanism that is conserved from vertebrates to yeast. PMID:12773398

  3. Modular arrangement of a cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit revealed from the crystal structure of a cohesin dyad.

    PubMed

    Noach, Ilit; Levy-Assaraf, Maly; Lamed, Raphael; Shimon, Linda J W; Frolow, Felix; Bayer, Edward A

    2010-06-01

    The cellulosome complex is composed of a conglomerate of subunits, each of which comprises a set of interacting functional modules. Scaffoldin (Sca), a major cellulosomal subunit, is responsible for organizing the cellulolytic subunits into the complex. This is accomplished by the interaction of two complementary classes of modules-a cohesin (Coh) module on the Sca subunit and a dockerin module on each of the enzymatic subunits. Although individual Coh modules from different cellulosomal scaffoldins have been subjected to intensive structural investigation, the Sca subunit in its entirety has not, and there remains a paucity of information on the arrangement and interactions of Cohs within the Sca subunit. In the present work, we describe the crystal structure of a type II Coh dyad from the ScaB "adaptor" Sca of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. The ScaB Cohs are oriented in an "antiparallel" manner relative to one another, with their dockerin-interacting surfaces (beta-strands 8-3-6-5) facing the same direction-aligned on the same plane. A set of extensive hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond contacts between the Cohs and the short interconnecting linker segment between them stabilizes the modular orientation. This Coh dyad structure provides novel information about Coh-Coh association and arrangement in the Sca and further insight into intermodular linker interactions. Putative structural arrangements of a hexamodular complex, composed of the Coh dyad bound to two X-dockerin modules, were suggested.

  4. Single Expressed Glycine Receptor Domains Reconstitute Functional Ion Channels without Subunit-specific Desensitization Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Meiselbach, Heike; Vogel, Nico; Langlhofer, Georg; Stangl, Sabine; Schleyer, Barbara; Bahnassawy, Lamia'a; Sticht, Heinrich; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Becker, Cord-Michael; Villmann, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Cys loop receptors are pentameric arrangements of independent subunits that assemble into functional ion channels. Each subunit shows a domain architecture. Functional ion channels can be reconstituted even from independent, nonfunctional subunit domains, as shown previously for GlyRα1 receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this reconstitution is not restricted to α1 but can be transferred to other members of the Cys loop receptor family. A nonfunctional GlyR subunit, truncated at the intracellular TM3–4 loop by a premature stop codon, can be complemented by co-expression of the missing tail portion of the receptor. Compared with α1 subunits, rescue by domain complementation was less efficient when GlyRα3 or the GABAA/C subunit ρ1 was used. If truncation disrupted an alternative splicing cassette within the intracellular TM3–4 loop of α3 subunits, which also regulates receptor desensitization, functional rescue was not possible. When α3 receptors were restored by complementation using domains with and without the spliced insert, no difference in desensitization was found. In contrast, desensitization properties could even be transferred between α1/α3 receptor chimeras harboring or lacking the α3 splice cassette proving that functional rescue depends on the integrity of the alternative splicing cassette in α3. Thus, an intact α3 splicing cassette in the TM3–4 loop environment is indispensable for functional rescue, and the quality of receptor restoration can be assessed from desensitization properties. PMID:25143388

  5. Subunits of the Drosophila actin-capping protein heterodimer regulate each other at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Amândio, Ana Rita; Gaspar, Pedro; Whited, Jessica L; Janody, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The actin-Capping Protein heterodimer, composed of the α and β subunits, is a master F-actin regulator. In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. We aimed in this report to understand how both subunits regulate each other in vivo. We show that the levels and capping activities of both subunits must be tightly regulated to control F-actin levels and consequently growth of the Drosophila wing. Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. Both subunits regulate each other's protein levels. In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. We propose that the ability of the α and β subunits to control each other's levels assures that a pool of functional heterodimer is produced in sufficient quantities to restrict the development of tumor but not in excess to sustain normal tissue growth.

  6. Structural organization and transcription of the mouse gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase beta subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, V A; Levenson, R

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized the mouse gene encoding the beta subunit of H+, K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.36). The entire 10.5-kilobase transcription unit of the H+,K(+)-ATPase beta subunit gene was cloned in three overlapping cosmids encompassing approximately 46 kilobases of genomic DNA. A tight cluster of transcription initiation sites has been localized 24-25 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site and 28-29 nucleotides downstream of a TATA-like sequence. The H+, K(+)-ATPase beta subunit gene is split into seven exons encoding predicted structural domains of the beta subunit protein. The intracellular amino-terminal and putative transmembrane domains are encoded by individual exons, and the extracellular carboxyl-terminal domain is encoded by five exons. The exon/intron organization of the mouse H+,K(+)-ATPase beta subunit gene is identical to that of the mouse Na+,K(+)-ATPase beta 2 subunit gene. The conservation of genomic organization, together with the high sequence homology, indicates that the mouse H+,K(+)-ATPase beta and Na+,K(+)-ATPase beta 2 subunit genes originated from a common ancestral gene. Images PMID:1654563

  7. Localization of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Subunits during Intoxication of Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Jang, Jae Yeon; Volgina, Alla; Korostoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), produced by some clinically important Gram-negative bacterial species, is related to the family of AB-type toxins. Three heterologous proteins (CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC) and a genotoxin mode of action distinguish the Cdt from others in this toxin class. Crystal structures of several species-specific Cdts have provided a basis for predicting subunit interactions and functions. In addition, empirical studies have yielded significant insights into the in vivo interactions of the Cdt subunits. However, there are still critical gaps in information about the intoxication process. In this study, a novel protein tagging technology was used to localize the subunits in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). A tetracysteine motif was engineered in each subunit, and in subunits with mutations in predicted functional domains, to permit detection with the fluorescein arsenical hairpin binding (FlAsH) dye Lumio green. Live-cell imaging, in conjunction with confocal microscopy, was used to capture the locations of the individual subunits in cells intoxicated, under various conditions, with hybrid heterotrimers. Using this approach, we observed the following. (i) The CdtA subunit remains on the cell surface of CHO cells in association with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-depleted membrane. (ii) The CdtB subunit is exclusively in the cytosol and, after longer exposure times, localizes to the nucleus. (iii) The CdtC subunit is present on the cell surface and, to a greater extent, in the cytosol. These observations suggest that CdtC, but not CdtA, functions as a chaperone for CdtB entry into cells. PMID:22645284

  8. Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guan, D; Tkatch, T; Surmeier, D J; Armstrong, W E; Foehring, R C

    2007-06-15

    We determined the expression of Kv2 channel subunits in rat somatosensory and motor cortex and tested for the contributions of Kv2 subunits to slowly inactivating K+ currents in supragranular pyramidal neurons. Single cell RT-PCR showed that virtually all pyramidal cells expressed Kv2.1 mRNA and approximately 80% expressed Kv2.2 mRNA. Immunocytochemistry revealed striking differences in the distribution of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 subunits. Kv2.1 subunits were clustered and located on somata and proximal dendrites of all pyramidal cells. Kv2.2 subunits were primarily distributed on large apical dendrites of a subset of pyramidal cells from deep layers. We used two methods for isolating currents through Kv2 channels after excluding contributions from Kv1 subunits: intracellular diffusion of Kv2.1 antibodies through the recording pipette and extracellular application of rStromatoxin-1 (ScTx). The Kv2.1 antibody specifically blocked the slowly inactivating K+ current by 25-50% (at 8 min), demonstrating that Kv2.1 subunits underlie much of this current in neocortical pyramidal neurons. ScTx (300 nM) also inhibited approximately 40% of the slowly inactivating K+ current. We observed occlusion between the actions of Kv2.1 antibody and ScTx. In addition, Kv2.1 antibody- and ScTx-sensitive currents demonstrated similar recovery from inactivation and voltage dependence and kinetics of activation and inactivation. These data indicate that both agents targeted the same channels. Considering the localization of Kv2.1 and 2.2 subunits, currents from truncated dissociated cells are probably dominated by Kv2.1 subunits. Compared with Kv2.1 currents in expression systems, the Kv2.1 current in neocortical pyramidal cells activated and inactivated at relatively negative potentials and was very sensitive to holding potential.

  9. Subunit Conformations and Assembly States of a DNA Translocating Motor: The Terminase of Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Němeček, Daniel; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Kang, Sebyung; Prevelige, Peter E.; Casjens, Sherwood; Thomas, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42 kbp genome using a headful mechanism. DNA translocation is accomplished by the phage terminase, a powerful molecular motor consisting of large and small subunits. Although many of the structural proteins of the P22 virion have been well characterized, little is known about the terminase subunits and their molecular mechanism of DNA translocation. We report here structural and assembly properties of ectopically expressed and highly purified terminase large and small subunits. The large subunit (gp2), which contains the nuclease and ATPase activities of terminase, exists as a stable monomer with an α/β fold. The small subunit (gp3), which recognizes DNA for packaging and may regulate gp2 activity, exhibits a highly α-helical secondary structure and self-associates to form a stable oligomeric ring in solution. For wildtype gp3, the ring contains nine subunits, as demonstrated by hydrodynamic measurements, electron microscopy and native mass spectrometry. We have also characterized a gp3 mutant (Ala 112 → Thr) that forms a ten subunit ring, despite a subunit fold indistinguishable from wildtype. Both the nonameric and decameric gp3 rings exhibit nonspecific DNA binding activity, and gp2 is able to bind strongly to the DNA/gp3 complex but not to DNA alone. We propose a scheme for the roles of P22 terminase large and small subunits in the recruitment and packaging of viral DNA and discuss the model in relation to proposals for terminase-driven DNA translocation in other phages. PMID:17945256

  10. Molecular and pharmacological properties of GABA-rho subunits from white perch retina.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Dowling, J E; Ripps, H

    1998-11-01

    Five gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rho subunits were cloned from a white perch retinal cDNA library and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that all are highly homologous to the GABA-rho subunits cloned from mammalian retinas; two clones (perch-rho 1A and perch-rho 1B) were in the rho 1 family, two (perch-rho 2A and perch-rho 2B) were in the rho 2 family, and one clone has been tentatively identified as a perch-rho 3 subunit. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, all but one of the subunits (rho 3) formed functional homooligomeric receptors. However, the receptors expressed by each of the GABA-rho subunits displayed unique response properties that distinguished one from the other. For example, receptors formed by perch-rho 1B subunits were more sensitive to GABA than the receptors formed by other GABA-rho subunits, the dose-response curves for the various receptors revealed different Hill coefficients, and there were differences in the kinetics of the GABA-induced currents. In addition, the GABA-mediated current-voltage curve for rho 2 receptors was approximately linear, whereas the responses from rho 1 receptors showed outward rectification. A further division in the properties of the GABA-rho subunits was revealed in their responses to imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA); the drug behaved as an antagonist on A-type rho receptors and a partial agonist on the B-type rho receptors. These results suggest that there is a large diversity of GABAC receptors in the vertebrate retina, probably formed by homooligomeric and heterooligomeric combinations of GABA rho subunits, that exhibit different functional properties. PMID:9805275

  11. Exact Length Distribution of Filamentous Structures Assembled from a Finite Pool of Subunits.

    PubMed

    Harbage, David; Kondev, Jané

    2016-07-01

    Self-assembling filamentous structures made of protein subunits are ubiquitous in cell biology. These structures are often highly dynamic, with subunits in a continuous state of flux, binding to and falling off of filaments. In spite of this constant turnover of their molecular parts, many cellular structures seem to maintain a well-defined size over time, which is often required for their proper functioning. One widely discussed mechanism of size regulation involves the cell maintaining a finite pool of protein subunits available for assembly. This finite pool mechanism can control the length of a single filament by having assembly proceed until the pool of free subunits is depleted to the point when assembly and disassembly are balanced. Still, this leaves open the question of whether the same mechanism can provide size control for multiple filamentous structures that are assembled from a common pool of protein subunits, as is often the case in cells. We address this question by solving the steady-state master equation governing the stochastic assembly and disassembly of multifilament structures made from a shared finite pool of subunits. We find that, while the total number of subunits within a multifilament structure is well-defined, individual filaments within the structure have a wide, power-law distribution of lengths. We also compute the phase diagram for two multifilament structures competing for the same pool of subunits and identify conditions for coexistence when both have a well-defined size. These predictions can be tested in cell experiments in which the size of the subunit pool or the number of filament nucleators is tuned.

  12. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 2 is essential for storage substance accumulation and subunit interactions in rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Yue; You, Xiao-Man; Kong, Fei; Yan, Hai-Gang; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Liang; Jin, Jie; Chen, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xin-Gang; Ma, Jing; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Wan, Jian-Min

    2016-08-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) controls a rate-limiting step in the starch biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. Here we isolated a shrunken rice mutant w24. Map-based cloning identified OsAGPL2, a large subunit of the cytosolic AGPase in rice endosperm, as the gene responsible for the w24 mutation. In addition to severe inhibition of starch synthesis and significant accumulation of sugar, the w24 endosperm showed obvious defects in compound granule formation and storage protein synthesis. The defect in OsAGPL2 enhanced the expression levels of the AGPase family. Meanwhile, the elevated activities of starch phosphorylase 1 and sucrose synthase in the w24 endosperm might possibly partly account for the residual starch content in the mutant seeds. Moreover, the expression of OsAGPL2 and its counterpart, OsAGPS2b, was highly coordinated in rice endosperm. Yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays verified direct interactions between OsAGPL2 and OsAGPS2b as well as OsAGPL1 and OsAGPS1, supporting the model for spatiotemporal complex formation of AGPase isoforms in rice endosperm. Besides, our data provided no evidence for the self-binding of OsAGPS2b, implying that OsAGPS2b might not interact to form higher molecular mass aggregates in the absence of OsAGPL2. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of rice AGPase assembly might differ from that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27297991

  13. P. berghei telomerase subunit TERT is essential for parasite survival.

    PubMed

    Religa, Agnieszka A; Ramesar, Jai; Janse, Chris J; Scherf, Artur; Waters, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA), though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO) homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR) in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼ 950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert- mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further investigations to

  14. Elongated Polyproline Motifs Facilitate Enamel Evolution through Matrix Subunit Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xianghong; Dangaria, Smit; Walker, Cameron; Allen, Michael; Kulkarni, Ashok; Gibson, Carolyn; Braatz, Richard; Liao, Xiubei; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate body designs rely on hydroxyapatite as the principal mineral component of relatively light-weight, articulated endoskeletons and sophisticated tooth-bearing jaws, facilitating rapid movement and efficient predation. Biological mineralization and skeletal growth are frequently accomplished through proteins containing polyproline repeat elements. Through their well-defined yet mobile and flexible structure polyproline-rich proteins control mineral shape and contribute many other biological functions including Alzheimer's amyloid aggregation and prolamine plant storage. In the present study we have hypothesized that polyproline repeat proteins exert their control over biological events such as mineral growth, plaque aggregation, or viscous adhesion by altering the length of their central repeat domain, resulting in dramatic changes in supramolecular assembly dimensions. In order to test our hypothesis, we have used the vertebrate mineralization protein amelogenin as an exemplar and determined the biological effect of the four-fold increased polyproline tandem repeat length in the amphibian/mammalian transition. To study the effect of polyproline repeat length on matrix assembly, protein structure, and apatite crystal growth, we have measured supramolecular assembly dimensions in various vertebrates using atomic force microscopy, tested the effect of protein assemblies on crystal growth by electron microscopy, generated a transgenic mouse model to examine the effect of an abbreviated polyproline sequence on crystal growth, and determined the structure of polyproline repeat elements using 3D NMR. Our study shows that an increase in PXX/PXQ tandem repeat motif length results (i) in a compaction of protein matrix subunit dimensions, (ii) reduced conformational variability, (iii) an increase in polyproline II helices, and (iv) promotion of apatite crystal length. Together, these findings establish a direct relationship between polyproline tandem repeat fragment

  15. Development of inhibitors of heterotrimeric Gαi subunits

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Kathryn M.; Bigham, Kevin J.; Lindsey, Christopher C.; Hazard, Starr; Lirjoni, Jonel; Parnham, Stuart; Hennig, Mirko; Peterson, Yuri K.

