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Sample records for ni yoru ace

  1. ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the progress made during the fourth year of the Center for Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE). We currently support 30 graduate students, 52 undergraduate students, 9 faculty members, and 4 staff members. Progress will be divided into two categories. The first category explores progress for ACE in general. The second describes the results of each specific project supported within ACE.

  2. Separation and Characterization of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Peptides from Saurida elongata Proteins Hydrolysate by IMAC-Ni2+

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixia; Wu, Shanguang; Zhou, Liqin; Wang, Feng; Lan, Xiongdiao; Sun, Jianhua; Tong, Zhangfa; Liao, Dankui

    2017-01-01

    Lizard fish protein hydrolysates (LFPH) were prepared from Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) proteins possessing powerful angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the fraction (LFPH-I) with high ACE inhibitory activity was obtained through ultrafiltration. The active Fraction (F2) was isolated from LFPH-I using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni2+). Analysis of amino acid levels revealed that F2 eluted from IMAC was enriched in Met, His, Tyr, Pro, Ile, and Leu compared to the crude peptide LFPH-I. F2 with the high ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 of 0.116 mg·mL−1) was further separated by a reverse-phase column to yield a novel ACE inhibitory peptide with IC50 value of 52 μM. The ACE inhibitory peptide was identified as Arg-Tyr-Arg-Pro, RYRP. The present study demonstrated that IMAC may be a useful tool for the separation of ACE inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysate. PMID:28212269

  3. ACE--Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Annie, Ed.; Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This publication contains four papers that identify issues within the adult and community education (ACE) sector. "Overview" (Annie Campbell, Peter Thomson) considers what defines ACE; who offers ACE programs; who participates in ACE programs and who does not participate; what are the barriers to participation; who is responsible for…

  4. ACE and ACE2 in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ohashi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation has a significant influence on renal disease progression. The classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin II (Ang II)-Ang II type 1 (AT1) axis is considered to control the effects of RAS activation on renal disease. However, since its discovery in 2000 ACE2 has also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the RAS. The synthesis and catabolism of Ang II are regulated via a complex series of interactions, which involve ACE and ACE2. In the kidneys, ACE2 is expressed in the proximal tubules and less strongly in the glomeruli. The synthesis of inactive Ang 1-9 from Ang I and the catabolism of Ang II to produce Ang 1-7 are the main functions of ACE2. Ang 1-7 reduces vasoconstriction, water retention, salt intake, cell proliferation, and reactive oxygen stress, and also has a renoprotective effect. Thus, in the non-classical RAS the ACE2-Ang 1-7-Mas axis counteracts the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. This review examines recent human and animal studies about renal ACE and ACE2. PMID:25664248

  5. Comprehensive Database Service : ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Morio; Abe, Tetsuya

    The Data base, ACE commercialized by Chunichi Shimbun in Feb. 1986, aims at covering not only newspaper articles but also the other information which composes different data bases. This paper introduces newspaper articles, new material information and character information which are included in ACE. The content of ACE, how to use the online service, and future subjects are described.

  6. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  7. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  8. ACES--Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Presents text of Presidential Address delivered March 24, 1991, at the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) luncheon, part of the American Association for Counseling and Development Convention held in Reno, Nevada. Comments on past, present, and future of ACES, particularly on future challenges and role of ACES. (ABL)

  9. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  10. ACES's Challenges: Past Presidents Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the golden anniversary of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and presents the statements of 15 past presidents of the association. Presidential leaders briefly review the association's past and suggest opportunities to help create a promising future for ACES. Outlines nine challenges which confront members of…

  11. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  12. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  13. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  14. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  15. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  16. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Biomonitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  17. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also called SCISAT, is a Canadian-led small satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. ACE was launched into a low Earth circular orbit by NASA on August 12, 2003 and it continues to function nominally. The ACE instruments are a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 μm (750-4400 cm-1), a spectrophotometer known as Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) with wavelength coverage of 285-1020 nm and two filtered detector arrays to image the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 μm. ACE operates in solar occultation mode to provide altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, atmospheric extinction and the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for several dozen molecules and related isotopologues. This paper presents a mission overview and a summary of selected scientific results.

  18. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  19. ACE2 alterations in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Soler, María José; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1–7). ACE2 is highly expressed within the kidneys, it is largely localized in tubular epithelial cells and less prominently in glomerular epithelial cells and in the renal vasculature. ACE2 activity has been shown to be altered in diabetic kidney disease, hypertensive renal disease and in different models of kidney injury. There is often a dissociation between tubular and glomerular ACE2 expression, particularly in diabetic kidney disease where ACE2 expression is increased at the tubular level but decreased at the glomerular level. In this review, we will discuss alterations in circulating and renal ACE2 recently described in different renal pathologies and disease models as well as their possible significance. PMID:23956234

  20. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-03-05

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS.

  1. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. PMID:28273875

  2. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    2010-05-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

  3. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program?; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX?

  4. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program ; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX

  5. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dimerization is the initial step in the ACE inhibitor-induced ACE signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Friedrich, Matthias; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Busse, Rudi; Fleming, Ingrid

    2006-05-01

    The binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to ACE initiates a signaling cascade that involves the phosphorylation of the enzyme on Ser1270 as well as activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and leads to alterations in gene expression. To clarify how ACE inhibitors activate this pathway, we determined their effect on the ability of the enzyme to dimerize and the role of ACE dimerization in the initiation of the ACE signaling cascade. In endothelial cells, ACE was detected as a monomer as well as a dimer in native gel electrophoresis and dimerization/oligomerization was confirmed using the split-ubiquitin assay in yeast. ACE inhibitors elicited a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in the dimer/monomer ratio that correlated with that of the ACE inhibitorinduced phosphorylation of ACE. Cell treatment with galactose and glucose to prevent the putative lectin-mediated self-association of ACE or with specific antibodies shielding the N terminus of ACE failed to affect either the basal or the ACE inhibitor-induced dimerization of the enzyme. In ACE-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, ACE inhibitors elicited ACE dimerization and phosphorylation as well as the activation of JNK with similar kinetics to those observed in endothelial cells. However, these effects were prevented by the mutation of the essential Zn2+-complexing histidines in the C-terminal active site of the enzyme. Mutation of the N-terminal active site of ACE was without effect. Together, our data suggest that ACE inhibitors can initiate the ACE signaling pathway by inducing ACE dimerization, most probably via the C-terminal active site of the enzyme.

  7. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  8. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Environments and Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information on this page was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  9. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  10. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Special Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  11. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  12. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  13. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  14. Stiffening of the ACES deployable space boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, Vince

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design project was to design an active planar stiffening device for the existing ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) structure. the ACES structure was modeled using simple beam theory. Various concepts were generated about how the stiffening device should be configured in order to perform at an optimum level. The optimum configuration was selected to be a single set of spreaders located approximately 63% of the distance down the beam. Actuation was to be provided by a DC electric motor. From the test results, the design group was able to draw conclusions and make recommendations about the utility of further research into this area.

  15. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

    2003-12-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at

  16. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P.

    2003-04-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  17. Targeting ACE and ECE with dual acting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Guesné, Sébastien; Riber, Ludivine; Marin, Julien; Benoist, Alain; Mennecier, Philippe; Rupin, Alain; Verbeuren, Tony J; De Nanteuil, Guillaume

    2008-02-01

    A series of urea analogues related to SA6817 and a GSK phosphonic acid with reported ACE inhibitory activity were prepared and tested for dual ACE and ECE activities. Although excellent ACE and NEP inhibition was achieved, only modest ECE inhibition was observed with one analogue.

  18. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  19. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  20. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  1. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  2. Triple ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition in heart failure: a comparison with ACE and dual ECE-NEP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Virginie; Jeng, Arco Y; Monteil, Christelle; Renet, Sylvanie; Henry, Jean Paul; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Mortality remains high in chronic heart failure (CHF) because under ACE inhibitor treatment other neurohumoral systems remain/become (de)activated, such as the endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways. Dual endothelin-converting enzyme-neutral endopeptidase (ECE-NEP) inhibition exerts beneficial effects in experimental CHF, but whether "triple" ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition is superior to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition is unknown. We compared, in rats with CHF, ACE-ECE-NEP to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition in terms of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remodeling. Benazepril (2 mg/kg/d) or the ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS26303 (10 mg/kg/d) were administered alone or in combination (subcutaneously for 28 days starting 7 days after coronary ligation). ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced blood pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. All treatments increased cardiac output to the same extent, but ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced LV diameter and LV end-diastolic pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. The reduction of LV weight and collagen accumulation in the "viable" myocardium was most pronounced after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition. These results, obtained in experimental CHF, illustrate a further improvement of LV hemodynamics and structure after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition compared with either ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition, but whether this is associated with a further improvement of exercise tolerance and/or survival remains to be determined.

  3. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  4. Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

    2015-04-01

    Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression.

  5. Tissue-Specific Expression of Transgenic Secreted ACE in Vasculature Can Restore Normal Kidney Functions, but Not Blood Pressure, of Ace-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Kessler, Sean P.; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yamashita, Michifumi; Senanayake, Preenie deS; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE) in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II) with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE. PMID:24475296

  6. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10(-9) M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease.

  7. Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.

  8. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  9. Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J.; Yuen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Air Force goal is to develop vibration control techniques for large flexible spacecraft by addressing sensor, actuator, and control hardware and dynamic testing. The Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) program will address the Air Force goal by looking at two leading control techniques and implementing them on a structural model of a flexible spacecraft under laboratory testing. The first phase in the ACES program is to review and to assess the High Authority Control/Low Authority Control (HAC/LAC) and Filter accomodated Model Error Sensitivity Suppression (FAMESS) control techniques for testing on the modified VCOSS structure. Appropriate sensors and actuators will be available for use with both techniques; locations will be the same for both techniques. The control actuators will be positioned at the midpoint and free end of the structure. The laser source for the optical sensor is mounted on the feed mast. The beam will be reflected from a mirror on the offset antenna onto the detectors mounted above the shaker table bay. The next phase is to develop an analysis simulation with the control algorithms implemented for dynamics verification. The third phase is to convert the control laws into high level computer language and test them in the NASA-MSFC facility. The final phase is to compile all analytical and test results for performance comparisons.

  10. ACE: Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Allen, Nicholas D. C.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for ethane, propane (both in the 3 μm region) and acetone (in the 3 μm and 5-8 μm regions) have been determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125/HR). Data are presented for mixtures with dry synthetic air at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution), at a number of temperatures and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Methane measurements are currently being performed in the 3 μm region in order to retrieve line mixing parameters, which will be used in an improved ACE forward model to minimize CH4 residuals in the retrievals of organic species. Preliminary retrievals of acetone from ACE spectra using a microwindow from 1364.7 to 1367.1 cm-1 have been performed.

  11. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  12. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  13. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. The panel on which they are working is identical to the panel (one of four) seen in the foreground on the ACE spacecraft. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low- energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  14. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  15. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-01-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) and vasoprotective (ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. While multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggests that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health. PMID:26322922

  16. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-12-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (Angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]/Angiotensin II [Ang II]/Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R]) and vasoprotective (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]/Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor [MasR]) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. Although multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggest that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health.

  17. Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    Due to Test Results 3-9 3.5 Representative Data 3-11 3.6 Control Model 3-21 4.0 Simulation 4-1 5.0 HAC/LAC 5-1 5.1 Theory 5-1...5.1.1 HAC Theory 5-1 5.1.2 LAC Theory 5-4 5.1.3 HAC/LAC Combined Control 5-6 5.1.4 HAC/LAC Applied to ACES 5-7 5.2 Model Selection and...5-39 5-50 6.0 Positivity 6-1 6-1 6-9 6-9 6-17 6-31 5.4 Observation 5.5 Test Results 5.6 Conclusions 6.1 Theory 6.2 Model

  18. Human ACE gene polymorphism and distilled water induced cough

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Turley, A. J.; Linton, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cause a non-productive cough. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE was used as a genetic marker to investigate the relationship between ACE genotype and cough sensitivity. METHODS: A double blind cough challenge was performed in 66 normotensive subjects (34 men) of mean age 34.8 years (range 18-80) using aerosols of distilled water. The number of coughs during the one minute exposure to water was recorded. DNA samples from venous blood were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and resolved on a 1% agarose gel. They were analysed for the presence of a polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene consisting of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of an Alu repetitive sequence 287 base pairs long. RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes was 20 II, 26 ID, and 20 DD. The cough response was significantly (p < 0.01) related to the ACE genotype, the mean number of coughs being 15.8, 11.3, and 9.6, respectively, in subjects with the II, ID, and DD genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that cough challenge is dependent on ACE genotype in normal subjects is evidence of a link between ACE activity and the cough reflex. 


 PMID:9059468

  19. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  20. ACE--Alliance for Clinical Enhancement: a collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, G P; Granger, M; Todaro, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative collaborative model developed by nursing educators and practitioners, the Alliance for Clinical Enhancement Program (ACE), that combines components of traditional internship and extender programs. The goals of ACE are opportunities for role socialization, role transition, and role modeling for nursing students; enhancing clinical competence and provision of financial assistance to the students; increased recruitment of RN graduates by the involved hospital; and decreased RN time spent on non-nursing tasks by hospital RNs. The total development, implementation, and analysis of ACE Program is discussed.

  1. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  2. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  3. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory Engineer Cliff Willey (kneeling) and Engineering Assistant Jim Hutcheson from Johns Hopkins University install solar array panels on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles for a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The collecting power of instrumentation aboard ACE is at least 100 times more sensitive than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  4. The solar array is installed on ACE in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Applied Physics Laboratory engineers and technicians from Johns Hopkins University assist in guiding the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) as it is hoisted over a platform for solar array installation in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II. Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  5. Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES). Phase 1. Concept. Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    63 6-3 Schematic Layout of the York Fiber- Optic DTS System... optic thermal detection system. XS Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES) Final Report II N ’(0) 1 ( .i...fiber optic (York) 2.1 (OBECTIVES OF STUDY S;ivo n Imoli.0it ,moke, fire emergency: The oh1cctivc tf the ACES study was to develop two system concepts

  6. The Louisiana ACES Student-built BalloonSat Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, B.; Giammanco, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Johnson, K.; Wefel, J. P.

    The Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) pilot project was funded at Louisiana State University by NASA's National Space Grant College and Fellowship program during the 2002-2003 academic year with the primary goal of giving students a true hands-on experience with project management, life-cycle, experiment construction, data collection, analysis and interpretation. In this project students design, build, fly and analyze the data returned from small payloads (typical dimensions 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, typical weight ˜ 500 grams) carried up to ˜ 100,000 feet by a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. During the pilot project the 13 students that participated in the program, grouped in 4 teams, built payloads that included studies in atmospheric science, cosmic rays and remote sensing. These payloads were then launched from the NASA National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas on May 21, 2003. Most recently, the LaACES (Louisiana ACES) program has been selected for funding by NASA. During LaACES we will expand the pilot program to institutions across the state including developing student training materials, holding a workshop for institution representatives, awarding payload development grants to student teams, monitoring the progress of these teams and supporting the balloon flight of the completed payloads. Here we describe the ACES pilot, the outcomes, and plans for La ACES.

  7. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-11-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace/sup -/ phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region.

  8. Molecular and Recombinational Mapping of Mutations in the Ace Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Gelbart, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region within which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace- phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)AceHD1, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)AceHD1 is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region. PMID:2826288

  9. Cromolyn sodium for ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

    PubMed

    Allen, T L; Gora-Harper, M L

    1997-06-01

    There are several theories on the cause of ACE inhibitor-induced cough, but the exact mechanism is not known. In many patients, if cough develops, the ACE inhibitor can be discontinued and a drug in another therapeutic class used in its place. However, in patients with CHF, diabetic nephropathy, and patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction, discontinuing the ACE inhibitor may not be in the best interest of the patient. In this patient population it would be reasonable to try cromolyn sodium to treat cough, while continuing the ACE inhibitor. Data are not available to support the efficacy of cromolyn sodium to treat cough in patients with diabetic nephropathy, but these patients clearly benefit from the use of an ACE inhibitor. Other factors not addressed in the case reports and the clinical trial such as patient adherence, cost, and quality of life should also play a role in the decision to use cromolyn sodium. Cromolyn sodium has been effective for the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in many case reports and has had mild success in one small clinical trial. Although none of the reports adequately assessed adverse effects, studies examining cromolyn for other indications have demonstrated a relatively benign adverse effect profile. It is difficult to recommend an exact dose to use because of the dosing variability in the case reports. The majority of the case reports and the one clinical trial used dosages similar to recommendations for bronchial asthma (i.e., 2 puffs [1.6 mg] 4 times daily via MDI or 20-mg capsules 4 times daily via breath-activated inhalation). At this time, the use of cromolyn sodium is a viable option, but more controlled studies are needed to fully elucidate its role in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

  10. Contemplating Synergistic Algorithms for the NASA ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David O.; Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Steven A.; Platnick, Steven E.; Fridlind, Ann; Cooper, Steven; Vane, Deborah G.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2013-01-01

    ACE is a proposed Tier 2 NASA Decadal Survey mission that will focus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation as well as ocean ecosystems. The primary objective of the clouds component of this mission is to advance our ability to predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcings by generating observational constraints on future science questions, especially those associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE will continue and extend the measurement heritage that began with the A-Train and that will continue through Earthcare. ACE planning efforts have identified several data streams that can contribute significantly to characterizing the properties of clouds and precipitation and the physical processes that force these properties. These include dual frequency Doppler radar, high spectral resolution lidar, polarimetric visible imagers, passive microwave and submillimeter wave radiometry. While all these data streams are technologically feasible, their total cost is substantial and likely prohibitive. It is, therefore, necessary to critically evaluate their contributions to the ACE science goals. We have begun developing algorithms to explore this trade space. Specifically, we will describe our early exploratory algorithms that take as input the set of potential ACE-like data streams and evaluate critically to what extent each data stream influences the error in a specific cloud quantity retrieval.

  11. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K.; Giani, Jorge F.; Nguyen, Mien T.X.; Riquier-Brison, Anne D.; Seth, Dale M.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L. Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; McDonough, Alicia A.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension. PMID:23619363

  12. The absence of intrarenal ACE protects against hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Janjoulia, Tea; Fletcher, Nicholas K; Giani, Jorge F; Nguyen, Mien T X; Riquier-Brison, Anne D; Seth, Dale M; Fuchs, Sebastien; Eladari, Dominique; Picard, Nicolas; Bachmann, Sebastian; Delpire, Eric; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Navar, L Gabriel; Bernstein, Kenneth E; McDonough, Alicia A

    2013-05-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can elicit hypertension independently from the systemic RAS. However, the precise mechanisms by which intrarenal Ang II increases blood pressure have never been identified. To this end, we studied the responses of mice specifically lacking kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to experimental hypertension. Here, we show that the absence of kidney ACE substantially blunts the hypertension induced by Ang II infusion (a model of high serum Ang II) or by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition (a model of low serum Ang II). Moreover, the renal responses to high serum Ang II observed in wild-type mice, including intrarenal Ang II accumulation, sodium and water retention, and activation of ion transporters in the loop of Henle (NKCC2) and distal nephron (NCC, ENaC, and pendrin) as well as the transporter activating kinases SPAK and OSR1, were effectively prevented in mice that lack kidney ACE. These findings demonstrate that ACE metabolism plays a fundamental role in the responses of the kidney to hypertensive stimuli. In particular, renal ACE activity is required to increase local Ang II, to stimulate sodium transport in loop of Henle and the distal nephron, and to induce hypertension.

  13. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Luna, Unique J.; Chaiken, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew; Secanna, Stefano; Weitz, David; Lu, Peter; Yodh, Arjun; Yunker, Peter; Lohr, Matthew; Gratale, Matthew; Lynch, Matthew; Kodger, Thomas; Piazza, Roberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Cipelletti, Luca; Schall, Peter; Veen, Sandra; Wegdam, Gerhard; Lee, Chand-Soo; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Cohen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    accessible with the availability of the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on ISS. To meet these goals, the ACE experiment is being built-up in stages, with the availability of confocal microscopy being the ultimate objective. Supported by NASAs Physical Sciences Research Program, ESAESTEC, and the authors respective governments.

  14. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  15. Bioactive peptides: are there more antihypertensive mechanisms beyond ACE inhibition?

    PubMed

    Marques, Claudia; Amorim, Maria Manuela; Pereira, Joana Odila; Pintado, Manuela Estevez; Moura, Daniel; Calhau, Conceicao; Pinheiro, Helder

    2012-01-01

    Diet has a high relevance in health. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has an important impact on public health, and consequently on countries economy. Scientific research gathered strong evidence about the role of several dietary factors either in etiology or in treatment/prevention of these diseases. Peptides from different food matrices have been studied, and indicated as compounds with particular interest in the context of hypertension. The classical approach involves the identification of peptides with an in vitro ACE inhibitory activity and the assumption that the observed in vivo effects are due to this enzyme blockade. However, in some cases the potency of ACE blockade does not correlate with the antihypertensive activity in vivo. This paper reviews the current literature that identifies mechanisms of action, other than ACE inhibition, that might explain antihypertensive effects of biologically active peptides from different food sources.

  16. Insulin treatment attenuates renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding in diabetic Akita mice.

    PubMed

    Salem, Esam S B; Grobe, Nadja; Elased, Khalid M

    2014-03-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is located in several tissues and is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it degrades the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II) to ANG-(1-7). Accumulating evidence supports protective roles of ACE2 in several disease states, including diabetic nephropathy. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 is involved in the shedding of several transmembrane proteins, including ACE2. Our previous studies showed increased renal ACE2, ADAM17 expression, and urinary ACE2 in type 2 diabetic mice (Chodavarapu H, Grobe N, Somineni HK, Salem ES, Madhu M, Elased KM. PLoS One 8: e62833, 2013). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of insulin on ACE2 shedding and ADAM17 in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Results demonstrate increased renal ACE2 and ADAM17 expression and increased urinary ACE2 fragments (≈70 kDa) and albumin excretion in diabetic Akita mice. Immunostaining revealed colocalization of ACE2 with ADAM17 in renal tubules. Renal proximal tubular cells treated with ADAM17 inhibitor showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media, confirming ADAM17-mediated shedding of ACE2. Treatment of Akita mice with insulin implants for 20 wk normalized hyperglycemia and decreased urinary ACE2 and albumin excretion. Insulin also normalized renal ACE2 and ADAM17 but had no effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) protein expression. There was a positive linear correlation between urinary ACE2 and albuminuria, blood glucose, plasma creatinine, glucagon, and triglycerides. This is the first report showing an association between hyperglycemia, cardiovascular risk factors, and increased shedding of urinary ACE2 in diabetic Akita mice. Urinary ACE2 could be used as a biomarker for diabetic nephropathy and as an index of intrarenal ACE2 status.

  17. Vascular Wall ACE is not required for Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daiana; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Adams, Jonathan; Synetos, Andreas; Taylor, W. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that elements of the renin angiotensin system expressed in the arterial wall are critical for the development of atherosclerosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is highly expressed by the endothelium and is responsible for a critical enzymatic step in the generation of angiotensin II. However, the functional contribution of ACE expression in the vascular wall in atherogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we made use of unique genetic models in which mice without expression of ACE in the vascular wall were crossed with apoE-/- mice in order to determine the contribution of tissue ACE expression to atherosclerotic lesion formation. Methods and Results Mice expressing either a soluble form of ACE (ACE 2/2) or mice with somatic ACE expression restricted to the liver and kidney (ACE 3/3) on an ApoE-/- background were placed on a standard chow or Western diet for 6 months. Atherosclerotic lesion area in the ACE 2/2 mice was significantly lower than that seen in the ACE 3/3 mice. However, these animals also had significantly lower blood pressure and reduced plasma ACE activity which precluded establishing a specific causal relationship between absent tissue ACE activity and decreased atherosclerotic lesion extent. Therefore, we studied the ACE 3/3 mice which are normotensive and lack vascular ACE expression. In the ACE 3/3 animals, atherosclerotic lesion area was no different from wild type controls despite reduced plasma ACE activity. Conclusions We concluded that under these experimental conditions, expression of ACE in the arterial wall is not required for atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:19880118

  18. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  19. Advanced Crew Escape Suits (ACES): Particle Impact Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility to assist in determining the effects of impaired anodization on aluminum parts in advanced crew escape suits (ACES). Initial investigation indicated poor anodization could lead to an increased risk of particle impact ignition, and a lack of data was prevalent for particle impact of bare (unanodized) aluminum; therefore, particle impact tests were performed. A total of 179 subsonic and 60 supersonic tests were performed with no ignition of the aluminum targets. Based on the resulting test data, WSTF found no increased particle impact hazard was present in the ACES equipment.

  20. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  1. Performance Enhancement of the Automated Concrete Evaluation System (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart,C.W.; Cave,S.P.; Linder,K.E.

    2002-02-14

    The objective of this proposed research is to improve and expand the detection and analysis capabilities of the automated, concrete evaluation (ACE) system. MoDOT and Honeywell jointly developed this system. The focus of this proposed research will be on the following: Coordination of concrete imaging efforts with other states, Validation and testing of the ACE system on a broad range of concrete samples, and Identification and development of software and hardware enhancements. These enhancements will meet the needs of diverse users in the field of concrete materials, construction, and research.

  2. ACE-Asia: Ground Stations Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.; Kang, C.; Asia Science Team; Murayama, T.; Delta Group; Zhang, X.; Kim, Y.; VMAP Group

    2001-12-01

    Observations of aerosol properties made at a network of ground stations were an integral part of ACE-Asia. During an intensive observation period (IOP, March - May 2001), high dust loadings were observed at many stations. At Zhenbeitai, China mass loadings well above average (260 μ g m-3) were observed during eleven dust storms, and ˜82% of the total particle mass at the site could be attributed to Asian dust. Daily bulk dust concentrations at Kosan, Korea ranged from 130 to 350 μ g m-3 from April 10 - 13. Important sub-micron dust signatures were obtained during this storm, coincident with highly absorbing ultra-fine (< 0.24 μ m) soot and other anthropogenic materials. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations at Kosan varied from 15.7 to 92.6 μ g m-3 during the IOP. Comparisons with prior data show some evidence for a decrease in the relative amount of nitrate vs. sulfate. An Asian dust storm with peak PM10 concentrations of about 200 μ g m-3 was observed over Taiwan on April 12 - 13. While most of the PM10 was dust, significant levels (up to about 30%) of pollutants also were found. Analysis of this and previous events indicates that the concentrations of pollutants over Taiwan during Asian dust storms are controlled more by long-range transport than local sources. Measurements of aerosols and associated species on four Japanese islands showed clear intermittent transport of continental aerosols, especially at Rishiri. A Mie and Raman lidar system with auxiliary instruments, including a sun photometer, operated at Tokyo during the IOP; some of these data were used for C-130 flight planning. From combined Raman lidar observations of dust at Tokyo, a typical extinction-to-backscatter ratio was found to be ˜40 sr, ranging from 30 and 70 sr and tending to increase with Angstrom exponent. A lidar intercomparison with C-130 flight observations on April 23 showed widely distributed dust and non-dust aerosols up to 8 km. A multi-channel backscatter lidar system operating at

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2) imbalance correlates with the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Yin, Chenghong

    2014-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its effector peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades Ang II to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and has recently been described to have an antagonistic effect on ACE signalling. However, the specific underlying role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is unclear. In the present study, the local imbalance of ACE and ACE2, as well as Ang II and Ang-(1-7) expression, was compared in wild-type (WT) and ACE2 knock-out (KO) or ACE2 transgenic (TG) mice subjected to cerulein-induced SAP. Serum amylase, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels and histological morphometry were used to determine the severity of pancreatitis. In WT mice, pancreatic ACE and Ang II and serum Ang II expression increased (P < 0.05), while pancreatic ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) and serum Ang-(1-7) levels were also significantly elevated (P < 0.05) from 2 to 72 h after the onset of SAP. However, the ratio of pancreatic ACE2 to ACE expression was significantly reduced (from 1.46 ± 0.09 to 0.27 ± 0.05, P < 0.001) and paralleled the severity of pancreatitis. The Ace2 KO mice exhibited increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, multifocal coagulative necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate, and lower levels of serum IL-10 and pancreatic Ang-(1-7) (4.70 ± 2.13 versus 10.87 ± 2.51, P < 0.001) compared with cerulein-treated WT mice at the same time point. Conversely, Ace2 TG mice with normal ACE expression were more resistant to SAP challenge as evidenced by a decreased inflammatory response, attenuated pathological changes and increased survival rates. These data suggest that the ACE2-ACE imbalance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SAP and that pancreatic ACE2 is an important factor in determining the severity of SAP.