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are the immediate downstream effectors of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Endogenous protein guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) like AGS3/4 and RGS12/14 function through GPR/Goloco GDI domains. Extensive characterization of GPR domain peptides indicate they function as selective GDIs for Gαi by competing for the GPCR and Gβγ and preventing GDP release. We modified a GPR consensus peptide by testing FGF and TAT leader sequences to make the peptide cell permeable. FGF modification inhibited GDI activity while TAT preserved GDI activity. TAT-GPR suppresses G-protein coupling to the receptor and completely blocked α2-adrenoceptor (α2AR) mediated decreases in cAMP in HEK293 cells at 100 nM. We then sought to discover selective small molecule inhibitors for Gαi. Molecular docking was used to identify potential molecules that bind to and stabilize the Gαi–GDP complex by directly interacting with both Gαi and GDP. Gαi–GTP and Gαq-GDP were used as a computational counter screen and Gαq-GDP was used as a biological counter screen. Thirty-seven molecules were tested using nucleotide exchange. STD NMR assays with compound 0990, a quinazoline derivative, showed direct interaction with Gαi. Several compounds showed Gαi specific inhibition and were able to block α2AR mediated regulation of cAMP. In addition to being a pharmacologic tool, GDI inhibition of Gα subunits has the advantage of circumventing the upstream component of GPCR-related signaling in cases of overstimulation by agonists, mutations, polymorphisms, and expression-related defects often seen in disease. PMID:24818958

  16. Preclinical and clinical development of a dengue recombinant subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Manoff, Susan B; George, Sarah L; Bett, Andrew J; Yelmene, Michele L; Dhanasekaran, Govindarajan; Eggemeyer, Linda; Sausser, Michele L; Dubey, Sheri A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Pai, Vidya; Parks, D Elliot; Coller, Beth-Ann G

    2015-12-10

    This review focuses on a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant subunit approach which targets the DENV envelope glycoprotein (E). Truncated versions of E consisting of the N-terminal portion of E (DEN-80E) have been expressed recombinantly in the Drosophila S2 expression system and shown to have native-like conformation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that formulations containing tetravalent DEN-80E adjuvanted with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant induce high titer virus neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ producing T cells in flavivirus-naïve non-human primates. The preclinical data further suggest that administration of such formulations on a 0, 1, 6 month schedule may result in higher maximum virus neutralizing antibody titers and better durability of those titers compared to administration on a 0, 1, 2 month schedule. In addition, the virus neutralizing antibody titers induced by adjuvanted tetravalent DEN-80E compare favorably to the titers induced by a tetravalent live virus comparator. Furthermore, DEN-80E was demonstrated to be able to boost virus neutralizing antibody titers in macaques that have had a prior DENV exposure. A monovalent version of the vaccine candidate, DEN1-80E, was formulated with Alhydrogel™ and studied in a proof-of-principle Phase I clinical trial by Hawaii Biotech, Inc. (NCT00936429). The clinical trial results demonstrate that both the 10 μg and 50 μg formulations of DEN1-80E with 1.25 mg of elemental aluminum were immunogenic when administered in a 3-injection series (0, 1, 2 months) to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. The vaccine formulations induced DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies in the majority of subjects, although the titers in most subjects were modest and waned over time. Both the 10 μg DEN1-80E and the 50 μg DEN1-80E formulations with Alhydrogel™ were generally well tolerated.

  17. The investigation of substrate-induced changes in subunit interactions in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases by measurement of the kinetics and thermodynamics of subunit exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, H H; Hollaway, M R

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of changes in subunit interactions in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase on binding NAD+, NADH and other substrates by using the previously developed method of measurement of rates and extent of subunit exchange between the rabbit enzyme (R4), yeast enzyme (Y4) and rabbit-yeast hybrid (R2Y2) [Osborne & Hollaway (1974) Biochem. J. 143, 651-662]. The free energy of activation for the conversion of tetramer into dimer for the rabbit enzyme (R4 leads to 2R2) is increased by at least 12kJ/mol in the presence of NAD+. This increase is interpreted in terms of an NAD+-induced 'tightening' of the tetrameric structure probably involving increased interaction at the subunit interfaces across the QR plane of the molecule [see Buehner et al. (1974) J. Mol. Biol. 82, 563-585]. This tightening of the structure only occurs on binding the third NAD+ molecule to a given enzyme molecule. Conversely, binding of NADH causes a decrease in the free energy of activation for the R4 leads to 2R2 and Y4 leads to 2Y2 conversions by at least 10kJ/mol. This is interpreted as a NADH-induced 'loosening' of the structures arising from decreased interactions across the subunit interfaces involving the QR dissociation plane. In the presence of NADH the increase in the rate of subunit exchange is such that it is not possible to separate the hybrid from the other species if electrophoresis is carried out with NADH in the separation media. In the presence of a mixture of NADH and NAD+ the effect of NAD+ on subunit exchange is dominant. The results are discussed in terms of the known co-operativty between binding sites in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases. Images PLATE 1(a) PLATE 1(b) PLATE 2(a) PLATE 2(b) PLATE 2(c) PMID:174555

  18. Molecular cloning of the. cap alpha. subunit of human and guinea pig leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein Mo1: Chromosomal localization and homology to the. cap alpha. subunits of integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaout, M.A.; Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Pierce, M.W.; Harris, P.; Tenen, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    The cell surface-glycoprotein Mo1 is a member of the family of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (Leu-CAMs) that includes lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and p150,95. Each Leu-CAM is a heterodimer with a distinct ..cap alpha.. subunit noncovalently associated with a common ..beta.. subunit. The authors describe the isolation and analysis of two partial cDNA clones encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of the Leu-CAM Mo1 in humans and guinea pigs. A monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the guinea pig ..cap alpha.. chain was used for immunoscreening a lambdagt11 expression library. The sequence of a 378-base-pair insert from one immunoreactive clone revealed a single continuous open reading frame encoding 126 amino acids including a 26-amino acid tryptic peptide isolated from the purified guinea pig ..cap alpha.. subunit. A cDNA clone of identical size was isolated from a human monocyte/lymphocyte cDNA library by using the guinea pig clone as a probe. The human clone also encoded a 126-amino acid peptide including the sequence of an additional tryptic peptide present in purified human Mo1..cap alpha.. chain. Southern analysis of DNA from hamster-human hybrids localized the human Mo1..cap alpha.. chain to chromosome 16, which has been shown to contain the gene for the ..cap alpha.. chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha.. subunits of Leu-CAMs evolved by gene duplication from a common ancestral gene and strengthen the hypothesis that the ..cap alpha.. subunits of these heterodimeric cell adhesion molecules on myeloid and lymphoid cells, platelets, and fibroblasts are evolutionary related.

  19. Complex regulation of γ-secretase: from obligatory to modulatory subunits

    PubMed Central

    Gertsik, Natalya; Chiu, Danica; Li, Yue-Ming

    2014-01-01

    γ-Secretase is a four subunit, 19-pass transmembrane enzyme that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP), catalyzing the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that form amyloid plaques, which contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. γ-Secretase also cleaves Notch, among many other type I transmembrane substrates. Despite its seemingly promiscuous enzymatic capacity, γ-secretase activity is tightly regulated. This regulation is a function of many cellular entities, including but not limited to the essential γ-secretase subunits, nonessential (modulatory) subunits, and γ-secretase substrates. Regulation is also accomplished by an array of cellular events, such as presenilin (active subunit of γ-secretase) endoproteolysis and hypoxia. In this review we discuss how γ-secretase is regulated with the hope that an advanced understanding of these mechanisms will aid in the development of effective therapeutics for γ-secretase-associated diseases like AD and Notch-addicted cancer. PMID:25610395

  20. The alpha-subunit of the maize F(1)-ATPase is synthesised in the mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Hack, E; Leaver, C J

    1983-01-01

    The F(1)-ATPase complex has been purified from maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondria and shown to consist of five subunits with mol. wts. of 58 000 (alpha), 56 000 (beta), 35 000 (gamma), 22 000 (delta) and 8000 (epsilon). The alpha-subunit co-migrates on one- and two- dimensional isoelectric focussing-SDS polyacrylamide gels with the major polypeptide synthesised by isolated mitochondria. One-dimensional proteolytic peptide mapping and immunoprecipitation confirms that the alpha-subunit is a mitochondrial translation product and therefore presumably encoded in mitochondrial DNA. This contrasts with the situation in animal and fungal cells where all five subunits of the F(1)-ATPase are encoded by the nuclear genome and synthesised on cytosolic ribosomes.

  1. Localized reconstruction of subunits from electron cryomicroscopy images of macromolecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ilca, Serban L.; Kotecha, Abhay; Sun, Xiaoyu; Poranen, Minna M.; Stuart, David I.; Huiskonen, Juha T.

    2015-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy can yield near-atomic resolution structures of highly ordered macromolecular complexes. Often however some subunits bind in a flexible manner, have different symmetry from the rest of the complex, or are present in sub-stoichiometric amounts, limiting the attainable resolution. Here we report a general method for the localized three-dimensional reconstruction of such subunits. After determining the particle orientations, local areas corresponding to the subunits can be extracted and treated as single particles. We demonstrate the method using three examples including a flexible assembly and complexes harbouring subunits with either partial occupancy or mismatched symmetry. Most notably, the method allows accurate fitting of the monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerase bound at the threefold axis of symmetry inside a viral capsid, revealing for the first time its exact orientation and interactions with the capsid proteins. Localized reconstruction is expected to provide novel biological insights in a range of challenging biological systems. PMID:26534841

  2. A pH-dependent conformational change in the coat protein subunits from potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Homer, R B; Dalton, D I

    1976-10-28

    Both the circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra of the dissociated coat protein subunits from potato virus X changed substantially over the pH range 8 to 4, irreversible changes resulted below pH 4, with tyrosyl and tryptophanyl residues affected most. The titration curves show a pKa of about 5.6 and do not require cooperative interactions between the coat protein subunits, thus they are in marked contrast to titrations of tobacco mosaic virus A-protein. The spectra of the intact virus were little changed between pH 8 and 4 and suggested that the coat protein was locked into a conformation similar to that of the subunits in solution at pH 7. It is proposed that the pH induced conformational change is responsible for determining the acidic branch of the pH profile for reconstitution of potato virus X from its dissociated coat protein subunits and RNA.

  3. Extensive subunit contacts underpin herpesvirus capsid stability and interior-to-exterior allostery.

    PubMed

    Huet, Alexis; Makhov, Alexander M; Huffman, Jamie B; Vos, Matthijn; Homa, Fred L; Conway, James F

    2016-06-01

    The herpesvirus capsid is a complex protein assembly that includes hundreds of copies of four major subunits and lesser numbers of several minor proteins, all of which are essential for infectivity. Cryo-electron microscopy is uniquely suited for studying interactions that govern the assembly and function of such large functional complexes. Here we report two high-quality capsid structures, from human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the animal pseudorabies virus (PRV), imaged inside intact virions at ~7-Å resolution. From these, we developed a complete model of subunit and domain organization and identified extensive networks of subunit contacts that underpin capsid stability and form a pathway that may signal the completion of DNA packaging from the capsid interior to outer surface, thereby initiating nuclear egress. Differences in the folding and orientation of subunit domains between herpesvirus capsids suggest that common elements have been modified for specific functions.

  4. Developmental expression of cerebellar GABAA-receptor subunit mRNAs. Nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Siegel, R E

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that many of the mRNAs encoding GABAA-receptor subunits in the cerebellum exhibit distinct temporal profiles of expression. The levels of six of these subunit transcripts increase severalfold in the second week of postnatal ontogeny. Findings from a variety of experimental systems suggest that the onset and increases in subunit mRNA expression are mediated by the interaction of genetic and epigenetic programs. The initiation of subunit mRNA expression occurs relatively early in cellular maturation and may be directed by intrinsic mechanisms. However, the levels of expression attained in adult animals may be controlled by extrinsic signals received by neurons during the postnatal maturation process. PMID:9777637

  5. Distinct Subunit Domains Govern Synaptic Stability and Specificity of the Kainate Receptor.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christoph; Noam, Yoav; Nomura, Toshihiro; Yamasaki, Miwako; Yan, Dan; Fernandes, Herman B; Zhang, Ping; Howe, James R; Watanabe, Masahiko; Contractor, Anis; Tomita, Susumu

    2016-07-12

    Synaptic communication between neurons requires the precise localization of neurotransmitter receptors to the correct synapse type. Kainate-type glutamate receptors restrict synaptic localization that is determined by the afferent presynaptic connection. The mechanisms that govern this input-specific synaptic localization remain unclear. Here, we examine how subunit composition and specific subunit domains contribute to synaptic localization of kainate receptors. The cytoplasmic domain of the GluK2 low-affinity subunit stabilizes kainate receptors at synapses. In contrast, the extracellular domain of the GluK4/5 high-affinity subunit synergistically controls the synaptic specificity of kainate receptors through interaction with C1q-like proteins. Thus, the input-specific synaptic localization of the native kainate receptor complex involves two mechanisms that underlie specificity and stabilization of the receptor at synapses.

  6. Nucleotide-Protectable Labeling of Sulfhydryl Groups in Subunit I of the ATPhase from Halobacterium Saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzner, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-bound ATPase from the archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum is inhibited by N-ethyl-maleimide in a nucleotide-protectable manner. When the enzyme was incubated with N-[C-14]jethylmaleimide, the bulk of radioactivity was as- sociated with the 87,000-Da subunit (subunit 1). ATP, ADP, or AMP reduced incorporation of the inhibitor. No charge shift of subunit I was detected following labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, indicating an electroneutral reaction. The results are consistent with the selective modification of sulfhydryl groups in subunit I at or near the catalytic site and are further evidence of a resemblance between this archaebacterial ATPase and the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  7. Activation of Tsk and Btk tyrosine kinases by G protein beta gamma subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Langhans-Rajasekaran, S A; Wan, Y; Huang, X Y

    1995-01-01

    Tsk/Itk and Btk are members of the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing tyrosine kinase family. The PH domain has been demonstrated to be able to interact with beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) (G beta gamma) and phospholipids. Using cotransfection assays, we show here that the kinase activities of Tsk and Btk are stimulated by certain G beta gamma subunits. Furthermore, using an in vitro reconstitution assay with purified bovine brain G beta gamma subunits and the immunoprecipitated Tsk, we find that Tsk kinase activity is increased by G beta gamma subunits and another membrane factor(s). These results indicate that this family of tyrosine kinases could be an effector of heterotrimeric G proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7567982

  8. Extensive subunit contacts underpin herpesvirus capsid stability and interior-to-exterior allostery

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Alexis; Makhov, Alexander M.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Vos, Matthijn; Homa, Fred L.; Conway, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The herpesvirus capsid is a complex protein assembly that includes hundreds of copies of four major subunits and lesser numbers of several minor proteins, all essential for infectivity. Cryo-electron microscopy is uniquely suited for studying interactions that govern the assembly and function of such large and functional complexes. Here we report two high quality capsid structures, from human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the animal pseudorabies virus (PRV), imaged inside intact virions at ~7 Å resolution. From these we developed a complete model of subunit and domainal organization and identified extensive networks of subunit contacts that underpin capsid stability and form a pathway that may signal the completion of DNA packaging from the capsid interior to outer surface for initiating nuclear egress. Differences in folding and orientation of subunit domains between herpesvirus capsids suggest that common elements have been modified for specific functions. PMID:27111889

  9. Mechanism of release of active alpha subunit from dimeric alpha beta avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Papas, T S; Marciani, D J; Samuel, K; Chirikjian, J G

    1976-01-01

    Storage of the dimeric (alphabeta) form of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) DNA polymerase in glycerol resulted in the release of the smaller alpha subunit, as detected by glycerol gradient sedimentation. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of enzyme stored in glycerol showed the concomitant appearance of several polypeptides and a lowering in the level of both beta and alpha components. This reduction appears to be the result of cleavages introduced by traces of hydrolytic activity present in glycerol samples. An enhancement of alpha subunit released, as detected by activity profile, was also achieved upon direct but limited exposure of purified avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase to carboxymethyl-cellulose-bound trypsin matrix. Electrophoretic analysis of digested enzyme revealed a progressive fragmentation, with simultaneous increase in the alpha subunit and decrease in the beta subunit. PMID:58080

  10. Differential Targeting of Gβγ-Subunit Signaling with Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Tabetha M.; Mathews, Jennifer L.; Yuan, Chujun; Lehmann, David M.; Malik, Sundeep; Wu, Dianqing; Font, Jose L.; Bidlack, Jean M.; Smrcka, Alan V.

    2006-04-01

    G protein βγ subunits have potential as a target for therapeutic treatment of a number of diseases. We performed virtual docking of a small-molecule library to a site on Gβγ subunits that mediates protein interactions. We hypothesized that differential targeting of this surface could allow for selective modulation of Gβγ subunit functions. Several compounds bound to Gβγ subunits with affinities from 0.1 to 60 μM and selectively modulated functional Gβγ-protein-protein interactions in vitro, chemotactic peptide signaling pathways in HL-60 leukocytes, and opioid receptor-dependent analgesia in vivo. These data demonstrate an approach for modulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling that may represent an important therapeutic strategy.