  4. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry: Modification of Participant Selection Criteria and... (NCAP) test concerning the simplified entry functionality in the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  5. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE) entry capability. This new capability will include functionality specific to the... was on trade compliance and the development of the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), the...

  6. ACE TECH: The Fourth Year of CTE and Academic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Eileen Quinn; Donahue, John; Knight, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    It only takes an hour or two of roaming the halls of Architecture, Construction and Engineering (ACE) Tech Charter High School to detect an enduring attitude of accomplishment from both the teachers and the students. This atmosphere is intentional. The school, located in Chicago, was created specifically to hone the skills of individuals choosing…

  7. Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    08-2011 Proceedings AUG 2011 - SEPT 2011 Hyperspectral Detection and Discrimination Using the ACE Algorithm FA8720-05-C-0002 M. L. Pieper , D...relative to the background. If an object spectrum has a close resemblance to its surroundings, it will Correspondence to M. L. Pieper E-mail: mpieper

  8. Linkages between ACE Vocational Provision and Mainstream VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, John

    A study investigated linkages between adult community education (ACE) and mainstream vocational education and training (VET) in Australia, which enable people to move between the two sectors in their pursuit of vocational learning, and the ways in which linkages might be improved or new ones developed. The data from the study were derived from 69…

  9. Applying computationally efficient schemes for biogeochemical cycles (ACES4BGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-01-11

    NCAR contributed to the ACES4BGC project through software engineering work on aerosol model implementation, build system and script changes, coupler enhancements for biogeochemical tracers, improvements to the Community Land Model (CLM) code and testing infrastructure, and coordinating and integrating code changes from the various project participants.

  10. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Paul; Gražulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the ‘ideal’ bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. PMID:28177307

  11. AceDRG: a stereochemical description generator for ligands.

    PubMed

    Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A; Emsley, Paul; Graǽulis, Saulius; Merkys, Andrius; Vaitkus, Antanas; Murshudov, Garib N

    2017-02-01

    The program AceDRG is designed for the derivation of stereochemical information about small molecules. It uses local chemical and topological environment-based atom typing to derive and organize bond lengths and angles from a small-molecule database: the Crystallography Open Database (COD). Information about the hybridization states of atoms, whether they belong to small rings (up to seven-membered rings), ring aromaticity and nearest-neighbour information is encoded in the atom types. All atoms from the COD have been classified according to the generated atom types. All bonds and angles have also been classified according to the atom types and, in a certain sense, bond types. Derived data are tabulated in a machine-readable form that is freely available from CCP4. AceDRG can also generate stereochemical information, provided that the basic bonding pattern of a ligand is known. The basic bonding pattern is perceived from one of the computational chemistry file formats, including SMILES, mmCIF, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files. Using the bonding chemistry, atom types, and bond and angle tables generated from the COD, AceDRG derives the `ideal' bond lengths, angles, plane groups, aromatic rings and chirality information, and writes them to an mmCIF file that can be used by the refinement program REFMAC5 and the model-building program Coot. Other refinement and model-building programs such as PHENIX and BUSTER can also use these files. AceDRG also generates one or more coordinate sets corresponding to the most favourable conformation(s) of a given ligand. AceDRG employs RDKit for chemistry perception and for initial conformation generation, as well as for the interpretation of SMILES strings, SDF MOL and SYBYL MOL2 files.

  12. Association between ACE D allele and elite short distance swimming.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; Louro, Hugo; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-08-01

    The influence of ACE gene on athletic performance has been widely explored, and most of the published data refers to an I/D polymorphism leading to the presence (I allele) or absence (D allele) of a 287-bp sequence in intron 16, determining ACE activity in serum and tissues. A higher I allele frequency has been reported among elite endurance athletes, while the D allele was more frequent among those engaged in more power-orientated sports. However, on competitive swimming, the reproducibility of such associations is controversial. We thus compared the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with that of non-elite swimming cohort and of healthy control subjects. We thus sought an association of the ACE genotype of elite swimmers with their competitive distance. 39 Portuguese Olympic swimming candidates were classified as: short (<200 m) and middle (400-1,500 m) distance swimmers, respectively. A group of 32 non-elite swimmers were studied and classified as well, and a control group (n = 100) was selected from the Portuguese population. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We found that ACE genotype distribution and allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance only among elite swimmers (P < or = 0.05). Moreover, the allelic frequency of the elite short distance swimmers differed significantly from that of the controls (P = 0.021). No associations were found between middle distance swimmers and controls. Our results seem to support an association between the D allele and elite short distance swimming.

  13. Epitope mapping of mAbs to denatured human testicular ACE (CD143).

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, I V; Metzger, R; Franke, F E; Conrad, N; Towbin, H; Schwartz, D E; Sturrock, E D; Danilov, S M

    2008-10-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; CD143) has two homologous enzymatically active domains (N and C) and plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. A wide spectrum of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to different epitopes on the N and C domains of human ACE have been used to study different aspects of ACE biology. In this study, we characterized a set of nine mAbs, developed against the C domain of human ACE, which recognize the denatured forms of ACE and thus are suitable for the detection and quantification of somatic ACE (sACE) and testicular ACE (tACE) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded human tissues. The epitopes for these mAbs were defined using species cross-reactivity, phage display library screening, Western blotting and ACE mutagenesis. Most of the mAbs recognized common/overlapping region(s) on both somatic and testicular forms of human ACE, whereas mAb 4E10 was relatively specific for the testicular isoform and mAb 5B9 mainly recognized the glycan attached to Asn 731. This set of mAbs is useful for identifying even subtle changes in human ACE conformation because of denaturation. These mAbs are also sensitive tools for the detection of human sACE and tACE in biological fluids and tissues using proteomic approaches. Their high reactivity in paraffin-embedded tissues provides opportunities to study changes in the pattern of ACE expression and glycosylation (particularly with mAb 5B9) in different tissues and cells.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jodie L; Jackson, Richard M; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2003-11-18

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a homologue of ACE, represents a new and potentially important target in cardio-renal disease. A model of the active site of ACE2, based on the crystal structure of testicular ACE, has been developed and indicates that the catalytic mechanism of ACE2 resembles that of ACE. Structural differences exist between the active site of ACE (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) and ACE2 (carboxypeptidase) that are responsible for the differences in specificity. The main differences occur in the ligand-binding pockets, particularly at the S2' subsite and in the binding of the peptide carboxy-terminus. The model explains why the classical ACE inhibitor lisinopril is unable to bind to ACE2. On the basis of the ability of ACE2 to cleave a variety of biologically active peptides, a consensus sequence of Pro-X-Pro-hydrophobic/basic for the protease specificity of ACE2 has been defined that is supported by the ACE2 model. The dipeptide, Pro-Phe, completely inhibits ACE2 activity at 180 microM with angiotensin II as the substrate. As with ACE, the chloride dependence of ACE2 is substrate-specific such that the hydrolysis of angiotensin I and the synthetic peptide substrate, Mca-APK(Dnp), are activated in the presence of chloride ions, whereas the cleavage of angiotensin II is inhibited. The ACE2 model is also suggestive of a possible mechanism for chloride activation. The structural insights provided by these analyses for the differences in inhibition pattern and substrate specificity among ACE and its homologue ACE2 and for the chloride dependence of ACE/ACE2 activity are valuable in understanding the function and regulation of ACE2.

  15. Modulation of the renal response to ACE inhibition by ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism during hyperglycemia in normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Weekers, Laurent; Bouhanick, Béatrice; Hadjadj, Samy; Gallois, Yves; Roussel, Ronen; Pean, Franck; Ankotche, Amos; Chatellier, Gilles; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre J; Marre, Michel

    2005-10-01

    ACE inhibition protects kidney function, but ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects renal prognosis in type 1 diabetic patients. ACE genotype may influence the renal benefits of ACE inhibition. We studied the impact of ACE I/D polymorphism on the renal hemodynamic changes induced by ACE inhibition in type 1 diabetes. We studied renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], effective renal plasma flow [ERPF], filtration fraction [GFR/ERPF], mean arterial pressure [MAP], and total renal resistances [MAP/ERPF]) repeatedly during normoglycemia and then hyperglycemia in 12 normotensive, normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes and the II genotype (associated with nephroprotection) versus 22 age- and sex-matched subjects with the ACE D allele after three randomly allocated 2- to 6-week periods on placebo, 1.25 mg/day ramipril, and 5 mg/day ramipril in a double-blind, cross-over study. During normoglycemia, the hemodynamic changes induced by ramipril were similar in both genotypes. During hyperglycemia, the changes induced by ramipril were accentuated in the II genotype group and attenuated dose dependently in the D allele group (treatment-genotype interaction P values for ERPF, 0.018; MAP, 0.018; and total renal resistances, 0.055). These results provide a basis to different renal responses to ACE inhibition according to ACE genotype in type 1 diabetes.

  16. A Discussion of Aerodynamic Control Effectors (ACEs) for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A Reynolds number based, unmanned air vehicle classification structure has been developed which identifies four classes of unmanned air vehicle concepts. The four unmanned air vehicle (UAV) classes are; Micro UAV, Meso UAV, Macro UAV, and Mega UAV. In a similar fashion a labeling scheme for aerodynamic control effectors (ACE) was developed and eleven types of ACE concepts were identified. These eleven types of ACEs were laid out in a five (5) layer scheme. The final section of the paper correlated the various ACE concepts to the four UAV classes and ACE recommendations are offered for future design activities.

  17. ACE gene titration in mice uncovers a new mechanism for ACE on the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Heimann, A S; Favarato, M H; Gozzo, F C; Rioli, V; Carreño, F R; Eberlin, M N; Ferro, E S; Krege, J H; Krieger, J E

    2005-01-20

    Mice harboring 1, 2, or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene were used to evaluate the quantitative role of the ACE locus on obesity. Three-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet had lower body weight and peri-epididymal adipose tissue than did 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05). On regular diet, 3-copy mice had to eat more to maintain the same body weight; on a high-fat diet, they ate the same but weighed less than 1- and 2-copy mice (P < 0.05), indicating a higher metabolic rate in 3-copy mice that was not affected by ANG II AT(1) blocker treatment. A catalytically inactive form of thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) was used to isolate ACE substrates from adipose tissue. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) identified 162 peptide peaks; 16 peptides were present in both groups (1- and 3-copy mice fed with a high-fat diet), whereas 58 of the 72 unique peptides were found only in the 3-copy mice. Peptide size distribution was shifted to lower molecular weight in 3-copy mice. Two of the identified peptides, LVVYPWTQRY and VVYPWTQRY, which are ACE substrates, inhibited in vitro protein kinase C phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) activity was lower in fat tissue from 3- vs. 1-copy mice (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results provide evidence that ACE is associated with body weight and peri-epididymal fat accumulation. This response may involve the generation of oligopeptides that inhibit the activity of EP24.16 and other oligopeptidases within the adipose tissue.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  19. Parallel Signal Processing and System Simulation using aCe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular for both signal processing and system simulation. A new language is ideally suited for parallel signal processing applications and system simulation since it allows the programmer to explicitly express the computations that can be performed concurrently. In addition, the new C based parallel language (ace C) for architecture-adaptive programming allows programmers to implement algorithms and system simulation applications on parallel architectures by providing them with the assurance that future parallel architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of ace C and present a signal processing application (FFT).

  20. ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Five infrared atmospheric atlases are presented using solar occultation spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) in low earth orbit. The spectral atlases were created for Arctic summer, Arctic winter, mid-latitude summer, mid-latitude winter and the tropics. Each covers the spectral range from 700 to 4400 cm-1 and consists of 31 spectra that span an altitude range of 6-126 km in 4-km altitude intervals. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, each spectrum in the atlas is an average of at least several hundred individual ACE-FTS limb transmission spectra. Representative plots in pdf format at 10 km (troposphere), 30 km (stratosphere), 70 km (mesosphere), and 110 km (lower thermosphere) are also available.

  1. Space clocks to test relativiy: ACES and SAGAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Peter; Salomon, Christophe; Reynaud, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Atomic clocks are an outstanding tool for the experimental verification of general relativity and more generally for fundamental astronomy (VLBI, pulsar timing, navigation, etc). Recent years have seen a rapid improvement in the performance of such clocks, promising new improved tests of relativity, in particular onboard terrestrial and interplanetary space missions. We present the scientific motivations of such tests taking the ACES Salomon et al. and SAGAS Wolf et al. (2009) projects as particular examples.

  2. [ACE inhibitors from the viewpoint of the clinical pharmacologist].

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, G

    1996-01-01

    For treatment of hypertension drugs are desirable which exert a 24 hours lasting blood pressure control. Among the ACE-inhibitors some drugs exist which have this action. The elimination pathway plays a minor role in this respect. Not only the inhibition of Angiotensin II generation but also the decreased inhibition of bradykinin-degeneration plays a crucial role with regard to several endothelial functions controlling the so called remodeling of the cardiovascular system.

  3. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  4. The Louisiana ACES student-built BalloonSat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Brad; Giammanco, James; Guzik, T. Gregory; Johnson, Karen; Wefel, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A major concern of many aerospace industries and space agencies worldwide is the continuing decrease in undergraduate student enrollment and graduation from aerospace and closely related degree programs. With a decreasing number of new aerospace workforce candidates, expanding or sustaining our exploration of the universe over the coming decades could be at risk. In Louisiana, we have developed the Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) program to address this issue by attracting new students to aerospace-related programs and providing interdisciplinary training on how to design, build, and manage aerospace payloads. Based upon the National Space Grant Student Satellite Program "Crawl, Walk, Run, Fly!" methodology, ACES closely ties cross-discipline content knowledge with extensive hands-on experiences to instill skills that are then applied by the students to design, document, build, test, and operate a small balloon-borne scientific payload. The ACES concept was initially piloted during 2002-2003 and now includes a semi-formal "Student Ballooning Course", five Louisiana institutions and serves ˜45 students.

  5. VO2 max is associated with ACE genotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, J M; Ferrell, R E; McCole, S D; Wilund, K R; Moore, G E

    1998-11-01

    Relationships have frequently been found between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype and various pathological and physiological cardiovascular outcomes and functions. Thus we sought to determine whether ACE genotype affected maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) and maximal exercise hemodynamics in postmenopausal women with different habitual physical activity levels. Age, body composition, and habitual physical activity levels did not differ among ACE genotype groups. However, ACE insertion/insertion (II) genotype carriers had a 6.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE deletion/deletion (DD) genotype group after accounting for the effect of physical activity levels. The ACE II genotype group also had a 3.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1 higher VO2 max (P < 0.05) than the ACE insertion/deletion (ID) genotype group. The ACE ID group tended to have a higher VO2 max than the DD genotype group, but the difference was not significant. ACE genotype accounted for 12% of the variation in VO2 max among women after accounting for the effect of habitual physical activity levels. The entire difference in VO2 max among ACE genotype groups was the result of differences in maximal arteriovenous O2 difference (a-vDO2). ACE genotype accounted for 17% of the variation in maximal a-vDO2 in these women. Maximal cardiac output index did not differ whatsoever among ACE genotype groups. Thus it appears that ACE genotype accounts for a significant portion of the interindividual differences in VO2 max among these women. However, this difference is the result of genotype-dependent differences in maximal a-vDO2 and not of maximal stroke volume and maximal cardiac output.

  6. Structure of human ACE gives new insights into inhibitor binding and design.

    PubMed

    Brew, Keith

    2003-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a primary target of drugs used for controlling hypertension. A new X-ray crystallographic structure of the key catalytic domain of ACE provides detailed information about the structure of its active site, located in a deep channel, and its interactions with an inhibitor. Such information might facilitate the rational design of ACE inhibitors that are more potent and more selective and therefore of clinical use.

  7. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  8. Brain ACE2 shedding contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Over-activity of the brain Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is a major contributor to neurogenic hypertension. While over-expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing hypertension by transforming Angiotensin (Ang)-II into Ang-(1-7), several groups have reported decreased brain ACE2 expression and activity during the development of hypertension. Objective We hypothesized that ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding results in decreased membrane-bound ACE2 in the brain, thus promoting the development of neurogenic hypertension. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we used the DOCA-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in non-transgenic (NT) and syn-hACE2 mice over-expressing ACE2 in neurons. DOCA-salt treatment in NT mice led to significant increases in blood pressure, hypothalamic Ang-II levels, inflammation, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic dysfunction, as well as decreased hypothalamic ACE2 activity and expression, while these changes were blunted or prevented in syn-hACE2 mice. In addition, reduction of ACE2 expression and activity in the brain paralleled a rise in ACE2 activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of NT mice following DOCA-salt treatment and was accompanied by enhanced ADAM17 expression and activity in the hypothalamus. Chronic knockdown of ADAM17 in the brain blunted the development of hypertension and restored ACE2 activity and baroreflex function. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence that ADAM17-mediated shedding impairs brain ACE2 compensatory activity, thus contributing to the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:24014829

  9. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  10. ACE2 orthologues in non-mammalian vertebrates (Danio, Gallus, Fugu, Tetraodon and Xenopus).

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Fong; Loh, Chay Boon; Foo, Yik Khoon; Shen, Shuo; Fielding, Burtram C; Tan, Timothy H P; Khan, Sehaam; Wang, Yue; Lim, Seng Gee; Hong, Wanjin; Tan, Yee-Joo; Fu, Jianlin

    2006-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a newly identified member in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), acts as a negative regulator of ACE. It is mainly expressed in cardiac blood vessels and the tubular epithelia of kidneys and abnormal expression has been implicated in diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. The mechanism and physiological function of this zinc metallopeptidase in mammals are not yet fully understood. Non-mammalian vertebrate models offer attractive and simple alternatives that could facilitate the exploration of ACE2 function. In this paper we report the in silico analysis of Ace2 genes from the Gallus (chicken), Xenopus (frog), Fugu and Tetraodon (pufferfish) genome assembly databases, and from the Danio (zebrafish) cDNA library. Exon ambiguities of Danio and Xenopus Ace2s were resolved by RT-PCR and 3'RACE. Analyses of the exon-intron structures, alignment, phylogeny and hydrophilicity plots, together with the conserved synteny among these vertebrates, support the orthologous relationship between mammalian and non-mammalian ACE2s. The putative promoters of Ace2 from human, Tetraodon and Xenopus tropicalis drove the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in the heart tissue of transgenic Xenopus thus making it a suitable model for future functional genomic studies. Additionally, the search for conserved cis-elements resulted in the discovery of WGATAR motifs in all the putative Ace2 promoters from 7 different animals, suggesting a possible role of GATA family transcriptional factors in regulating the expression of Ace2.

  11. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M.; Santos, Robson Augusto S.; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2−/y) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2−/y mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2−/y mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2−/y mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2−/y mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2−/y mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis. PMID:28101297

  12. Calmodulin interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and inhibits shedding of its ectodomain.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Daniel W; Clarke, Nicola E; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2008-01-23

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a regulatory protein of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and a receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS-coronavirus. We have previously shown that ACE2 can be shed from the cell surface in response to phorbol esters by a process involving TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17). In this study, we demonstrate that inhibitors of calmodulin also stimulate shedding of the ACE2 ectodomain, a process at least partially mediated by a metalloproteinase. We also show that calmodulin associates with ACE2 and that this interaction is decreased by calmodulin inhibitors.

  13. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  14. CD36/Sirtuin 1 Axis Impairment Contributes to Hepatic Steatosis in ACE2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Alenina, Natalia; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Penninger, Josef M; Santos, Robson Augusto S; Bader, Michael; Rabelo, Luiza A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system. Since angiotensin peptides have been shown to be involved in hepatic steatosis, we aimed to evaluate the hepatic lipid profile in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Methods. Male C57BL/6 and ACE2(-/y) mice were analyzed at the age of 3 and 6 months for alterations in the lipid profiles of plasma, faeces, and liver and for hepatic steatosis. Results. ACE2(-/y) mice showed lower body weight and white adipose tissue at all ages investigated. Moreover, these mice had lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. Strikingly, ACE2(-/y) mice showed high deposition of lipids in the liver. Expression of CD36, a protein involved in the uptake of triglycerides in liver, was increased in ACE2(-/y) mice. Concurrently, these mice exhibited an increase in hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and expression of uncoupling protein 2, and downregulation of sirtuin 1. ACE2(-/y) mice also showed impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the liver. Conclusions. Deletion of ACE2 causes CD36/sirtuin 1 axis impairment and thereby interferes with lipid homeostasis, leading to lipodystrophy and steatosis.

  15. Rediscovering ACE: Novel insights into the many roles of the angiotensin-converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Shen, Xiao Z.; Bernstein, Ellen A.; Janjulia, Tea; Taylor, Brian; Giani, Jorge F.; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B.; Shah, Kandarp H.; Shi, Peng D.; Fuchs, Sebastien; Bernstein, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is best known for the catalytic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. However, the use of gene-targeting techniques has led to mouse models highlighting many other biochemical properties and actions of this enzyme. This review discusses recent studies examining the functional significance of ACE tissue-specific expression and the presence in ACE of two independent catalytic sites with distinct substrates and biological effects. It is these features which explain why ACE makes important contributions to many different physiological processes including renal development, blood pressure control, inflammation and immunity. PMID:23686164

  16. RNAi of ace1 and ace2 in Blattella germanica reveals their differential contribution to acetylcholinesterase activity and sensitivity to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, L; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X; Castañera, P; Ortego, F; Díaz-Ruíz, J R; Hernández-Crespo, P; Tenllado, F

    2009-12-01

    Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors modulate cellular retinol-binding protein 1 and adiponectin expression in adipocytes via the ACE-dependent signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Trouvain, Caroline; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Fleming, Ingrid

    2009-03-01

    Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) decrease angiotensin II production and activate an intracellular signaling cascade that affects gene expression in endothelial cells. Because ACE inhibitors have been reported to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, we determined ACE signaling-modulated gene expression in endothelial cells and adipocytes. Using differential gene expression analysis, several genes were identified that were 3-fold up- or down-regulated by ramiprilat in cells expressing wild-type ACE versus cells expressing a signaling-dead ACE mutant. One up-regulated gene was the cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1). In adipocytes, the overexpression of CRBP1 enhanced (4- to 5-fold) the activity of promoters containing response elements for retinol-dependent nuclear receptors [retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR)] or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). CRBP1 overexpression also enhanced the promoter activity (by 470 +/- 40%) and expression/release of the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine adiponectin (cellular adiponectin by 196 +/- 24%, soluble adiponectin by 228 +/- 74%). Significantly increased adiponectin secretion was also observed after ACE inhibitor treatment of human preadipocytes, an effect prevented by small interfering RNA against CRBP1. Furthermore, in ob/ob mice, ramipril markedly potentiated both the basal (approximately 2-fold) and rosiglitazonestimulated circulating levels of adiponectin. In patients with coronary artery disease or type 2 diabetes, ACE inhibition also significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels (1.6- or 2.1-fold, respectively). In summary, ACE inhibitors affect adipocyte homeostasis via CRBP1 through the activation of RAR/RXR-PPAR signaling and up-regulation of adiponectin. The latter may contribute to the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors on the development of type 2 diabetes in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system.

  18. Helium at Interplanetary Discontinuities: ACE STEREO Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M.; Klecker, B.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Simunac, K.

    2007-12-01

    ACE/SEPICA observations showed that, on average, energetic He+ is after H+ and He2+ the third most abundant energetic particle species in the heliosphere. Depending on the type of the energetic population the He+/He2+ ratio can reach unusually high values in the energy range 250 - 800keV/n ratios up to unity. As a major source of energetic He+ interplanetary pickup ions have been identified that are preferentially accelerated at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), transient interaction regions (TIRs), and interplanetary traveling shocks. Most recent data from STEREO/PLASTIC in the energy range of 0.2-80keV/Q show clear evidence of abundant He+ at interplanetary discontinuities. Thus PLASTIC extends the energy range into injection region of the source. Furthermore, ACE/ULEIS and ACE/SEPICA measurements showed that very often 3He2+ and He+ are also accelerated simultaneously at CME-driven IP shocks. This is surprising because, these to species originate from different sources. However, this may indicate that the injection, or the acceleration efficiency of the accelerator for different source population may be similar. From observations, however, this cannot be differentiated easily. In numerical simulations this can be done because there is control over species and distribution functions. In a numerical study we applied test particle simulations and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the contribution of source, injection and acceleration efficiency at shocks to the variability of the helium ratio. These, simulations with and without superimposed turbulence in the shock region will be compared with observations.

  19. Dynamics of ADAM17-Mediated Shedding of ACE2 Applied to Pancreatic Islets of Male db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chodavarapu, Harshita; Porretta, Constance; Robinson, Leonie K.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene therapy aimed at counteracting pancreatic ACE2 depletion improves glucose regulation in two diabetic mouse models: db/db mice and angiotensin II-infused mice. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) can cause shedding of ACE2 from the cell membrane. The aim of our studies was to determine whether ADAM17 depletes ACE2 levels in pancreatic islets and β-cells. Dynamics of ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding were investigated in 832/13 insulinoma cells. Within a wide range of ACE2 expression levels, including the level observed in mouse pancreatic islets, overexpression of ADAM17 increases shed ACE2 and decreases cellular ACE2 levels. We provide a mathematical description of shed and cellular ACE2 activities as a function of the ADAM17 activity. The effect of ADAM17 on the cellular ACE2 content was relatively modest with an absolute control strength value less than 0.25 and approaching 0 at low ADAM17 activities. Although we found that ADAM17 and ACE2 are both expressed in pancreatic islets, the β-cell is not the major cell type expressing ACE2 in islets. During diabetes progression in 8-, 12-, and 15-week-old db/db mice, ACE2 mRNA and ACE2 activity levels in pancreatic islets were not decreased over time nor significantly decreased compared with nondiabetic db/m mice. Levels of ADAM17 mRNA and ADAM17 activity were also not significantly changed. Inhibiting basal ADAM17 activity in mouse islets failed to affect ACE2 levels. We conclude that whereas ADAM17 has the ability to shed ACE2, ADAM17 does not deplete ACE2 from pancreatic islets in diabetic db/db mice. PMID:26441236

  20. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema following Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Hussam

    2017-01-01

    Angioedema is a well-known side effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). However, ACE inhibitors induced angioedema after cervical surgery is a rare condition. They result in increased levels of circulating bradykinins. Rare cases of angioedema following local trauma in patients using ACE inhibitors have been published. We present such a case. A 54-year-old Caucasian female with a history significant for hypertension, controlled with lisinopril, was admitted for routine cervical spine surgery. She has severe degenerative cervical disc disease and was admitted to the hospital for an elective cervical diskectomy. The patient failed weaning off the ventilator on multiple attempts postoperatively. There were no observed symptoms of an allergic reaction. A CT scan of the neck showed extensive soft tissue edema at the level of the arytenoids. Dexamethasone was given to reduce the edema without successful resolution. On review of her medications, it was found that the patient was resumed on lisinopril following the procedure. It was subsequently discontinued. By the following day the patient had a positive leak around the ET tube cuff and patient was successfully extubated. PMID:28348897

  1. ACE: A distributed system to manage large data archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, Mike I.; Allen, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Competitive pressures in the oil and gas industry are requiring a much tighter integration of technical data into E and P business processes. The development of new systems to accommodate this business need must comprehend the significant numbers of large, complex data objects which the industry generates. The life cycle of the data objects is a four phase progression from data acquisition, to data processing, through data interpretation, and ending finally with data archival. In order to implement a cost effect system which provides an efficient conversion from data to information and allows effective use of this information, an organization must consider the technical data management requirements in all four phases. A set of technical issues which may differ in each phase must be addressed to insure an overall successful development strategy. The technical issues include standardized data formats and media for data acquisition, data management during processing, plus networks, applications software, and GUI's for interpretation of the processed data. Mass storage hardware and software is required to provide cost effective storage and retrieval during the latter three stages as well as long term archival. Mobil Oil Corporation's Exploration and Producing Technical Center (MEPTEC) has addressed the technical and cost issues of designing, building, and implementing an Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to support the petroleum E and P function, which is critical to the corporation's continued success. Mobile views ACE as a cost effective solution which can give Mobile a competitive edge as well as a viable technical solution.

  2. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  3. A Consolidation of ACE Research, 1990-2000. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry; Davies, Merryn; Volkoff, Veronica

    The volume and scope of research into adult and community education (ACE) in Australia have increased significantly over the past decade. Studies designed to map, reevaluate, showcase, and promote ACE have been funded by Australia's federal and state governments and by bodies such as Adult Learning Australia. Practitioner-generated research has…

  4. Preparing GMAT for Operational Maneuver Planning of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.

  5. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  6. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a... required advance ocean and rail data through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This notice... application period for participation, outlines the development and evaluation methodology to be used,...

  7. Isolation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting triterpenes from Schinus molle.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, K; Jaroszewski, J W; Smitt, U W; Nyman, U

    1997-08-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of Schinus molle leaves, using an in vitro assay, led to the isolation of ACE-inhibitory steroidal triterpenes of the euphane type, identified by means of NMR spectroscopic methods. One of the triterpenes was isolated as an equilibrium mixture of epimeric aldehydes. The triterpenes showed moderate ACE-inhibitory activity (IC(50) about 250 microM).

  8. Formative Evaluation of ACES Program: Findings from Surveys and Interviews Year One, Grades 11 and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Natalie; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC), and the Universities at Shady Grove (USG) to create a seamless pathway…

  9. Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Models in ACES: Design Implementation and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don; Satapathy, Goutam; Kumar, Anil; Khanna, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Presentation objectives include: a) Overview of the ACES/CNS System Models Design and Integration; b) Configuration Capabilities available for Models and Simulations using ACES with CNS Modeling; c) Descriptions of recently added, Enhanced CNS Simulation Capabilities; and d) General Concepts Ideas that Utilize CNS Modeling to Enhance Concept Evaluations.

  10. The Evolution of the Automated Continuous Evaluation System (ACES) for Personnel Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    recession, which reduced funding across the government for research and development of efficiencies like ACES, the obvious promise of ACES continues. The...Approved for Public Distribution: Distribution Unlimited Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Technical... Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center 400 Gigling

  11. ACE expression in monocytes is induced by cytokines, phorbol ester and steroid

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, D.; Lanzillo, J.; Fanburg, B. )

    1991-03-15

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels are elevated in the serum and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) of patients with granulomatous diseases. However, the role of ACE in (Mo) physiology and the regulation of the inflammatory response is not well understood. Since Mo can be stimulated to form giant cells using phorbol esters, glucocorticoids or certain inflammatory cytokines, the authors examined production of ACE protein by normal PBM, a Mo-like cell line, THP-1, and a macrophage-like cell line, U937 following stimulation with these agents. Using a sensitive ELISA assay, they found that in U937 cells, expression of ACE protein increased by 3.4 fold with dexamethasone, 3.7. fold with phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA), and 5.8 fold with the two agents combined. The cytokines IL-4 and GM-CSF substantially increased ACE expression, by 7.6 and 7.7 fold respectively, with maximal effect at 0.01 U/ml, while IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} had little effect. Similar results were found with PBM and THP-1 cells. The combination of dexamethasone and PMA also induced homotypic cluster formation in PBM, suggesting a correlation between cell adhesion and ACE production. The authors conclude that ACE expression in monocytes and macrophages is stimulated by low concentration of glucocorticoids and certain inflammatory cytokines. ACE may participate in the initiation and propagation of granulomatous inflammatory processes.

  12. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cecilia; Acuña, María José; Torrejón, Javiera; Rebolledo, Daniela; Cabrera, Daniel; Santos, Robson A; Brandan, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7) production, in wild type (wt) and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7), which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  13. Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), Concept Simulations using Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg; Vandrei, Don

    2006-01-01

    Project Objectives include: a) CNS Model Development; b Design/Integration of baseline set of CNS Models into ACES; c) Implement Enhanced Simulation Capabilities in ACES; d) Design and Integration of Enhanced (2nd set) CNS Models; and e) Continue with CNS Model Integration/Concept evaluations.

  14. An ace-1 gene duplication resorbs the fitness cost associated with resistance in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Assogba, Benoît S.; Djogbénou, Luc S.; Milesi, Pascal; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Perez, Julie; Ayala, Diego; Chandre, Fabrice; Makoutodé, Michel; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Widespread resistance to pyrethroids threatens malaria control in Africa. Consequently, several countries switched to carbamates and organophophates insecticides for indoor residual spraying. However, a mutation in the ace-1 gene conferring resistance to these compounds (ace-1R allele), is already present. Furthermore, a duplicated allele (ace-1D) recently appeared; characterizing its selective advantage is mandatory to evaluate the threat. Our data revealed that a unique duplication event, pairing a susceptible and a resistant copy of the ace-1 gene spread through West Africa. Further investigations revealed that, while ace-1D confers less resistance than ace-1R, the high fitness cost associated with ace-1R is almost completely suppressed by the duplication for all traits studied. ace-1 duplication thus represents a permanent heterozygote phenotype, selected, and thus spreading, due to the mosaic nature of mosquito control. It provides malaria mosquito with a new evolutionary path that could hamper resistance management. PMID:26434951

  15. ACE2 Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, QingQing; Dong, XueFei; Chen, Xu; Yan, Feng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Haishui; Dong, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Recent study have demonstrated that ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). But, little study was reported about the direct effect of ACE2 overexpression on the aneurysm. In this study, we hypothesize that overexpression of ACE2 may prevent the pathogenesis of aneurysm by decreasing RAS activation. Thirty-nine Mice were assigned to 3 groups randomly (n=13 in each group), ACE2 group, Ad.EGFP group and Control group. After 8-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for HE staining, VVG, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The incidence and severity of AAA, macrophage infiltration and MMP protein expression were all detected. The results showed that ACE2 gene transfer significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA and inhibited AAA formation in ApoE-/- mice by inhibiting inflammatory response and MMP activation, the mechanisms may involve decreased ERK and AngII-NF-kB signaling pathways.

  16. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors from Marine Resources: Prospects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1; ACE) plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, the inhibition of ACE activity is a major target in the prevention of hypertension. Recently, the search for natural ACE inhibitors as alternatives to synthetic drugs is of great interest to prevent several side effects and a number of novel compounds such as bioactive peptides, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS) and phlorotannins have been derived from marine organisms as potential ACE inhibitors. These inhibitory derivatives can be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals with potential to prevent hypertension. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss the marine-derived ACE inhibitors and their future prospects as novel therapeutic drug candidates for treat hypertension. PMID:20479968

  17. Unique Kinase Catalytic Mechanism of AceK with a Single Magnesium Ion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanjie; Zheng, Jimin; Tan, Hongwei; Li, Xichen; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2013-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) is the founding member of the protein phosphorylation system in prokaryotes. Based on the novel and unique structural characteristics of AceK recently uncovered, we sought to understand its kinase reaction mechanism, along with other features involved in the phosphotransfer process. Herein we report density functional theory QM calculations of the mechanism of the phosphotransfer reaction catalysed by AceK. The transition states located by the QM calculations indicate that the phosphorylation reaction, catalysed by AceK, follows a dissociative mechanism with Asp457 serving as the catalytic base to accept the proton delivered by the substrate. Our results also revealed that AceK prefers a single Mg2+-containing active site in the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic roles of conserved residues in the active site are discussed. PMID:23977203

  18. The effect of saturation of ACE binding sites on the pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat in man.

    PubMed Central

    Wade, J R; Meredith, P A; Hughes, D M; Elliott, H L

    1992-01-01

    1. Eight healthy male volunteers received oral enalapril, 10 mg, in the presence and absence of pretreatment with captopril, 50 mg, twice daily for 5 days. 2. Enalaprilat pharmacokinetics were characterised after both doses of enalapril to investigate the effect of saturating ACE binding sites by pretreatment with captopril. 3. The pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat were best described by a one compartment model with zero order input incorporating saturable binding to plasma and tissue ACE. 4. Values of AUC (0.72 h) for enalaprilat were 419 +/- 97 and 450 +/- 87 ng ml-1 h in the presence and absence of captopril, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant nor were there any other differences in model parameters. 5. Induction of ACE by captopril resulting in an increase in the number of ACE binding sites, may have obscured any effect of captopril on the occupancy of ACE binding sites by enalapril. PMID:1312853

  19. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  20. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Ogliore, R.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenback, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  1. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  2. The Solar Package on ISS: SOL-ACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienhold, F. G.; Anders, J.; Galuska, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Neske, E.; Riedel, W. J.; Schmidtke, G.; Singler, R.; Ulmer, U.; Wolf, H.

    The "solar package" comprises the experiments SOLSPEC (UV/Vis to IR spectral range), SOVIM (total solar radiation) and SOL-ACES to be installed on a Coarse Pointing Device (CPD) of the International Space Station for a 1.5 year mission launched in 2003. The CPD allows for measuring periods of at least fifteen minutes per orbit totaling approximately 600 hours per year of solar observations. The Solar Auto Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrometers (SOL-ACES) are currently developed to measure the solar radiation (full disk) in the 17 nm to 220 nm spectral range with four grazing-incidence grating spectrometers. To obtain high radiometric accuracy of better than 10 %, a double ionization chamber is assigned to each of the spectrometers as a primary detector standard. Optical bandpass filters are mounted on a filter wheel to be placed at the entrance apertures of the spectrometers and ionization chambers and thereby will establish the radiometric link between these devices. The spectrometers are designed as scanning monochromators operating at fixed incidence angles. The deflected radiation is monitored by rotating an assembly containing a parabolic mirror, an exit slit and a channel electron multiplier around the grating center. The optical length of the ionization chamber of 0.5 m is divided into two identical electrode sections. In addition, the transmitted radiation is measured by a silicon diode detector located at the end of the absorption path. Detector and electrode signals are recorded as a function of the gas pressure in the chamber, which is increased from zero to a few hectopascal during a single measurement. These data permit the absolute quantification of the radiant solar flux in the wavelength interval transmitted by the bandpass filter and the correction for secondary effects, such as ionization caused by photoelectrons. With these measurements the spectrometer efficiencies at the filter bandpass wavelengths can be recalibrated as required during the mission.

  3. Is there an ACE ID - ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms interaction that influences sprint performance?

    PubMed

    Eynon, N; Alves, A J; Yamin, C; Sagiv, M; Duarte, J A; Oliveira, J; Ayalon, M; Goldhammer, E; Sagiv, M; Meckel, Y

    2009-12-01

    Functional R577X (rs.1815739) and ID (rs.5186) polymorphisms in the alpha-actinin-3 ( ACTN3) and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes, respectively, have been associated with sprint performance. The aim of this study was to determine their effect on sprint performance among 81 Israeli sprinters and 240 healthy controls. Results revealed that the ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele (P=0.003 for sprinters vs. controls), and the ACTN3 RR genotype +ACE I allele (P=0.001 for sprinters vs. controls) might be the genotype for sprinters. In the whole cohort the probability of ACTN3 RR genotype+ ACE I allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 1.45-4.93) and of ACE II genotype+ ACTN3 R allele being a sprinter (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.78-7.15) was significantly higher than that in the controls. In conclusion, the above data suggest that ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is associated with sprint ability. However, ACE ID/ ACTN3 R577X genotype combination is not related to the level of performance.

  4. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P.; Ko, Seok-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is the most common mechanism underlying the lowering of blood pressure. In the present study, five organic extracts of a marine brown seaweed Ecklonia cava were prepared by using ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and diethyl ether as solvents, which were then tested for their potential ACE inhibitory activities. Ethanol extract showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.96 mg/ml. Five kinds of phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, triphlorethol-A, eckol, dieckol, and eckstolonol, were isolated from ethanol extract of E. cava, which exhibited potential ACE inhibition. Dieckol was the most potent ACE inhibitor and was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE according to Lineweaver-Burk plots. Dieckol had an inducible effect on the production of NO in EAhy926 cells without having cytotoxic effect. The results of this study indicate that E. cava could be a potential source of phlorotannins with ACE inhibitory activity for utilization in production of functional foods. PMID:21556221

  5. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is the most common mechanism underlying the lowering of blood pressure. In the present study, five organic extracts of a marine brown seaweed Ecklonia cava were prepared by using ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, and diethyl ether as solvents, which were then tested for their potential ACE inhibitory activities. Ethanol extract showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 0.96 mg/ml. Five kinds of phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, triphlorethol-A, eckol, dieckol, and eckstolonol, were isolated from ethanol extract of E. cava, which exhibited potential ACE inhibition. Dieckol was the most potent ACE inhibitor and was found to be a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE according to Lineweaver-Burk plots. Dieckol had an inducible effect on the production of NO in EAhy926 cells without having cytotoxic effect. The results of this study indicate that E. cava could be a potential source of phlorotannins with ACE inhibitory activity for utilization in production of functional foods.

  6. ACE I/D Polymorphism in Hypertensive Patients of Kashmiri Population

    PubMed Central

    Sameer, A. Syed; Syeed, Nidda; Tak, Shahid A.; Bashir, Samina; Nissar, Saniya; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in humans has an insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphic state in intron 16 on chromosome 17q23. This polymorphism has been widely investigated in different diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the ACE I/D genotype frequency in hypertensive cases in Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods We designed a case control study, where 52 hypertensive cases were studied for ACE I/D polymorphism against 150 age/sex matched controls taken from general population. The polymorphisms of ACE gene were investigated using polymerase chain reaction for detection of ACE I/D genotype. Fisher’s Chi square test was used for calculation of P value and OR. Results We found the frequency of ACE DD genotype to be 46.15% (24/52), II 23.07% (12/52) and DI 30.77% (16/52) in 52 hypertensive cases. Conclusions The ACE I/D genotype is positively associated with hypertension in our population.

  7. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-06-17

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP® for these analytic test problems, simple_ace.pl and simple_ace_mg.pl.

  8. Progress on the Multiphysics Capabilities of the Parallel Electromagnetic ACE3P Simulation Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, Oleksiy

    2015-03-26

    ACE3P is a 3D parallel simulation suite that is being developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key tool for the coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical research and design of particle accelerators. Based on the existing finite-element infrastructure, a massively parallel eigensolver is developed for modal analysis of mechanical structures. It complements a set of the multiphysics tools in ACE3P and, in particular, can be used for the comprehensive study of microphonics in accelerating cavities ensuring the operational reliability of a particle accelerator.

  9. Interaction of diabetes and ACE2 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tikellis, Chris; Pickering, Raelene; Tsorotes, Despina; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kiriazis, Helen; Nguyen-Huu, Thu-Phuc; Head, Geoffrey A; Cooper, Mark E; Thomas, Merlin C

    2012-10-01

    Local and systemic AngII (angiotensin II) levels are regulated by ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is reduced in diabetic tissues. In the present study, we examine the effect of ACE2 deficiency on the early cardiac and vascular changes associated with experimental diabetes. Streptozotocin diabetes was induced in male C57BL6 mice and Ace2-KO (knockout) mice, and markers of RAS (renin-angiotensin system) activity, cardiac function and injury were assessed after 10 weeks. In a second protocol, diabetes was induced in male ApoE (apolipoprotein E)-KO mice and ApoE/Ace2-double-KO mice, and plaque accumulation and markers of atherogenesis assessed after 20 weeks. The induction of diabetes in wild-type mice led to reduced ACE2 expression and activity in the heart, elevated circulating AngII levels and reduced cardiac Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] levels. This was associated structurally with thinning of the LV (left ventricular) wall and mild ventricular dilatation, and histologically with increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis on TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) staining and compensatory hypertrophy denoted by an increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. By contrast Ace2-KO mice failed to increase circulating AngII concentration, experienced a paradoxical fall in cardiac AngII levels and no change in Ang-(1-7) following the onset of diabetes. At the same time the major phenotypic differences between Ace2-deficient and Ace2-replete mice with respect to BP (blood pressure) and cardiac hypertrophy were eliminated following the induction of diabetes. Consistent with findings in the heart, the accelerated atherosclerosis that was observed in diabetic ApoE-KO mice was not seen in diabetic ApoE/Ace2-KO mice, which experienced no further increase in plaque accumulation or expression in key adhesion molecules beyond that seen in ApoE/Ace2-KO mice. These results point to the potential role of ACE2 deficiency in regulating

  10. APL workers install CRIS on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers from the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) install the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). From left, are Al Sadilek, Marcos Gonzalez and Cliff Willey. CRIS is one of nine instruments on ACE, which will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of the solar corona, solar flares and the acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was developed for NASA by the APL. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched Aug. 21 aboard a two-stage Delta II 7920-8 rocket from Space Launch Complex 17, Pad A.

  11. The first stage of the Delta II for ACE is erected at LC 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of the Delta II rocket which will to be used to launch the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is erected at Launch Complex 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Scheduled for launch on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The ACE observatory will be placed into an orbit almost a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) away from the Earth, about 1/100 the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

  12. Differential regulation of the cellulase transcription factors XYR1, ACE2, and ACE1 in Trichoderma reesei strains producing high and low levels of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Thomas; Margeot, Antoine; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Le Crom, Stéphane; Ben Chaabane, Fadhel; Linke, Rita; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2011-02-01

    Due to its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases, Trichoderma reesei is increasingly being investigated for second-generation biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. The induction mechanisms of T. reesei cellulases have been described recently, but the regulation of the genes involved in their transcription has not been studied thoroughly. Here we report the regulation of expression of the two activator genes xyr1 and ace2, and the corepressor gene ace1, during the induction of cellulase biosynthesis by the inducer lactose in T. reesei QM 9414, a strain producing low levels of cellulase (low producer). We show that all three genes are induced by lactose. xyr1 was also induced by d-galactose, but this induction was independent of d-galactose metabolism. Moreover, ace1 was carbon catabolite repressed, whereas full induction of xyr1 and ace2 in fact required CRE1. Significant differences in these regulatory patterns were observed in the high-producer strain RUT C30 and the hyperproducer strain T. reesei CL847. These observations suggest that a strongly elevated basal transcription level of xyr1 and reduced upregulation of ace1 by lactose may have been important for generating the hyperproducer strain and that thus, these genes are major control elements of cellulase production.

  13. Effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and ACE inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate hydrolysates incorporated into expanded maize products.

    PubMed

    Cian, Raúl E; Luggren, Pablo; Drago, Silvina R

    2011-11-01

    Extrusion process has been widely used for the development of many functional foods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extrusion process on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition properties from bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC) hydrolysates (P, FC, PF and FCF). Extrusion was carried out with a Brabender single screw extruder. The ACE inhibition and the antioxidant capacity (AC) were estimated by the inhibition of the ACE and ABTS+√ radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), respectively. The ACE inhibition and TEAC values from hydrolysates were significantly higher than that from BHC. The highest ACE inhibition corresponded to P hydrolysate and the highest TEAC corresponded to PF and FCF hydrolysates. The ACE inhibition and AC from extruded products with added hydrolysates were higher than that from maize control; however, the extrusion process modified both ACE inhibition and AC formerly present in hydrolysates.

  14. Differential downregulation of ACE2 by the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Glowacka, Ilona; Bertram, Stephanie; Herzog, Petra; Pfefferle, Susanne; Steffen, Imke; Muench, Marcus O; Simmons, Graham; Hofmann, Heike; Kuri, Thomas; Weber, Friedemann; Eichler, Jutta; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The human coronaviruses (CoVs) severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and NL63 employ angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry. It was shown that recombinant SARS-CoV spike protein (SARS-S) downregulates ACE2 expression and thereby promotes lung injury. Whether NL63-S exerts a similar activity is yet unknown. We found that recombinant SARS-S bound to ACE2 and induced ACE2 shedding with higher efficiency than NL63-S. Shedding most likely accounted for the previously observed ACE2 downregulation but was dispensable for viral replication. Finally, SARS-CoV but not NL63 replicated efficiently in ACE2-positive Vero cells and reduced ACE2 expression, indicating robust receptor interference in the context of SARS-CoV but not NL63 infection.

  15. ACES: The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Prasad, N. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Dobler, J. T.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T.; Campbell, J.; Chen, S.; Cleckner, C. S.; DiJoseph, M.; Little, A.; Notari, A.; Refaat, T. F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Vanek, M. D.; Bender, J.; Braun, M.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Neal, M.; Rayner, P. J.; Rosiewicz, A.; Shure, M.; Welch, W.

    2012-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) a high bandwidth detector, (2) a multi-aperture telescope assembly, (3) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination, and (4) high-efficiency, multiple-amplifier CO2 and O2 laser transmitters. The instrument architecture will be developed to operate on a high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. These technologies are viewed as critical towards developing an airborne simulator and eventual spaceborne instrument with lower size, mass, and power consumption, and improved performance. The detector effort will improve the existing detector subsystem by increasing its bandwidth to a goal of 5 MHz, reducing its overall mass from 18 lbs to <10 lbs, and stretching the duration of autonomous, service-free operation periods from 4 hrs to >24 hrs. The development goals are to permit higher laser modulation rates, which provides greater flexibility for implementing thin-cloud discrimination algorithms as well as improving range resolution and error reduction, and to enable long flights on a high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The telescope development consists of a three-telescope design built for the constraints of the Global Hawk aircraft. This task addresses the ability of multiple smaller telescopes to provide equal or greater collection efficiency compared with a single larger telescope with a reduced impact on launch mass and cost. The telescope assembly also integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical

  16. ACE2: Angiotensin II/Angiotensin-(1-7) balance in cardiorenal injury

    PubMed Central

    Varagic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Nagata, Sayaka; Ferrario, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Our current recognition of the renin-angiotensin system is more convoluted than originally thought due to the discovery of multiple novel enzymes, peptides, and receptors inherent to this interactive biochemical cascade. Over the last decade angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has emerged as a key player in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease due to its pivotal role in metabolizing vasoconstrictive/hypertrophic/proliferative angiotensin II into favorable angiotensin-(1-7). This review addresses a considerable advancement in research on the role of tissue ACE2 in development and progression of hypertension and cardiorenal injury. We also summarize the results from recent clinical and experimental studies suggesting that serum or urine soluble ACE2 may serve as a novel biomarker or independent risk factor relevant for diagnosis and prognosis of cardiorenal disease. Recent proceedings on novel therapeutic approaches to enhance ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) axis are also reviewed. PMID:24510672

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Jasminum azoricum and Jasminum grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Somanadhan, B; Smitt, U W; George, V; Pushpangadan, P; Rajasekharan, S; Duus, J O; Nyman, U; Olsen, C E; Jaroszewski, J W

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of the aerial parts of Jasminum azoricum var. travancorense, using an in vitro ACE inhibition assay, led to isolation of three oligomeric, iridoid-type compounds, which were named sambacein I-III. Their structures are based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Similarly, fractionation of extracts of aerial parts of J. grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of the previously reported ACE inhibitor, oleacein. The IC50 values of purified ACE inhibitors were 26-36 microM. Moreover, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, isoquercitrin and ursolic acid were isolated from J. grandiflorum. Sambaceins and oleacein are formed from genuine iridoid glucosides during processing of the plant material. NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the level of the ACE inhibitors in the traditional medicines prepared in Kerala from these Jasminum species.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  19. Single and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes on muscle phenotypes in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema; Yvert, Thomas; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    We studied the single and combined influence of the ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on muscle phenotypes (thigh muscles' cross-sectional area assessed with magnetic resonance imaging) and strength (maximal handgrip, 30-s chair stand test), functional ability during activities of daily living (Barthel index) and bone mineral density (proximal femur) in Caucasian (Spanish) community-dwelling old people [n = 81, 59 women; mean age 82.8 ± 4.8 years (range 71-93 years)]. We found no significantly differences in the aforementioned phenotypes across ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (all P > 0.05), except for handgrip in the ACE I/D recessive model (DD 19.5 ± 6.7 kg, ID 24.0 ± 9.1 kg, II 22.1 ± 7.9; P = 0.047), yet statistical significance disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Likewise, the analyses of the combined effects between genotypes did not yield any significant difference (all P > 0.05) between the two 'extreme' genotypes [theoretically 'power or muscularity oriented' [(ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus 'non-power' (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. The aforementioned analyses were adjusted by sex, age and physical activity levels as covariates. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of single or combined effect of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes or genotype combination group (ACE + ACTN3) with sarcopenia (i.e. being in the lowest 25th sex-specific percentile for a combined score of the muscle and functional phenotypes we measured). Though ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are candidates to modulate exercise-related phenotypes in adults, our data suggest that they do not exert a major influence in the muscle phenotypes of old people. More studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

  20. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    seat rollers with modern industrial “cam rollers” (or similar load-rated roll-and-thrust bearing wheel system), and (2) insure that no future ejection...of 1500 lbf. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ACES-II, Ejection, Seat, Cam, Roller, Bearing , Friction, CKU-5, Rocket, Catapult, ROCAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...ACES-II Seat Roller Design, Installation, and Use ................................ 16 Figure 7 – Images of some Typical Cam Rollers and Bearings

  1. Antagonism of angiotensin 1–7 prevents the therapeutic effects of recombinant human ACE2

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaibhav B.; Takawale, Abhijit; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Das, Subhash K.; Basu, Ratnadeep; Grant, Maria B.; Hall, David A.; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin 1–7/Mas receptor (MasR) axis counteracts angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiovascular disease. Recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) generates Ang 1–7 from Ang II. We hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of rhACE2 are dependent on Ang 1–7 action. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice (10–12 weeks old) were infused with Ang II (1.5 mg/kg/d) and treated with rhACE2 (2 mg/kg/d). The Ang 1–7 antagonist, A779 (200 ng/kg/min), was administered to a parallel group of mice. rhACE2 prevented Ang II-induced hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction while A779 prevented these beneficial effects and precipitated systolic dysfunction. rhACE2 effectively antagonized Ang II-mediated myocardial fibrosis which was dependent on the action of Ang 1–7. Myocardial oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity was further increased by Ang 1–7 inhibition even in the presence of rhACE2. Activation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by rhACE2 were suppressed by the antagonism of Ang 1–7 while the activation of pathological signaling pathways was maintained. Blocking Ang 1–7 action prevents the therapeutic effects of rhACE2 in the setting of elevated Ang II culminating in systolic dysfunction. These results highlight a key cardioprotective role of Ang 1–7, and increased Ang 1–7 action represents a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25874965

  2. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling.

  3. A prospective study of frequency and characteristics of cough during ACE inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa; Fukuda, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are reportedly effective, and positively indicated in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased contractility, after myocardial infarction, after cerebrovascular disorders, and in those with chronic kidney disease. However, the biggest challenge to continuous use of ACE inhibitors is the adverse reaction of cough. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated the present state and characteristics of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in patients with essential hypertension currently being treated with an ACE inhibitor for an average of 18 months, who could be regularly checked for cough. Subjects in this study were 176 patients overall (mean age 67 ± 11 years old), 90 men and 86 women. The adverse reaction of cough was observed in 20% of patients, and more frequently in women than in men. However, in 26 of the patients with cough, the cough either resolved naturally or completely disappeared while the treatment continued, after which patients could continue taking the medication. Specifically, ACE inhibitor treatment was eventually discontinued due to cough in 5.1% of patients. Cough occurred less frequently with concomitant calcium antagonists or diuretics than with ACE inhibitor monotherapy. Cough as an adverse reaction occurred at a low frequency when medication was taken at bedtime. We considered a number of measures to counteract cough, then in addition to starting the ACE inhibitor treatment as early as possible, it is important to devise ways for the ACE inhibitor treatment to be continued for as long as possible, through the adept use of these measures.