  11. The subunit composition of hinokiresinol synthase controls geometrical selectivity in norlignan formation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiro; Yamamura, Masaomi; Hattori, Takefumi; Nakatsubo, Tomoyuki; Umezawa, Toshiaki

    2007-12-26

    The selective formation of E- or Z-isomers is an important process in natural product metabolism. We show that the subunit composition of an enzyme can alter the geometrical composition of the enzymatic products. Hinokiresinol synthase, purified from Asparagus officinalis cell cultures, is responsible for the conversion of (7E,7'E)-4-coumaryl 4-coumarate to (Z)-hinokiresinol, the first step in norlignan formation. The protein is most likely a heterodimer composed of two distinct subunits, which share identity with members of the phloem protein 2 gene superfamily. Interestingly, each recombinant subunit of hinokiresinol synthase expressed in Escherichia coli solely converted (7E,7'E)-4-coumaryl 4-coumarate to the unnatural (E)-hinokiresinol, the E-isomer of (Z)-hinokiresinol. By contrast, a mixture of recombinant subunits catalyzed the formation of (Z)-hinokiresinol from the same substrate. PMID:18093914

  12. Subunit connectivity, assembly determinants, and architecture of the yeast exocyst complex

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Margaret R.; Gu, Mingyu; Duffy, Caroline M.; Mirza, Anne M.; Marcotte, Laura L.; Walls, Alexandra C.; Farrall, Nicholas; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Field, Mark C.; Rout, Michael P.; Frost, Adam; Munson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The exocyst is a hetero-octameric complex proposed to serve as the tethering complex for exocytosis, although it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, we purified endogenous exocyst from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and show that the purified complexes are stable and consist of all eight subunits with equal stoichiometry. Using a combination of biochemical and auxin-induced degradation experiments in yeast, we mapped the subunit connectivity, identified two stable four-subunit modules within the octamer, and demonstrated that several known exocyst binding partners are not necessary for exocyst assembly and stability. Furthermore, we visualized the structure of the yeast complex using negative stain electron microscopy; our results indicate that exocyst exists predominantly as a stable, octameric complex with an elongated architecture that suggests the subunits are contiguous helical bundles packed together into a bundle of long rods. PMID:26656853

  13. Head-to-head coiled arrangement of the subunits of the animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Ghosal, Alokesh; Joshi, Anil K; Witkowska, H Ewa; Asturias, Francisco J; Smith, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    The role of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domains in dimerization of the 2505 residue subunits of the multifunctional animal FAS has been evaluated by a combination of crosslinking and characterization of several truncated forms of the protein. Polypeptides containing only the N-terminal 971 residues can form dimers, but polypeptides lacking only the N-terminal 422 residue beta-ketoacyl synthase domain cannot. FAS subunits can be crosslinked with spacer lengths as short as 6 A, via cysteine residues engineered near the N terminus of the full-length polypeptides. The proximity of the N-terminal beta-ketoacyl synthase domains and their essential role in dimerization is consistent with a revised model for the FAS in which a head-to-head arrangement of two coiled subunits facilitates functional interactions between the dimeric beta-ketoacyl synthase and the acyl carrier protein domains of either subunit.

  14. Modulation of the Na,K-pump function by beta subunit isoforms

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To study the role of the Na,K-ATPase beta subunit in the ion transport activity, we have coexpressed the Bufo alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1) with three different isotypes of beta subunits, the Bufo Na,K-ATPase beta 1 (beta 1NaK) or beta 3 (beta 3NaK) subunit or the beta subunit of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase (beta HK), by cRNA injection in Xenopus oocyte. We studied the K+ activation kinetics by measuring the Na,K- pump current induced by external K+ under voltage clamp conditions. The endogenous oocyte Na,K-ATPase was selectively inhibited, taking advantage of the large difference in ouabain sensitivity between Xenopus and Bufo Na,K pumps. The K+ half-activation constant (K1/2) was higher in the alpha 1 beta 3NaK than in the alpha 1 beta 1NaK groups in the presence of external Na+, but there was no significant difference in the absence of external Na+. Association of alpha 1 and beta HK subunits produced active Na,K pumps with a much lower apparent affinity for K+ both in the presence and in the absence of external Na+. The voltage dependence of the K1/2 for external K+ was similar with the three beta subunits. Our results indicate that the beta subunit has a significant influence on the ion transport activity of the Na,K pump. The small structural differences between the beta 1NaK and beta 3NaK subunits results in a difference of the apparent affinity for K+ that is measurable only in the presence of external Na+, and thus appears not to be directly related to the K+ binding site. In contrast, association of an alpha 1 subunit with a beta HK subunit results in a Na,K pump in which the K+ binding or translocating mechanisms are altered since the apparent affinity for external K+ is affected even in the absence of external Na+. PMID:8057080

  15. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny using large-subunit and small-subunit nuclear rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Passamaneck, Yale J; Schander, Christoffer; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2004-07-01

    The Mollusca represent one of the most morphologically diverse animal phyla, prompting a variety of hypotheses on relationships between the major lineages within the phylum based upon morphological, developmental, and paleontological data. Analyses of small-ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence have provided limited resolution of higher-level relationships within the Mollusca. Recent analyses suggest large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences are useful in resolving deep-level metazoan relationships, particularly when combined with SSU sequence. To this end, LSU (approximately 3.5 kb in length) and SSU (approximately 2 kb) sequences were collected for 33 taxa representing the major lineages within the Mollusca to improve resolution of intraphyletic relationships. Although the LSU and combined LSU+SSU datasets appear to hold potential for resolving branching order within the recognized molluscan classes, low bootstrap support was found for relationships between the major lineages within the Mollusca. LSU+SSU sequences also showed significant levels of rate heterogeneity between molluscan lineages. The Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda were each recovered as monophyletic clades with the LSU+SSU dataset. While the Bivalvia were not recovered as monophyletic clade in analyses of the SSU, LSU, or LSU+SSU, the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test showed that likelihood scores for these results did not differ significantly from topologies where the Bivalvia were monophyletic. Analyses of LSU sequences strongly contradict the widely accepted Diasoma hypotheses that bivalves and scaphopods are closely related to one another. The data are consistent with recent morphological and SSU analyses suggesting scaphopods are more closely related to gastropods and cephalopods than to bivalves. The dataset also presents the first published DNA sequences from a neomeniomorph aplacophoran, a group considered critical to our understanding of the origin and early radiation of the Mollusca

  16. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  17. First asymmetric synthesis of the cyclohexanone subunit of baconipyrones A and B. Revision of its structure.

    PubMed

    Turks, Māris; Murcia, M Carmen; Scopelliti, Rosario; Vogel, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    [reaction: see text] An asymmetric synthesis of the 3,5-dihydroxycyclohexanone subunit of baconipyrones A and B, as well as that of the hydroxydiketone subunit of baconipyrones C and D ((-)-(4S,6S)-4,6-dimethyl-5-hydroxynonan-3,7-dione), is described. Key steps include sulfur dioxide-induced additions of enoxysilanes to 1,3-dioxy-1,3-dienes, followed by retro-ene desulfitations (retro-ene elimination of SO(2)).

  18. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.B.; Engelman, D.M.; Langer, J.A.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Schindler, D.G.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Sillers, I.Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Oxazolidinone Antibiotic Linezolid Bound to the 50S Ribosomal Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito,J.; Kanyo, Z.; Wang, D.; Franceschi, F.; Moore, P.; Steitz, T.; Duffy, E.

    2008-01-01

    The oxazolidinone antibacterials target the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes. To gain insight into their mechanism of action, the crystal structure of the canonical oxazolidinone, linezolid, has been determined bound to the Haloarcula marismortui 50S subunit. Linezolid binds the 50S A-site, near the catalytic center, which suggests that inhibition involves competition with incoming A-site substrates. These results provide a structural basis for the discovery of improved oxazolidinones active against emerging drug-resistant clinical strains.

  20. 3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1.

  1. Crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase: identity of the tetramer subunits and interaction with tropolone.

    PubMed

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2011-06-21

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode of association, and the 3D structure of the complex. Here we unravel this tetramer at the molecular level. Its 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure is the first structure of the full fungal tyrosinase complex. The complex comprises two H subunits of ∼392 residues and two L subunits of ∼150 residues. The H subunit originates from the ppo3 gene and has a fold similar to other tyrosinases, but it is ∼100 residues larger. The L subunit appeared to be the product of orf239342 and has a lectin-like fold. The H subunit contains a binuclear copper-binding site in the deoxy-state, in which three histidine residues coordinate each copper ion. The side chains of these histidines have their orientation fixed by hydrogen bonds or, in the case of His85, by a thioether bridge with the side chain of Cys83. The specific tyrosinase inhibitor tropolone forms a pre-Michaelis complex with the enzyme. It binds near the binuclear copper site without directly coordinating the copper ions. The function of the ORF239342 subunits is not known. Carbohydrate binding sites identified in other lectins are not conserved in ORF239342, and the subunits are over 25 Å away from the active site, making a role in activity unlikely. The structures explain how calcium ions stabilize the tetrameric state of the enzyme. PMID:21598903

  2. 3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1. PMID:15036283

  3. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  4. A Single Mutation in the Acetylcholine Receptor δ-Subunit Causes Distinct Effects in Two Types of Neuromuscular Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee-Young; Mott, Meghan; Williams, Tory; Ikeda, Hiromi; Wen, Hua; Linhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in AChR subunits, expressed as pentamers in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), cause various types of congenital myasthenic syndromes. In AChR pentamers, the adult ε subunit gradually replaces the embryonic γ subunit as the animal develops. Because of this switch in subunit composition, mutations in specific subunits result in synaptic phenotypes that change with developmental age. However, a mutation in any AChR subunit is considered to affect the NMJs of all muscle fibers equally. Here, we report a zebrafish mutant of the AChR δ subunit that exhibits two distinct NMJ phenotypes specific to two muscle fiber types: slow or fast. Homozygous fish harboring a point mutation in the δ subunit form functional AChRs in slow muscles, whereas receptors in fast muscles are nonfunctional. To test the hypothesis that different subunit compositions in slow and fast muscles underlie distinct phenotypes, we examined the presence of ε/γ subunits in NMJs using specific antibodies. Both wild-type and mutant larvae lacked ε/γ subunits in slow muscle synapses. These findings in zebrafish suggest that some mutations in human congenital myasthenic syndromes may affect slow and fast muscle fibers differently. PMID:25080583

  5. Isolated noncatalytic and catalytic subunits of F1-ATPase exhibit similar, albeit not identical, energetic strategies for recognizing adenosine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Guillermo; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The function of F1-ATPase relies critically on the intrinsic ability of its catalytic and noncatalytic subunits to interact with nucleotides. Therefore, the study of isolated subunits represents an opportunity to dissect elementary energetic contributions that drive the enzyme's rotary mechanism. In this study we have calorimetrically characterized the association of adenosine nucleotides to the isolated noncatalytic α-subunit. The resulting recognition behavior was compared with that previously reported for the isolated catalytic β-subunit (N.O. Pulido, G. Salcedo, G. Pérez-Hernández, C. José-Núñez, A. Velázquez-Campoy, E. García-Hernández, Energetic effects of magnesium in the recognition of adenosine nucleotides by the F1-ATPase β subunit, Biochemistry 49 (2010) 5258-5268). The two subunits exhibit nucleotide-binding thermodynamic signatures similar to each other, characterized by enthalpically-driven affinities in the μM range. Nevertheless, contrary to the catalytic subunit that recognizes MgATP and MgADP with comparable strength, the noncatalytic subunit much prefers the triphosphate nucleotide. Besides, the α-subunit depends more on Mg(II) for stabilizing the interaction with ATP, while both subunits are rather metal-independent for ADP recognition. These binding behaviors are discussed in terms of the properties that the two subunits exhibit in the whole enzyme.

  6. The Evolution of the Four Subunits of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels: Ancient Roots, Increasing Complexity, and Multiple Losses

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Zakon, Harold H.

    2014-01-01

    The alpha subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs) are large transmembrane proteins responsible for crucial physiological processes in excitable cells. They are assisted by three auxiliary subunits that can modulate their electrical behavior. Little is known about the evolution and roles of the various subunits of Cavs in nonbilaterian animals and in nonanimal lineages. For this reason, we mapped the phyletic distribution of the four channel subunits and reconstructed their phylogeny. Although alpha subunits have deep evolutionary roots as ancient as the split between plants and opistokonths, beta subunits appeared in the last common ancestor of animals and their close-relatives choanoflagellates, gamma subunits are a bilaterian novelty and alpha2/delta subunits appeared in the lineage of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. We note that gene losses were extremely common in the evolution of Cavs, with noticeable losses in multiple clades of subfamilies and also of whole Cav families. As in vertebrates, but not protostomes, Cav channel genes duplicated in Cnidaria. We characterized by in situ hybridization the tissue distribution of alpha subunits in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a nonbilaterian animal possessing all three Cav subfamilies common to Bilateria. We find that some of the alpha subunit subtypes exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns. Further, all six sea anemone alpha subunit subtypes are conserved in stony corals, which separated from anemones 500 MA. This unexpected conservation together with the expression patterns strongly supports the notion that these subtypes carry unique functional roles. PMID:25146647

  7. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  8. Arrangement of subunits and domains within the Octopus dofleini hemocyanin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K I; Schabtach, E; van Holde, K E

    1990-01-01

    Native Octopus dofleini hemocyanin appears as a hollow cylinder in the electron microscope. It is composed of 10 polypeptide subunits, each folded into seven globular oxygen-binding domains. The native structure reassociates spontaneously from subunits in the presence of Mg2+ ions. We have selectively removed the C-terminal domain and purified the resulting six-domain subunits. Although these six-domain subunits do not associate efficiently at pH 7.2, they undergo nearly complete reassociation at pH 8.0. The resulting molecule looks like the native cylindrical whole molecule but lacks the usual fivefold protrusions into the central cavity. Partially reassociated mixtures show dimers of the subunit that have a characteristic parallelogram shape when lying flat on the electron microscope grid, and a "boat" form in side view. Removal of the C-terminal domain from monomers results in the removal of two characteristically placed domains in the dimers. These observations allow the development of a model for the arrangement of the subunits within the whole molecule. The model predicts exactly the views seen in the electron microscope of both whole molecule and dimeric intermediates. Images PMID:2304914

  9. Arrangement of subunits and domains within the Octopus dofleini hemocyanin molecule.

    PubMed

    Miller, K I; Schabtach, E; van Holde, K E

    1990-02-01

    Native Octopus dofleini hemocyanin appears as a hollow cylinder in the electron microscope. It is composed of 10 polypeptide subunits, each folded into seven globular oxygen-binding domains. The native structure reassociates spontaneously from subunits in the presence of Mg2+ ions. We have selectively removed the C-terminal domain and purified the resulting six-domain subunits. Although these six-domain subunits do not associate efficiently at pH 7.2, they undergo nearly complete reassociation at pH 8.0. The resulting molecule looks like the native cylindrical whole molecule but lacks the usual fivefold protrusions into the central cavity. Partially reassociated mixtures show dimers of the subunit that have a characteristic parallelogram shape when lying flat on the electron microscope grid, and a "boat" form in side view. Removal of the C-terminal domain from monomers results in the removal of two characteristically placed domains in the dimers. These observations allow the development of a model for the arrangement of the subunits within the whole molecule. The model predicts exactly the views seen in the electron microscope of both whole molecule and dimeric intermediates. PMID:2304914

  10. Archaeal Mo-Containing Glyceraldehyde Oxidoreductase Isozymes Exhibit Diverse Substrate Specificities through Unique Subunit Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masayuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Archaea use glycolytic pathways distinct from those found in bacteria and eukaryotes, where unique enzymes catalyze each reaction step. In this study, we isolated three isozymes of glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase (GAOR1, GAOR2 and GAOR3) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. GAOR1–3 belong to the xanthine oxidoreductase superfamily, and are composed of a molybdo-pyranopterin subunit (L), a flavin subunit (M), and an iron-sulfur subunit (S), forming an LMS hetero-trimer unit. We found that GAOR1 is a tetramer of the STK17810/STK17830/STK17820 hetero-trimer, GAOR2 is a dimer of the STK23390/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer, and GAOR3 is the STK24840/STK05620/STK05610 hetero-trimer. GAOR1–3 exhibited diverse substrate specificities for their electron donors and acceptors, due to their different L-subunits, and probably participate in the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of GAOR2, as the first three-dimensional structure of an archaeal molybdenum-containing hydroxylase, to obtain structural insights into their substrate specificities and subunit assemblies. The gene arrangement and the crystal structure suggested that the M/S-complex serves as a structural scaffold for the binding of the L-subunit, to construct the three enzymes with different specificities. Collectively, our findings illustrate a novel principle of a prokaryotic multicomponent isozyme system. PMID:26808202

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of AMPA glutamate receptor subunits at the photoreceptor synapses of rodent retina.

    PubMed

    Hack, I; Frech, M; Dick, O; Peichl, L; Brandstätter, J H

    2001-01-01

    In the retina the segregation of different aspects of visual information starts at the first synapse in signal transfer from the photoreceptors to the second-order neurons, via the neurotransmitter glutamate. We examined the distribution of the four AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluR1-GluR4 at the photoreceptor synapses in mouse and rat retinae by light and immunoelectron microscopy and serial section reconstructions. On the dendrites of OFF-cone bipolar cells, which make flat, noninvaginating contacts postsynaptic at cone synaptic terminals, the subunits GluR1 and GluR2 were predominantly found. Horizontal cell processes postsynaptic at both rod and cone synaptic terminals preferentially expressed the subunits GluR2, GluR2/3 and GluR4. An intriguing finding was the presence of GluR2/3 and GluR4 subunits on dendrites of putative rod bipolar cells, which are thought to signal through the sign-inverting metabotropic glutamate receptor 6, mGluR6. Furthermore, at the rod terminals, horizontal cell processes and rod bipolar cell dendrites showed labelling for the AMPA receptor subunits at the ribbon synaptic site or perisynaptically at their site of invagination into the rod terminal. The wide distribution of AMPA receptor subunits at the photoreceptor synapses suggests that AMPA receptors play an important role in visual signal transfer from the photoreceptors to their postsynaptic partners.

  12. Kinetics of Spontaneous and EF-G-Accelerated Rotation of Ribosomal Subunits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heena; Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Belardinelli, Riccardo; Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-08-23

    Ribosome dynamics play an important role in translation. The rotation of the ribosomal subunits relative to one another is essential for tRNA-mRNA translocation. An important unresolved question is whether subunit rotation limits the rate of translocation. Here, we monitor subunit rotation relative to peptide bond formation and translocation using ensemble kinetics and single-molecule FRET. We observe that spontaneous forward subunit rotation occurs at a rate of 40 s(-1), independent of the rate of preceding peptide bond formation. Elongation factor G (EF-G) accelerates forward subunit rotation to 200 s(-1). tRNA-mRNA movement is much slower (10-40 s(-1)), suggesting that forward subunit rotation does not limit the rate of translocation. The transition back to the non-rotated state of the ribosome kinetically coincides with tRNA-mRNA movement. Thus, large-scale movements of the ribosome are intrinsically rapid and gated by its ligands such as EF-G and tRNA. PMID:27524615

  13. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  14. In vivo degradation of RNA polymerase II largest subunit triggered by alpha-amanitin.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V T; Giannoni, F; Dubois, M F; Seo, S J; Vigneron, M; Kédinger, C; Bensaude, O

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-Amanitin is a well-known specific inhibitor of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in vitro and in vivo. It is a cyclic octapeptide which binds with high affinity to the largest subunit of RNAPII, RPB1. We have found that in murine fibroblasts exposure to alpha-amanitin triggered degradation of the RPB1 subunit, while other RNAPII subunits, RPB5 and RPB8, remained almost unaffected. Transcriptional inhibition in alpha-amanitin-treated cells was slow and closely followed the disappearance of RPB1. The degradation rate of RPB1 was alpha-amanitin dose dependent and was not a consequence of transcriptional arrest. Alpha-Amanitin-promoted degradation of RPB1 was prevented in cells exposed to actinomycin D, another transcriptional inhibitor. Epitope-tagged recombinant human RPB1 subunits were expressed in mouse fibroblasts. In cells exposed to alpha-amanitin the wild-type recombinant subunit was degraded like the endogenous protein, but a mutated alpha-amanitin-resistant subunit remained unaffected. Hence, alpha-amanitin did not activate a proteolytic system, but instead its binding to mRPB1 likely represented a signal for degradation. Thus, in contrast to other inhibitors, such as actinomycin D or 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole, which reversibly act on transcription, inhibition by alpha-amanitin cannot be but an irreversible process because of the destruction of RNAPII. PMID:8760875

  15. Role of subunit-9 of mitochondrial ATP synthase in Batten disease

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Speier, S.; Qian, W.H.

    1995-06-05

    The role of subunit-9 of mitochondrial ATP synthase in Batten disease was defined by characterizing the expression of genes encoding this protein in human tissues. Two genetically distinct neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL) comprise Batten disease: the late-infantile (LINCL) and juvenile (JNCL) types. We tested cell lines and tissues from both types of patients, along with normal controls. Differences in expression between diseased and normal samples were found for both mRNA and protein. Antibody staining of subunit-9 protein was detected in LINCL and JNCL tissues, and in 6 LINCL and 4 of 5 JNCL fibroblast lines. No immunoreactivity was seen in fibroblasts from obligate carriers, normal controls, and 6 other storage disease controls, with the exception of faint staining in Niemann-Pick, type C cells. There was an appreciable difference in staining pattern in both tissue sections and fibroblasts between LINCL and JNCL. Three subunit-9 transcripts (Hum1, Hum2, and Hum3) were specifically detected in NCL and normal human tissue from heart, liver, brain, muscle, and pancreas. Transcriptional regulation of subunit-9 genes was found to be altered in Batten disease. Pseudogenes related to each of the subunit-9 genes were isolated. Sequence analysis of cDNAs spanning the protein-coding regions of the Hum1, Hum2, and Hum3 genes showed conclusively that the primary defect(s) causing NCL are not mutations in the protein-coding regions of the 3 known subunit-9 genes. 29 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The Role of Preassembled Cytoplasmic Complexes in Assembly of Flagellar Dynein Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Fowkes, Mary Elizabeth; Mitchell, David Rees

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has revealed a cytoplasmic pool of flagellar precursor proteins capable of contributing to the assembly of new flagella, but how and where these components assemble is unknown. We tested Chlamydomonas outer-dynein arm subunit stability and assembly in the cytoplasm of wild-type cells and 11 outer dynein arm assembly mutant strains (oda1-oda11) by Western blotting of cytoplasmic extracts, or immunoprecipitates from these extracts, with five outer-row dynein subunit-specific antibodies. Western blots reveal that at least three oda mutants (oda6, oda7, and oda9) alter the level of a subunit that is not the mutant gene product. Immunoprecipitation shows that large preassembled flagellar complexes containing all five tested subunits (three heavy chains and two intermediate chains) exist within wild-type cytoplasm. When the preassembly of these subunits was examined in oda strains, we observed three patterns: complete coassembly (oda 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10), partial coassembly (oda7 and oda11), and no coassembly (oda2, 6, and 9) of the four tested subunits with HCβ. Our data, together with previous studies, suggest that flagellar outer-dynein arms preassemble into a complete Mr ≃ 2 × 106 dynein arm that resides in a cytoplasmic precursor pool before transport into the flagellar compartment. PMID:9725897

  17. Significant prognostic values of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial complex I subunits in tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Li, L D; Sun, H F; Bai, Y; Gao, S P; Jiang, H L; Jin, W

    2016-01-01

    In cancer biology, it remains still open question concerning the oncogenic versus oncosuppressor behavior of metabolic genes, which includes those encoding mitochondrial complex I (CI) subunits. The prognostic value of nuclear genome mRNAs expression of CI subunits is to be evaluated in the tumor patients. We used the Kaplan Meier plotter database, the cBio Cancer Genomics Portal, and the Oncomine in which gene expression data and survival information were from thousands of tumor patients to assess the relevance of nuclear genome mRNAs level of CI subunits to patients' survival, as well as their alterations in gene and expression level in tumors. We presented that the relative expression level of overwhelming majority of the nuclear genes of CI subunits with survival significance (overall survival, relapse free survival, progression free survival, distant metastasis free survival, post progression survival, and first progression), had consistent effects for patients in each type of four tumors separately, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and gastric cancer. However, in gene level, frequent cumulative or individual alteration of these genes could not significantly affect patients' survival and the overexpression of the individual gene was not ubiquitous in tumors versus normal tissues. Given that reprogrammed energy metabolism was viewed as an emerging hallmark of tumor, thus tumor patients' survival might potentially to be evaluated by certain threshold for overall expression of CI subunits. Comprehensive understanding of the nuclear genome encoded CI subunits may have guiding significance for the diagnosis and prognosis in tumor patients.

  18. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G.; Westbrook, E.M. |; Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z.

    1996-02-01

    Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

  19. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) gonadotrophin-I and -II subunits.

    PubMed

    Hassin, S; Elizur, A; Zohar, Y

    1995-08-01

    Two types of cDNA, each encoding a different beta-subunit of striped bass (Morone saxatilis, Teleostei) gonadotrophins (GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta), as well as the glycoprotein alpha-subunit, were cloned by screening a striped bass pituitary cDNA library. The probes used for screening the library were cloned cDNA fragments, generated by PCR amplification of reverse-transcribed mRNA obtained from two pituitaries. The nucleotide sequences of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta are 626, 524 and 580 bases long, encoding peptides of 117, 120 and 147 amino acids respectively. Striped bass GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta share a sequence identity of 48% at the nucleic acid level, and 30% at the amino acid level. A cluster analysis of vertebrate pituitary glycoprotein beta-subunits suggests that teleost GTH-II beta is more closely related to tetrapod LH than to FSH. Administration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue ([D-Ala6,Pro9Net]-LHRH) to juvenile striped resulted in ten-, two- and fivefold increases in the expression of the alpha-subunit, GTH-I beta and GTH-II beta respectively. These results suggest that each of the GTH subunits is differentially regulated, and further corroborate the functional duality of teleost gonadotrophins.

  20. Molecular mechanism for 3:1 subunit stoichiometry of rod cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Shuart, Noah G.; Haitin, Yoni; Camp, Stacey S.; Black, Kevin D.; Zagotta, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular determinants of ion channel tetramerization are well characterized, but those involved in heteromeric channel assembly are less clearly understood. The heteromeric composition of native channels is often precisely controlled. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels from rod photoreceptors exhibit a 3:1 stoichiometry of CNGA1 and CNGB1 subunits that tunes the channels for their specialized role in phototransduction. Here we show, using electrophysiology, fluorescence, biochemistry, and X-ray crystallography, that the mechanism for this controlled assembly is the formation of a parallel 3-helix coiled-coil domain of the carboxy-terminal leucine zipper region of CNGA1 subunits, constraining the channel to contain three CNGA1 subunits, followed by preferential incorporation of a single CNGB1 subunit. Deletion of the carboxy-terminal leucine zipper domain relaxed the constraint and permitted multiple CNGB1 subunits in the channel. The X-ray crystal structures of the parallel 3-helix coiled-coil domains of CNGA1 and CNGA3 subunits were similar, suggesting that a similar mechanism controls the stoichiometry of cone CNG channels. PMID:21878911

  1. The TCP1γ subunit of Leishmania donovani forms a biologically active homo-oligomeric complex.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar; Mitra, Kalyan; Kuldeep, Jitendra; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Goyal, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperons that encapsulate nascent or stress-denatured proteins and assist their intracellular assembly and folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP1 ring complex is a hetero-oligomeric complex comprising two rings, each formed of eight subunits that may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. In Leishmania, only the TCP1γ subunit has been cloned and characterized. It exhibited differential expression at various growth stages of promastigotes. In the present study, we expressed the TCP1γ subunit in Escherichia coli to investigate whether it forms chaperonin-like complexes and plays a role in protein folding. LdTCP1γ formed high-molecular-weight complexes within E. coli cells as well as in Leishmania cell lysates. The recombinant protein is arranged into two back-to-back rings of seven subunits each, as predicted by homology modelling and observed by negative staining electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the oligomeric double-ring group I chaperonins found in mitochondria. The LdTCP1γ homo-oligomeric complex hydrolysed ATP, and was active as assayed by luciferase refolding. Thus, the homo-oligomer performs chaperonin reactions without partner subunit(s). Further, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that LdTCP1γ interacts with actin and tubulin proteins, suggesting that the complex may have a role in maintaining the structural dynamics of the cytoskeleton of parasites. PMID:26395202

  2. Two classes of regulatory subunits coassemble in the same BK channel and independently regulate gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Vivian; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    High resolution proteomics increasingly reveals that most native ion channels are assembled in macromolecular complexes. However, whether different partners have additive or cooperative functional effects, or whether some combinations of proteins may preclude assembly of others are largely unexplored topics. The large conductance Ca2+-and-voltage activated potassium channel (BK) is well-suited to discern nuanced differences in regulation arising from combinations of subunits. Here we examine whether assembly of two different classes of regulatory proteins, β and γ, in BK channels is exclusive or independent. Our results show that both γ1 and up to four β2-subunits can coexist in the same functional BK complex, with the gating shift caused by β2-subunits largely additive with that produced by the γ1-subunit(s). The multiplicity of β:γ combinations that can participate in a BK complex therefore allow a range of BK channels with distinct functional properties tuned by the specific stoichiometry of the contributing subunits.

  3. Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II that affect enzyme assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, P A; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the three largest subunits of yeast RNA polymerase II (RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3) were investigated for their effects on RNA polymerase II structure and assembly. Among 23 temperature-sensitive mutations, 6 mutations affected enzyme assembly, as assayed by immunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged subunits. In all six assembly mutants, RNA polymerase II subunits synthesized at the permissive temperature were incorporated into stably assembled, immunoprecipitable enzyme and remained stably associated when cells were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature, whereas subunits synthesized at the nonpermissive temperature were not incorporated into a completely assembled enzyme. The observation that subunit subcomplexes accumulated in assembly-mutant cells at the nonpermissive temperature led us to investigate whether these subcomplexes were assembly intermediates or merely byproducts of mutant enzyme instability. The time course of assembly of RPB1, RPB2, and RPB3 was investigated in wild-type cells and subsequently in mutant cells. Glycerol gradient fractionation of extracts of cells pulse-labeled for various times revealed that a subcomplex of RPB2 and RPB3 appears soon after subunit synthesis and can be chased into fully assembled enzyme. The RPB2-plus-RPB3 subcomplexes accumulated in all RPB1 assembly mutants at the nonpermissive temperature but not in an RPB2 or RPB3 assembly mutant. These data indicate that RPB2 and RPB3 form a complex that subsequently interacts with RPB1 during the assembly of RNA polymerase II. Images PMID:1715023

  4. Wheat gluten: high molecular weight glutenin subunits--structure, genetics, and relation to dough elasticity.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Din, Ahmad; Saeed, Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

    2007-04-01

    Gluten proteins, representing the major protein fraction of the starchy endosperm, are predominantly responsible for the unique position of wheat amongst cereals. These form a continuous proteinaceous matrix in the cells of the mature dry grain and form a continuous viscoelastic network during the mixing process of dough development. These viscoelastic properties underline the utilization of wheat to prepare bread and other wheat flour based foodstuffs. One group of gluten proteins is glutenin, which consists of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits. The HMW glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are particularly important for determining dough elasticity. The common wheat possesses 3 to 5 HMW subunits encoded at the Glu-1 loci on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes (1A, 1B, and 1D). The presence of certain HMW subunits is positively correlated with good bread-making quality. Glutamine-rich repetitive sequences that comprise the central part of the HMW subunits are actually responsible for the elastic properties due to extensive arrays of interchain hydrogen bonds. Genetic engineering can be used to manipulate the amount and composition of the HMW subunits, leading to either increased dough strength or more drastic changes in gluten structure and properties.

  5. The subunit structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, T.W.; Nakata, P.A.; Anderson, J.M. ); Sowokinos, J. ); Morell, M.; Preiss, J. )

    1990-06-01

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase has been extensively purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue to study its structure. By employing a modified published procedure together with Mono Q chromatography, a near homogeneous enzyme preparation was obtained with substantial improvement in enzyme yield and specific activity. In single dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, the enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide band with a mobility of about 50,000 daltons. Analysis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, however, revealed the presence of two types of subunits which could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. The smaller potato tuber subunit was recognized by antiserum prepared against the smaller spinach leaf 51 kilodalton ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase subunit. In contrast, the anti-54 kilodalton raised against the spinach leaf subunit did not significantly react to the tuber enzyme subunits. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is not composed of a simple homotetramer as previously suggested, but is a product of two separate and distinct subunits as observed for the spinach leaf and maize enzymes.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin/activin subunits in the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt) ovary.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia; Weng, Jiaju; Zhang, Haolin; Li, Xiaonan; Zhang, Mengyuan; Xu, Meiyu; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (α, β(A) and β(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin α and β(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while β(B) subunit was undetectable. The expression level of inhibin/activin subunit proteins were generally higher in the ovaries of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level during the nonbreeding season. The dynamic expression of inhibin/activin subunits indicated that they might play important paracrine and/or autocrine roles during the seasonal folliculogenesis of the wild ground squirrel.