  4. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  5. ACE-Asia: Asian Aerosol Transport Into Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. F.; Perry, K. D.; Cliff, S. S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M. P.; Cahill, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    Adak Island, one of the southernmost Aleutian Islands, and the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), approximately 30 miles north of Fairbanks, Alaska, both experienced Asian dust transport during the ACE-Asia campaign in March/April 2001. The Asian soil reaching both Adak and PFRR appeared in both the sub-micron (0.07-0.34 and 0.34-1.15 micron) and super-micron (1.15-2.5 micron) stages of the 3-stage DRUM aerosol impactor. This contrasts with the 'typical Arctic haze' event observed at PFRR in which the aerosol is predominantly sub-micron. Although Asian soil and anthropogenic emissions reaching PFRR caused a significant deterioration in local visibility, the models and satellites did not show the dust reaching PFRR. However, back-trajectory modeling does point to Asia as the origin of the aerosol at PFRR. In contrast to PFRR, the soil reaching Adak was predicted by models, visible to satellites, concentrated enough to set off volcanic ash alarms in the Aleutians, and caused 'brown snow' near Valdez, Alaska. In addition to the dust, a suite of typically anthropogenic fine metals were seen during the six week experiment, confirming the back-trajectory indications of an Asian source. The study also provided additional information on the optically important sub-micron component of sea salt aerosols for comparison to similar observations with DRUM technology at the Mace Head Research Facility on the western coast of Ireland.

  6. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  7. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  8. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T.; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A.

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  9. Spatial characteristics of professional tennis serves with implications for serving aces: A machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Reid, Machar

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine the features of an ideal serve in men's professional tennis. A total of 25,680 first serves executed by 151 male tennis players during Australian Open competition were classified as either aces or returned into play. Spatiotemporal (impact location, speed, projection angles, landing location and relative player locations) and contextual (score) features of each serve were extracted from Hawk-Eye data and used to construct a classification tree model (with decision rules) that predicted serve outcome. k-means clustering was applied to the landing locations to quantify optimal landing locations for aces. The classification tree revealed that (1) serve directionality, relative to the returner; (2) the ball's landing proximity to the nearest service box line and (3) serve speed classified aces with an accuracy of 87.02%. Hitting aces appeared more contingent on accuracy than speed, with serves directed >5.88° from the returner and landing <15.27 cm from a service box line most indicative of an ace. k-means clustering revealed four distinct locations (≈0.73 m wide × 2.35 m deep) in the corners of the service box that corresponded to aces. These landing locations provide empirically derived target locations for players to adhere to during practice and competition.

  10. New Perspectives in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) II: Albumin Suppresses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Fagyas, Miklós; Úri, Katalin; Siket, Ivetta M.; Fülöp, Gábor Á.; Csató, Viktória; Daragó, Andrea; Boczán, Judit; Bányai, Emese; Szentkirályi, István Elek; Maros, Tamás Miklós; Szerafin, Tamás; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila

    2014-01-01

    About 8% of the adult population is taking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease including hypertension, myocardial infarction and heart failure. These drugs decrease mortality by up to one-fifth in these patients. We and others have reported previously that endogenous inhibitory substances suppress serum ACE activity, in vivo, similarly to the ACE inhibitor drugs. Here we have made an effort to identify this endogenous ACE inhibitor substance. ACE was crosslinked with interacting proteins in human sera. The crosslinked products were immunoprecipitated and subjected to Western blot. One of the crosslinked products was recognized by both anti-ACE and anti-HSA (human serum albumin) antibodies. Direct ACE-HSA interaction was confirmed by binding assays using purified ACE and HSA. HSA inhibited human purified (circulating) and human recombinant ACE with potencies (IC50) of 5.7±0.7 and 9.5±1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Effects of HSA on the tissue bound native ACE were tested on human saphenous vein samples. Angiotensin I evoked vasoconstriction was inhibited by HSA in this vascular tissue (maximal force with HSA: 6.14±1.34 mN, without HSA: 13.54±2.63 mN), while HSA was without effects on angiotensin II mediated constrictions (maximal force with HSA: 18.73±2.17 mN, without HSA: 19.22±3.50 mN). The main finding of this study is that HSA was identified as a potent physiological inhibitor of the ACE. The enzymatic activity of ACE appears to be almost completely suppressed by HSA when it is present in its physiological concentration. These data suggest that angiotensin I conversion is limited by low physiological ACE activities, in vivo. PMID:24691203

  11. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of ACE2 enzymatic activity. Examination of the subcellular localization of ACE2 revealed that Ang-II treatment leads to ACE2 internalization and degradation into lysosomes. These effects were prevented by both the Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan and the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, in HEK293T cells, which lack endogenous AT1R, Ang-II failed to promote ACE2 internalization. Moreover, this effect could be induced after AT1R transfection. Further, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AT1R and ACE2 form complexes and these interactions were decreased by Ang-II treatment, which also enhanced ACE2 ubiquitination. In contrast, ACE2 activity was not changed by transfection of AT2 or Mas receptors. In vivo, Ang-II-mediated hypertension was blunted by chronic infusion of leupeptin in wildtype C57Bl/6, but not in ACE2 knockout mice. Overall, this is the first demonstration that elevated Ang-II levels reduce ACE2 expression and activity by stimulation of lysosomal degradation through an AT1R-dependent mechanism. PMID:25225202

  12. Identification of new polymorphisms of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and study of their relationship to plasma ACE levels by two-QTL segregation-linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Villard, E.; Tiret, L.; Visvikis, S.; Rakotovao, R.; Cambien, F.; Soubrier, F.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are highly genetically determined. A previous segregation-linkage analysis suggested the existence of a functional mutation located within or close to the ACE locus, in almost complete linkage desequilibrium (LD) with the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and accounting for half the ACE variance. In order to identify the functional variant at the molecular level, we compared ACE gene sequences between four subjects selected for having contrasted ACE levels and I/D genotypes. We identified 10 new polymorphisms, among which 8 were genotyped in 95 healthy nuclear families, in addition to the I/D polymorphism. These polymorphisms could be divided into two groups: five polymorphisms in the 5' region and three in the coding sequence and the 3' UTR. Within each group, polymorphisms were in nearly complete association, whereas polymorphisms from the two groups were in strong negative LD. After adjustment for the I/D polymorphism, all polymorphisms of the 5' group remained significantly associated with ACE levels, which suggests the existence of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting additively on ACE levels. Segregation-linkage analyses including one or two ACE-linked QTLs in LD with two ACE markers were performed to test this hypothesis. The two QTLs and the two markers were assumed to be in complete LD. Results supported the existence of two ACE-linked QTLs, which would explain 38% and 49% of the ACE variance in parents and offspring, respectively. One of these QTLs might be the I/D polymorphism itself or the newly characterized 4656(CT)2/3 polymorphism. The second QTL would have a frequency of approximately .20, which is incompatible with any of the yet-identified polymorphisms. More extensive sequencing and extended analyses in larger samples and in other populations will be necessary to characterize definitely the functional variants. PMID:8651305

  13. Cleavage of arginyl-arginine and lysyl-arginine from the C-terminus of pro-hormone peptides by human germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and the C-domain of human somatic ACE.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R E; Williams, T A; Sajid, M; Corvol, P; Coates, D

    1997-01-01

    Mammalian germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme (gACE) is a single-domain dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase found exclusively in male germ cells, which has almost identical sequence and enzymic properties with the C-domain of the two-domain somatic ACE. Mutant mice that do not express gACE are infertile, suggesting a role for the enzyme in the processing of undefined peptides involved in fertilization. A number of spermatid peptides [e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin] are processed from pro-hormones by endo- and exo-proteolytic cleavages which might generate substrates for gACE. We have shown that peptide hormone intermediates with Lys/Arg-Arg at the C-terminus are high-affinity substrates for human gACE. gACE from human sperm cleaved Arg-Arg from the C-terminus of the CCK5-GRR (GWMDFGRR), a peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of a CCK-gastrin prohormone intermediate. Hydrolysis of CCK5-GRR by recombinant human C-domain ACE was Cl- dependent, with maximal activity achieved in 5-10 mM NaCl at pH 6.4. C-Domain ACE cleaved Lys/Arg-Arg from the C-terminus of dynorphin-(1-7), a pro-TRH peptide KRQHPGKR, and two insect peptides FSPRLGKR and FSPRLGRR. C-Domain ACE displayed high affinity towards all these substrates with Vmax/Km values between 14 and 113 times greater than the Vmax/Km for the conversion of the best known ACE substrate, angiotensin I, into angiotensin II. In conclusion, we have identified a new class of substrates for human gACE, and we suggest that gACE might be an alternative to carboxypeptidase E for the trimming of basic dipeptides from the C-terminus of intermediates generated from pro-hormones by subtilisin-like convertases in human male germ cells. PMID:9371719

  14. A Solar Electron Burst Spanning a Stream Interface: ACE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; McComas, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Where coronal hole fast wind runs into slow wind ahead, a compression region forms. The boundary between the compressed slow and fast wind is referred to as the stream interface (SI). Ideally, if the coronal source regions of slow and fast wind are distinct and stationary, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) foot point locations are fixed, the SI is a discontinuous plasma boundary for both solar wind ions and 100eV-1keV suprathermal electrons which stream out from the sun through the ions along the IMF. In the ideal case, IMF lines do not cross the SI. However, field line crossing of the SI may result from IMF foot point motion during the time required for solar wind ions to travel from the sun to 1 AU. On January 29, 2005 ACE encountered a stream interface within a CIR at the leading edge of a coronal hole fast stream. A solar electron burst was observed from 11-15 UT at 0.5-1.3 keV energies. The burst was observed across the SI, indicating magnetic connection to the electron burst source region on both sides of the SI. This could indicate that the electron burst source region spanned a coronal hole boundary. A more likely alternative is that field lines on opposite sides of the SI at 1 AU were no longer connected to different sides of a coronal hole boundary. Instead, footpoint motion occurred during solar wind ion transit to 1 AU, so that field lines on both sides of the SI were connected to a single coronal electron burst source region.

  15. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  16. A sex-linked Ace gene, not linked to insensitive acetylcholinesterase-mediated insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C A; Bourguet, D; Ascolillo, A; Rooker, S J; Garvey, C F; Hall, L M; Pasteur, N; Raymond, M

    1998-05-01

    An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, Ace.x, showing 93% identity of deduced amino acid sequence to Anopheles stephensi Ace has been cloned from a Culex pipiens strain homozygous for insensitive AChE (iAChE) mediated insecticide resistance. DNA sequence of genomic DNA clones identified exons 2-5. RFLP of six clones indicated four possible alleles. Linkage analysis located Ace.x to chromosome I, less than 0.8 centimorgans from the sex locus, whereas the locus conferring resistance was 2.0 centimorgans from plum-eye on chromosome II. Ace.1 coding for AChE1, which is associated with resistance, is therefore autosomal. We propose that Ace.x is the recently postulated Ace.2 coding for the biochemically distinct AChE2, which is not associated with resistance.

  17. Occurrence and fate of ACE-inhibitor peptides in cheeses and in their digestates following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Masotti, Fabio; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of the casein-derived angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) peptides VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP and HLPLP were investigated in 12 different cheese samples by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. The total amount of ACE-I peptides was in the range 0.87-331mgkg(-1). VPP and IPP largely prevailed in almost all cheeses. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion of Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Maasdam and Grana Padano cheeses, type and amount of ACE-I peptides changed, and only VPP, IPP, HLPLP and LHLPLP were detected in the intestinal digestates. The results evidenced that the degree of proteolysis itself cannot be regarded as a promoting or hindering factor for ACE-I peptide release during cheese digestion. Moreover, the data indicated that the ACE-I potential of cheeses cannot be inferred based on the type and amount of ACE-I peptides present in undigested samples.

  18. Molecular and Thermodynamic Mechanisms of the Chloride-dependent Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme (ACE)*

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christopher J.; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Akif, Mohd; Sturrock, Edward D.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE), a key regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis, cleaves the vasoactive angiotensin-I, bradykinin, and a number of other physiologically relevant peptides. sACE consists of two homologous and catalytically active N- and C-domains, which display marked differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. A series of single substitution mutants were generated and evaluated under varying chloride concentrations using isothermal titration calorimetry. The x-ray crystal structures of the mutants provided details on the chloride-dependent interactions with ACE. Chloride binding in the chloride 1 pocket of C-domain ACE was found to affect positioning of residues from the active site. Analysis of the chloride 2 pocket R522Q and R522K mutations revealed the key interactions with the catalytic site that are stabilized via chloride coordination of Arg522. Substrate interactions in the S2 subsite were shown to affect chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket. The Glu403-Lys118 salt bridge in C-domain ACE was shown to stabilize the hinge-bending region and reduce chloride affinity by constraining the chloride 2 pocket. This work demonstrated that substrate composition to the C-terminal side of the scissile bond as well as interactions of larger substrates in the S2 subsite moderate chloride affinity in the chloride 2 pocket of the ACE C-domain, providing a rationale for the substrate-selective nature of chloride dependence in ACE and how this varies between the N- and C-domains. PMID:24297181

  19. A phase 1 study of ACE-536, a regulator of erythroid differentiation, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Attie, Kenneth M; Allison, Mark J; McClure, Ty; Boyd, Ingrid E; Wilson, Dawn M; Pearsall, Amelia E; Sherman, Matthew L

    2014-07-01

    ACE-536, a recombinant protein containing a modified activin receptor type IIB, is being developed for the treatment of anemias caused by ineffective erythropoiesis, such as thalassemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. ACE-536 acts through a mechanism distinct from erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to promote late-stage erythroid differentiation by binding to transforming growth factor-β superfamily ligands and inhibiting signaling through transcription factors Smad 2/3. The goal of this Phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of ascending dose levels of ACE-536 in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two postmenopausal women were randomized in sequential cohorts of eight subjects each to receive up to two doses of either ACE-536 (0.0625-0.25 mg/kg) or placebo (3:1 randomization) given subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Mean baseline age was 59.4 years, and hemoglobin was 13.2 g/dL. ACE-536 was well tolerated at dose levels up to 0.25 mg/kg over the 1-month treatment period. There were no serious or severe adverse events, nor clinically meaningful changes in safety laboratory measures or vital signs. Mean ACE-536 AUC0-14d and Cmax increased proportionally after first dose; mean t½ was 15-16 days. Dose-dependent increases in hemoglobin concentration were observed, beginning 7 days after initiation of treatment and maintained for several weeks following treatment. The proportion of subjects with a hemoglobin increase ≥1.0 g/dL increased in a dose-dependent manner to 83.3% of subjects in the highest dose group, 0.25 mg/kg. ACE-536 was well tolerated and resulted in sustained increases in hemoglobin levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

  20. The sweeter side of ACE2: physiological evidence for a role in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bindom, Sharell M; Lazartigues, Eric

    2009-04-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Both clinical trials and animal models of type I and type II diabetes have shown that hyperactivity of angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling pathways contribute to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications. Of clinical relevance, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system prevents new-onset diabetes and reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a recently discovered mono-carboxypeptidase and the first homolog of ACE. It is thought to inhibit Ang-II signaling cascades mostly by cleaving Ang-II to generate Ang-(1-7), which effects oppose Ang-II and are mediated by the Mas receptor. The enzyme is present in the kidney, liver, adipose tissue and pancreas. Its expression is elevated in the endocrine pancreas in diabetes and in the early phase during diabetic nephropathy. ACE2 is hypothesized to act in a compensatory manner in both diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have shown the presence of the Mas receptor in the mouse pancreas and observed a reduction in Mas receptor immuno-reactivity as well as higher fasting blood glucose levels in ACE2 knockout mice, indicating that these mice may be a new model to study the role of ACE2 in diabetes. In this review we will examine the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the physiopathology and treatment of diabetes and highlight the potential benefits of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, focusing on recent data about ACE2.

  1. Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in diabetic cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in severe cardiovascular complications, and heart disease and failure remain the major causes of death in patients with diabetes. Given the increasing global tide of obesity and diabetes, the clinical burden of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease is reaching epidemic proportions. Therefore urgent actions are needed to stem the tide of diabetes which entails new prevention and treatment tools. Clinical and pharmacological studies have demonstrated that AngII (angiotensin II), the major effector peptide of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system), is a critical promoter of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The role of RAS and AngII has been implicated in the progression of diabetic cardiovascular complications and AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) blockers and ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors have shown clinical benefits. ACE2, the recently discovered homologue of ACE, is a monocarboxypeptidase which converts AngII into Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] which, by virtue of its actions on the MasR (Mas receptor), opposes the effects of AngII. In animal models of diabetes, an early increase in ACE2 expression and activity occurs, whereas ACE2 mRNA and protein levels have been found to decrease in older STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetic rats. Using the Akita mouse model of Type 1 diabetes, we have recently shown that loss of ACE2 disrupts the balance of the RAS in a diabetic state and leads to AngII/AT1R-dependent systolic dysfunction and impaired vascular function. In the present review, we will discuss the role of the RAS in the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes and its complications with particular emphasis on potential benefits of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis activation.

  2. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration.

  3. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration. PMID:28066203

  4. ACE2 Deficiency Worsens Epicardial Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiac Dysfunction in Response to Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaibhav B.; Mori, Jun; McLean, Brent A.; Basu, Ratnadeep; Das, Subhash K.; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Parajuli, Nirmal; Penninger, Josef M.; Grant, Maria B.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. We studied the role of ACE2 in obesity-mediated cardiac dysfunction. ACE2 null (ACE2KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet and studied at 6 months of age. Loss of ACE2 resulted in decreased weight gain but increased glucose intolerance, epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) inflammation, and polarization of macrophages into a proinflammatory phenotype in response to HFD. Similarly, human EAT in patients with obesity and heart failure displayed a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. Exacerbated EAT inflammation in ACE2KO-HFD mice was associated with decreased myocardial adiponectin, decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, increased cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, and myocardial insulin resistance, which worsened heart function. Ang 1-7 (24 µg/kg/h) administered to ACE2KO-HFD mice resulted in ameliorated EAT inflammation and reduced cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity, resulting in normalization of heart failure. In conclusion, ACE2 plays a novel role in heart disease associated with obesity wherein ACE2 negatively regulates obesity-induced EAT inflammation and cardiac insulin resistance. PMID:26224885

  5. Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Wang, Y; Sun, K; Zhang, W; Yang, X; Wang, S; Zhen, Y; Wang, J; Li, W; Han, Y; Liu, T; Wang, X; Chen, J; Wu, H; Hui, R

    2007-08-01

    ACE2 appears to counterbalance the vasopressor effect of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in the reninangiotensin system. We hypothesized that ACE2 polymorphisms could confer a high risk of hypertension and have an impact on the antihypertensive response to ACE inhibitors. The hypothesis was tested in two casecontrol studies and a clinical trial of 3,408 untreated hypertensive patients randomized to Atenolol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Captopril, or Nifedipine treatments for 4 weeks. ACE2 rs2106809 T allele was found to confer a 1.6-fold risk for hypertension in women (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.132.06), whereas when combined with the effect of the ACE DD genotype, the risk was 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.754.85) in two independent samples. The adjusted diastolic blood pressure response to Captopril was 3.3 mm Hg lower in ACE2 T allele carriers than in CC genotype carriers (P=0.019) in women. We conclude that the ACE2 T allele confers a high risk for hypertension and reduced antihypertensive response to ACE inhibitors.

  6. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  7. ACE2 links amino acid malnutrition to microbial ecology and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tatsuo; Perlot, Thomas; Rehman, Ateequr; Trichereau, Jean; Ishiguro, Hiroaki; Paolino, Magdalena; Sigl, Verena; Hanada, Toshikatsu; Hanada, Reiko; Lipinski, Simone; Wild, Birgit; Camargo, Simone M R; Singer, Dustin; Richter, Andreas; Kuba, Keiji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Schreiber, Stefan; Clevers, Hans; Verrey, Francois; Rosenstiel, Philip; Penninger, Josef M

    2012-07-25

    Malnutrition affects up to one billion people in the world and is a major cause of mortality. In many cases, malnutrition is associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation, further contributing to morbidity and death. The mechanisms by which unbalanced dietary nutrients affect intestinal homeostasis are largely unknown. Here we report that deficiency in murine angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2 (Ace2), which encodes a key regulatory enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), results in highly increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation induced by epithelial damage. The RAS is known to be involved in acute lung failure, cardiovascular functions and SARS infections. Mechanistically, ACE2 has a RAS-independent function, regulating intestinal amino acid homeostasis, expression of antimicrobial peptides, and the ecology of the gut microbiome. Transplantation of the altered microbiota from Ace2 mutant mice into germ-free wild-type hosts was able to transmit the increased propensity to develop severe colitis. ACE2-dependent changes in epithelial immunity and the gut microbiota can be directly regulated by the dietary amino acid tryptophan. Our results identify ACE2 as a key regulator of dietary amino acid homeostasis, innate immunity, gut microbial ecology, and transmissible susceptibility to colitis. These results provide a molecular explanation for how amino acid malnutrition can cause intestinal inflammation and diarrhoea.

  8. Determination of association constants between steroid compounds and albumins by partial-filling ACE.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Lotta K; Sirén, Heli

    2007-10-01

    ACE is a popular technique for evaluating association constants between drugs and proteins. However, ACE has not previously been applied to study the association between electrically neutral biomolecules and plasma proteins. We studied the affinity between human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and three neutral endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione) and two synthetic analogues (methyltestosterone and fluoxymesterone) by applying the partial-filling technique in ACE (PF-ACE). From the endocrinological point of view, the distribution of endogenous steroids among plasma components is of great interest. Strong interactions with albumins suppress the biological activity of steroids. Notable differences in the association constants were observed. In the case of the endogenous steroids, the interactions between testosterone and the albumins were strongest, and those between androstenedione and the albumins were substantially weaker. The association constants, K(b), for testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione and HSA at 37 degrees C were 32 100 +/- 3600, 21 600 +/- 1500 and 13 300 +/- 1300 M(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for the steroids and BSA were 18 800 +/- 1500, 14 000 +/- 400 and 7800 +/- 900 M(-1). Methyltestosterone was bound even more strongly than testosterone, while fluoxymesterone was only weakly bound by the albumins. Finally, the steroids were separated by PF-ACE with HSA and BSA used as resolving components.

  9. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  10. Individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genes on muscle phenotypes in Polish athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Gajewski, Jan; Szczepanska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk). The ID polymorphism of ACE and the R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 were typed using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism), respectively. The genotype distribution of the ACE and ACTN3 genes did not differ significantly between groups of athletes for either sex. There was no association between ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (alone or in combination) and sum of muscle strength, height of jump or mechanical power in both jump tests (CMJ and SPJ) for male and female athletes. These findings do not support an influential role of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in determining power/strength performance of elite athletes.

  11. Role of Serratia marcescens ACE2 on diesel degradation and its influence on corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Babu, Thambidurai Ganesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Thevar Karutha; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-09-01

    A facultative anaerobic species Serratia marcescens ACE2 isolated from the corrosion products of diesel transporting pipeline in North West, India was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The role of Serratia marcesens ACE2 on biodegradation of diesel and its influence on the corrosion of API 5LX steel has been elucidated. The degrading strain ACE2 is involved in the process of corrosion of steel API 5LX and also utilizes the diesel as an organic source. The quantitative biodegradation efficiency (BE) of diesel was 58%, calculated by gas-chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. On the basis of gas-chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the involvement of Serratia marcescens on degradation and corrosion has been investigated. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for detection, monitoring and control of microbial corrosion.

  12. Distribution of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Iranian populations

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE; OMIM: 106180) has an important role in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin. Genetic polymorphism I/D (rs4646994) in the gene encoding ACE has been well defined. To get more insight into the genetic structure of Iranian populations, the distribution of the ACE I/D polymorphism among Iranians was compared with each other and with other populations. Prevalence of the D allele was 0.5886 (95% CI: 0.5725-0.6047) in Iran. There was significant difference between Iranian populations (x2=27.7, df=6, P<0.001). The major part of this difference was due to difference between Zahedan study and the other populations, as by removing this population, the heterogeneity between populations, remarkably decreased (x2=10.15, df=5, P=0.071). The D allele showed high frequency in Iran which is similar to Caucasians. PMID:27843997

  13. Serum ACE Level in Sarcoidosis Patients with Typical and Atypical HRCT Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Kahkouee, Shahram; Samadi, Katayoon; Alai, Ali; Abedini, Atefeh; Rezaiian, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs. Before widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the severity of sarcoidosis was assessed based on chest X-ray abnormalities. HRCT can distinguish between active inflammatory changes and irreversible fibrosis. In this study, we analyzed different ACE levels in 148 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Material/Methods We categorized these patients based on their HRCT results into four groups: 1) patients diagnosed with chronic disease; 2) patients diagnosed with non-chronic disease; 3) patients who exhibited typical HRCT changes; and 4) patients who exhibited atypical HRCT changes. Afterward the mean ACE level of each group was calculated and compared. Result The HRCT scans of chronic sarcoidosis patients tended to show more atypical sarcoidosis patterns. Moreover, there was a reverse correlation between chronicity and ACE level (P-value <0.05). Conclusions HRCT is another modality which would be useful when the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is not definite. PMID:27733890

  14. Translating the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study into public policy: progress and possibility in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Kagi, Ruth; Regala, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    On June 15, 2011, Washington became the first state in the United States to enact legislation aimed at preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACE), reducing their prevalence, and mitigating their effects. House Bill 1965 (HB 1965) was established on the understanding among legislators and Washington communities of the need for policies aimed at preventing child abuse, promoting healthy development of children, and building community capacity to improve public health. Empirical examples of integrating ACE-related research with public policy and programmatic design are chronicled. The legislators who developed HB 1965 lay out questions that, if answered, would further improve policymakers' ability to craft public policy and programs that prevent ACE, reduce their effects, and promote a healthier, safer future.

  15. High incidence of ace-1 duplicated haplotypes in resistant Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoues; Labbé, Pierrick; Pasteur, Nicole; Weill, Mylène

    2011-01-01

    The status of genes conferring resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides has been examined in Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes sampled in Algeria. Presence of overproduced esterases was sporadic, but acetylcholinesterase-1 resistant alleles were observed in almost all samples. We focused our study on the AChE1 G119S substitution characterized in almost all samples, mostly at the heterozygous state. A genetic test revealed the presence of ace-1 duplication associating a susceptible and a resistant ace-1 copy. Molecular characterization showed a high occurrence of ace-1 duplication with six distinct duplicated alleles out of four samples. The inferred frequency of duplicated allele suggests that it is replacing the single resistant G119S allele. Finally, we discuss the mechanism at the origin of these duplicated haplotypes and their consequences on the management of insecticide resistance.