  7. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2015-04-17

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  8. Regulation of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Subunit through Epigenetic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kayla A.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome-shortening is characteristic of normal cells, and is known as the end replication problem. Telomerase is the enzyme responsible for extending the ends of the chromosomes in de novo synthesis, and occurs in germ cells as well as most malignant cancers. There are three subunits of telomerase: human telomerase RNA (hTERC), human telomerase associated protein (hTEP1), or dyskerin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). hTERC and hTEP1 are constitutively expressed, so the enzymatic activity of telomerase is dependent on the transcription of hTERT. DNA methylation, histone methylation, and histone acetylation are basic epigenetic regulations involved in the expression of hTERT. Non-coding RNA can also serve as a form of epigenetic control of hTERT. This epigenetic-based regulation of hTERT is important in providing a mechanism for reversibility of hTERT control in various biological states. These include embryonic down-regulation of hTERT contributing to aging and the upregulation of hTERT playing a critical role in over 90% of cancers. Normal human somatic cells have a non-methylated/hypomethylated CpG island within the hTERT promoter region, while telomerase-positive cells paradoxically have at least a partially methylated promoter region that is opposite to the normal roles of DNA methylation. Histone acetylation of H3K9 within the promoter region is associated with an open chromatin state such that transcription machinery has the space to form. Histone methylation of hTERT has varied control of the gene, however. Mono- and dimethylation of H3K9 within the promoter region indicate silent euchromatin, while a trimethylated H3K9 enhances gene transcription. Non-coding RNAs can target epigenetic-modifying enzymes, as well as transcription factors involved in the control of hTERT. An epigenetics diet that can affect the epigenome of cancer cells is a recent fascination that has received much attention. By combining portions of this diet with

  9. Identification of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase subunits modified by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

    PubMed

    Musatov, Andrej; Carroll, Christopher A; Liu, Yuan-Chao; Henderson, George I; Weintraub, Susan T; Robinson, Neal C

    2002-06-25

    Bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was inactivated by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with pseudo-first-order kinetics. Cytochrome c oxidase electron transport activity decreased by as much as 50% when the enzyme was incubated for 2 h at room temperature with excess HNE (300-500 microM). HNE-modified CcO subunits were identified by two mass spectrometric methods: electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). All of the experimentally determined molecular masses were in excellent agreement with published sequence values with an accuracy of approximately 1 part per 10000 mass units for subunits smaller than 20 kDa and approximately 1 part per 1000 mass units for the three subunits larger than 20 kDa. Both MS methods detected six CcO subunits with an increased mass of 156 Da after reaction with HNE (subunits II, IV, Vb, VIIa, VIIc, and VIII); this result indicates a single Michael-type reaction site on either a lysine or histidine residue within each subunit. Reaction of HNE with either subunit VIIc or subunit VIII (modified approximately 30% and 50-75%, respectively) must be responsible for CcO inhibition. None of the other subunits were modified more than 5% and could not account for the observed loss of activity. Reaction of HNE with His-36 of subunit VIII is most consistent with the approximately 50% inhibition of CcO: (1) subunit VIII is modified more than any other subunit by HNE; (2) the time dependence of subunit VIII modification is consistent with the percent inhibition of CcO; (3) His-36 was identified as the HNE-modified amino acid residue within subunit VIII by tandem MS analysis. PMID:12069614

  10. Topology of subunits of the mammalian cytochrome c oxidase: Relationship to the assembly of the enzyme complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Zhong Zhang; Ewart, G.; Capaldi, R.A. )

    1991-04-16

    The arrangement of three subunits of beef heart cytochrome c oxidase, subunits Va, VIa, and VIII, has been explored by chemical labeling and protease digestion studies. Subunit Va is an extrinsic protein located on the C side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. This subunit was found to label with N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethane({sup 35}S)sulfonate and sodium methyl 4-({sup 3}H)formylphenyl phosphate in reconstituted vesicles in which 90% of cytochrome c oxidase complexes were oriented with the C domain outermost. Subunit VIa was cleaved by trypsin both in these reconstituted vesicles and in submitochondrial particles, indicating a transmembrane orientation. The epitope for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to subunit VIa was lost or destroyed when cleavage occurred in reconstituted vesicles. This epitope was localized to the C-terminal part of the subunit by antibody binding to a fusion protein consisting of glutathione S-transferase (G-ST) and the C-terminal amino acids 55-85 of subunit VIa. No antibody binding was obtained with a fusion protein containing G-ST and the N-terminal amino acids 1-55. The mAb reaction orients subunit VIa with its C-terminus in the C-domain. Subunit VIII was cleaved by trypsin in submitochondrial particles but not in reconstituted vesicles. N-Terminal sequencing of the subunit VIII cleavage produce from submitochondrial particles gave the same sequence as the untreated subunit, i.e., ITA, indicating that it is the C-terminus which is cleaved from the M side. Subunits Va and VIII each contain N-terminal extensions or leader sequences in the precursor polypeptides; subunit VIa is made without an N-terminal extension.

  11. The Drosophila 110-kDa transcription factor TFIID subunit directly interacts with the N-terminal region of the 230-kDa subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, T; Gong, D W; Roeder, R G; Horikoshi, M; Nakatani, Y

    1993-01-01

    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in transcriptional regulation by facilitating promoter responses to various activators. cDNAs encoding the 110-kDa subunit of Drosophila TFIID (p110) were isolated with a degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide probe based on an amino acid sequence of the purified protein. The entire cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame encoding a 921-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 99,337 Da. The recombinant protein expressed in Sf9 cells via a baculovirus vector interacts directly with the 230-kDa subunit of TFIID (p230). Together with the previous observation that the TATA box-binding subunit of TFIID (TFIID tau or TBP) interacts directly with only p230 among the TFIID subunits, this result suggests that p110 forms a complex with TFIID tau via p230. A binding study using various p230 mutants indicated that both p110 and TFIID tau interact with the N-terminal 352-amino acid portion of p230, suggesting a functional communication between p110 and TFIID tau via p230 interactions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8327460

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to the [alpha]- and [beta]-Subunits of the Plant Mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Horak, A.; Elthon, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have generated nine monoclonal antibodies against subunits of the maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondrial F1-ATPase. These monoclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing mice against maize mitochondrial fractions and randomly collecting useful hybridomas. To prove that these monoclonal antibodies were directed against ATPase subunits, we tested their cross-reactivity with purified F1-ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria. One of the antibodies ([alpha]-ATPaseD) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [alpha]-subunit and two ([beta]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseE) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [beta]-subunit. This established that, of the nine antibodies, four react with the maize [alpha]-ATPase subunit and the other five react with the maize [beta]-ATPase subunit. Most of the monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the F1-ATPase from a wide range of plant species. Each of the four monoclonal antibodies raised against the [alpha]-subunit recognizes a different epitope. Of the five [beta]-subunit antibodies, at least three different epitopes are recognized. Direct incubation of the monoclonal antibodies with the F1-ATPase failed to inhibit the ATPase activity. The monoclonal antibodies [alpha]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseD were bound to epoxide-glass QuantAffinity beads and incubated with a purified preparation of pea F1-ATPase. The ATPase activity was not inhibited when the antibodies bound the ATPase. The antibodies were used to help map the pea F1-ATPase subunits on a two-dimensional map of whole pea cotyledon mitochondrial protein. In addition, the antibodies have revealed antigenic similarities between various isoforms observed for the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the purified F1-ATPase. The specificity of these monoclonal antibodies, along with their cross-species recognition and their ability to bind the F1-ATPase without inhibiting enzymic function, makes these antibodies useful and invaluable tools for the further purification and characterization of plant

  13. Folding, stability, and physical properties of the alpha subunit of bacterial luciferase.

    PubMed

    Noland, B W; Dangott, L J; Baldwin, T O

    1999-12-01

    Bacterial luciferase is a heterodimeric (alphabeta) enzyme composed of homologous subunits. When the Vibrio harveyi luxA gene is expressed in Escherichia coli, the alpha subunit accumulates to high levels. The alpha subunit has a well-defined near-UV circular dichroism spectrum and a higher intrinsic fluorescence than the heterodimer, demonstrating fluorescence quenching in the enzyme which is reduced in the free subunit [Sinclair, J. F., Waddle, J. J., Waddill, W. F., and Baldwin, T. O. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 5036-5044]. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the alpha subunit has revealed a reversible monomer to dimer equilibrium with a dissociation constant of 14.9 +/- 4.0 microM at 18 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate and 100 mM NaCl, pH 7.0. The alpha subunit unfolded and refolded reversibly in urea-containing buffers by a three-state mechanism. The first transition occurred over the range of 0-2 M urea with an associated free-energy change of 2.24 +/- 0.25 kcal/mol at 18 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The second, occurring between 2.5 and 3.5 M urea, comprised a cooperative transition with a free-energy change of 6.50 +/- 0.75 kcal/mol. The intermediate species, populated maximally at ca. 2 M urea, has defined near-UV circular dichroism spectral properties distinct from either the native or the denatured states. The intrinsic fluorescence of the intermediate suggested that, although the quantum yield had decreased, the tryptophanyl residues remained largely buried. The far-UV circular dichroism spectrum of the intermediate indicated that it had lost ca. 40% of its native secondary structure. N-Terminal sequencing of the products of limited proteolysis of the intermediate showed that the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit became protease labile over the urea concentration range at which the intermediate was maximally populated. These observations have led us to propose an unfolding model in which the first transition is the unfolding of a C

  14. The A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 2 Has Higher Affinity for Ribosomes and Higher Catalytic Activity than the A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 1.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debaleena; Li, Xiao-Ping; Kahn, Jennifer N; May, Kerrie L; Kahn, Peter C; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections can lead to life-threatening complications, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children in the United States. Stx1 and Stx2 are AB5 toxins consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit associated with a pentamer of receptor binding B subunits. Epidemiological evidence suggests that Stx2-producing E. coli strains are more frequently associated with HUS than Stx1-producing strains. Several studies suggest that the B subunit plays a role in mediating toxicity. However, the role of the A subunits in the increased potency of Stx2 has not been fully investigated. Here, using purified A1 subunits, we show that Stx2A1 has a higher affinity for yeast and mammalian ribosomes than Stx1A1. Biacore analysis indicated that Stx2A1 has faster association and dissociation with ribosomes than Stx1A1. Analysis of ribosome depurination kinetics demonstrated that Stx2A1 depurinates yeast and mammalian ribosomes and an RNA stem-loop mimic of the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) at a higher catalytic rate and is a more efficient enzyme than Stx1A1. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes at a higher level in vivo and was more cytotoxic than Stx1A1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes and inhibited translation at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1 in human cells. These results provide the first direct evidence that the higher affinity for ribosomes in combination with higher catalytic activity toward the SRL allows Stx2A1 to depurinate ribosomes, inhibit translation, and exhibit cytotoxicity at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1.

  15. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit. PMID:11988102

  16. Atomic force microscopy of ionotropic receptors bearing subunit-specific tags provides a method for determining receptor architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Calum S.; Martin, Ian L.; Davies, Martin; Henderson, Robert M.; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2003-08-01

    We have developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method for the determination of the subunit architecture of ionotropic receptors, and tested the method using the GABAA receptor as a model system. The most common form of the GABAA receptor probably consists of 2alpha1-, 2beta2- and 1gamma2-subunits. We show here that the arrangement of subunits around the central Cl- ion channel can be deduced by AFM of receptors tagged with subunit-specific antibodies. Transfection of cells with DNA encoding alpha1-, beta2- and gamma2-subunits resulted in the production of receptors containing all three subunits, as judged by both immunoblot analysis and the binding of [3H]-Ro15-1788, a specific radioligand for the GABAA receptor. A His6-tag on the alpha1-subunit was used to purify the receptor from membrane fractions of transfected cells. After incubation with anti-His6 immunoglobulin G, some receptors became tagged with either one or two antibody molecules. AFM analysis of complexes containing two bound antibodies showed that the most common angle between the two tags was 135°, close to the value of 144° expected if the two alpha-subunits are separated by a third subunit. This method is applicable to the complete elucidation of the subunit arrangement around the GABAA receptor rosette, and can also be applied to other ionotropic receptors.

  17. Nitric oxide decreases stability of mRNAs encoding soluble guanylate cyclase subunits in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Filippov, G; Bloch, D B; Bloch, K D

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) to convert GTP to the intracellular second messenger cGMP. In rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, sGC is an obligate heterodimer composed of alpha1 and beta1 subunits. We investigated the effect of NO donor compounds on sGC subunit gene expression in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-glutathione decreased sGC subunit mRNA and protein levels, as well as sGC enzyme activity. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an sGC inhibitor, blocked the effect of sodium nitroprusside on sGC subunit gene expression, whereas 8-bromo cGMP decreased subunit mRNA levels, demonstrating that NO-mediated decrease in sGC subunit mRNA levels is cGMP-dependent. sGC subunit mRNA levels decreased more rapidly in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to actinomycin D, suggesting that NO decreases sGC subunit mRNA stability. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked the ability of NO to decrease sGC subunit mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that NO decreases sGC subunit mRNA stability via a transcription- and translation-dependent mechanism. PMID:9259594

  18. Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvissel, Anne-Katrine . E-mail: a.k.kvissel@basalmed.uio.no; Orstavik, Sigurd; Eikvar, Sissel; Brede, Gaute; Jahnsen, Tore; Collas, Philippe; Akusjaervi, Goeran; Skalhegg, Bjorn Steen

    2007-08-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a holoenzyme consisting of two catalytic (C) subunits bound to a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Stimulation by cAMP dissociates the holoenzyme and causes translocation to the nucleus of a fraction of the C subunit. Apart from transcription regulation, little is known about the function of the C subunit in the nucleus. In the present report, we show that both C{alpha} and C{beta} are localized to spots in the mammalian nucleus. Double immunofluorescence analysis of splicing factor SC35 with the C subunit indicated that these spots are splicing factor compartments (SFCs). Using the E1A in vivo splicing assay, we found that catalytically active C subunits regulate alternative splicing and phosphorylate several members of the SR-protein family of splicing factors in vitro. Furthermore, nuclear C subunits co-localize with the C subunit-binding protein homologous to AKAP95, HA95. HA95 also regulates E1A alternative splicing in vivo, apparently through its N-terminal domain. Localization of the C subunit to SFCs and the E1A splicing pattern were unaffected by cAMP stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that the nuclear PKA C subunit co-locates with HA95 in SFCs and regulates pre-mRNA splicing, possibly through a cAMP-independent mechanism.

  19. Subunit sequences of the 4 x 6-mer hemocyanin from the golden orb-web spider, Nephila inaurata.

    PubMed

    Averdam, Anne; Markl, Jürgen; Burmester, Thorsten

    2003-08-01

    The transport of oxygen in the hemolymph of many arthropod and mollusc species is mediated by large copper-proteins that are referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are composed of hexamers and oligomers of hexamers. Arachnid hemocyanins usually form 4 x 6-mers consisting of seven distinct subunit types (termed a-g), although in some spider taxa deviations from this standard scheme have been observed. Applying immunological and electrophoretic methods, six distinct hemocyanin subunits were identified in the red-legged golden orb-web spider Nephila inaurata madagascariensis (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). The complete cDNA sequences of six subunits were obtained that corresponded to a-, b-, d-, e-, f- and g-type subunits. No evidence for a c-type subunit was found in this species. The inclusion of the N. inaurata hemocyanins in a multiple alignment of the arthropod hemocyanins and the application of the Bayesian method of phylogenetic inference allow, for the first time, a solid reconstruction of the intramolecular evolution of the chelicerate hemocyanin subunits. The branch leading to subunit a diverged first, followed by the common branch of the dimer-forming b and c subunits, while subunits d and f, as well as subunits e and g form common branches. Assuming a clock-like evolution of the chelicerate hemocyanins, a timescale for the evolution of the Chelicerata was obtained that agrees with the fossil record.

  20. Identification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits from Agropyron intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1∼4 and Glu-1Aiy1∼3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  1. The major fimbrial subunit of Bordetella pertussis binds to sulfated sugars.

    PubMed Central

    Geuijen, C A; Willems, R J; Mooi, F R

    1996-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae are composed of major and minor subunits, and recently it was shown that the minor fimbrial subunit binds to Vla-5, a receptor located on monocytes (W. Hazenbos, C. Geuijen, B. van den Berg, F. Mooi, and R. van Furth, J. Infect. Dis. 171:924-929, 1995). Here we present evidence that the major subunits bind to sulfated sugars, which are ubiquitous in the respiratory tract. Binding was observed to chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, and dextran sulfate but not to dextran. Removal of the minor subunit from fimbriae did not significantly affect binding to sulfated sugars, indicating that the major subunit alone is sufficient for this binding. Fimbriae were also able to bind HEp-2 cells, which are known to display glycoconjugates on their surface. This binding was not dependent on the presence of the minor subunit. However, binding was dependent on the sulfation state of the glycoconjugates, since inhibition of the sulfation resulted in a significant reduction of fimbria binding. The specificity of fimbria binding was further characterized by using heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in inhibition assays. Two disaccharides were highly effective inhibitors, and it was observed that both the degree of sulfation and the arrangement of the sulfate groups on the disaccharides were important for binding to fimbriae. B. pertussis bacteria also bound to sulfated sugars and HEp-2 cells, and analysis of B. pertussis mutants indicated that both filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae were required for this binding. A host protein present in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, has binding activities similar to those of B. pertussis fimbriae, binding to both Vla-5 and sulfated sugars. Two regions in the major fimbrial subunit were identified which showed similarity with fibronectin peptides which bind to sulfated sugars. Thus, B. pertussis fimbriae exemplify molecular mimicry and may co-opt host processes by mimicking natural ligand

  2. Glycine Receptors Containing α2 or α3 Subunits Regulate Specific Ethanol-Mediated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are broadly expressed in the central nervous system. Ethanol enhances the function of brain GlyRs, and the GlyRα1 subunit is associated with some of the behavioral actions of ethanol, such as loss of righting reflex. The in vivo role of GlyRα2 and α3 subunits in alcohol responses has not been characterized despite high expression levels in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, areas that are important for the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. We used an extensive panel of behavioral tests to examine ethanol actions in mice lacking Glra2 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 2 subunit) or Glra3 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 3 subunit). Deletion of Glra2 or Glra3 alters specific ethanol-induced behaviors. Glra2 knockout mice demonstrate reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test and increased initial aversive responses to ethanol and lithium chloride. In contrast, Glra3 knockout mice show increased ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour intermittent access test and increased development of conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. Mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of ethanol in the limited access drinking in the dark test. Other ethanol effects, such as anxiolysis, motor incoordination, loss of righting reflex, and acoustic startle response, were not altered in the mutants. The behavioral changes in mice lacking GlyRα2 or α3 subunits were distinct from effects previously observed in mice with knock-in mutations in the α1 subunit. We provide evidence that GlyRα2 and α3 subunits may regulate ethanol consumption and the aversive response to ethanol. PMID:25678534

  3. Betaretroviral Envelope Subunits Are Noncovalently Associated and Restricted to the Mammalian Class

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the transmembrane subunit (TM) of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) is highly conserved among most retrovirus genera and includes a pair of cysteines that forms an intramolecular disulfide loop within the ectodomain. Alpha-, gamma-, and deltaretroviruses have a third cysteine, adjacent to the loop, which forms a disulfide bond between TM and the surface subunit (SU) of Env, while lentiviruses, which have noncovalently associated subunits, lack this third cysteine. The Betaretrovirus genus includes Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), as well as many endogenous retroviruses. Envelope subunit association had not been characterized in the betaretroviruses, but lack of a third cysteine in the TM ectodomain suggested noncovalently associated subunits. We tested the Env proteins of JSRV and MMTV, as well as human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K)108—a betaretrovirus-like human endogenous retrovirus—for intersubunit bonding and found that, as in the lentiviruses, the Env subunits lack an intersubunit disulfide bond. Since these results suggest that the number of cysteines in the TM loop region readily distinguishes between covalent and noncovalent structure, we surveyed endogenous retroviral TM sequences in the genomes of vertebrates represented in public databases and found that (i) retroviruses with noncovalently associated subunits have been present during all of anthropoid evolution and (ii) the noncovalent env motif is limited to mammals, while the covalent type is found among five vertebrate classes. We discuss implications of these findings for retroviral evolution, cross-species transmissions, and recombination events involving the env gene. PMID:23221553

  4. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Regulates Hippocampal GABA(A) Receptor Delta Subunit Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Follesa, Paolo; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino P.; Ibba, Antonio; Tocco, Maria G.; Zicca, Luca; Mercante, Beniamina; Deriu, Franca; Gorini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption causes structural and functional reorganization in the hippocampus and induces alterations in the gene expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Distinct forced intermittent exposure models have been used previously to investigate changes in GABAAR expression, with contrasting results. Here, we used repeated cycles of a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol paradigm to examine the relationship between voluntary, dependence-associated ethanol consumption, and GABAAR gene expression in mouse hippocampus. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to four 16-h ethanol vapor (or air) cycles in inhalation chambers alternated with limited-access two-bottle choice between ethanol (15%) and water consumption. The mice exposed to ethanol vapor showed significant increases in ethanol consumption compared to their air-matched controls. GABAAR alpha4 and delta subunit gene expression were measured by qRT-PCR at different stages. There were significant changes in GABAAR delta subunit transcript levels at different time points in ethanol-vapor exposed mice, while the alpha4 subunit levels remained unchanged. Correlated concurrent blood ethanol concentrations suggested that GABAAR delta subunit mRNA levels fluctuate depending on ethanol intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal state. Using a vapor-based Chronic Intermittent Ethanol procedure with combined two-bottle choice consumption, we corroborated previous evidences showing that discontinuous ethanol exposure affects GABAAR delta subunit expression but we did not observe changes in alpha4 subunit. These findings indicate that hippocampal GABAAR delta subunit expression changes transiently over the course of a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol paradigm associated with voluntary intake, in response to ethanol-mediated disturbance of GABAergic neurotransmission. PMID:26617492

  5. Stable expression of transfected Torpedo acetylcholine receptor. cap alpha. subunits in mouse fibroblast L cells

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio, T.

    1987-08-01

    Torpedo californica electric organ cDNA libraries were constructed in lambdagt10 and lambdagt11. Four acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) subunit cDNA clones were isolated and shown to contain the entire coding region for each of the subunits. When in vitro synthesized AcChoR mRNA was microinjected into Xenopus laevis oocytes, functional cell surface AcChoRs were expressed. A very simple and fast /sup 22/Na-uptake experiment was performed on batches of microinjected oocytes to identify oocytes that were expressing large quantities of functional cell surface AcChoRs for use in single-channel recordings. In addition to the transient expression system, DNA-mediated contransformation is described, which is a method for stably introducing AcChoR cDNAs into the chromosomes of tissue culture cells. Because the AcChoR is composed of four different subunits, it is necessary to integrate four cDNAs into the chromosomes of the same cell before stable expression of a completely functional receptor complex can be established. The authors show that 80% of the cells that integrated the selectable marker gene into their chromosomes also integrated all four AcChoR cDNAs. When Torpedo ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA inserted into an appropriate expression vector was introduced into cells by transfection, ..cap alpha..-subunit protein was synthesized that migrated on NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels with the same molecular mass as native Torpedo ..cap alpha.. subunits and expressed antigenic determinants similar to those of native Torpedo ..cap alpha.. subunits.

  6. Quantification of Transthyretin Kinetic Stability in Human Plasma Using Subunit Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of degenerative diseases caused by TTR aggregation, requiring rate-limiting tetramer dissociation. Kinetic stabilization of TTR, by preferential binding of a drug to the native tetramer over the dissociative transition state, dramatically slows the progression of familial amyloid polyneuropathy. An established method for quantifying the kinetic stability of recombinant TTR tetramers in buffer is subunit exchange, in which tagged TTR homotetramers are added to untagged homotetramers at equal concentrations to measure the rate at which the subunits exchange. Herein, we report a subunit exchange method for quantifying the kinetic stability of endogenous TTR in human plasma. The subunit exchange reaction is initiated by the addition of a substoichiometric quantity of FLAG-tagged TTR homotetramers to endogenous TTR in plasma. Aliquots of the subunit exchange reaction, taken as a function of time, are then added to an excess of a fluorogenic small molecule, which immediately arrests further subunit exchange. After binding, the small molecule reacts with the TTR tetramers, rendering them fluorescent and detectable in human plasma after subsequent ion exchange chromatography. The ability to report on the extent of TTR kinetic stabilization resulting from treatment with oral tafamidis is important, especially for selection of the appropriate dose for patients carrying rare mutations. This method could also serve as a surrogate biomarker for the prediction of the clinical outcome. Subunit exchange was used to quantify the stabilization of WT TTR from senile systemic amyloidosis patients currently being treated with tafamidis (20 mg orally, once daily). TTR kinetic stability correlated with the tafamidis plasma concentration. PMID:24661308

  7. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Agropyron intermedium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuanghe; Li, Zhixin; Gong, Caiyan; Xu, Hong; Yang, Ran; Hao, Shanting; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2014-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) is a primary determinant of processing quality of wheat. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function and genetic regulation of HMW-GS in wheat and some of its related species, but less is known about their orthologs in Agropyron intermedium, a useful related species for wheat improvement. Here seven HMW-GSs in Ag. intermedium were identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments. Subsequently, the seven genes (Glu-1Aix1 ∼ 4 and Glu-1Aiy1 ∼ 3) encoding the seven HMW-GSs were isolated using PCR technique with degenerate primers, and confirmed by bacterial expression and Western blotting. Sequence analysis indicated that the seven Ag. intermedium HMW-GSs shared high similarity in primary structure to those of wheat, but four of the seven subunits were unusually small compared to the representatives of HMW-GS from wheat and two of them possessed extra cysteine residues. The alignment and clustering analysis of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 1Aix1 and 1Aiy1 subunits had special molecular structure, belonging to the hybrid type compounding between typical x- and y-type subunit. The xy-type subunit 1Aix1 is composed of the N-terminal of x-type and C-terminal of y-type, whereas yx-type subunit 1Aiy1 comprises the N-terminal of y-type and C-terminal of x-type. This result strongly supported the hypothesis of unequal crossover mechanism that might generate the novel coding sequence for the hybrid type of HMW-GSs. In addition to the aforementioned, the other novel characteristics of the seven subunits were also discussed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on HMW-GS genes was carried out and provided new insights into the evolutionary biology of Ag. intermedium. PMID:24503781

  8. Expression of a human alpha-tubulin: properties of the isolated subunit.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, M B; Levison, B S; Szasz, J; Sternlicht, H

    1988-03-22

    We examined the in vitro expression and biochemical properties of the isolated alpha subunit of tubulin both in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and in Escherichia coli extracts. Both systems produce soluble, full-length human alpha-tubulin polypeptide. When alpha-tubulin mRNA is translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, the isolated alpha subunit is fully functional as assayed by coassembly with bovine brain tubulin using temperature-dependent or taxol/salt assembly procedures. The conformation of the isolated alpha subunit was probed by limited proteolytic digestion with chymotrypsin and by reductive methylation. Limited proteolysis studies indicated that the "monomeric" alpha subunit is highly susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion and becomes resistant to chymotrypsin cleavage following incorporation into the heterodimer. Reductive methylation indicated that the unassociated alpha subunit has a highly reactive lysyl residue essential for microtubule assembly similar to that observed in the heterodimer. In contrast, alpha-tubulin expressed in E. coli lysates was incapable of coassemblying with bovine brain tubulin. Differences in assembly competence of the two alpha-tubulin products appear to be related to formylation of the N-terminal methionine in the procaryotic synthesized subunit. These findings suggest that the amino-terminal methionine of alpha-tubulin plays an essential role in the isolated subunit and/or in the heterodimer, a hypothesis supported by chemical reactivity studies [Sherman, G., Rosenberry, T.L., & Sternlicht, H. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2148-2156] which imply that this residue is in a salt-bridge interaction in the dimer.

  9. The stoichiometry of subunit c of Escherichia coli ATP synthase is independent of its rate of synthesis.

    PubMed

    Krebstakies, Thomas; Aldag, Ingo; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Greie, Jörg-Christian; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele

    2008-07-01

    Immunoblot quantitation of Escherichia coli ATP synthase isolated from atp wildtype and mutant cells, the latter comprising a reduced expression of the atpE gene coding for subunit c due to a point mutation within its Shine-Dalgarno sequence, suggested a variable stoichiometry of subunit c [Schemidt et al. (1995) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 323, 423-428]. To study the c ring of the mutant strain and its stoichiometry in more detail, F O isolated from wildtype and mutant were investigated by quantitation, reconstitution, and cross-linking. Direct quantitation by staining with SYPRO Ruby revealed a reduction of subunit c in the mutant by a factor of 2 compared to F O subunits a and b. Rates of passive H (+) translocation correlated with the amount of subunit c present. Lower rates for mutant F O could be increased by addition of subunit c, whereas translocation rates remained constant by coreconstitution with nonfunctional subunit cD61G arguing against the presence of smaller c rings that are filled up with coreconstituted subunit c. Intermolecular cross-linking by oxidation of bicysteine-substituted subunit c ( cA21C/ cM65C) revealed an equal pattern of oligomer formation in wildtype and mutant also favoring a comparable subunit c stoichiometry. Cross-linking of membrane vesicles containing cysteine-substituted subunits a ( aN214C) and c ( cM65C) characterized the mutant F O preparation as a heterogeneous population, which consists of assembled F O and free ab 2 subcomplexes each present to approximately 50%. Thus, these data clearly demonstrate that the stoichiometry of the subunit c rings remains constant even after reduction of the synthesis of subunit c.

  10. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits. PMID:26184350

  11. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits.

  12. Regulation of Nav1.6 and Nav1.8 peripheral nerve Na+ channels by auxiliary β-subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; O'Leary, Michael E; Chahine, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) (Na(v)) channels are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and one or more auxiliary β-subunits. The present study investigated the regulation by the β-subunit of two Na(+) channels (Na(v)1.6 and Na(v)1.8) expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Single cell RT-PCR was used to show that Na(v)1.8, Na(v)1.6, and β(1)-β(3) subunits were widely expressed in individually harvested small-diameter DRG neurons. Coexpression experiments were used to assess the regulation of Na(v)1.6 and Na(v)1.8 by β-subunits. The β(1)-subunit induced a 2.3-fold increase in Na(+) current density and hyperpolarizing shifts in the activation (-4 mV) and steady-state inactivation (-4.7 mV) of heterologously expressed Na(v)1.8 channels. The β(4)-subunit caused more pronounced shifts in activation (-16.7 mV) and inactivation (-9.3 mV) but did not alter the current density of cells expressing Na(v)1.8 channels. The β(3)-subunit did not alter Na(v)1.8 gating but significantly reduced the current density by 31%. This contrasted with Na(v)1.6, where the β-subunits were relatively weak regulators of channel function. One notable exception was the β(4)-subunit, which induced a hyperpolarizing shift in activation (-7.6 mV) but no change in the inactivation or current density of Na(v)1.6. The β-subunits differentially regulated the expression and gating of Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.6. To further investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism, β-subunit chimeras containing portions of the strongly regulating β(1)-subunit and the weakly regulating β(2)-subunit were generated. Chimeras retaining the COOH-terminal domain of the β(1)-subunit produced hyperpolarizing shifts in gating and increased the current density of Na(v)1.8, similar to that observed for wild-type β(1)-subunits. The intracellular COOH-terminal domain of the β(1)-subunit appeared to play an essential role in the regulation of Na(v)1.8 expression and gating. PMID:21562192

  13. Amyloid-β peptide binds to cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Luna-Muñoz, Jose; Mena, Raul; Vazquez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Cribbs, David H; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid-beta aggregates has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of macromolecules has deleterious effects on cellular functions. Mitochondria were found to be the target for amyloid-beta, and mitochondrial dysfunction is well documented in AD. In the present study we have shown for the first time that Aβ 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the amino-terminal region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. Phage clone, selected after screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage and bearing a 61 amino acid fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, bound to Aβ 1-42 in ELISA as well as to Aβ aggregates present in AD brain. Aβ 1-42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 co-immunoprecipitated from mitochondrial fraction of differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. Likewise, molecular dynamics simulation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the Aβ 1-42 peptide complex resulted in a reliable helix-helix interaction, supporting the experimental results. The interaction between Aβ 1-42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 may explain, in part, the diminished enzymatic activity of respiratory chain complex IV and subsequent neuronal metabolic dysfunction observed in AD.

  14. Controlling tetramer formation, subunit rotation and DNA ligation during Hin-catalyzed DNA inversion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yong; Johnson, Reid C.

    2015-01-01

    Two critical steps controlling serine recombinase activity are the remodeling of dimers into the chemically active synaptic tetramer and the regulation of subunit rotation during DNA exchange. We identify a set of hydrophobic residues within the oligomerization helix that controls these steps by the Hin DNA invertase. Phe105 and Met109 insert into hydrophobic pockets within the catalytic domain of the same subunit to stabilize the inactive dimer conformation. These rotate out of the catalytic domain in the dimer and into the subunit rotation interface of the tetramer. About half of residue 105 and 109 substitutions gain the ability to generate stable synaptic tetramers and/or promote DNA chemistry without activation by the Fis/enhancer element. Phe106 replaces Phe105 in the catalytic domain pocket to stabilize the tetramer conformation. Significantly, many of the residue 105 and 109 substitutions support subunit rotation but impair ligation, implying a defect in rotational pausing at the tetrameric conformer poised for ligation. We propose that a ratchet-like surface involving Phe105, Met109 and Leu112 within the rotation interface functions to gate the subunit rotation reaction. Hydrophobic residues are present in analogous positions in other serine recombinases and likely perform similar functions. PMID:26056171

  15. Mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit: cDNA sequence and gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; LaPolla, R J; Davidson, N

    1986-01-01

    Clones coding for the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gamma subunit precursor have been selected from a cDNA library derived from a mouse myogenic cell line and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence consists of a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues and a mature gamma subunit of 497 amino acid residues. There is a high degree of sequence conservation between this mouse sequence and published human and calf AChR gamma subunits and, after allowing for functional amino acid substitutions, also to the more distantly related chicken and Torpedo AChR gamma subunits. The degree of sequence conservation is especially high in the four putative hydrophobic membrane spanning regions, supporting the assignment of these domains. RNA blot hybridization showed that the mRNA level of the gamma subunit increases by 30 fold or more upon differentiation of the two mouse myogenic cell lines, BC3H-1 and C2C12, suggesting that the primary controls for changes in gene expression during differentiation are at the level of transcription. One cDNA clone was found to correspond to a partially processed nuclear transcript containing two as yet unspliced intervening sequences. Images PMID:3010242

  16. Immunochemical characterization of two thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, W D; Stanton, P G; Hearn, M T