  16. PAPR reduction in FBMC using an ACE-based linear programming optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Neut, Nuan; Maharaj, Bodhaswar TJ; de Lange, Frederick; González, Gustavo J.; Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents four novel techniques for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation systems. The approach extends on current PAPR reduction active constellation extension (ACE) methods, as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), to an FBMC implementation as the main contribution. The four techniques introduced can be split up into two: linear programming optimization ACE-based techniques and smart gradient-project (SGP) ACE techniques. The linear programming (LP)-based techniques compensate for the symbol overlaps by utilizing a frame-based approach and provide a theoretical upper bound on achievable performance for the overlapping ACE techniques. The overlapping ACE techniques on the other hand can handle symbol by symbol processing. Furthermore, as a result of FBMC properties, the proposed techniques do not require side information transmission. The PAPR performance of the techniques is shown to match, or in some cases improve, on current PAPR techniques for FBMC. Initial analysis of the computational complexity of the SGP techniques indicates that the complexity issues with PAPR reduction in FBMC implementations can be addressed. The out-of-band interference introduced by the techniques is investigated. As a result, it is shown that the interference can be compensated for, whilst still maintaining decent PAPR performance. Additional results are also provided by means of a study of the PAPR reduction of the proposed techniques at a fixed clipping probability. The bit error rate (BER) degradation is investigated to ensure that the trade-off in terms of BER degradation is not too severe. As illustrated by exhaustive simulations, the SGP ACE-based technique proposed are ideal candidates for practical implementation in systems employing the low-complexity polyphase implementation of FBMC modulators. The methods are shown to offer significant PAPR reduction and increase the feasibility of FBMC as

  17. ACE and response to pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD: two observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Samantha S C; Jolley, Caroline J; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Montgomery, Hugh E; Skipworth, James R A; Puthucheary, Zudin; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Skeletal muscle impairment is an important feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Renin–angiotensin system activity influences muscle phenotype, so we wished to investigate whether it affects the response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods Two studies are described; in the first, the response of 168 COPD patients (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 51.9% predicted) to pulmonary rehabilitation was compared between different ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism genotypes. In a second, independent COPD cohort (n=373), baseline characteristics and response to pulmonary rehabilitation were compared between COPD patients who were or were not taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARB). Results In study 1, the incremental shuttle walk distance improved to a similar extent in all three genotypes; DD/ID/II (n=48/91/29) 69(67)m, 61 (76)m and 78 (78)m, respectively, (p>0.05). In study 2, fat free mass index was higher in those on ACE-I/ARB (n=130) than those who were not (n=243), 17.8 (16.0, 19.8) kg m−2 vs 16.5 (14.9, 18.4) kg/m2 (p<0.001). However change in fat free mass, walking distance or quality of life in response to pulmonary rehabilitation did not differ between groups. Conclusions While these data support a positive association of ACE-I/ARB treatment and body composition in COPD, neither treatment to reduce ACE activity nor ACE (I/D) genotype influence response to pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:28321311

  18. Diminazene aceturate enhances ACE2 activity and attenuates ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Qi, YanFei; Zhang, Juan; Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Shenoy, Vinayak; Espejo, Andrew; Hanna, Mina; Song, Chunjuan; Pepine, Carl J; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a critical role against myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that activation of intrinsic ACE2 would be protective against ischemia-induced cardiac pathophysiology. Diminazine aceturate (DIZE), a small molecule ACE2 activator has been used to evaluate this hypothesis. DIZE (15 mg/kg/day, s.c.) was injected two days prior to MI surgery and continued throughout the study-period. MI rats showed a 62% decrease in fractional shortening (FS,%) [control (Con): 51.1 ± 3.2; DIZE alone (D) : 52.1 ± 3.2; MI (M): 19.1± 3.0], a 55% decrease in contractility (dP/dtmax mmHg/s) (Con: 9480 ± 425.3; D: 9585 ± 597.4; M: 4251 ± 657.7), and a 27% increase in ventricular hypertrophy [VH, mg/mm (Con: 26.5 ± 1.5; D: 26.9 ± 1.4; M: 33.4± 1.1)]. DIZE attenuated the MI-induced decrease in FS by 89%, improved dP/dtmax by 92%, and reversed VH by 18%. MI also significantly increased ACE and angiotensin type 1 receptor levels while decreased ACE2 activity by 40% (Con: 246.2 ± 25.1; D: 254.2 ± 20.6; M: 148.9 ± 29.2, RFU/min), which was reversed by DIZE treatment. Thus, DIZE treatment decreased the infarct area, attenuated LV remodeling post-MI and restored normal balance of the cardiac renin angiotensin system. Additionally, DIZE treatment increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells, increased engraftment of cardiac progenitor cells and decreased inflammatory cells in peri-infarct cardiac regions. All of the beneficial effects associated with DIZE treatment were abolished by C-16, an ACE2 inhibitor. Collectively, DIZE and DIZE-like small molecules may represent promising new therapeutic agents for MI. PMID:23959549

  19. Brain-targeted ACE2 overexpression attenuates neurogenic hypertension by inhibiting COX mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Xia, Huijing; Xu, Ping; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Overactivity of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We previously reported that Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpression in the brain attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, a neurogenic hypertension model with enhanced brain RAS and sympathetic activity. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we investigated whether oxidative stress, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation in the brain are modulated by ACE2 in neurogenic hypertension. DOCA-salt hypertension significantly increased expression of Nox-2 (+61 ±5 %), Nox-4 (+50 ±13 %) and nitrotyrosine (+89 ±32 %) and reduced activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (−29 ±4 %) and SOD (−31 ±7 %), indicating increased oxidative stress in the brain of non-transgenic mice. This increased oxidative stress was attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing ACE2 in the brain. DOCA-salt-induced reduction of nNOS expression (−26 ±7 %) and phosphorylated eNOS/total eNOS (−30 ±3 %), and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), were reversed by ACE2 overexpression. In addition, ACE2 overexpression blunted the hypertension-mediated increase in gene and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN. Furthermore, gene silencing of either COX-1 or COX-2 in the brain, reduced microglial activation and accompanied neuro-inflammation, ultimately attenuating DOCA-salt hypertension. Together, these data provide evidence that brain ACE2 overexpression reduces oxidative stress and COX-mediated neuro-inflammation, improves anti-oxidant and nitric oxide signaling, and thereby attenuates the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25489058

  20. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  1. Megastigmane glycosides from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver with ACE inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian-Kun; Ding, Li-Qin; Shi, Xu-Liu; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Four new megastigmane glycosides, eucomegastigsides A-D (2, 3, 5 and 7), together with three known megastigmane glycosides, (6R, 7E, 9R)-9-hydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(l→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), foliasalacioside B1 (4) and eleganoside A (6), were isolated from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. Their anti-hypertensive effect was investigated in vitro based on the inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) using HPLC. The results showed that the isolates (2, 3, 4, 5, 7) had moderate inhibitory effects on ACE in vitro compared with captopril.

  2. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  3. Satellite remote sensing and spectroscopy: Joint ACE-Odin meeting, October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) and Odin satellite teams had a joint meeting in October, 2015 and it was decided to publish some of the papers presented as a special issue of this journal (JQSRT). ACE and Odin measure atmospheric composition by remote sensing from low Earth orbit. This Special Issue also includes papers about other space instruments and related ground-based observations. Remote sensing of the atmosphere relies entirely on spectroscopy so many of the papers report on spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric molecules and computer programs used for spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Nh and CH in the Ace Satellite Solar Spectrumtitle of your Abstract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Ram, R. S.; Colin, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission has a high resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in low earth orbit. The primary ACE mission goal is the study ozone chemistry in the stratosphere although it is making a wide range of other measurements, for example, of organic molecules in the troposphere. In the normal operating mode, the ACE-FTS measures a sequence of atmospheric absorption spectra during sunrise and sunset (``solar occultation''). As part of the measurement sequence about 16 high sun exoatmospheric spectra are recorded for each occultation to serve as reference spectra. We have co-added 224782 pure solar spectra to produce the ACE solar atlas in the 750--4400 cm-1 spectral region [Hase et al., JQSRT 111, 521 (2010), see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/solaratlas.html]. The ACE solar spectrum displays prominent vibration-rotation bands of CO, OH, NH and CH, and pure rotational lines of OH and NH. An improved spectroscopic analysis for OH has already been published [Bernath and Colin, JMS 257, 20 (2009)] and we now report on similar work for NH and CH. The vibration-rotation spectra of NH have been reinvestigated using laboratory spectra and infrared solar spectra recorded from orbit by the ACE and ATMOS instruments. In addition to identifying the previously unobserved 6-5 vibration-rotation band in the laboratory spectra, many additional high N rotational lines have been observed. By combining the new observations with the previously published data and recent far infrared data, an improved set of molecular constants and term values have been derived for the NH X^3Σ^- and A^3Π states. Vibration-rotation spectra of the CH X^2Π ground state have also been re-analyzed based on laboratory spectra, the ACE solar spectrum and published data. The previously unobserved 5-4 band has been measured and the other four bands (1-0 to 4-3) have been extended to higher J values. TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT

  5. An association analysis of Alzheimer disease candidate genes detects an ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnny; Haines, Jonathan L.; Martin, Eden; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions. AD etiology has been studied by many groups, but since the discovery of the APOE ε4 allele, no further genes have been mapped conclusively to the late-onset form of the disease. In this study, we examined genetic association with late-onset Alzheimer’s susceptibility in 738 Caucasian families with 4704 individuals and an independent case-control dataset with 296 unrelated cases and 566 unrelated controls exploring 11 candidate genes with 47 SNPs common to both samples. In addition to tests for main effects and haplotype analyses, the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was used to search for single-locus effects as well as 2-locus and 3-locus gene-gene interactions associated with AD in the family data. We observed significant haplotype effects in ACE in both family and case-control samples using standard and cladistic haplotype models. ACE was also part of significant 2-locus and 3-locus MDR-PDT joint effects models with Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M), which mediates the clearance of Aβ, and Leucine-Rich Repeat Transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3), a nested gene in Alpha-3 Catenin (CTNNA3) which binds Presenilin 1. This result did not replicate in the case-control sample, and may not be a true positive. These genes are related to amyloid beta clearance; thus this constellation of effects might constitute an axis of susceptibility for late-onset AD. The consistent ACE haplotype result between independent data sets of families and unrelated cases and controls is strong evidence in favor of ACE as a susceptibility locus for AD, and replicates results from several other studies in a very large sample. PMID:19105203

  6. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  7. T-lymphocyte induction of human monocyte angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is not dependent upon T-lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk-Pavlovic, Z.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-03-05

    Human peripheral blood monocytes cultured in serum free media for seven days show a basal activity of the ectoenzyme ACE which is augmented 2-3 times by the presence of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Since these two cell types are also involved in autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction if serum is present, the authors compared the ability of T-cells to stimulate ACE activity in the presence or absence of proliferation (measured by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation). By the seventh day, cultures with 5% AB/sup +/ serum showed significant increase in proliferation but no increase in ACE activity compared to the serum free cultures. Even higher proliferation rate achieved by co-culturing T-lymphocytes with allogeneic monocytes did not increase ACE production; on the contrary, ACE activity remained at the basal level. Monocyte-T-cell co-cultures stimulated with increasing concentrations of ConA or PHA showed dose dependent increases in proliferation but parallel decreases in ACE activity. Addition of soluble antigen (Candida albicans) also enhanced proliferation but not ACE synthesis. They conclude that T-lymphocyte induction of monocyte ACE is a result of cooperation between autologous cells which is not dependent upon T-cell proliferation.

  8. Validating the ACE Model for Evaluating Student Performance Using a Teaching-Learning Process Based on Computational Modeling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louzada, Alexandre Neves; Elia, Marcos da Fonseca; Sampaio, Fábio Ferrentini; Vidal, Andre Luiz Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to adapt and test, in a Brazilian public school, the ACE model proposed by Borkulo for evaluating student performance as a teaching-learning process based on computational modeling systems. The ACE model is based on different types of reasoning involving three dimensions. In addition to adapting the model and introducing…

  9. Comparison of speech perception benefits with SPEAK and ACE coding strategies in pediatric Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pasanisi, Enrico; Bacciu, Andrea; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Guida, Maurizio; Berghenti, Maria Teresa; Barbot, Anna; Panu, Francesco; Bacciu, Salvatore

    2002-06-17

    Nine congenitally deaf children who received a Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant and who were fitted with the SPrint speech processor participated in this study. All subjects were initially programmed with the SPEAK coding strategy and then converted to the ACE strategy. Speech perception was evaluated before and after conversion to the new coding strategy using word and Common Phrase speech recognition tests in both the presence and absence of noise. In quiet conditions, the mean percent correct scores for words were 68.8% with SPEAK and 91% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 66.6% with SPEAK and 85.5% with ACE. In the presence of noise (at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio), the mean percent correct scores for words were 43.3% with SPEAK compared to 84.4% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 41.1% with SPEAK and 82.2% with ACE. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in open-set speech recognition with ACE compared to SPEAK. Preliminary data suggest that converting children from SPEAK to the ACE strategy improves their performance. Subjects showed significant improvements for open-set word and sentence recognition in quiet as well as in noise when ACE was used in comparison with SPEAK. The greatest improvements were obtained when tests were presented in the presence of noise.

  10. Adverse cardiac effects of exogenous angiotensin 1-7 in rats with subtotal nephrectomy are prevented by ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Karen; Patel, Sheila K.

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang) 1–7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) to Ang 1–7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1–7 on the heart in experimental kidney failure. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (STNx) and were treated with vehicle, the ACEi ramipril (oral 1mg/kg/day), Ang 1–7 (subcutaneous 24 μg/kg/h) or dual therapy (all groups, n = 12). A control group (n = 10) of sham-operated rats were also studied. STNx led to hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and increased both left ventricular ACE2 activity and ACE binding. STNx was not associated with changes in plasma levels of ACE, ACE2 or angiotensin peptides. Ramipril reduced blood pressure, improved cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and inhibited cardiac ACE. Ang 1–7 infusion increased blood pressure, cardiac interstitial fibrosis and cardiac ACE binding compared to untreated STNx rats. Although in STNx rats, the addition of ACEi to Ang 1–7 prevented any deleterious cardiac effects of Ang 1–7, a limitation of the study is that the large increase in plasma Ang 1–7 with ramipril may have masked any effect of infused Ang 1–7. PMID:28192475

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of the gene encoding the transcription factor Ace1 in the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Rubén; Canessa, Paulo; Rivas, Alexis; Larrondo, Luis F; Lobos, Sergio; Vicuña, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this report we describe the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding the transcription factor Ace1 (Activation protein of cup 1 Expression) in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Pc-ace1 encodes a predicted protein of 633 amino acids containing the copper-fist DNA binding domain typically found in fungal transcription factors such as Ace1, Mac1 and Haa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Pc-ace1 gene is localized in Scaffold 5, between coordinates 220841 and 222983. A S. cerevisiae ace1 null mutant strain unable to grow in high-copper medium was fully complemented by transformation with the cDNA of Pc-ace1. Moreover, Northern blot hybridization studies indicated that Pc-ace1 cDNA restores copper inducibility of the yeast cup 1 gene, which encodes the metal-binding protein metallothionein implicated in copper resistance. To our knowledge, this is first report describing an Ace1 transcription factor in basidiomycetes.

  12. A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gong, Wan; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-12-11

    A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.

  13. Academic Success of Montgomery College Students in the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) Program: 2014-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth; Wolanin, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability in Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success (ACES) program. The ACES program is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC) and the Universities at Shady Grove to create a seamless pathway from high school to college…

  14. Long Term Missions at the Sun-Earth Libration Point L1: ACE, SOHO, and WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig E.

    2011-01-01

    Three heliophysics missions -- the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Global Geoscience WIND -- have been orbiting the Sun-Earth interior libration point L1 continuously since 1997, 1996, and 2004, respectively. ACE and WIND (both NASA missions) and SOHO (an ESA-NASA joint mission) are all operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). While ACE and SOHO have been dedicated libration point orbiters since their launches, WIND has had also a remarkable 10-year career flying a deep-space, multiple lunar-flyby trajectory prior to 2004. That era featured 36 targeted lunar flybys with excursions to both L1 and L2 before its final insertion in L1 orbit. A figure depicts the orbits of the three spacecraft, showing projections of the orbits onto the orthographic planes of a solar rotating ecliptic frame of reference. The SOHO orbit is a quasi-periodic halo orbit, where the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are practically equal. Such an orbit is seen to repeat itself with a period of approximately 178 days. For ACE and WIND, the frequencies of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are unequal, giving rise to the characteristic Lissajous motion. ACE's orbit is of moderately small amplitude, whereas WIND's orbit is a large-amplitude Lissajous of dimensions close to those of the SOHO halo orbit. As motion about the collinear points is inherently unstable, stationkeeping maneuvers are necessary to prevent orbital decay and eventual escape from the L1 region. Though the three spacecraft are dissimilar (SOHO is a 3-axis stabilized Sun pointer, WIND is a spin-stabilized ecliptic pole pointer, and ACE is also spin-stabilized with its spin axis maintained between 4 and 20 degrees of the Sun), the stationkeeping technique for the three is fundamentally the same. The technique consists of correcting the energy of the orbit via a delta-V directed parallel or anti-parallel to the Spacecraft-to-Sun line. SOHO

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of novel triazoles and mannich bases functionalized 1,4-dihydropyridine as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Ravindra M; Kosurkar, Umesh B; Bagul, Pankaj K; Kanwal, Abhinav; Appalanaidu, K; Dadmal, Tulshiram L; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate embedded triazole and mannich bases were synthesized, and evaluated for their angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Screening of above synthesized compounds for ACE inhibition showed that triazoles functionalized compounds have better ACE inhibitory activity compared to that of mannich bases analogues. Among all triazoles we found 6 h, 6 i and 6 j to have good ACE inhibition activity with IC50 values 0.713 μM, 0.409 μM and 0.653 μM, respectively. Among mannich bases series compounds, only 7c resulted as most active ACE inhibitor with IC50 value of 0.928 μM.

  16. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2-/-) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2-/- mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2-/- mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2-/- mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2-/- mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury. PMID:27019629

  17. ACE2 deficiency reduces β-cell mass and impairs β-cell proliferation in obese C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Robin; Yiannikouris, Frederique; Thatcher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) decrease the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic islets express RAS components, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)]. Overexpression of ACE2 in pancreas of diabetic mice improved glucose homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficiency of endogenous ACE2 contributes to islet dysfunction and T2D. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency potentiates the decline in β-cell function and augments the development of diet-induced T2D. Male Ace2+/y or Ace2−/y mice were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 1 or 4 mo. A subset of 1-mo HF-fed mice were infused with Sal (Sal), losartan (Los), or Ang-(1–7). At 4 mo, while both genotypes of HF-fed mice developed a similar level of insulin resistance, adaptive hyperinsulinemia was reduced in Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Similarly, in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was reduced in 1-mo HF-fed Ace2−/y compared with Ace2+/y mice, resulting in augmented hyperglycemia. The average islet area was significantly smaller in both LF- and HF-fed Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Additionally, β-cell mass and proliferation were reduced significantly in HF-fed Ace2−/y vs. Ace2+/y mice. Neither infusion of Los nor Ang-(1–7) was able to correct impaired in vivo GSIS of HF-fed ACE2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate a critical role for endogenous ACE2 in the adaptive β-cell hyperinsulinemic response to HF feeding through regulation of β-cell proliferation and growth. PMID:26389599

  18. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  19. The health and social consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) across the lifespan: an introduction to prevention and intervention in the community.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather; Shields, Joseph J; Anda, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue overviews of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study and discusses prevention and intervention with ACE and their consequences in communities. A commentary by Dr. Robert Anda, an ACE Study Co-Principal Investigator, is incorporated within this introduction. Implications of articles within the issue are addressed, and next steps are explored.

  20. Purple Computational Environment With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, B; Shuler, J

    2006-08-21

    Purple is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Purple Computational Environment documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY06 LLNL Level 1 General Availability Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, but also documents needs of the LLNL and Alliance users working in the unclassified environment. Additionally, the Purple Computational Environment maps the provided capabilities to the Trilab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the General Availability user environment capabilities of the ASC community. Appendix A lists these requirements and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met for each section of this document. The Purple Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the Tri-lab community.

  1. ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

  2. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  3. Using NJOY to Create MCNP ACE Files and Visualize Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert Comstock

    2016-10-14

    We provide lecture materials that describe the input requirements to create various MCNP ACE files (Fast, Thermal, Dosimetry, Photo-nuclear and Photo-atomic) with the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing code system. Input instructions to visualize nuclear data with NJOY are also provided.

  4. ACED IT: A Tool for Improved Ethical and Moral Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitler, Crystal Mata; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Rodarte, Allen M.; Piñón DuMond, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making (EDM) tool (ACED IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for…

  5. 77 FR 20835 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... submit official CBP documents and specified PGA forms via the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). This... and who file entry summaries in ACE to submit specified CBP and PGA documents via the Electronic Data... will be able to submit electronic images of a specific set of CBP and Participating Government...

  6. 100 ns Z-Pinch Performance on the Inductive-Energy-Based ACE 4 Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Philip; Thompson, John; Crumley, Randy; Failor, Bruce; Goodrich, Phillip; Parks, Don; Rauch, John; Song, Yuanxu; Steen, Paul; Waisman, Eduardo; Weber, Bruce; Moosman, Bryan; Qi, Niansheng; Schein, Jochen; McFarland, Mike; Campbell, Kelly; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2000-10-01

    We report on the performance of a short implosion time ( ~100 ns) argon z-pinch using an inductive-energy-storage system. The generator, ACE 4, used a plasma opening switch (POS) to conduct for over a microsecond before driving the short implosion time 2.5 cm diameter Double Eagle gas nozzle. (Previously reported ACE 4 results used longer implosion times, 150 to over 300 ns, with z-pinch load diameters up to 14 cm.) The Double Eagle nozzle, which produces more than 20 kJ of argon K-shell radiation with a current I of almost 4 MA on Double Eagle, produced more than 6 kJ with 3 MA on ACE 4. This performance is consistent with the expected I to the 4th scaling. Pinch behavior on the two machines was quite similar in terms of zippering, pulse width and pinch diameter. As on Double Eagle, the gas flow away from the nozzle was observed to pinch best. On ACE 4, recessing the nozzle behind a wire grid cathode plane moved the high output part of the pinch down to the cathode plane. This allowed us to reduce the pinch length and load inductance, hence increasing load current and yield. Similar changes could be exploited on other gas puff loads and generators to enhance x-ray output. (Thompson, et. al., report elsewhere at this meeting on the performance of the POS and its interaction with the PRS.)

  7. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... coding, Web 2.0 project support for wikis and blogs and web site design. OPP has determined that access... accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor... public access reference and referral: 1. EPA Desktop Library support; 2. Electronic resources...

  8. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  9. Intergenerational Effects of Childhood Trauma: Evaluating Pathways Among Maternal ACEs, Perinatal Depressive Symptoms, and Infant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin

    2016-07-25

    Maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Less is known regarding how maternal ACEs relate to perinatal depressive symptoms or the intergenerational effect of maternal childhood trauma history on birth outcomes and infant functioning. To address this gap, an at-risk sample of 398 pregnant women was recruited from Women, Infants, and Children health clinics. Participants completed a prenatal (M = 4.84 months before due date) and postnatal (M = 6.76 months after birth) assessment and provided birth outcome data. At the prenatal assessment, mothers completed an ACEs measure which assessed experiences of childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction. Self-report measures of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained at both time points. Mothers reported on infant socioemotional functioning at 6 months. Maternal ACEs predicted higher levels of prenatal depressive symptoms. Childhood maltreatment experiences, in particular, predicted higher postnatal depressive symptoms and a smaller reduction in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. Regarding intergenerational associations, maternal childhood maltreatment directly predicted higher levels of maladaptive infant socioemotional symptoms, whereas maternal household dysfunction indirectly related to infant socioemotional symptoms through maternal age at first pregnancy and infant birth weight. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  10. High-throughput interpretation of gene structure changes in human and nonhuman resequencing data, using ACE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a suite of software tools for identifying possible functional changes in gene structure that may result from sequence variants. ACE (“Assessing Changes to Exons”) converts phased genotype calls to a collection of explicit haplotype sequences, maps transcript annotations onto them, detect...

  11. Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by ACE in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…

  12. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. The Association of ACE Genotypes on Cardiorespiratory Variables Related to Physical Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; de Araújo, Gustavo; Eduardo Lima-Silva, Adriano; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic power (VO2max), aerobic capacity (RCP), and running efficiency (RE) are important markers of aerobic fitness. However, the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism on these markers has not been investigated in healthy individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active young men (age 25 ± 3 years; height 1.77 ± 0.06 m; body mass 76.6 ± 0.9 kg; VO2max 47.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) visited the laboratory on two separate occasions, and performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max and RCP, and b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1) to determine RE. The genotype frequency was II = 21%; ID = 52%; and DD = 27%. There was a tendency for higher VO2max with the ACE II genotype (p = 0.08) compared to DD and ID genotypes. Magnitude based inferences suggested a likely beneficial effect on VO2max with the ACE II genotype. There was no association between genotypes for other variable. These findings suggest that individuals with the ACE II genotype have a tendency towards better values in aerobic power, but not with aerobic capacity or running economy. PMID:27861507

  18. Stress pathways to health inequalities: Embedding ACEs within social and behavioral contexts

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Longhi, Dario; Song, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study addresses whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) demonstrate disproportional prevalence across demographic- and health-affecting characteristics, offer significant explanation of adult health outcomes, and show patterned association with illness susceptibility early within and across adulthood when viewed in combination with income and psychosocial resources. Methods Data were derived from a population-based state health survey using stratified random sampling of household adults (n=7,470): ages 18–99 (M=55), 59.9% females, and race/ethnicity, income and education levels representative of the region. We assessed ACEs by aggregating 8 adversity forms, 5 health behaviors and 3 psychosocial resources; and health outcomes (number of chronic conditions, subjective wellness). Results Disproportionality was evident in ACEs levels by demographics, adult SES, health behaviors, and psychosocial resources in expected directions. Stepped multiple regressions of health outcomes demonstrated significant betas and R2 change for each predictor block, revealing cumulative as well as unique explanatory utility. Early onset chronic illness was evident on the basis of ACEs levels. These illnesses were amplified for low income respondents. Prevalence was highest across adulthood for those also reporting low psychosocial assets. Conclusions Findings offer novel insights as to the “long reach” of childhood adversity on health, conditioned by circumstances under which these effects may occur. Health resilience offered by health behaviors and psychosocial resources should shape thinking about preventive and remedial interventions by social work and allied professionals across a range of settings. PMID:27274786

  19. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes.

  20. Metaproteogenomic analysis of a dominant green sulfur bacterium from Ace Lake, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charmaine; DeMaere, Matthew Z; Williams, Timothy J; Lauro, Federico M; Raftery, Mark; Gibson, John A E; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Lewis, Matt; Hoffman, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2010-08-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) (Chlorobiaceae) are primary producers that are important in global carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments. An almost complete genome sequence for a single, dominant GSB species ('C-Ace') was assembled from shotgun sequence data of an environmental sample taken from the O(2)-H(2)S interface of the water column of Ace Lake, Antarctica. Approximately 34 Mb of DNA sequence data were assembled into nine scaffolds totaling 1.79 Mb, representing approximately 19-fold coverage for the C-Ace composite genome. A high level ( approximately 31%) of metaproteomic coverage was achieved using matched biomass. The metaproteogenomic approach provided unique insight into the protein complement required for dominating the microbial community under cold, nutrient-limited, oxygen-limited and extremely varied annual light conditions. C-Ace shows physiological traits that promote its ability to compete very effectively with other GSB and gain dominance (for example, specific bacteriochlorophylls, mechanisms of cold adaptation) as well as a syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria that provides a mechanism for the exchange of sulfur compounds. As a result we are able to propose an explanation of the active biological processes promoted by cold-adapted GSB and the adaptive strategies they use to thrive under the severe physiochemical conditions prevailing in polar environments.

  1. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Yan; Mita, Kazuei; Zhao, Xia; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Moriyama, Minoru; Wang, Huabin; Iwanaga, Masashi; Kawasaki, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn(2+)-binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs. BmAcer3 was expressed in testes, and BmAcer4 and BmAcer5 were expressed in compound eyes; however, the transcription levels of these three genes were very low. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were conducted to determine the tissue distribution and developmental expression of BmAcer1and BmAcer2. Transcripts of BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were found in the reproductive organs during the larval and pupal stages. BmAcer1 was dominant in fat bodies during the feeding stage and showed high expression in the epidermis, wing discs, and pupal wing tissues after the wandering stage. Its expression patterns in epidermis, wing discs, and wing tissues resembled the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer in the larval and pupal stages. Acer1 was observed in the hemolymph at all stages, appearing to be the source of it are fat bodies, wings, and epidermis, and functioning after being secreted into the hemolymph. BmAcer2 was abundant in the midgut during the feeding stage and after the wandering stage and in silk glands after the pupal stage. We conclude that the evolution of BmAcer occurred through duplication, and, thereafter, functional diversification developed.