    1995-01-01

    The epitopes of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) recognized by two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated MAb 279 and MAb 299, have been characterized. These MAbs are highly specific for the beta-subunit of TSH. The epitope recognized by MAb 279 appears to be completely conserved between bovine and human TSH and partially conserved in the porcine species. The TSH beta-subunit epitope recognized by MAb 299 is only partially conserved between the human, bovine and porcine species. Both MAbs are capable of inhibiting the binding of TSH to its receptor in a TSH radioreceptor assay, indicating that the epitopes either coincide or are located close to the TSH beta-subunit receptor-binding sites. The carbohydrate moieties of the TSH beta-subunit appear to play little or no role in the epitope recognition by MAb 279 or MAb 299 while the integrity of the disulphide bonds are essential. The epitopic recognition may also involve lysine residues, as determined by the immunoreactivity with both MAbs following citraconylation of TSH. In addition, the amino acid sequence region between residues bTSH beta 34-44 could be excised by trypsin digestion of bovine TSH beta (bTSH beta) without eliminating epitopic recognition by either MAb. These results provide further insight into the relationship between the structure of the TSH beta-subunit epitopes and location of the receptor-binding sites. Images Figure 2 PMID:7538754

  17. Effect of n-Alkanols on G-Protein α Subunits.

    PubMed

    Pentyala, Srinivas; Tanguturi, Kavita; Sawas, Anas; Veerraju, Amulya; Annam, Sandeep; Cipp, Laura; Rebecchi, Mario

    2011-08-10

    Guanine nucleotide binding (G)-proteins are GTP-driven allosteric proteins consisting of a single α subunit and a β and γ heterodimer. Gα subunits function as on/off switches based on the occupancy of the nucleotide-binding site, GTP or GDP, such that any alteration in nucleotide exchange modulates signal output. Our previous work has shown that haloalkanes and ethers inhibit GDP/GTP exchange on αi1, αi2 and αi3 subunits, but not the closely related αo. To test whether individual G-protein sensitivity correlates with n-alkanols potency and hydrophobicity, we studied the effects of n-alkanols of varied chain lengths on GDP/GTP exchange by Gαsubunits. n-alkanols (ethanol, butanol, pentanol, hexanol, heptanol, octanol and nonanol) showed differential effects on guanine nucleotide exchange by Gαi1, Gαi2 and Gαo. Based on our observations, we conclude that n-alkanols interact and modulate the activity of the G-α subunits to different extent, thereby uncoupling pathways known to modulate neuronal excitation.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase alpha-subunit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lebovitz, R M; Takeyasu, K; Fambrough, D M

    1989-01-01

    The (Na+ + K+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an ouabain-sensitive, electrogenic ion pump responsible for maintaining the balance of sodium and potassium ions in almost all animal cells. Robust, ouabain-sensitive rubidium uptake, indicative of the sodium pump, was found in tissue-cultured Drosophila cells, and both larvae and adults die when fed a diet containing ouabain. A monoclonal antibody to the avian sodium pump alpha-subunit was found to cross-react with the Drosophila sodium pump alpha-subunit. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to obtain a semi-quantitative view of the expression of the sodium pump in Drosophila tissues: high levels of the sodium pump were detected in malpighian tubules, indirect flight muscles and tubular muscles, and throughout the nervous system. The cDNA encoding this sodium pump alpha-subunit in Drosophila melanogaster was cloned, sequenced and expressed in mouse L cells. At the amino acid level, its deduced sequence of 1038 residues (the first such sequence for an invertebrate) is approximately 80% similar to alpha-subunit sequences reported for vertebrates. Only one gene was found in Drosophila, located on the third chromosome at position 93B. A restriction site polymorphism has been found, and several mutations exist that may involve the alpha-subunit gene. Images PMID:2540956

  19. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shujia; Riou, Morgane; Yao, C Andrea; Carvalho, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Bensaude, Olivier; Paoletti, Pierre; Ye, Shixin

    2014-04-22

    Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo-cross-linker p-azido-L-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a class of glutamate-gated ion channels that play key roles in neuronal development and plasticity. AzF incorporation in the obligatory GluN1 subunit at the GluN1/GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) upper lobe dimer interface leads to an irreversible allosteric inhibition of channel activity upon UV illumination. In contrast, when pairing the UAA-containing GluN1 subunit with the GluN2A subunit, light-dependent inactivation is completely absent. By combining electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify subunit-specific structural determinants at the GluN1/GluN2 NTD dimer interfaces that critically dictate UV-controlled inactivation. Our work reveals that the two major NMDAR subtypes differ in their ectodomain-subunit interactions, in particular their electrostatic contacts, resulting in GluN1 NTD coupling more tightly to the GluN2B NTD than to the GluN2A NTD. It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. PMID:24715733

  20. Novel Inter-Subunit Contacts in Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Revealed by Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Daniel Kofi; Pechnikova, Eugenia V.; Skurat, Eugene V.; Makarov, Valentin V.; Sokolova, Olga S.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Orlova, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV, genus Hordeivirus) is a rod-shaped single-stranded RNA virus similar to viruses of the structurally characterized and well-studied genus Tobamovirus. Here we report the first high-resolution structure of BSMV at 4.1 Å obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. We discovered that BSMV forms two types of virion that differ in the number of coat protein (CP) subunits per turn and interactions between the CP subunits. While BSMV and tobacco mosaic virus CP subunits have a similar fold and interact with RNA using conserved residues, the axial contacts between the CP of these two viral groups are considerably different. BSMV CP subunits lack substantial axial contacts and are held together by a previously unobserved lateral contact formed at the virion surface via an interacting loop, which protrudes from the CP hydrophobic core to the adjacent CP subunit. These data provide an insight into diversity in structural organization of helical viruses. PMID:26278173

  1. Prokaryotic expression of the chicken xanthine oxidase (XOD) subunit and its localization in liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huayuan; Chen, Yanjun; Huang, Qiqi; Guo, Xiaoquan; Liu, Ping; Liu, Weilian; Zhang, Caiying; Cao, Huabin; Hu, Guoliang

    2016-06-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is the members of the molybdenum hydroxylase flavoprotein family and it plays a vital role in the body's purine catabolism. In this study, we cloned the XOD 37kDa subunit protein by using RT-PCR and pMD-18-T clone vector based on the total RNA extracted from chicken liver. The cloning XOD subunit protein gene was ligated into the pET-32a to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-XOD. After the pET-XOD expression vector was transformed into host cells Rosetta (DE3), the recombinant XOD subunit proteins (54.8kDa) were successfully induced by isopropy1 β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Rabbit antiserums were produced by using the purification of the recombinant XOD subunit protein as antigen. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:102,400 determined by using ELISA. The result of Western blot demonstrated that the antiserum could specifically recognize the chicken liver XOD. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the XOD mainly presented in the cytoplasm of chicken hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results indicated that the XOD subunit protein polyclonal antibody prepared by this method could be used for the further researches of the biological function of the XOD in the chicken. PMID:26949113

  2. Progesterone receptor subunits are high-affinity substrates for phosphorylation by epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, P; Coty, W A; Griest, R E; Woo, D D; Fox, C F

    1984-01-01

    Purified preparations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor were used to test hen oviduct progesterone receptor subunits as substrates for phosphorylation catalyzed by EGF receptor. Both the 80-kilodalton (kDa) (A) and the 105-kDa (B) progesterone receptor subunits were phosphorylated in a reaction that required EGF and EGF receptor. No phosphorylation of progesterone receptor subunits was observed in the absence of EGF receptor, even when Ca2+ was substituted for Mg2+ and Mn2+. Phospho amino acid analysis revealed phosphorylation at tyrosine residues, with no phosphorylation detectable at serine or threonine residues. Two-dimensional maps of phosphopeptides generated from phosphorylated 80- or 105-kDa subunits by tryptic digestion revealed similar patterns, with resolution of two major, several minor, and a number of very minor phosphopeptides. The Km of progesterone receptor for phosphorylation by EGF-activated EGF receptor was 100 nM and the Vmax was 2.5 nmol/min per mg of EGF receptor protein at 0 degrees C. The stoichiometry of phosphorylation/hormone binding for progesterone receptor subunits was 0.31 at ice-bath temperature and approximately 1.0 at 22 degrees C. Images PMID:6200881

  3. Crystal structure of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Sebastian; Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Leibundgut, Marc; Arpagaus, Sofia; Ban, Nenad

    2011-11-18

    Protein synthesis in all organisms is catalyzed by ribosomes. In comparison to their prokaryotic counterparts, eukaryotic ribosomes are considerably larger and are subject to more complex regulation. The large ribosomal subunit (60S) catalyzes peptide bond formation and contains the nascent polypeptide exit tunnel. We present the structure of the 60S ribosomal subunit from Tetrahymena thermophila in complex with eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6), cocrystallized with the antibiotic cycloheximide (a eukaryotic-specific inhibitor of protein synthesis), at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms. The structure illustrates the complex functional architecture of the eukaryotic 60S subunit, which comprises an intricate network of interactions between eukaryotic-specific ribosomal protein features and RNA expansion segments. It reveals the roles of eukaryotic ribosomal protein elements in the stabilization of the active site and the extent of eukaryotic-specific differences in other functional regions of the subunit. Furthermore, it elucidates the molecular basis of the interaction with eIF6 and provides a structural framework for further studies of ribosome-associated diseases and the role of the 60S subunit in the initiation of protein synthesis.

  4. Cystosolic chaperonin subunits have a conserved ATPase domain but diverged polypeptide-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Willison, K R; Horwich, A L

    1994-12-01

    CCT (also called the TCP-1 complex or TriC) is a chaperonin found in the eukaryotic cytosol, and has unique structural and functional features. Unlike homo-oligomeric chaperonins, CCT comprises at least eight different subunits, and appears to have a limited range of physiological substrates. We have analysed CCT sequences in light of the recent determination of the crystal structure and mutational identification of the functional domains of the bacterial chaperonin GroEL. A high level of identity among all chaperonin subunits is observed in those regions that correspond to the ATP-binding site of GroEL. By contrast, no significant identity is shared in the region corresponding to the polypeptide-binding region of GroEL, either between CCT subunits or between CCT subunits and GroEL. This suggests that the polypeptide-binding sites of CCT subunits have diverged both from each other and from GroEL, which may explain the apparently different range of substrates recognized by CCT.

  5. Amiloride inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors depends upon the alpha subunit subtype.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Janet L

    2002-06-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors (GABARs) are responsible for most fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. The GABARs contain several allosteric modulatory sites, many of which are useful clinically. The activity of most of these modulators depends upon the subunit composition of the receptor. The diuretic amiloride was previously reported to inhibit GABARs in frog sensory neurons. We measured its effects on recombinant GABARs to determine its mechanism of action at mammalian receptors and to examine the effect of subunit composition. Amiloride acted primarily as a competitive antagonist, reducing the sensitivity of the receptor to GABA without affecting the maximal current amplitude. Receptors containing an alpha6 subunit were about 10-fold more sensitive to amiloride than those containing other alpha subunits. In contrast, the identity of the beta or gamma subtype had little effect on amiloride sensitivity. Although several other modulators have specific effects at alpha6-containing receptors, amiloride is the first inhibitor to be reported with no additional dependence on the identity of the beta or gamma subunit. Therefore, it probably represents a unique modulatory site on the GABAR, which could be useful for developing drugs targeting these receptors. The selective activity of amiloride could also be helpful for isolating the contribution of receptors composed of alpha6 subtypes in heterogeneous native GABAR populations.

  6. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from parasitic nematodes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Megan A; Reaves, Barbara J; Maclean, Mary J; Storey, Bob E; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2015-11-01

    The levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor present at nematode neuromuscular junctions is composed of multiple different subunits, with the exact composition varying between species. We tested the ability of two well-conserved nicotinic receptor subunits, UNC-38 and UNC-29, from Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum to rescue the levamisole-resistance and locomotion defects of Caenorhabditis elegans strains with null deletion mutations in the unc-38 and unc-29 genes. The parasite cDNAs were cloned downstream of the relevant C. elegans promoters and introduced into the mutant strains via biolistic transformation. The UNC-38 subunit of H. contortus was able to completely rescue both the locomotion defects and levamisole resistance of the null deletion mutant VC2937 (ok2896), but no C. elegans expressing the A. suum UNC-38 could be detected. The H. contortus UNC-29.1 subunit partially rescued the levamisole resistance of a C. elegans null mutation in unc-29 VC1944 (ok2450), but did cause increased motility in a thrashing assay. In contrast, only a single line of worms containing the A. suum UNC-29 subunit showed a partial rescue of levamisole resistance, with no effect on thrashing.

  7. Purification of chymotrypsin by subunit exchange chromatography on the denatured protein

    SciTech Connect

    Carrea, G.; Antonini, E.; Pasta, P.

    1983-05-01

    The ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin subunits immobilized under denaturing conditions (6M urea or 1% SDS) on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, were found to interact with soluble chymotrypsin subunits with the formation of oligomers higher than dimers. Subunits immobilized under nondenaturing conditions form only dimers. The effects of several parameters, such as organic solvents, cations, and anions of the lyotropic series, on the associating properties of the immobilized derivatives were examined. The interaction between immobilized and free enzyme was shown to be specific because extraneous proteins and compounds were not bound by the derivatives. Chymotrypsinogen, studied analogously, did not show appreciable self-associating capacity. Chymotrypsin subunits immobilized under denaturing conditions and packed in a column proved to be suitable for the purification of chymotrypsin from both bovine and porcine pancreatic extracts. The ''subunit exchange'' chromatography of such extracts, carried out between pH 2.5 and 4, gave an eightfold purification with a 93% recovery of chymotryptic activity. The specific activity was ca. 12,000 Schwert and Takenaka units/mg. Only 6% of the tryptic activity was bound by the column. The capacity of the matrix, 6 mg chymotrypsin/mL, dropped to about 70% of the original value.

  8. Purification of chymotrypsin by subunit exchange chromatography on the denatured protein.

    PubMed

    Carrea, G; Pasta, P; Antonini, E

    1983-05-01

    The alpha-chymotrypsin subunits immobilized under denaturing conditions (6 M urea or 1% SDS) on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, were found to interact with soluble chymotrypsin subunits with the formation of oligomers higher than dimers. Subunits immobilized under nondenaturing conditions form only dimers. The effects of several parameters, such as organic solvents, cations, and anions of the lyotropic series, on the associating properties of the immobilized derivatives were examined. The interaction between immobilized and free enzyme was shown to be specific because extraneous proteins and compounds were not bound by the derivatives. Chymotrypsinogen, studied analogously, did not show appreciable self-associating capacity. Chymotrypsin subunits immobilized under denaturing conditions and packed in a column proved to be suitable for the purification of chymotrypsin from both bovine and porcine pancreatic extracts. The "subunit exchange" chromatography of such extracts, carried out between pH 2.5 and 4, gave an eightfold purification with a 93% recovery of chymotryptic activity. The specific activity was ca. 12,000 Schwert and Takenaka units/mg. Only 6% of the tryptic activity was bound by the column. The capacity of the matrix, 6 mg chymotrypsin/mL, dropped to about 70% of the original value after.

  9. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 subunit, a novel therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Jiang, Yan; Yong, Pan; Zhang, Chenyue; Zhang, Haibin; Meng, Zhiqiang; Yang, Peiying

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify the expression patterns of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α subunits in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and evaluate these subunits as potential targets for HCC treatment. The mRNA expression profiles of NKA α subunits in human HCC samples were analyzed. We found that the mRNA expression for NKA α1 subunit (ATP1A1) was higher than that for other NKA α subunits. Also, ATP1A1 gene expression was markedly higher in HCC samples than in adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Western blotting data suggested that 6 of 14 (43%) HCC samples had elevated ATP1A1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ATP1A1 expression in human HCC HepG2 and MHCC97H cells markedly reduced their proliferation in vitro and suppressed the tumorigenicity of MHCC97H cells in vivo. Downregulation of ATP1A1 expression resulted in cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as decreased migration in Hep3B cells. We further validated that ATP1A1 downregulation caused intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine blocked cell-growth inhibition induced by ATP1A1 downregulation. Collectively, these data suggested that targeting ATP1A1 is a novel approach to the treatment of HCC. PMID:26334094

  10. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 subunit, a novel therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liping; Xu, Litao; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Yan; Yong, Pan; Zhang, Chenyue; Zhang, Haibin; Meng, Zhiqiang; Yang, Peiying

    2015-09-29

    We aimed to identify the expression patterns of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α subunits in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and evaluate these subunits as potential targets for HCC treatment. The mRNA expression profiles of NKA α subunits in human HCC samples were analyzed. We found that the mRNA expression for NKA α1 subunit (ATP1A1) was higher than that for other NKA α subunits. Also, ATP1A1 gene expression was markedly higher in HCC samples than in adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Western blotting data suggested that 6 of 14 (43%) HCC samples had elevated ATP1A1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ATP1A1 expression in human HCC HepG2 and MHCC97H cells markedly reduced their proliferation in vitro and suppressed the tumorigenicity of MHCC97H cells in vivo. Downregulation of ATP1A1 expression resulted in cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as decreased migration in Hep3B cells. We further validated that ATP1A1 downregulation caused intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine blocked cell-growth inhibition induced by ATP1A1 downregulation. Collectively, these data suggested that targeting ATP1A1 is a novel approach to the treatment of HCC.

  11. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.