  2. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  3. HDO measurements from ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR: Validation comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Dupuy, Eric; Urban, Joachim; Boone, Chris; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Bernath, Peter; Murtagh, Donal P.

    Understanding the trend in atmospheric water vapor (H2 O) is of critical importance for predicting climate change and ozone layer evolution. Accurate measurements of H2 O isotopologues, such as HDO, can contribute to a better understanding of water vapor distribution. Therefore, recent satellite missions have included measurements of H2 O isotopologues. A key step in the development of these data products is quality evaluation or validation. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a Canadian-led satellite mission launched on 12 August 2003 in a 74° -inclination orbit at an altitude of 650 km. The primary instrument on-board ACE is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) operating in the spectral range 750-4400 cm-1 at high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1 ). ACE-FTS uses the solar occultation technique to measure atmospheric absorption spectra. Vertical profiles of trace constituent abundances, temperature and pressure are provided over altitudes ranging from 5 km to the lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led international satellite mission launched on 20 February 2001 in a sunsynchronous polar orbit (inclination 98° ) at an altitude of ˜600 km. The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) is one of two instruments aboard the platform. It performs limb-sounding measurements of thermal emission from molecular species in the frequency range 486 to 581 GHz. Volume mixing ratio profiles of the target molecules are retrieved mainly in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Deuterated water or HDO is one of the isotopologues of water vapor measured by both instruments. This paper will present the joint effort aiming at a comprehensive validation of the HDO products retrieved from the ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR observations. The first conclusions regarding the quality assessment of both HDO products will be given.

  4. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  5. Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the ACE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the ACE mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for ACE excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The ACE star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for ACE. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.

  6. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients (P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P < 0.050). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers. PMID:28115791

  7. Production of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory (ACE-I) Peptides during Milk Fermentation and Their Role in Reducing Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Sanjukta, Samurailatpam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-10-13

    Fermented milk is a potential source of various biologically active peptides with specific health benefits. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) peptides are one of the most studied bioactive peptides produced during milk fermentation. The presence of these peptides is reported in various fermented milk products such as yoghurt, cheese, sour milk, etc, which are also available as commercial products. Many of the ACE-I peptides formed during milk fermentation are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the rennin angiotension system (RAS). There are various factors, which affect the formation ACE-I peptides and their ability to reach the target tissue in active form, which includes type of starters (lactic acid bacteria, yeast, etc), substrate composition (casein type, whey protein, etc), composition of ACE-I peptide, pre and post fermentation treatments, and its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk products has also been proved by various in-vitro and in-vivo (animal and human trials) experiments. This article reviews the literature on fermented milk products as a source of ACE-I peptides and various factors affecting the production and activity of ACE-I peptides.

  8. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI Transporter Represent a New Family of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J. F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. PMID:25670776

  9. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua; Huang, I-Chueh; Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Marasco, Wayne A; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael

    2007-10-25

    The cellular receptor for human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a group I coronavirus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the receptor for the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a group II coronavirus. Here we describe the ability of HCoV-NL63 to utilize a number of ACE2 variants previously characterized as SARS-CoV receptors. Several ACE2 variants that reduced SARS-CoV S-protein association similarly reduced that of HCoV-NL63, whereas alteration of a number of solvent-exposed ACE2 residues did not interfere with binding by either S protein. One notable exception is ACE2 residue 354, at the boundary of the SARS-CoV binding site, whose alteration markedly inhibited utilization by the HCoV-NL63 but not SARS-CoV S proteins. In addition, the SARS-CoV S-protein receptor-binding domain inhibited entry mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein. These studies indicate that HCoV-NL63, like SARS-CoV, associates region of human ACE2 that includes a key loop formed by beta-strands 4 and 5.

  10. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  11. Ligand-Signaled Upregulation of Enterococcus faecalis ace Transcription, a Mechanism for Modulating Host-E. faecalis Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, the third most frequent cause of bacterial endocarditis, appears to be equipped with diverse surface-associated proteins showing structural-fold similarity to the immunoglobulin-fold family of staphylococcal adhesins. Among the putative E. faecalis surface proteins, the previously characterized adhesin Ace, which shows specific binding to collagen and laminin, was detectable in surface protein preparations only after growth at 46°C, mirroring the finding that adherence was observed in 46°C, but not 37°C, grown E. faecalis cultures. To elucidate the influence of different growth and host parameters on ace expression, we investigated ace expression using E. faecalis OG1RF grown in routine laboratory media (brain heart infusion) and found that ace mRNA levels were low in all growth phases. However, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed 18-fold-higher ace mRNA amounts in cells grown in the presence of collagen type IV compared to the controls. Similarly, a marked increase was observed when cells were either grown in the presence of collagen type I or serum but not in the presence of fibrinogen or bovine serum albumin. The production of Ace after growth in the presence of collagen type IV was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, mirroring the increased ace mRNA levels. Furthermore, increased Ace expression correlated with increased collagen and laminin adhesion. Collagen-induced Ace expression was also seen in three of three other E. faecalis strains of diverse origins tested, and thus it appears to be a common phenomenon. The observation of host matrix signal-induced adherence of E. faecalis may have important implications on our understanding of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:16926389

  12. Determining the Enzymatic Activity of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) in Brain Tissue and Cerebrospinal Fluid Using a Quenched Fluorescent Substrate.

    PubMed

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Pedersen, Kim Brint; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and volume homeostasis. Accumulating evidence shows alterations in ACE2 expression and activity in several hypertensive animal models, as well as in patients with hypertension. In order to assess the role of brain ACE2 in hypertension, a specific ACE2 assay is required. Based on a quenched fluorescent substrate, we describe an easy-to-use method for determining ACE2 activity in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The method can further be adapted for other tissues, plasma, cell extracts, and cell culture supernatants.

  13. Evolution of diuretics and ACE inhibitors, their renal and antihypertensive actions—parallels and contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Lant, Ariel F.

    1987-01-01

    1 The emergence of diuretic drugs and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ranks amongst the major therapeutic advances of modern medicine. The discovery of these drug groups arose largely by chance, yet each has dramatically influenced the treatment of congestive cardiac failure and arterial hypertension. 2 The central role which diuretics have had in the management of both oedema and hypertension hinges on their ability to induce a net renal excretion of solute and water by selective interference with either active or passive ion transport processes in different segments of the nephron. Irrespective of sites of action, the continued antihypertensive action of diuretics is characterized by a reduction in plasma volume and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume that lasts for as long as the diuretic is given. The mechanism of this effect remains unclear but may involve autoregulatory reactions that leave cardiac output unaltered but maintain a sustained reduction in total peripheral resistance. 3 ACE inhibitors also lower blood pressure by decreasing total peripheral resistance, leaving cardiac output, plasma volume and ECF volume unchanged. The detailed way these haemodynamic changes are achieved remains unknown but inhibition of converting enzyme present not only in the kidney but also in many extrarenal tissue sites, appears important. In both hypertension and cardiac failure, however, the kidney acts as a key target organ for ACE inhibitors. The increased renal vascular resistance and inappropriate renal salt excretion are reversed with enhanced renal blood flow and saluresis. Both angiotensin II (AII) and vasopressin-mediated contraction of glomerular mesangial cells is inhibited, making glomerular filtration more efficient. Reduced aldosterone secondary to blockade of AII formation contributes to saluresis whilst encouraging positive potassium balance. ACE inhibition also impairs breakdown of kinins which may contribute to intrarenal and peripheral

  14. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Uncovers a Novel Function for the Transcription Factor Ace2 during Candida albicans Hyphal Development

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Muñoz, Sara; Gutiérrez-Escribano, Pilar; Arnáiz-Pita, Yolanda; Dueñas-Santero, Encarnación; Suárez, M. Belén; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; del Rey, Francisco; Sherlock, Gavin; d’Enfert, Christophe; Correa-Bordes, Jaime; de Aldana, Carlos R. Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C. albicans lineages

  15. DAF: differential ACE filtering image quality assessment by automatic color equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Saint-Jean, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ideally, a quality assessment system would perceive and measure image or video impairments just like a human being. But in reality, objective quality metrics do not necessarily correlate well with perceived quality [1]. Plus, some measures assume that there exists a reference in the form of an "original" to compare to, which prevents their usage in digital restoration field, where often there is no reference to compare to. That is why subjective evaluation is the most used and most efficient approach up to now. But subjective assessment is expensive, time consuming and does not respond, hence, to the economic requirements [2,3]. Thus, reliable automatic methods for visual quality assessment are needed in the field of digital film restoration. The ACE method, for Automatic Color Equalization [4,6], is an algorithm for digital images unsupervised enhancement. It is based on a new computational approach that tries to model the perceptual response of our vision system merging the Gray World and White Patch equalization mechanisms in a global and local way. Like our vision system ACE is able to adapt to widely varying lighting conditions, and to extract visual information from the environment efficaciously. Moreover ACE can be run in an unsupervised manner. Hence it is very useful as a digital film restoration tool since no a priori information is available. In this paper we deepen the investigation of using the ACE algorithm as a basis for a reference free image quality evaluation. This new metric called DAF for Differential ACE Filtering [7] is an objective quality measure that can be used in several image restoration and image quality assessment systems. In this paper, we compare on different image databases, the results obtained with DAF and with some subjective image quality assessments (Mean Opinion Score MOS as measure of perceived image quality). We study also the correlation between objective measure and MOS. In our experiments, we have used for the first image

  16. Administration of 17β-estradiol to ovariectomized obese female mice reverses obesity-hypertension through an ACE2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Thatcher, Sean E; Batifoulier-Yiannikouris, Frederique; English, Victoria L; Cassis, Lisa A

    2015-06-15

    We recently demonstrated that female mice are resistant to the development of obesity-induced hypertension through a sex hormone-dependent mechanism that involved adipose angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study, we hypothesized that provision of 17β-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized (OVX) high-fat (HF)-fed female hypertensive mice would reverse obesity-hypertension through an ACE2-dependent mechanism. Pilot studies defined dose-dependent effects of E2 in OVX female mice on serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. An E2 dose of 36 μg/ml restored normal serum E2 concentrations and uterine weights. Therefore, HF-fed OVX female Ace2(+/+) and Ace2(-/-) mice were administered vehicle or E2 (36 μg/ml) for 16 wk. E2 administration significantly decreased body weights of HF-fed OVX female Ace2(+/+) and Ace2(-/-) mice of either genotype. At 15 wk, E2 administration decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) of OVX HF-fed Ace2(+/+) but not Ace2(-/-) females during the light but not the dark cycle. E2-mediated reductions in SBP in Ace2(+/+) females were associated with significant elevations in adipose ACE2 mRNA abundance and activity and reduced plasma ANG II concentrations. In contrast to females, E2 administration had no effect on any parameter quantified in HF-fed male hypertensive mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, E2 promoted ACE2 mRNA abundance through effects at estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and resulted in ERα-mediated binding at the ACE2 promoter. These results demonstrate that E2 administration to OVX females reduces obesity-induced elevations in SBP (light cycle) through an ACE2-dependent mechanism. Beneficial effects of E2 to decrease blood pressure in OVX obese females may result from stimulation of adipose ACE2.

  17. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in ACE Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to conduct a National Customs Automation Program test concerning new Automated Commercial Environment... requirements, and test development and evaluation methods. DATES: The ESAR IV test will commence July 25, 2011... INFORMATION: Background I. Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Test Programs Automated...

  18. Badhwar-O'Neil 2007 Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Model Using Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Measurements for Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite measurements of the galactic cosmic ray flux and correlation with the Climax Neutron Monitor count over Solar Cycle 23 are used to update the Badhwar O'Neill Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model.

  19. Mutations in Escherichia coli aceE and ribB genes allow survival of strains defective in the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gil, Jordi; Uros, Eva Maria; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Lois, L Maria; Kirby, James; Nishimoto, Minobu; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Boronat, Albert; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A functional 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is required for isoprenoid biosynthesis and hence survival in Escherichia coli and most other bacteria. In the first two steps of the pathway, MEP is produced from the central metabolic intermediates pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) by the activity of the enzymes DXP synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR). Because the MEP pathway is absent from humans, it was proposed as a promising new target to develop new antibiotics. However, the lethal phenotype caused by the deletion of DXS or DXR was found to be suppressed with a relatively high efficiency by unidentified mutations. Here we report that several mutations in the unrelated genes aceE and ribB rescue growth of DXS-defective mutants because the encoded enzymes allowed the production of sufficient DXP in vivo. Together, this work unveils the diversity of mechanisms that can evolve in bacteria to circumvent a blockage of the first step of the MEP pathway.

  20. Isolation and antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from spinach Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjun; Marczak, Ewa D; Yokoo, Megumi; Usui, Hachiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2003-08-13

    Four new inhibitory peptides for angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), that is, MRWRD, MRW, LRIPVA, and IAYKPAG, were isolated from the pepsin-pancreatin digest of spinach Rubisco with the use of HPLC. IC(50) values of individual peptides were 2.1, 0.6, 0.38, and 4.2 microM, respectively. MRW and MRWRD had an antihypertensive effect after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maximal reduction occurred 2 h after oral administration of MRW, whereas MRWRD showed maximal decrease 4 h after oral administration at doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. IAYKPAG also exerted antihypertensive activity after oral administration at the dose of 100 mg/kg, giving a maximum decrease 4 h after oral administration. IAYKP, IAY, and KP, the fragment peptides of IAYKPAG, also exerted antihypertensive activity. LRIPVA [corrected] did not show any antihypertensive effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg despite its potent ACE-inhibitory activity.

  1. Time and frequency transfer with a microwave link in the ACES/PHARAO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Delva, P.; Meynadier, F.; Guerlin, C.; Wolf, P.; Laurent, P.

    2015-08-01

    The Atomic Clocks Ensemble in Space (ACES/PHARAO mission), which will be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS), uses a dedicated two-way microwave link in order to compare the timescale generated on board with those provided by many ground stations disseminated on the Earth. Phase accuracy and stability of this long range link will have a key role in the success of the ACES/PHARAO experiment. SYRTE laboratory is heavily involved in the design and development of the data processing software: from theoretical modeling and numerical simulations to the development of a software prototype. Our team is working on a wide range of problems that need to be solved in order to achieve high accuracy in (almost) real time. In this article we present some key aspects of the measurement, as well as current status of the software's development.

  2. Intercalibration and Cross-Correlation of Ace and Wind Solar Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This report covers activities funded from October 1, 1998 through September 30, 2002. Two yearly status reports have been filed on this grant, and they are included as Appendix 1. The purpose of this grant was to compare ACE and Wind solar wind parameters when the two spacecraft were near to one another and then to use the intercalibrated parameters to carry out scientific investigations. In September, 2001 a request for a one-year, no-cost extension until September 30, 2002 was submitted and approved. The statement of work for that extension included adjustment of ACE densities below wind speeds of 350 km/s, a study of shock normal orientations using travel time delays between the two spacecraft, comparison of density jumps at shocks, and a study of temperature anisotropies and double streaming to see if such features evolved between the spacecraft.

  3. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  4. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  5. New Estimates of Inferred Ionic Charge States for Solar Energetic Particle Events with ACE and STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, A. W.; Sollitt, L. S.; Cohen, C. M.; Cummings, A. C.; Leske, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) mean ionic charge states can depend on source temperatures and populations (e.g. seed populations) and conditions during acceleration and transport such as stripping. Multi-spacecraft observations of charge states from widely separated spacecraft may reveal evidence for seed populations that vary with longitude. In this presentation, we report new estimates of inferred high energy ionic charge states using the Sollitt et al. (2008) method that fits SEP energy-dependent decay times for SEP event elements to derive mean charge states. In the method, intensity decay times during SEP events are fitted for each element for various energies, and then the energy dependence of the decay times is fitted for each element. Finally, charge-to-mass ratios relative to that of a calibration element (carbon in this case) are obtained, and when Q(C)=5.9 is assumed for calibration, mean charge states for other elements can be inferred. Previously, ACE/SIS and ACE/ULEIS data were applied to three SEP events (Nov. 6, 1997; Nov. 4, 2001; Apr. 21, 2002) with this method, and last year, we reported new results for the Dec. 6, 2006 SEP event compatible with SAMPEX/MAST results. Additional work continues to generalize and extend the software to use publicly available online data from ACE and the two STEREO spacecraft. Energy ranges are those covered by the instruments on ACE (e.g. reference element C at <.1 MeV/nuc from ULEIS to ~64 MeV/nuc from SIS) and on STEREO (e.g. C at 3.2 - 33 MeV/nuc from LET). Initial candidate SEP events for multi-spacecraft charge state estimates are those of Mar. 8, 2011, Mar. 21, 2011, Jan. 24, 2012, and Mar. 4, 2012. Results from events observed by single spacecraft may also be reported.

  6. Effects of ACE Inhibitors on Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile in Children with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi Bitkin, Eda; Boyraz, Mehmet; Taşkın, Necati; Akçay, Arzu; Ulucan, Korkut; Akyol, Mehmet Bedir; Akçay, Teoman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using ACE inhibitors on insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, body fat composition, and lipid profile in children over 10 years of age with obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: A total of 53 children with MS, who had been followed for at least one year were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: Group 1-30 obese children (13 female, 17 male) who were not using an ACE inhibitor and Group 2-23 obese children (13 female, 10 male) who were using an ACE inhibitor. Anthropometric and laboratory dataobtained at baseline and at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months of follow-up were compared in the two groups. Results: Comparison of the data in the two groups at 3rd, 6th, and 12th months revealed no statistically significant differences in terms of weight standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index SDS, weight for height percentile, body fat percentage, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)values. However, there were statistically significant differences in mean glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, LDL and high-density lipoprotein values, and highly significant differences in mean triglyceride values. Conclusions: The positive effects of ACE inhibitor drugs, particularly on hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, might bring them forth as first-line drugs in the treatment of obese and hypertensive children. Randomized, controlled, double-blind, and long-term studies are needed for a definitive conclusion. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24072084

  7. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Retrievals from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Solar Occultation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ACE satellite (SCISAT-1) was launched into an inclined orbit on 12 August 2003 and is now recording high signal-to-noise 0.02 per centimeter resolution solar absorption spectra covering 750-4400 per centimeter (2.3-13 micrometers). A procedure has been developed for retrieving average dry air CO2 mole fractions (X(sub CO2)) in the altitude range 7-10 kilometers from the SCISAT-1 spectra. Using the N2 continuum absorption in a window region near 2500 per centimeter, altitude shifts are applied to the tangent heights retrieved in version 2.2 SCISAT-1 processing, while cloudy or aerosol-impacted measurements are eliminated. Monthly-mean XCO2 covering 60 S to 60 N latitude for February 2004 to March 2008 has been analyzed with consistent trends inferred in both hemispheres. The ACE XCO2 time series have been compared with previously-reported surface network measurements, predictions based on upper tropospheric aircraft measurements, and space-based measurements. The retrieved X(sub CO2) from the ACE-FTS spectra are higher on average by a factor of 1.07 plus or minus 0.025 in the northern hemisphere and by a factor of 1.09 plus or minus 0.019 on average in the southern hemisphere compared to surface station measurements covering the same time span. The ACE derived trend is approximately 0.2% per year higher than measured at surface stations during the same observation period.

  8. Investigation of interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors in various buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Arayne, Muhammad Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Abbas, Hira Fatima

    2015-02-01

    This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL-1 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and 1H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.

  9. ACE2, angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas receptor axis in inflammation and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Simões e Silva, AC; Silveira, KD; Ferreira, AJ; Teixeira, MM

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have improved our understanding of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). These have included the recognition that angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is a biologically active product of the RAS cascade. The identification of the ACE homologue ACE2, which forms Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, and the GPCR Mas as an Ang-(1-7) receptor have provided the necessary biochemical and molecular background and tools to study the biological significance of Ang-(1-7). Most available evidence supports a counter-regulatory role for Ang-(1-7) by opposing many actions of Ang II on AT1 receptors, especially vasoconstriction and proliferation. Many studies have now shown that Ang-(1-7) by acting via Mas receptor exerts inhibitory effects on inflammation and on vascular and cellular growth mechanisms. Ang-(1-7) has also been shown to reduce key signalling pathways and molecules thought to be relevant for fibrogenesis. Here, we review recent findings related to the function of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis and focus on the role of this axis in modifying processes associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including leukocyte influx, fibrogenesis and proliferation of certain cell types. More attention will be given to the involvement of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the context of renal disease because of the known relevance of the RAS for the function of this organ and for the regulation of kidney inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, this knowledge may help in paving the way for the development of novel treatments for chronic inflammatory and renal diseases. PMID:23488800

  10. Neuronal Over-expression of ACE2 Protects Brain from Ischemia-induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Zhao, Yuhui; Chen, Shuzhen; Wang, Jinju; Xiao, Xiang; Ma, Xiaotang; Penchikala, Madhuri; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II exaggerates cerebral injury in ischemic damage. Angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) converts Ang II into Ang (1–7) and thus, may protect against the effects of Ang II. We hypothesized that neuronal ACE2 over-expression decreases ischemic stroke in mice with Ang II overproduction. Human renin and angiotensinogen double transgenic (RA) mice and RA mice with neuronal over-expression of ACE2 (SARA) were used for the study. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated from telemetry-recorded blood pressure (BP). SARA mice were infused peripherally with Norepinephrine to “clamp” the BP, or intracerebroventricularly-infused with a Mas receptor antagonist (A-779). Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery was performed to induce permanent focal ischemic stroke. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurological function were determined. Two days after surgery, brain samples were collected for various analyses. Results showed: 1) When compared to chronically hypertensive RA mice, SARA mice had lower basal MAP, less MCAO-induced infarct volume, and increased CBF, neurological function and cerebral microvascular density in the peri-infarct area; 2) These changes in SARA mice were not altered after MAP “clamping”, but partially reversed by brain infusion of A-779; 3) Ang (1–7)/Ang II ratio, angiogenic factors, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide production were increased, whereas, NADPH oxidase subunits and reactive oxygen species were decreased in the brain of SARA mice. ACE2 protects brain from ischemic injury via the regulation of NADPH oxidase/eNOS pathways by changing Ang (1–7)/Ang II ratio, independently of MAP changes. PMID:24440367

  11. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties and Direct Radiative Effects: Key Results from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Hignett, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Durkee, P. A.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative Forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the observed climate change of the past century and in predicting, future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) has endorsed a series of multiplatform aerosol field campaigns. The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) were the first IGAC campaigns to address the impact of anthropogenic aerosols. Both TARFOX and ACE-2 gathered extensive data sets on aerosol properties and radiative effects. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the eastern United States over the western Atlantic Ocean, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols carried over the eastern Atlantic from both European urban/industrial and African mineral sources. These aerosols often have a marked influence on the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by satellites, as illustrated in Figure 1. Shown there are contours of aerosol optical depth derived from radiances measured by the AVHRR sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite. The contours readily show that aerosols originating in North America, Europe, and Africa impact the radiative properties of air over the North Atlantic. However, the accurate derivation of flux chances, or radiative forcing, from the satellite-measured radiances or 'etrieved optical depths remains a difficult challenge. In this paper we summarize key Initial results from TARFOX and, to a lesser extent ACE-2, with a focus on those results that allow an improved assessment of the flux changes caused by North Atlantic aerosols at middle and high latitudes.

  12. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties and Direct Radiative Effects: Key Results from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Hignett, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate In potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the observed climate change of the past century and in predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) has endorsed a series of multiplatform aerosol field campaigns. The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) were the first IGAC campaigns to address the impact of anthropogenic aerosols, Both TARFOX and ACE-2 gathered extensive data sets on aerosol properties and radiative effects, TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the eastern United States over the western Atlantic Ocean, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols carried over the eastern Atlantic from both European urban/industrial and African mineral sources. These aerosols often have a marked influence on the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by satellites. Shown there are contours of aerosol optical depth derived from radiances measured by the AVHRR sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite. The contours readily show that aerosols originating in North America, Europe, and Africa impact the radiative properties of air over the North Atlantic. However, the accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved optical depths remains a difficult challenge. In this paper we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and, to a lesser extent, ACE-2, with a focus on those results that allow an improved assessment of the flux changes caused by North Atlantic aerosols at middle latitudes.

  13. Texas Hold'em: Secretary Spellings--the Ace in Bush's Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    President Bush has one ace in his hand when it comes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Spellings, who has been working on education issues for Bush since the 1990s and his days as a Texas governor, is the person who from the very beginning has had to make NCLB work. She was a key architect of the…

  14. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  15. Interaction Between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X Polymorphisms in Polish Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grenda, Agata; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Król, Paweł; Cięszczyk, Paweł; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2014-09-29

    We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races.

  16. Captopril improves postresuscitation hemodynamics protective against pulmonary embolism by activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-Li; Li, Chun-Sheng; Zhao, Lian-Xing; Yang, Jun; Tong, Nan; An, Le; Liu, Qi-Tong

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a very high mortality rate, especially at cardiac arrest and even after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). This study investigated the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril on postresuscitation hemodynamics, in a porcine model of cardiac arrest established by APE. Twenty-nine Beijing Landrace pigs were infused with an autologous thrombus leading to cardiac arrest and subjected to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolysis. Ten resuscitated pigs were randomly and equally apportioned to receive either captopril (22.22 mg/kg) infusion or the same volume saline, 30 min after ROSC. Hemodynamic changes and ACE-Ang II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis levels were determined. APE was associated with a decline in mean arterial pressure and a dramatic increase in pulmonary artery pressure and mean right ventricular pressure. After ROSC, captopril infusion was associated with significantly lower mean right ventricular pressure and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, faster heart rate, and higher Ang-(1-7) levels, ACE2/ACE, and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II, compared with the saline infusion. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway correlated negatively with external vascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability and positively with the right cardiac index. In conclusion, in a pig model of APE leading to cardiac arrest, captopril infusion was associated with less mean right ventricular pressure overload after resuscitation, compared with saline infusion. The reduction in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance associated with captopril may be by inhibiting the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

  17. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

  18. Extraction of antioxidant and ACE inhibitory peptides from Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Harnedy, Pádraigín A; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey A; CunhaNeves, Adriana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were extracted and isolated from two different types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes, Kapi Ta Dam (Kp-B6) and Kapi Ta Deang (Kp-R6). Compounds with masses less than 500Da were found to be predominantly presented in both extracts. Following fractionation with sequential anion exchange chromatography and solid phase extraction (C18 matrix), three dipeptides were identified. Ser-Val and Ile-Phe were shown to exhibit ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 60.68±1.06 and 70.03±1.45μM, respectively. Trp-Pro was shown to have high 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity (EC50 17.52±0.46μM). These results indicate that Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes are potential sources of bioactive peptides possessing ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  19. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  20. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  1. Phosphate May Promote CKD Progression and Attenuate Renoprotective Effect of ACE Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, Piero; Perna, Annalisa; Leonardis, Daniela; Tripepi, Rocco; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate may promote the onset and progression of chronic nephropathies. Here we evaluated the relationships between baseline serum phosphate levels, disease progression, and response to ACE inhibition in 331 patients with proteinuric nephropathies in the prospective Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) trial. Independent of treatment, patients with phosphate levels in the highest two quartiles progressed significantly faster either to ESRD or to a composite endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD compared with patients with phosphate levels below the median (P < 0.001). Results were similar when we analyzed phosphate as a continuous variable (P ≤ 0.004). The renoprotective effect of ramipril decreased as serum phosphate increased (P ≤ 0.008 for interaction); this modification of the treatment effect by phosphate persisted despite adjusting for potential confounders such as GFR and urinary protein. In summary, these data suggest that phosphate is an independent risk factor for progression of renal disease among patients with proteinuric CKD, and high levels of phosphate may even attenuate the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibitors. Future trials should test whether reducing serum phosphate improves renal outcomes and optimizes the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibition. PMID:21852581

  2. Association of ACE Gene I/D polymorphism with migraine in Kashmiri population

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Irfan Yousuf; Sheikh, Saleem; Shah, Zafar Amin; Pandith, Arshid A.; Wani, Mushtaq; Asimi, Ravouf; Wani, Maqbool; Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Mehraj, Iqra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Migraine is a complex, recurrent headache disorder that is one of the most common complaints in neurology practice. The role of various genes in its pathogenesis is being studied. We did this study to see whether an association exists between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and migraine in our region. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients diagnosed with migraine and 121 healthy controls. The study subject were age and gender matched. The analysis was based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and included following steps: DNA extraction from blood, PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Out of 100 cases, 69 were females and 31 were males. Fifty-seven were having migraine without aura and 43 had migraine with aura. 45 of the cases had II polymorphism, 40 had ID polymorphism and 15 had DD polymorphism in ACE gene. Conclusion: We were not able to find a statistically significant association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism with migraine. The reason for difference in results between our study and other studies could be because of different ethnicity in study populations. So a continuous research is needed in this regard in order to find the genes and different polymorphism that increase the susceptibility of Kashmiri population to migraine. PMID:27011636

  3. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC(50) = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents.

  4. ACE Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Collagen Hydrolysates from the Ribbon Jellyfish (Chrysaora sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Latiff, Aishah Abd; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Abedin, Md. Zainul; Alias, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Collagen isolated from the ribbon jellyfish (Chrysaora sp.) was hydrolysed using three different proteases (i.e. trypsin, alcalase and Protamex) to obtain bioactive peptides. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant activities (i.e. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity) of the peptides were measured and compared, and the effect of the duration of hydrolysis on the bioactivity (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities) of peptides was also evaluated. FRAP activity was the highest in Protamex-induced (25–27 mM) and trypsin-induced hydrolysates (24–26 mM) at 7 and 9 h, respectively. Conversely, hydrolysates produced by trypsin for 1 and 3 h showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activities (94 and 92%, respectively). Trypsin-induced hydrolysates (at 3 h) also showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (89%). The peptide sequences with the highest activities were identified using tandem mass spectrometry, and the results show that the hydrolysates had a high content of hydrophobic amino acids as well as unique amino acid sequences, which likely contribute to their biological activities. PMID:27904323

  5. Enzymolysis kinetics and activities of ACE inhibitory peptides from wheat germ protein prepared with SFP ultrasound-assisted processing.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wenjuan; Ma, Haile; Jia, Junqiang; He, Ronghai; Luo, Lin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-09-01

    There is a great demand for developing efficient enzymolysis methods in order to increase the enzymolysis efficiencies and activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from wheat germ protein. The enzymolysis kinetics, ACE inhibitory activity of peptide and conversion rate of protein were studied using sweep frequency and pulsed (SFP) ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis and the results were compared with traditional enzymolysis. The studied factors were enzymolysis time and substrate concentration. By considering the activity of ACE inhibitory peptide and operation cost, the recommended conditions of SFP ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis were enzymolysis time of 120 min and substrate concentration of 24.0 g/L, which gave high conversion rates of protein (60.7%) and ACE inhibitory activity of peptide (65.9%). Compared to traditional enzymolysis, SFP ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis significantly increased the initial reaction rate (V) by 60.0% at substrate concentration of 24.0 g/L, increased the apparent breakdown rate constant (k(A)) by 66.7%, decreased the apparent constant (K(M)) by 6.9%, and raised the conversion rate of protein by 35.5% and ACE inhibitory activity of peptides by 35.6% under the recommended conditions. It has been concluded that SFP ultrasound can remarkably raise the enzymolysis efficiency and activity of ACE inhibitory peptides from wheat germ protein.

  6. Does the cis/trans configuration of peptide bonds in bioactive tripeptides play a role in ACE-1 enzyme inhibition?

    PubMed Central

    Siltari, Aino; Viitanen, Riikka; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Valjakka, Jarkko

    2014-01-01

    Background The milk casein-derived bioactive tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) have been shown to prevent development of hypertension in animal models and to lower blood pressure in moderately hypertensive subjects in most but not all clinical trials. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE-1) has been suggested as the explanation for these antihypertensive and beneficial vascular effects. Previously, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have not been used to test ACE-1 inhibiting properties of casein derived tripeptides in vasculature. Purpose We focused on the cis/trans configurations of the peptide bonds in proline-containing tripeptides in order to discover whether the different structural properties of these peptides influence their activity in ACE-1 inhibition. We hypothesized that the configuration of proline-containing peptides plays a significant role in enzyme inhibition. Methods AutoDock 4.2 docking software was used to predict suitable peptide bond configurations of the tripeptides. Besides modeling studies, we completed ACE-1 activity measurements in vitro using HUVEC cultures. Results In HUVEC cells, both IPP and VPP inhibited ACE-1. Based on molecular docking studies, we propose that in ACE-1 inhibition IPP and VPP share a similar cis configuration between the first aliphatic (isoleucine or valine) and the second (proline) amino acid residues and more different configurations between two proline residues. In vivo experiments are needed to validate the significance of the present findings. PMID:24596454

  7. The transcription factor HNF1α induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in pancreatic islets from evolutionarily conserved promoter motifs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kim Brint; Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Nguyen, Van K; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Pancreatic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has previously been shown to be critical for maintaining glycemia and β-cell function. Efforts to maintain or increase ACE2 expression in pancreatic β-cells might therefore have therapeutic potential for treating diabetes. In our study, we investigated the transcriptional role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) in induction of ACE2 expression in insulin-secreting cells. A deficient allele of HNF1α or HNF1β causes maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 3 and 5, respectively, in humans. We found that ACE2 is primarily transcribed from the proximal part of the ACE2 promoter in the pancreas. In the proximal part of the human ACE2 promoter, we further identified three functional HNF1 binding sites, as they have binding affinity for HNF1α and HNF1β and are required for induction of promoter activity by HNF1β in insulinoma cells. These three sites are well-conserved among mammalian species. Both HNF1α and HNF1β induce expression of ACE2 mRNA and lead to elevated levels of ACE2 protein and ACE2 enzymatic activity in insulinoma cells. Furthermore, HNF1α dose-dependently increases ACE2 expression in primary pancreatic islet cells. We conclude that HNF1α can induce the expression of ACE2 in pancreatic islet cells via evolutionarily conserved HNF1 binding sites in the ACE2 promoter. Potential therapeutics aimed at counteracting functional HNF1α depletion in diabetes and MODY3 will thus have ACE2 induction in pancreatic islets as a likely beneficial effect.

  8. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Ongoing and future massive spectroscopic surveys will collect large numbers (106-107) of stellar spectra that need to be analyzed. Highly automated software is needed to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances from these spectra. Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860 Å and 8400-8924 Å, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "GCOG library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the stellar parameters and abundances, and searches for the model that minimizes the χ2 deviation when compared to the observed spectrum. The code has been tested on synthetic and real spectra for a wide range of signal-to-noise and spectral resolutions. Results: SP_Ace derives stellar parameters such as Teff, log g, [M/H], and chemical abundances of up to ten elements for low to medium resolution spectra of FGK-type stars with precision comparable to the one usually obtained with spectra of higher resolution. Systematic errors in stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented and identified with tests on synthetic and real spectra. Stochastic errors are automatically estimated by the code for all the parameters

  9. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping

    2013-06-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (p<0.01 or p<0.05), ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased the level of Ang II and increased that of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 and Mas, decreased that of ACE and AT1, and downregulated protein expression of TGF-β1 in kidneys (p<0.01). Compared with Felo group, Felo+Pue decreased DBP and HR more markedly, attenuated fibrosis, decreased Ang II levels and increased those of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 in bilateral kidneys and that of Mas in ischemic kidney, downregulated that of ACE in bilateral kidneys and that of AT1 in ischemic kidney, and decreased expression of TGF-β1 protein significantly. In a word, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  10. A novel acetylcholinesterase gene in mosquitoes codes for the insecticide target and is non-homologous to the ace gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Weill, Mylène; Fort, Philippe; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Dubois, Marie Pierre; Pasteur, Nicole; Raymond, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the target of two major insecticide families, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates. AChE insensitivity is a frequent resistance mechanism in insects and responsible mutations in the ace gene were identified in two Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. However, for other insects, the ace gene cloned by homology with Drosophila does not code for the insensitive AChE in resistant individuals, indicating the existence of a second ace locus. We identified two AChE loci in the genome of Anopheles gambiae, one (ace-1) being a new locus and the other (ace-2) being homologous to the gene previously described in Drosophila. The gene ace-1 has no obvious homologue in the Drosophila genome and was found in 15 mosquito species investigated. In An. gambiae, ace-1 and ace-2 display 53% similarity at the amino acid level and an overall phylogeny indicates that they probably diverged before the differentiation of insects. Thus, both genes are likely to be present in the majority of insects and the absence of ace-1 in Drosophila is probably due to a secondary loss. In one mosquito (Culex pipiens), ace-1 was found to be tightly linked with insecticide resistance and probably encodes the AChE OP target. These results have important implications for the design of new insecticides, as the target AChE is thus encoded by distinct genes in different insect groups, even within the Diptera: ace-2 in at least the Drosophilidae and Muscidae and ace-1 in at least the Culicidae. Evolutionary scenarios leading to such a peculiar situation are discussed. PMID:12396499

  11. Angiotensin(1-7) and ACE2, “The Hot Spots” of Renin-Angiotensin System, Detected in the Human Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Holappa, Mervi; Valjakka, Jarkko; Vaajanen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of the study was to establish whether essential components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exist in the human aqueous humor. Methods: Forty-five patients ≥ 60 (74±7) years of age undergoing cataract surgery at Tampere University Hospital were randomly selected for the prospective study. The exclusion criterion was the use of oral antihypertensive medicine acting via renin-angiotensin system. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the beginning of normal cataract extraction. The samples were frozen and stored at -80 °C. The concentrations of intraocular endogenous RAS components Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 were measured using ELISA. Results: Concentration medians of Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 in the aqueous humor were: Ang(1-7) 4.08 ng/ml, ACE2 2.32 ng/ml and ACE1 0.35 ng/ml. The concentrations were significantly higher in glaucomatous than in non-glaucomatous eyes, ACE1 (p=0.014) and Ang(1-7) (p=0.026) vs non-glaucomatous eyes. Conclusions: Ang(1-7), ACE2 and ACE1 are found in the human aqueous humor. The observations are consistent with the conception that local tissue-RAS exists in the human eye and it might have a role in the control of intraocular pressure. PMID:25926900

  12. Enterococcus faecalis strains from food, environmental, and clinical origin produce ACE-inhibitory peptides and other bioactive peptides during growth in bovine skim milk.

    PubMed

    Gútiez, Loreto; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Recio, Isidra; del Campo, Rosa; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E

    2013-08-16

    Enterococcus faecalis isolates from food and environmental origin were evaluated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA) after growth in bovine skim milk (BSM). Most (90% active) but not all (10% inactive) E. faecalis strains produced BSM-derived hydrolysates with high ACE-IA. Known ACE-inhibitory peptides (ACE-IP) and an antioxidant peptide were identified in the E. faecalis hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS). Antimicrobial activity against Pediococcus damnosus CECT4797 and Listeria ivanovii CECT913 was also observed in the E. faecalis hydrolysates. The incidence of virulence factors in the E. faecalis strains with ACE-IA and producers of ACE-IP was variable but less virulence factors were observed in the food and environmental strains than in the clinical reference strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based analysis demonstrated that food and environmental E. faecalis strains were genetically different from those of clinical origin. When evaluated, most E. faecalis strains of clinical origin also originated BSM-derived hydrolysates with high ACE-IA due to the production of ACE-IP. Accordingly, the results of this work suggest that most E. faecalis strains of food, environmental and clinical origin produce BSM-derived bioactive peptides with human health connotations and potential biotechnological applications.

  13. Bradykinin-mediated cardiovascular protective actions of ACE inhibitors. A new dimension in anti-ischaemic therapy?

    PubMed

    Remme, W J

    1997-01-01

    In addition to being accepted therapy in hypertension and heart failure, ACE inhibitors may well offer a new dimension in anti-ischaemic therapy. Currently, anti-ischaemic properties have been demonstrated by ACE inhibitors in selected patient groups, including patients with left ventricular dysfunction with or without a direct temporal relationship with myocardial infarction. Anti-ischaemic effects of ACE inhibitors become apparent late after initiation of treatment and suggest a structural rather than a functional effect. Underlying mechanisms may include a reduction in ventricular dilatation and (abnormal) cardiac hypertrophy, leading to less myocardial oxygen demand and, possibly, improved subendocardial blood supply, and vasculoprotective effects, i.e. anti-atherosclerotic and antiremodelling properties, a beneficial effect on the fibrinolytic system and an improvement in abnormal endothelial vasodilator function. The latter aspect is most probably the pivotal mode of action where the anti-ischaemic profile of ACE inhibition is concerned. An improvement in endothelial dysfunction has been shown in patients with mild to moderate coronary artery disease [Trial on Reversing ENdothelial Dysfunction (TREND)]. It is of importance that, in both clinical experiments and human studies, the role of bradykinin appears central in the structural and functional cardiovascular effects of ACE inhibition. This is particularly true for the improvement of impaired endothelial function. Myocardial ischaemia evokes vasoconstrictor neurohormonal activation, which may lead to coronary vasoconstriction in diseased coronary segments. The subsequent abnormal endothelial function leads to diminished coronary flow and also increases systemic vasotone and afterload, thus unfavourably altering the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. Under laboratory conditions, acute ACE inhibition counteracts this activation in humans. However, it is speculated that this anti-ischaemic mechanism may

  14. ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates vascular repair-relevant functions of CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Joshi, Shrinidh; Guo, Lirong; Baker, Matthew B; Li, Yan; Castellano, Ronald K; Raizada, Mohan K; Jarajapu, Yagna P R

    2015-11-15

    CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells have been identified as a promising cell population for the autologous cell-based therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease. The counter-regulatory axes of renin angiotensin system, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor, play an important role in the cardiovascular repair. This study evaluated the expression and vascular repair-relevant functions of these two pathways in human CD34(+) cells. CD34(+) cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs), obtained from healthy volunteers. Expression of ACE, ACE2, AT1, and angiotensin type 2 and Mas receptors were determined. Effects of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), and ACE2 activators, xanthenone (XNT) and diminazene aceturate (DIZE) on proliferation, migration, and adhesion of CD34(+) cells were evaluated. ACE2 and Mas were relatively highly expressed in CD34(+) cells compared with MNCs. Ang-(1-7) or its analog, Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), stimulated proliferation of CD34(+) cells that was associated with decrease in phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 levels and was inhibited by triciribin, an AKT inhibitor. Migration of CD34(+) cells was enhanced by Ang-(1-7) or Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7) that was decreased by a Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In the presence of Ang II, XNT or DIZE enhanced proliferation and migration that were blocked by DX-600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Treatment of MNCs with Ang II, before the isolation of CD34(+) cells, attenuated the proliferation and migration to stromal derived factor-1α. This attenuation was reversed by apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Adhesion of MNCs or CD34(+) cells to fibronectin was enhanced by Ang II and was unaffected by Ang-(1-7). This study suggests that ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway stimulates functions of CD34(+) cells that are cardiovascular protective, whereas Ang II attenuates these functions by acting on MNCs. These findings

  15. Modification of Epigenetic Patterns in Low Birth Weight Children: Importance of Hypomethylation of the ACE Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Marina; dos Santos, Jéssica Cassilla; Ortiz, Paula Helena Lima; Hirata, Mario; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas; Araujo, Ronaldo C.; Ierardi, Daniela Filippini; Franco, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that epigenetic alterations are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many chronic disorders linked to fetal programming. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) appears as one candidate gene that brings new insights into the epigenetic control and later development of diseases. In this view, we have postulated that epigenetic modifications in the ACE gene might show different interactions between birth weight (BW), blood pressure levels, plasma ACE activity and ACE I/D polymorphism. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the DNA methylation of 3 CpG sites using pyrosequencing within the ACE gene promoter of peripheral blood leukocytes from 45 LBW children compared with 70 NBW children. Our results have revealed that LBW children have lower methylation levels (P<0.001) in parallel with a higher ACE activity (P = 0.001). Adjusting for prematurity, gender, age, body mass index, and family history of cardiovascular disease did not alter these findings. We have also performed analyses of individual CpG sites. The frequency of DNA methylation was significantly different at two CpG sites (site 1: nucleotide position +555; and site 3: nucleotide position +563). In addition, we have found a significant inverse correlation between degree of DNA methylation and both ACE activity (P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure levels (P<0.001). We also observed that the methylation level was significantly lower in LBW children who are carriers of the DD genotype compared to NBW children with DD genotype (P<0.024). In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that the hypomethylation in the 3 CpG sites of ACE gene promoter is associated with LBW in 6 to 12 year-old children. The magnitude of these epigenetic changes appears to be clinically important, which is supported by the observation that discrete changes in DNA methylation can affect systolic blood pressure and ACE protein activity levels. PMID:25170764

  16. Advancements in the safe identification of explosives using a Raman handheld instrument (ACE-ID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Kittredge, Marina; Sparano, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify bulk solid and liquid phase unknown samples without the need to contact the substance. Materials can be identified through transparent and semi-translucent containers such as plastic and glass. ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require the redesign of conventional laboratory units for: field portability; shock, thermal and chemical attack resistance; easy and intuitive use in restrictive gear; reduced size, weight, and power. This article introduces a new handheld instrument (ACE-IDTM) designed to take Raman technology to the next level in terms of size, safety, speed, and analytical performance. ACE-ID is ruggedized for use in severe climates and terrains. It is lightweight and can be operated with just one hand. An intuitive software interface guides users through the entire identification process, making it easy-to-use by personnel of different skill levels including military explosive ordinance disposal technicians, civilian bomb squads and hazmat teams. Through the use of embedded advanced algorithms, the instrument is capable of providing fluorescence correction and analysis of binary mixtures. Instrument calibration is performed automatically upon startup without requiring user intervention. ACE-ID incorporates an optical rastering system that diffuses the laser energy over the sample. This important innovation significantly reduces the heat induced in dark samples and the probability of ignition of susceptible explosive materials. In this article, the explosives identification performance of the instrument will be provided in addition to a quantitative evaluation of the safety improvements derived from the reduced ignition probabilities.

  17. Climatic context of the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1): A meteorological and chemical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainsworth, A. H. W.; Dick, A. L.; Gras, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    During the intensive field operations period (November 15 to December 14, 1995) of the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) cold front activity was generally above average, resulting in below average temperatures, pressures, and rainfall. The principal cause was the presence for much of the experiment of a long wave trough. This trough was mobile, traversing the ACE area during the project, with some warm anomalies evident in the areas under the influence of the long wave ridges. There is evidence of greater convective activity than normal possibly leading to a slightly deeper than average mixing layer. A greater west to northwesterly component to the air flow than average during November appears to have led to higher than average concentrations of radon and particles in the clean, marine or "baseline" sector at Cape Grim (190° to 280°). This is likely to have resulted from inclusion of continental air from western parts of the Australian mainland in the baseline sector winds. Although aerosol-bound sulfur species were generally near their normal concentrations across the ACE 1 area, the overall pattern including atmospheric dimethylsulfide suggests slightly higher than usual sulfur species levels in the southern part of the region and lower concentrations in the northern part during November. This could be related to changes in marine biogenie productivity, air-sea exchange, or atmospheric removal. In December, the changing long wave pattern brought an increase in south and southwesterly flow over the entire region. The baseline sector became less affected by continental species, but it appears that the colder conditions brought by this pattern have led to lower than usual atmospheric concentrations of biogenie species, as the region went into one of the coldest summers on record.

  18. A Global Aerosol Model Forecast for the ACE-Asia Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Lucchesi, Robert; Huebert, Barry; Weber, Rodney; Anderson, Tad; Masonis, Sarah; Blomquist, Byron; Bandy, Alan; Thornton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of aerosol forecast during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) field experiment in spring 2001, using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and the meteorological forecast fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The aerosol model forecast provides direct information on aerosol optical thickness and concentrations, enabling effective flight planning, while feedbacks from measurements constantly evaluate the model, making successful model improvements. We verify the model forecast skill by comparing model predicted total aerosol extinction, dust, sulfate, and SO2 concentrations with those quantities measured by the C-130 aircraft during the ACE-Asia intensive operation period. The GEOS DAS meteorological forecast system shows excellent skills in predicting winds, relative humidity, and temperature for the ACE-Asia experiment area as well as for each individual flight, with skill scores usually above 0.7. The model is also skillful in forecast of pollution aerosols, with most scores above 0.5. The model correctly predicted the dust outbreak events and their trans-Pacific transport, but it constantly missed the high dust concentrations observed in the boundary layer. We attribute this missing dust source to the desertification regions in the Inner Mongolia Province in China, which have developed in recent years but were not included in the model during forecasting. After incorporating the desertification sources, the model is able to reproduce the observed high dust concentrations at low altitudes over the Yellow Sea. Two key elements for a successful aerosol model forecast are correct source locations that determine where the emissions take place, and realistic forecast winds and convection that determine where the aerosols are transported. We demonstrate that our global model can not only account for the large

  19. Dust Aerosols at the Source Region During ACE-ASIA: A Surface/Satellite Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  20. Characterization of Dust Properties at the Source Region During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally-occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, east coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS overpass, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with MODIS retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  1. Binding of ACE-inhibitors to in vitro and patient-derived amyloid-β fibril models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavaraju, Manikanthan; Phillips, Malachi; Bowman, Deborah; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan M.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, no drugs exist that can prevent or reverse Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disease associated with the presence, in the brain, of plaques that are composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Recent studies suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, a set of drugs used to treat hypertension, may inhibit amyloid formation in vitro. In the present study, we investigate through computer simulations the binding of ACE inhibitors to patient-derived Aβ fibrils and contrast it with that of ACE inhibitors binding to in vitro generated fibrils. The binding affinities of the ACE inhibitors are compared with that of Congo red, a dye that is used to identify amyloid structures and that is known to be a weak inhibitor of Aβ aggregation. We find that ACE inhibitors have a lower binding affinity to the patient-derived fibrils than to in vitro generated ones. For patient-derived fibrils, their binding affinities are even lower than that of Congo red. Our observations raise doubts on the hypothesis that these drugs inhibit fibril formation in Alzheimer patients by interacting directly with the amyloids.

  2. Upstream ion events with hard energy spectra: Lessons for their origin from a comparative statistical study (ACE/Geotail)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkakis, M. G.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.; Vassiliadis, E. S.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we present statistical results from a comparison of ion events observed almost simultaneously by the Geotail spacecraft near the Earth's bow shock and by ACE moving around the libration point L1 (∼220 km). The main result of this study is that important features of the ACE ion events, as for instance, the ion flux, the ion energy spectral slope, and the particle composition, change drastically through propagation from the magnetosphere to the L1 point. Among other results we found that the ACE events show (1) a strong spectral hardening compared to the spectral index γGeotail value observed just outside the magnetosphere. It is a decreased value by an average factor<γGeotail/γACE>≈3, and (2) a percentage as low as ∼22% of the Geotail electron events which is accompanied by the presence of electrons at the position of ACE. We infer that a short duration ion event with a hard “solar” type energy spectrum, which is non-accompanied by energetic electrons, can originate from the Earth's magnetosphere, and that therefore, these results should be taken into account in space weather prediction research. More detailed information on the varying features of traveling ions and electrons from the bow shock to far distances are important with respect to the problem of their origin and are also presented and discussed in the paper.

  3. The impact of photo-induced molecular changes of dairy proteins on their ACE-inhibitory peptides and activity.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Shrestha, Kshitij; Van Camp, John; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Among all dietary proteins, dairy proteins are the most important source of bio-active peptides which can, however, be affected by modifications upon processing and storage. Since it is still unknown to which extent the biological activity of dairy proteins is altered by chemical reactions, this study focuses on the effect of photo-induced molecular changes on the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Milk proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer containing riboflavin and stored under light at 4 °C for one month during which the molecular changes and the ACE-inhibitory activity were analysed. An increase in the total protein carbonyls and the N-formylkynurenine content was observed, besides a decrease in the free thiol, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine content. These changes were more severe in caseins compared with whey proteins and resulted moreover in the aggregation of caseins. Due to these photo-induced molecular changes, a significant loss of the ACE-inhibitory activity was observed for casein peptides. A peptide analysis moreover illustrated that the decreased activity was not attributed to a reduced digestibility but to losses of specific ACE-inhibitory peptides. The observed molecular changes, more specifically the degradation of specific amino acids and the casein aggregation, could be assigned as the cause of the altered peptide pattern and as such of the loss in ACE-inhibitory activity.

  4. ACE inhibition with captopril retards the development of signs of neurodegeneration in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    AbdAlla, Said; Langer, Andreas; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2013-08-16

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant pathological feature in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental evidence indicates that inhibition of brain ROS could be beneficial in slowing the neurodegenerative process triggered by amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregates. The angiotensin II AT1 receptor is a significant source of brain ROS, and AD patients have an increased brain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level, which could account for an excessive angiotensin-dependent AT1-induced ROS generation. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of ACE inhibition on signs of neurodegeneration of aged Tg2576 mice as a transgenic animal model of AD. Whole genome microarray gene expression profiling and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril normalized the excessive hippocampal ACE activity of AD mice. Concomitantly, the development of signs of neurodegeneration was retarded by six months of captopril treatment. The neuroprotective profile triggered by captopril was accompanied by reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and decreased hippocampal ROS, which is known to enhance Abeta generation by increased activation of beta- and gamma-secretases. Taken together, our data present strong evidence that ACE inhibition with a widely used cardiovascular drug could interfere with Abeta-dependent neurodegeneration.

  5. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and expression in rat central nervous system after sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Visniauskas, Bruna; Oliveira, Vitor; Carmona, Adriana K; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Melo, Robson L; Tufik, Sérgio; Chagas, Jair R

    2011-04-01

    Proteases are essential either for the release of neuropeptides from active or inactive proteins or for their inactivation. Neuropeptides have a fundamental role in sleep-wake cycle regulation and their actions are also likely to be regulated by proteolytic processing. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates, specific protease inhibitors and real-time PCR we demonstrate changes in angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expression and proteolytic activity in the central nervous system in an animal model of paradoxical sleep deprivation during 96 h (PSD). Male rats were distributed into five groups (PSD, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of sleep recovery after PSD and control). ACE activity and mRNA levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, cerebral cortex and striatum tissue extracts. In the hypothalamus, the significant decrease in activity and mRNA levels, after PSD, was only totally reversed after 96 h of sleep recovery. In the brainstem and hippocampus, although significant, changes in mRNA do not parallel changes in ACE specific activity. Changes in ACE activity could affect angiotensin II generation, angiotensin 1-7, bradykinin and opioid peptides metabolism. ACE expression and activity modifications are likely related to some of the physiological changes (cardiovascular, stress, cognition, metabolism function, water and energy balance) observed during and after sleep deprivation.

  6. Inhibition of MAPK-mediated ACE expression by compound C66 prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong; Huang, Yi; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Qilu; Sun, Yusheng; Tong, Chao; Peng, Kesong; Wang, Yangwei; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu; Zhao, Yunjie; Liang, Guang

    2014-02-01

    A range of in vitro, experimental and clinical intervention studies have implicated an important role for hyperglycaemia-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Blockade of RAS by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is an effective strategy in treating diabetic kidney diseases. However, few studies demonstrate the mechanism by which hyperglycaemia up-regulates the expression of ACE gene. Our previous studies have identified a novel curcumin analogue, (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene)cyclohexanone (C66), which could inhibit the high glucose (HG)-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mouse macrophages. In this study, we found that the renal protection of C66 in diabetic mice was associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inactivation and ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) down-regulation. Generally, MAPKs have been considered as a downstream signalling of Ang II and a mediator for Ang II-induced pathophysiological actions. However, using C66 and specific inhibitors as small molecule probes, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the MAPK signalling pathway regulates ACE expression under HG stimulation, which contributes to renal Ang II activation and the development of DN. This study indicates that C66 is a potential candidate of DN therapeutic agents, and more importantly, that reduction in ACE expression by MAPKs inhibition seems to be an alternative strategy for the treatment of DN.