  12. RNA polymerase I remains intact without subunit exchange through multiple rounds of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David A.; Nomura, Masayasu

    2004-01-01

    Previous experiments using mammalian cells suggested that after each round of transcription, RNA polymerase I (Pol I) dissociates into subunits that leave and reenter the nucleolus as individual subunits, before formation of a new initiation complex. In this study, we show that the size and subunit composition of Pol I did not change significantly when Pol I was not engaged in rRNA transcription, brought about by either the absence of Pol I-specific rDNA template or specific inhibition of the transcription initiation step that requires Rrn3p. In fact, Pol I purified from cells completely lacking rDNA repeats was more active than when purified from wild-type cells in an in vitro transcription system designed to assay active Pol I–Rrn3p complexes. Furthermore, measurements of the exchange of A135 and A190 subunits between preexistent Pol I and newly synthesized Pol I showed that these two largest subunits of Pol I do not disassociate through many rounds of transcription in vivo. Thus, Pol I is not a dynamic protein complex but rather a stable enzyme. PMID:15477604

  13. Subunit Movements in Single Membrane-bound H+-ATP Synthases from Chloroplasts during ATP Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Roland; Rombach-Riegraf, Verena; Diez, Manuel; Gräber, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Subunit movements within the H+-ATP synthase from chloroplasts (CF0F1) are investigated during ATP synthesis. The γ-subunit (γCys-322) is covalently labeled with a fluorescence donor (ATTO532). A fluorescence acceptor (adenosine 5′-(β,γ-imino)triphosphate (AMPPNP)-ATTO665) is noncovalently bound to a noncatalytic site at one α-subunit. The labeled CF0F1 is integrated into liposomes, and a transmembrane pH difference is generated by an acid base transition. Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer is measured in freely diffusing proteoliposomes with a confocal two-channel microscope. The fluorescence time traces reveal a repetitive three-step rotation of the γ-subunit relative to the α-subunit during ATP synthesis. Some traces show splitting into sublevels with fluctuations between the sublevels. During catalysis the central stalk interacts, with equal probability, with each αβ-pair. Without catalysis the central stalk interacts with only one specific αβ-pair, and no stepping between FRET levels is observed. Two inactive states of the enzyme are identified: one in the presence of AMPPNP and one in the presence of ADP. PMID:19864418

  14. Subunit movements in single membrane-bound H+-ATP synthases from chloroplasts during ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Roland; Rombach-Riegraf, Verena; Diez, Manuel; Gräber, Peter

    2009-12-25

    Subunit movements within the H(+)-ATP synthase from chloroplasts (CF(0)F(1)) are investigated during ATP synthesis. The gamma-subunit (gammaCys-322) is covalently labeled with a fluorescence donor (ATTO532). A fluorescence acceptor (adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate (AMPPNP)-ATTO665) is noncovalently bound to a noncatalytic site at one alpha-subunit. The labeled CF(0)F(1) is integrated into liposomes, and a transmembrane pH difference is generated by an acid base transition. Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer is measured in freely diffusing proteoliposomes with a confocal two-channel microscope. The fluorescence time traces reveal a repetitive three-step rotation of the gamma-subunit relative to the alpha-subunit during ATP synthesis. Some traces show splitting into sublevels with fluctuations between the sublevels. During catalysis the central stalk interacts, with equal probability, with each alphabeta-pair. Without catalysis the central stalk interacts with only one specific alphabeta-pair, and no stepping between FRET levels is observed. Two inactive states of the enzyme are identified: one in the presence of AMPPNP and one in the presence of ADP.

  15. 5-Fluoroindole Resistance Identifies Tryptophan Synthase Beta Subunit Mutants in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Barczak, A. J.; Zhao, J.; Pruitt, K. D.; Last, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the biochemical genetics of the Arabidopsis thaliana tryptophan synthase beta subunit was initiated by characterization of mutants resistant to the inhibitor 5-fluoroindole. Thirteen recessive mutations were recovered that are allelic to trp2-1, a mutation in the more highly expressed of duplicate tryptophan synthase beta subunit genes (TSB1). Ten of these mutations (trp2-2 through trp2-11) cause a tryptophan requirement (auxotrophs), whereas three (trp2-100 through trp2-102) remain tryptophan prototrophs. The mutations cause a variety of changes in tryptophan synthase beta expression. For example, two mutations (trp2-5 and trp2-8) cause dramatically reduced accumulation of TSB mRNA and immunologically detectable protein, whereas trp2-10 is associated with increased mRNA and protein. A correlation exists between the quantity of mutant beta and wild-type alpha subunit levels in the trp2 mutant plants, suggesting that the synthesis of these proteins is coordinated or that the quantity or structure of the beta subunit influences the stability of the alpha protein. The level of immunologically detectable anthranilate synthase alpha subunit protein is increased in the trp2 mutants, suggesting the possibility of regulation of anthranilate synthase levels in response to tryptophan limitation. PMID:7635295

  16. Amyloid-β Peptide Binds to Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Luna-Muñoz, Jose; Mena, Raul; Vazquez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid-beta aggregates has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of macromolecules has deleterious effects on cellular functions. Mitochondria were found to be the target for amyloid-beta, and mitochondrial dysfunction is well documented in AD. In the present study we have shown for the first time that Aβ 1–42 bound to a peptide comprising the amino-terminal region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. Phage clone, selected after screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage and bearing a 61 amino acid fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, bound to Aβ 1–42 in ELISA as well as to Aβ aggregates present in AD brain. Aβ 1–42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 co-immunoprecipitated from mitochondrial fraction of differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. Likewise, molecular dynamics simulation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the Aβ 1–42 peptide complex resulted in a reliable helix-helix interaction, supporting the experimental results. The interaction between Aβ 1–42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 may explain, in part, the diminished enzymatic activity of respiratory chain complex IV and subsequent neuronal metabolic dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:22927926

  17. Controlling tetramer formation, subunit rotation and DNA ligation during Hin-catalyzed DNA inversion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yong; Johnson, Reid C

    2015-07-27

    Two critical steps controlling serine recombinase activity are the remodeling of dimers into the chemically active synaptic tetramer and the regulation of subunit rotation during DNA exchange. We identify a set of hydrophobic residues within the oligomerization helix that controls these steps by the Hin DNA invertase. Phe105 and Met109 insert into hydrophobic pockets within the catalytic domain of the same subunit to stabilize the inactive dimer conformation. These rotate out of the catalytic domain in the dimer and into the subunit rotation interface of the tetramer. About half of residue 105 and 109 substitutions gain the ability to generate stable synaptic tetramers and/or promote DNA chemistry without activation by the Fis/enhancer element. Phe106 replaces Phe105 in the catalytic domain pocket to stabilize the tetramer conformation. Significantly, many of the residue 105 and 109 substitutions support subunit rotation but impair ligation, implying a defect in rotational pausing at the tetrameric conformer poised for ligation. We propose that a ratchet-like surface involving Phe105, Met109 and Leu112 within the rotation interface functions to gate the subunit rotation reaction. Hydrophobic residues are present in analogous positions in other serine recombinases and likely perform similar functions.

  18. Localization of the regulatory particle subunit Sem1 in the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Stefan; Sakata, Eri; Beck, Florian; Pathare, Ganesh R.; Schnitger, Jérôme; Nágy, Istvan; Baumeister, Wolfgang Förster, Friedrich

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •26S proteasome subunit Sem1 was mapped using cryo-EM and cross-linking data. •C-terminal helix of Sem1 located near winged helix motif of Rpn7. •N-terminal part of Sem1 tethers Rpn7, Rpn3 and lid helical bundle. •Sem1 binds differently to PCI-domains of proteasome subunit Rpn7 and TREX-2 subunit Thp1. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin–proteasome system is responsible for regulated protein degradation in the cell with the 26S proteasome acting as its executive arm. The molecular architecture of this 2.5 MDa complex has been established recently, with the notable exception of the small acidic subunit Sem1. Here, we localize the C-terminal helix of Sem1 binding to the PCI domain of the subunit Rpn7 using cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction of proteasomes purified from yeast cells with sem1 deletion. The approximate position of the N-terminal region of Sem1 bridging the cleft between Rpn7 and Rpn3 was inferred based on site-specific cross-linking data of the 26S proteasome. Our structural studies indicate that Sem1 can assume different conformations in different contexts, which supports the idea that Sem1 functions as a molecular glue stabilizing the Rpn3/Rpn7 heterodimer.

  19. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; et al

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecondmore » X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.« less

  20. Structure and sequence of the gene for the largest subunit of trypanosomal RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1988-01-01

    As the first step in the analysis of the transcription process in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, we have started to characterise the trypanosomal RNA polymerases. We have previously described the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and found that two almost identical RNA polymerase II genes are encoded within the genome of T. brucei. Here we present the identification, cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. This gene contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight highly conserved regions with significant homology to those previously reported in other eukaryotic RNA polymerase largest subunits were identified. Some of these domains contain functional sites, which are conserved among all eukaryotic largest subunit genes analysed thus far. Since these domains make up a large part of each polypeptide, independent of the RNA polymerase class, these data strongly support the hypothesis that these domains provide a major part of the transcription machinery of the RNA polymerase complex. The additional domains which are uniquely present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I and II, respectively, two large hydrophylic insertions and a C-terminal extension, might be a determining factor in specific transcription of the gene classes. Images PMID:3174432

  1. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates.

  2. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shujia; Riou, Morgane; Yao, C. Andrea; Carvalho, Stéphanie; Rodriguez, Pamela C.; Bensaude, Olivier; Paoletti, Pierre; Ye, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo–cross-linker p-azido-l-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a class of glutamate-gated ion channels that play key roles in neuronal development and plasticity. AzF incorporation in the obligatory GluN1 subunit at the GluN1/GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) upper lobe dimer interface leads to an irreversible allosteric inhibition of channel activity upon UV illumination. In contrast, when pairing the UAA-containing GluN1 subunit with the GluN2A subunit, light-dependent inactivation is completely absent. By combining electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify subunit-specific structural determinants at the GluN1/GluN2 NTD dimer interfaces that critically dictate UV-controlled inactivation. Our work reveals that the two major NMDAR subtypes differ in their ectodomain-subunit interactions, in particular their electrostatic contacts, resulting in GluN1 NTD coupling more tightly to the GluN2B NTD than to the GluN2A NTD. It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. PMID:24715733

  3. Kinetic pathway of 40S ribosomal subunit recruitment to hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Gabriele; Petrov, Alexey N.; Marceau, Caleb D.; Popov, Lauren M.; Chen, Jin; O’Leary, Seán E.; Wang, Richard; Carette, Jan E.; Sarnow, Peter; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Translation initiation can occur by multiple pathways. To delineate these pathways by single-molecule methods, fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunits are required. Here, we labeled human 40S ribosomal subunits with a fluorescent SNAP-tag at ribosomal protein eS25 (RPS25). The resulting ribosomal subunits could be specifically labeled in living cells and in vitro. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between RPS25 and domain II of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), we measured the rates of 40S subunit arrival to the HCV IRES. Our data support a single-step model of HCV IRES recruitment to 40S subunits, irreversible on the initiation time scale. We furthermore demonstrated that after binding, the 40S:HCV IRES complex is conformationally dynamic, undergoing slow large-scale rearrangements. Addition of translation extracts suppresses these fluctuations, funneling the complex into a single conformation on the 80S assembly pathway. These findings show that 40S:HCV IRES complex formation is accompanied by dynamic conformational rearrangements that may be modulated by initiation factors. PMID:25516984

  4. Functional Consequences of Subunit Diversity in RNA Polymerases II and V

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Ek Han; Blevins, Todd; Ream, Thomas S.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-03-01

    Multisubunit RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) evolved as specialized forms of Pol II that mediate RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and transcriptional silencing of transposons, viruses, and endogenous repeats in plants. Among the subunits common to Arabidopsis thaliana Pols II, IV, and V are 93% identical alternative ninth subunits, NRP(B/D/E)9a and NRP(B/D/E)9b. The 9a and 9b subunit variants are incompletely redundant with respect to Pol II; whereas double mutants are embryo lethal, single mutants are viable, yet phenotypically distinct. Likewise, 9a or 9b can associate with Pols IV or V but RNA-directed DNA methylation is impaired only in 9b mutants. Based on genetic and molecular tests, we attribute the defect in RdDM to impaired Pol V function. Collectively, our results reveal a role for the ninth subunit in RNA silencing and demonstrate that subunit diversity generates functionally distinct subtypes of RNA polymerases II and V.

  5. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 subunit, a novel therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liping; Xu, Litao; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Yan; Yong, Pan; Zhang, Chenyue; Zhang, Haibin; Meng, Zhiqiang; Yang, Peiying

    2015-09-29

    We aimed to identify the expression patterns of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α subunits in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and evaluate these subunits as potential targets for HCC treatment. The mRNA expression profiles of NKA α subunits in human HCC samples were analyzed. We found that the mRNA expression for NKA α1 subunit (ATP1A1) was higher than that for other NKA α subunits. Also, ATP1A1 gene expression was markedly higher in HCC samples than in adjacent nontumor tissue samples. Western blotting data suggested that 6 of 14 (43%) HCC samples had elevated ATP1A1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of ATP1A1 expression in human HCC HepG2 and MHCC97H cells markedly reduced their proliferation in vitro and suppressed the tumorigenicity of MHCC97H cells in vivo. Downregulation of ATP1A1 expression resulted in cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as decreased migration in Hep3B cells. We further validated that ATP1A1 downregulation caused intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine blocked cell-growth inhibition induced by ATP1A1 downregulation. Collectively, these data suggested that targeting ATP1A1 is a novel approach to the treatment of HCC. PMID:26334094

  6. G-protein. alpha. -subunit expression, myristoylation, and membrane association in COS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mumby, S.M.; Gilman, A.G. ); Heukeroth, R.O.; Gordon, J.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Myristolyation of seven different {alpha} subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) was examined by expressing these proteins in monkey kidney COS cells. Metabolic labeling studies of cells transfected with cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors indicated that ({sup 3}H)myristate was incorporated into {alpha}{sub i1}, {alpha}{sub i2}, {alpha}{sub i3}, {alpha}{sub 0}, and {alpha}{sub 1}, and {alpha}{sub z} but not {alpha}{sub s} subunits. The role of myristoylation in the association of {alpha} subunits with membranes was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis and by substitution of myristate with a less hydrophobic analog, 10-(propoxy)decanoate (11-oxamyristate). Myristoylation of {alpha}{sub 0} was blocked when an alanine residue was substituted for its amino-terminal glycine, as was association of the protein with membranes. Substitution of the myristoyl group with 11-oxamyristate affected the cellular distribution of a subset of acylated {alpha} subunits. The results are consistent with a model wherein the hydrophobic interaction of myristate with the bilayer permits continued association of the protein with the plasma membrane when G-protein {alpha} subunits dissociated from {beta}{gamma}.

  7. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, G. Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R.P.; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C.; Bowie, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  8. Reconfiguration of yeast 40S ribosomal subunit domains by the translation initiation multifactor complex.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert J C; Gordiyenko, Yulya; von der Haar, Tobias; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Hofmann, Gregor; Nardelli, Maria; Stuart, David I; McCarthy, John E G

    2007-04-01

    In the process of protein synthesis, the small (40S) subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome is recruited to the capped 5' end of the mRNA, from which point it scans along the 5' untranslated region in search of a start codon. However, the 40S subunit alone is not capable of functional association with cellular mRNA species; it has to be prepared for the recruitment and scanning steps by interactions with a group of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). In budding yeast, an important subset of these factors (1, 2, 3, and 5) can form a multifactor complex (MFC). Here, we describe cryo-EM reconstructions of the 40S subunit, of the MFC, and of 40S complexes with MFC factors plus eIF1A. These studies reveal the positioning of the core MFC on the 40S subunit, and show how eIF-binding induces mobility in the head and platform and reconfigures the head-platform-body relationship. This is expected to increase the accessibility of the mRNA channel, thus enabling the 40S subunit to convert to a recruitment-competent state.

  9. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  10. Subunit composition of hinokiresinol synthase controls enantiomeric selectivity in hinokiresinol formation.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Masaomi; Suzuki, Shiro; Hattori, Takefumi; Umezawa, Toshiaki

    2010-03-01

    Asparagus officinalis hinokiresinol synthase (HRS) is composed of two subunits, HRSalpha and HRSbeta. Individually, each subunit forms (E)-hinokiresinol (EHR) from 4-coumaryl 4-coumarate, whereas a mixture of both subunits forms (Z)-hinokiresinol (ZHR) from the same substrate. In this study, we analyzed the enantiomeric compositions of ZHR and EHR formed after incubation of 4-coumaryl 4-coumarate with recombinant subunit proteins, recHRSalpha and/or recHRSbeta, and with naturally occurring A. officinalis ZHR. The enantiomeric composition of ZHR formed by the mixture of recHRSalpha and recHRSbeta was (+)-100% enantiomer excess (e.e.), identical to that of A. officinalis ZHR. In contrast, the enantiomeric compositions of EHR formed by recHRSalpha and recHRSbeta, individually, were (-)-20.6 and (-)-9.0% e.e., respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the subunit composition of A. officinalis HRS controls not only cis/trans isomerism but also enantioselectivity in h