  7. Heavy Ion Flux Comparison of MARIE and ACE/CRIS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Andersen, V.; Atwell, W.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Pinsky, L.; Saganti, P.; Turner, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2003-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) has been observed during the cruise phase and in orbit around Mars by the MARIE charge particle spectrometer aboard the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data was taken between April 23, 2001 and August 11, 2001. The Mars orbit data was taken from March 5, 2002 through December 2002. Both the cruise data set and the orbital data set are compared with the simultaneous observations made by the CRIS instrument aboard the ACE space-craft, located at L1. Any detectable differences between the two spacecraft data sets could lead to the understanding of the radial dependence of solar modulation.

  8. Final Overview of ACES Simulation for Evaluation SARP Well-Clear Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Confesor; Johnson, Marcus A.; Isaacson, Doug; Hershey, David

    2014-01-01

    The UAS in the NAS project is studying the minimum operational performance standards for unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) detect-and-avoid (DAA) system in order to operate in the National Airspace System. The DoD's Science and research Panel (SARP) Well-Clear Workshop is investigating the time and spatial boundary at which an UAS violates well-clear. NASA is supporting this effort through use of its Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) simulation platform. This briefing presents the final results to the SARP, which will be used to judge the three candidate well-clear definitions, and for the selection of the most operationally suitable option.

  9. Dual ACE and neutral endopeptidase inhibitors: novel therapy for patients with cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Tabrizchi, Reza

    2003-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, cardiac failure and cerebrovascular disease. The prevailing view is that an elevated systolic rather than diastolic blood pressure is the major contributor in mortality and morbidity attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Isolated high systolic blood pressure, especially in the elderly, is a major risk factor and should undoubtedly be a target for drug treatment. In the general population, systolic and diastolic blood pressure are highly correlated, and thus it is difficult to dissociate the effects of these two components of the blood pressure and specifically ascribe cardiovascular risk factors to just elevated systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the goal in therapy of an individual with hypertension must be to reduce elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure in order to reduce mortality and morbidity. ACE and neutral peptidase inhibitors are a new class of drugs that may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension and heart failure. They may also be useful in the treatment of diabetic patients with hypertension and/or heart failure. Drugs of this class are dual inhibitors of ACE and neutral endopeptidase, and are capable of affecting vascular tone and fluid balance. They are capable of producing vasodilatation by virtue of inhibiting the production of angiotensin II, degradation of natriuretic peptides and bradykinin. They also appear to promote natriuresis and diuresis by amplifying the actions of natriuretic peptidase and reducing aldosterone effects. In addition, they should also attenuate trophogenic actions of the renin angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. Omapatrilat is one drug that appears to be at the advanced stages of clinical development. This drug has been shown to be quite effective in the treatment of hypertension. Evidence also seems to indicate that treatment

  10. ACE inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ... In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ...

  11. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Glenn [R-PA-5

    2013-07-11

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. ACE Troubleshooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michelle N-K

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the appointment of William B. Harvey as the new head of the American Council of Education's Office of Minorities in Higher Education. Notes the high expectations for Harvey, his goal of increasing partnerships between postsecondary and K-12 educational institutions, and his ideas for utilizing the Council's annual minority status…

  13. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2011-12-01

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Synthesis and biological studies of highly concentrated lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles for CT tracking of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghann, William E.; Aras, Omer; Fleiter, Thorsten; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    For patients with a history of heart attack or stroke, the prevention of another cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event is crucial. The development of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with overexpression of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown great potential as X-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Since lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor, it has been used as coating on GNPs for targeted imaging of tissue ACE in prevention of fibrosis. Herein, lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles (LIS-GNPs) were synthesized up to a concentration of 55 mgAu/mL. Their contrast was measured using CT and the results were compared to Omnipaque, a commonly used iodine-based contrast agent. The targeting ability of these LIS-GNPs was also assessed.

  15. Airborne polarimeter intercomparison for the NASA Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeter prototypes, including the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  16. Binding constant determination of uranyl-citrate complex by ACE using a multi-injection method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Li, Linnan; Huang, Hexiang; Xu, Linnan; Li, Ze; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-04-01

    The binding constant determination of uranyl with small-molecule ligands such as citric acid could provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of the study of uranyl complexation, which is of considerable importance for multiple purposes. In this work, the binding constant of uranyl-citrate complex was determined by ACE. Besides the common single-injection method, a multi-injection method to measure the electrophoretic mobility was also applied. The BGEs used contained HClO4 and NaClO4 , with a pH of 1.98 ± 0.02 and ionic strength of 0.050 mol/L, then citric acid was added to reach different concentrations. The electrophoretic mobilities of the uranyl-citrate complex measured by both of the two methods were consistent, and then the binding constant was calculated by nonlinear fitting assuming that the reaction had a 1:1 stoichiometry and the complex was [(UO2 )(Cit)](-) . The binding constant obtained by the multi-injection method was log K = 9.68 ± 0.07, and that obtained by the single-injection method was log K = 9.73 ± 0.02. The results provided additional knowledge of the uranyl-citrate system, and they demonstrated that compared with other methods, ACE using the multi-injection method could be an efficient, fast, and simple way to determine electrophoretic mobilities and to calculate binding constants.

  17. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup –1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup –1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  18. ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE measurements of interplanetary oxygen injection to the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a significant oxygen-rich interplanetary event was measure by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument. At the same time the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument recorded significant enhancements of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere. We present a detailed analysis of this event utilizing a new method of exploiting the EPAM Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) data to precisely resolve helium and oxygen spectra within the 0.5 to 5 MeV/nuc range. We also present the flux, partial particle pressures, and pitch angle distributions of the ion measurements from RBSPICE. During this event, both EPAM and RBSPICE measured O:He ratios greater than 10:1. The pitch angle distributions from RBSPICE-B show a strong beam of oxygen at an L ~ 5.8 early on March 17th during orbit. The timing between the observations of the oxygen peak at ACE and the beam observed at RBSPICE-B is consistent with the travel-time required for energetic particle transport from L1 to Earth and access to the magnetosphere. We assert that the oxygen seen by RBSPICE during the initial phase of this event is the result of direct injection from the interplanetary medium of energetic ions. This poster contains the observations and detailed calculations to support this assertion.

  19. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin.

  20. Multiple duplications of the rare ace-1 mutation F290V in Culex pipiens natural populations.

    PubMed

    Alout, Haoués; Labbé, Pierrick; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Pasteur, Nicole; Weill, Mylène

    2009-12-01

    Two amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1), G119S and F290V, are responsible for resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. These mutations generate very different levels of insensitivity to insecticide inhibitors. We described here a biochemical method that rapidly identifies AChE1 variants (susceptible, G119S and F290V, named S, R and V, respectively) present in individual mosquitoes. We investigated the frequency of AChE1 phenotypes in 41 field samples collected around the Mediterranean Sea. F290V substitution was found only in 15 samples and at low frequency, whereas G119S was highly spread in all samples. However, seven V distinct alleles were identified whereas only one R allele was present. The [V] enzymatic phenotype was never observed alone, and the V allele was always found associated with the susceptible and/or G119S AChE1 ([VS], [VR] or [VRS] phenotypes). Furthermore, we showed the presence of duplicated alleles, associating a susceptible and a V copy of the ace-1 gene, in most individuals analyzed for its presence. Evolutionary forces driving the large number of F290V ace-1 alleles and their low frequency in Mediterranean countries are discussed.

  1. Analysis of WakeVAS Benefits Using ACES Build 3.2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.

    2005-01-01

    The FAA and NASA are currently engaged in a Wake Turbulence Research Program to revise wake turbulence separation standards, procedures, and criteria to increase airport capacity while maintaining or increasing safety. The research program is divided into three phases: Phase I near term procedural enhancements; Phase II wind dependent Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concepts of Operations (ConOps); and Phase III farther term ConOps based on wake prediction and sensing. This report contains an analysis that evaluates the benefits of a closely spaced parallel runway (CSPR) Phase I ConOps, a single runway and CSPR Phase II ConOps and a single runway Phase III ConOps. A series of simulation runs were performed using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) Build 3.21 air traffic simulator to provide an initial assessment of the reduction in delay and cost savings obtained by the use of a WakeVAS at selected U.S. airports. The ACES simulator is being developed by NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Virtual Airspace Modelling and Simulation (VAMS) program.

  2. Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) Observations of Ionospheric Feedback in the Alfven Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Lessard, Marc; Lund, Eric J.; Bounds, Scott R.; Kletzing, Craig; Kaeppler, Stephen R.; Sigsbee, Kristine M.; Streltsov, Anatoly V.; Labelle, James W.; Dombrowski, Micah P.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Rowland, Doug; Jones, Sarah; Anderson, Brian Jay; Heinselman, Craig J.; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Dudok de Wit, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) High and Low sounding rockets were launched from the Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) in Alaska, with the science objective of gathering in-situ data to quantify current closure in a discrete auroral arc. As ACES High crossed through the return current of an arc (that was monitored using an all sky camera from the ground at Fort Yukon), its instruments recorded clear Alfv nic signatures both poleward and equatorward of the return current region, but not within the main region of the return current itself. These data provide an excellent opportunity to study ionospheric feedback and how it interacts with the Alfv n resonator. We compare the observations with predictions and new results from a model of ionospheric feedback in the ionospheric Alfv n resonator (IAR) and report the significance and impact of these new data for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfv n Resonator (MICA) rocket mission to launch from PFRR this winter. MICA s primary science objectives specifically focus on better understanding the small-scale structure that the model predicts should exist within the return current region.

  3. First Measurements of the HCFC-142b Trend from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Solar Occultation Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Boone,Chris; Bernath, Peter; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first measurement of the HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) trend near the tropopause has been derived from volume mixing ratio (VMR) measurements at northern and southern hemisphere mid-latitudes for the 2004-2008 time period from spaceborne solar occultation observations recorded at 0.02/cm resolution with the ACE (atmospheric chemistry experiment) Fourier transform spectrometer. The HCFC-142b molecule is currently the third most abundant HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) in the atmosphere and ACE measurements over this time span show a continuous rise in its volume mixing ratio. Monthly average measurements at northern and southern hemisphere midlatitudes have similar increase rates that are consistent with surface trend measurements for a similar time span. A mean northern hemisphere profile for the time span shows a near constant VMR at 8-20km altitude range, consistent on average for the same time span with in situ results. The nearly constant vertical VMR profile also agrees with model predictions of a long lifetime in the lower atmosphere.

  4. Progress in Airborne Polarimeter Inter Comparison for the NASA Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Redemann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeters, including the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  5. Airborne Polarimeter Intercomparison for the NASA Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Redemann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeters, including the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  6. Radiation damage to the lung: mitigation by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Medhora, Meetha; Gao, Feng; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Moulder, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Concern regarding accidental overexposure to radiation has been raised after the devastating Tohuku earthquake and tsunami which initiated the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, in March 2011. Radiation exposure is toxic and can be fatal depending on the dose received. Injury to the lung is often reported as part of multi-organ failure in victims of accidental exposures. Doses of radiation >8 Gray to the chest can induce pneumonitis with right ventricular hypertrophy starting after ~2 months. Higher doses may be followed by pulmonary fibrosis that presents months to years after exposure. Though the exact mechanisms of radiation lung damage are not known, experimental animal models have been widely used to study this injury. Rodent models for pneumonitis and fibrosis exhibit vascular, parenchymal and pleural injuries to the lung. Inflammation is a part of the injuries suggesting involvement of the immune system. Researchers world-wide have tested a number of interventions to prevent or mitigate radiation lung injury. One of the first and most successful class of mitigators are inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme that is abundant in the lung. These results offer hope that lung injury from radiation accidents may be mitigated, since the ACE inhibitor captopril was effective when started up to one week after irradiation. PMID:22023053

  7. Temperature and pressure retrievals from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): a new technique and comparison with COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kevin; Strong, Kimberly; Toon, Geoff; Boone, Chris

    We present results of a new technique to retrieve temperature and pressure profiles from satellite remote sensing spectra collected by the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), which recently celebrated its tenth year in orbit. ACE utilizes a high-resolution (0.02 cm (-1) ) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating between 750-4400 cm (-1) in limb-scanning mode using the sun as a light source (solar occultation). This technique benefits from high signal strength, high resolution, and self calibration. The CSA and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a proposal to send a similar instrument to Mars: the Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Occultation Spectrometer (MATMOS, later canceled). To support this we have developed a new set of retrieval algorithms based on GGG used by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and have applied these algorithms to ACE-FTS data. When performing temperature retrievals, the current approach of the ACE team is to fix the volume mixing ratio of CO_2 and carry out spectral fitting, varying temperature. While this method works very well and has been well validated, it relies on several assumptions, emph{a priori} knowledge, and data from models. Operating at another planet, these emph{a priori} are unknown and the models have not been developed to a suitable level. We demonstrate that by analyzing vibration-rotation bands of CO_2, we can retrieve vertical profiles of both temperature and pressure. Our retrieved temperature profiles are compared to those from ACE and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), and are used to retrieve volume mixing ratio vertical profiles for several gases, such as methane. The effects that variability in temperature and pressure have on retrieved VMR profiles is shown and retrieved VMR profiles are compared with those from ACE.

  8. Lack of Association Between ACE Indel Polymorphism and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Physically Active and Sedentary Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Verlengia, Rozangela; Rebelo, Ana C.; Crisp, Alex H.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; dos Santos Carneiro Cordeiro, Marco A.; Hirata, Mario H.; Crespo Hirata, Rosario D.; Silva, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polymorphisms at the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), such as the indel [rs1799752] variant in intron 16, have been shown to be associated with aerobic performance of athletes and non-athletes. However, the relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been always demonstrated. Objectives: The relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness was investigated in a sample of young Caucasian Brazilian women. Patients and Methods: This study investigated 117 healthy women (aged 18 to 30 years) who were grouped as physically active (n = 59) or sedentary (n = 58). All subjects performed an incremental exercise test (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer with 20-25 W/min increments. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and to analyze metabolic and hormonal profiles. ACE indel polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragment size analysis. Results: The physically active group had higher values of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), ventilation (VE) and power output than the sedentary group (P < 0.05) at the peak of the exercise test. However, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ between groups. There was no relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory variables during the test in both the physically active and sedentary groups, even when the dominant (DD vs. D1 + 2) and recessive (2 vs. DI + DD) models of inheritance were tested. Conclusions: These results do not support the concept that the genetic variation at the ACE locus contributes to the cardiorespiratory responses at the peak of exercise test in physically active or sedentary healthy women. This indicates that other factors might mediate these responses, including the physical training level of the women. PMID:25520764

  9. Arabidopsis cell-free extract, ACE, a new in vitro translation system derived from Arabidopsis callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Murota, Katsunori; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Komoda, Keisuke; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Naito, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The analysis of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in plants has benefited greatly from the use of cell-free extract systems. Arabidopsis as a model system provides extensive genetic resources; however, to date a suitable cell-free translation system from Arabidopsis has not been available. In this study, we devised an Arabidopsis cell-free extract (ACE) to be used for in vitro translation studies. Protoplasts were prepared from callus cultures derived from Arabidopsis seedlings, and cell-free extracts were prepared after evacuolation of the protoplasts by Percoll gradient centrifugation. The new ACE system exhibits translation activity comparable with that of the wheat germ extract system. We demonstrated that ACE prepared from the 5'-3' exoribonuclease-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis, xrn4-5, exhibited increased stability of an uncapped mRNA as compared with that from wild-type Arabidopsis. We applied the ACE system to study post-transcriptional regulation of AtCGS1. AtCGS1 codes for cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) that catalyzes the first committed step of methionine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) biosynthesis in plants, and is feedback regulated by mRNA degradation coupled with translation elongation arrest. The ACE system was capable of reproducing translation elongation arrest and subsequent AtCGS1 mRNA degradation that are induced by AdoMet. The ACE system described here can be prepared in a month after seed sowing and will make it possible to study post-transcriptional regulation of plant genes while taking advantage of the genetics of Arabidopsis.

  10. Effects of Common Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ACE Genes on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Progression: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Han, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Zezhi; Guan, Yangtai

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in the development of DPN. We systematically reviewed published studies on MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms and DPN found in various types of electronic databases. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) quality score systems were used to determine the quality of the articles selected for inclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated. We used STATA statistical software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) to deal with statistical data. Our results indicated an association of ACE D>I mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12-1.83, P = 0.004) and MTHFR 677 C>T mutation (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08-1.90, P = 0.014) with DPN under the allele model, and similar results were also found under the dominant model (all P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis by country indicated that the MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism may be the main risk factor for DPN in Turkey under four genetic models. ACE D>I mutation was correlated with DPN in Japanese and Pakistani populations in the majority of groups. The relationships of MTHFR 677 C>T and ACE I/D polymorphisms with DPN patients presented in this meta-analyses support the view that the MTHFR and ACE genes might play an important role in the development of DPN.

  11. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P < 0.05 versus SHR) but did not influence altered cardiac RAS expression. Increased blood pressure in SHR (149 ± 2 in SHR versus 109 ± 2 mmHg in Wistar; P < 0.05) was associated with a lower renal expressions of renin, Agtr1a and Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05 versus SHR), however, only renal renin and ACE2 were significantly up-regulated (for both P < 0.05 versus SHR). Conclusively, prevention of hypertension and LV hypertrophy development by losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.

  12. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  13. Design and implementation of robust decentralized control laws for the ACES structure at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Phillips, Douglas J.; Hyland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Many large space system concepts will require active vibration control to satisfy critical performance requirements such as line-of-sight accuracy. In order for these concepts to become operational it is imperative that the benefits of active vibration control be practically demonstrated in ground based experiments. The results of the experiment successfully demonstrate active vibration control for a flexible structure. The testbed is the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) structure at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The ACES structure is dynamically traceable to future space systems and especially allows the study of line-of-sight control issues.

  14. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. Methods The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Results Six extracts revealed > 50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 μg/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2 ± 1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9 ± 1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3 ± 1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2 ± 2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9 ± 2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3 ± 1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410 ± 101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7 ± 0.03 μg/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.15 μg/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.06 μg/ml) as the positive controls. Conclusions In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds. PMID:24359711

  15. The ACEE program and basic composites research at Langley Research Center (1975 to 1986): Summary and bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.

    1987-01-01

    Composites research conducted at the Langley Research Center during the period from 1975 to 1986 is described, and an annotated bibliography of over 600 documents (with their abstracts) is presented. The research includes Langley basic technology and the composite primary structures element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program. The basic technology documents cited in the bibliography are grouped according to the research activity such as design and analysis, fatigue and fracture, and damage tolerance. The ACEE documents cover development of composite structures for transport aircraft.

  16. Educators on the Edge: Big Ideas for Change and Innovation. Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference Proceedings (Brisbane, Australia, September 24-25, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn, Ed.; Ghirelli, Paola S., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Australian College of Educators (ACE) National Conference theme is "Educators on the Edge: Big Ideas for Change and Innovation." ACE presented an opportunity for all education professionals to gather, discuss, and share cutting-edge, creative and innovative practices, nationally and globally at the conference held on September…

  17. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl(-) channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl(-) secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca(2+)]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl(-) current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling.

  18. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  19. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  20. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  1. Coordinated Observations of Energetic Particles from 3He-rich Events by STEREO and ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Mason, G. M.; Cohen, C. M.; Nitta, N. V.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Haggerty, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The two STEREOs, together with ACE and other near-Earth spacecraft, have produced data sets that are well suited for investigating how 3He-rich energetic particles that are accelerated in reconnection events on the Sun get distributed in heliographic longitude. Our earlier study[1] of one such 3He-rich event (7 February 2010), which was detected at ACE and both STEREOs when they spanned 136o, showed that accelerated particles can be distributed over a wide range of longitudes even when they originate from a localized solar source. In addition, the particle fluences were found to decrease strongly with increasing distance from the longitude having the best magnetic connection to the source region. Based on data from the first four years of the STEREO mission, when solar activity was very low, we have used additional 3He-rich events detected by one or both of the STEREO/LET instruments and, in some cases also by ACE/ULEIS and/or SIS, to investigate the conditions under which the accelerated particles can gain access to a wide range of heliographic longitudes and to determine the longitudinal dependences of particle fluences in such events. During 2011 and 2012, when the level of solar activity has been significantly greater than in the preceding four years, unambiguous association of events detected at different spacecraft has been hampered by the possibility of chance coincidences between detections of particles from separate solar events as well as by the increased energetic particle background levels. We have investigated the possibility that event characteristics such as composition can be use to confirm that some events detected at widely spaced locations are associated with the same injection at the Sun. Such associations have the potential to extend the longitude range over which 3He-rich events can be studied and also to investigate the solar-cycle dependence of longitudinal spreading. We will report results from the statistical study of events that occurred

  2. Technology advancement for the ASCENDS mission using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Antill, C.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Cleckner, C.; Dijoseph, M. S.; Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B. L.; Mills, C.; Nehrir, A. R.; Notari, A.; Prasad, N. S.; Kooi, S. A.; Vitullo, N.; Dobler, J. T.; Bender, J.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Horney, S.; McGregor, D.; Neal, M.; Shure, M.; Zaccheo, T.; Moore, B.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Welch, W.

    2013-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center project funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technologies being advanced are: (1) multiple transmitter and telescope-aperture operations, (2) high-efficiency CO2 laser transmitters, (3) a high bandwidth detector and transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The instrument architecture is being developed for ACES to operate on a high-altitude aircraft, and it will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The above technologies are critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. This design employs several laser transmitters and telescope-apertures to demonstrate column CO2 retrievals with alignment of multiple laser beams in the far-field. ACES will transmit five laser beams: three from commercial lasers operating near 1.57-microns, and two from the Exelis atmospheric oxygen (O2) fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26-microns. The Master Oscillator Power Amplifier at 1.57-microns measures CO2 column concentrations using an Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach. O2 column amounts needed for calculating the CO2 mixing ratio will be retrieved using the Exelis laser system with a similar IPDA approach. The three aperture telescope design was built to meet the constraints of the Global Hawk high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This assembly integrates fiber-coupled transmit collimators for all of the laser transmitters and fiber-coupled optical signals from the three telescopes to the aft optics and detector package. The detector

  3. [The new drug is much more effective than ACE inhibitors in chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Sr, Jiří Widimský

    2015-02-01

    PARADIGM-HF study observed clinical outcomes after treatment by new drug LCZ696 or enalapril in patients with systolic chronic heart failure. It was randomized double-blind trial with LCZ696 (200 mg twice a day) and enalapril (10 mg twice a day). 8442 patients were enrolled with NYHA class II or III and left ventricular ejection fiction of 40% or less. Study drugs were added to other recommended medication. The trial was prematurely terminated after median follow-up of 27 months. The primary endpoint of the study was a combination of cardiovascular mortality and the first hospitalization for heart failure. LCZ696 drug, an inhibitor of angiotensin receptor and neprilysin (Arnie), has led to a reduction in the primary composite target by 20% (p <0.001). The treatment has decreased cardiovascular mortality by 20%, p <0.001 and hospitalization for worsening heart failure by 21%, p <0.001. LCZ696 has also decreased total mortality by 16%, p <0.001. The use of LCZ696 has been accompanied by frequent symptomatic hypotension and hypotension with a decrease in systolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg, however, LCZ696 was less often associated with an increase in serum creatinine and serum potassium than enalapril. In addition, cough has occurred less frequently after LCZ696 than after enalapril. Discontinuation of therapy occurred in 746 patients (17.8%) treated with LCZ696 and in 833 patients (19.8%) treated with enalapril (19.8%) (p = 0.02). PARADIGM-HF study has also shown superiority of LCZ696 compared to ACE inhibitors in stable outpatients with chronic systolic heart failure NYHA stages II and III. Therefore, LCZ696 is more effective than ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin receptor blockers). Moreover, it is well tolerated. LCZ696 seems to replace the ACE inhibitors in mentioned patients. The authors also discuss the results of the first randomized study PARAMOUNT investigating LCZ696 efficacy in patients with chronic heart failure and good left ventricular ejection

  4. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  5. Atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements from the ACE-MAESTRO space instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, Caroline Rebecca

    A method is developed and tested for determining atmospheric pressure and temperature from space using spectral absorption by the A and B bands of molecular oxygen as measured by the MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) space instrument in solar occultation mode. MAESTRO is the UV-visible-near-infrared dual grating spectrometer component of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) scientific payload, and was launched in August 2003 on the SciSat satellite to investigate atmospheric processes affecting the stratospheric ozone distribution. On-orbit measurements of pressure and temperature are desirable for accurate retrievals of other atmospheric constituents from the instrument, and as independent data products. The constant mixing ratio of molecular oxygen is exploited in these retrievals to derive atmospheric density profiles from oxygen absorption, and the density profiles are then converted to pressure and temperature using hydrostatic balance and the ideal gas taw. A highly accurate fast forward model is developed using a fast-line-by-line approach for modelling the high spectral resolution oxygen absorption lines, and a correlated-k technique is used to calculate analytic weighting functions for the retrieval of density. A global fitting algorithm is developed to simultaneously fit all spectra from one occultation. Retrieval characterization shows a small amount of information is added by the inclusion of the weaker B band to a retrieval using the strong A band absorption, and tests with real data show the B band retrievals alone are less sensitive to instrument characterization uncertainties and perform better than A band retrievals at altitudes below 30 km. The new algorithm is applied to 230 occultation observations collected in the Arctic winter, Arctic spring, and tropical regions, and during the Eureka 2004 and 2005 ACE validation campaigns in the high Arctic. Comparisons with

  6. 78 FR 69434 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in ACE Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test: Modifications and Clarifications AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... (ESAR IV) test program concerning the processing of post-summary corrections (PSCs) to entry summaries that are filed in the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). The modifications to the ESAR IV...

  7. ACUTE-TO-CHRONIC ESTIMATION (ACE V 2.0) WITH TIME-CONCENTRATION-EFFECT MODELS: USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ellersieck, Mark R., Amha Asfaw, Foster L. Mayer, Gary F. Krause, Kai Sun and Gunhee Lee. 2003. Acute-to-Chronic Estimation (ACE v2.0) with Time-Concentration-Effect Models: User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/107. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Envi...

  8. Endometriosis and RAS system gene polymorphisms: the association of ACE A2350G polymorphism with endometriosis in Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyńska, Liliana J; Ferenc, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Michał; Mordalska, Anna; Pogoda, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the polymorphisms of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene (insertion/deletion [I/D], A2350G) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (A1166C) in women with endometriosis and to determine the correlation of the identified genotypes with the severity of the disease. Additionally, to estimate the prognostic value of the polymorphisms in patients with endometriosis treated due to infertility. The study group included 241 women, the control group (without endometriosis)-127. The molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. For I/D ACE and A1166C AT1 polymorphisms no significant differences were observed between the study and control groups and between the severity grades of the disease (p>0.05). For A2350G ACE polymorphism the frequency of genotypes for the study and control groups respectively was the following: AA-31.54%, AG-54.36%, GG-14.11% and AA-55.12%, AG-36.22%, GG-8.66% (x(2)=19.36, p<0.0001). Statistically significant differences were found between the frequency of A and G alleles between both groups (x(2)=15.16, p=0.0001), but not when individual grades of the disease severity were compared. There was no association between the investigated polymorphisms and the effect of infertility treatment. A2350G polymorphism (allele G, AG genotype) of ACE gene seems to be associated with the development of endometriosis.

  9. Evaluation of a Web-Based Professional Development Program (Project ACE) for Teachers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Jones, Hazel A.; Emery, Alice Kaye

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and second-year evaluation of Project Autism Competencies for Endorsement (ACE), a web-based professional development (PD) program that is designed to train teachers currently working in the field to meet the unique and diverse needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A…

  10. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  11. High association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Nevin; Yigit, Serbulent; Kalkan, Goknur; Sezer, Saime

    2013-08-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa. Oral ulcers are also the most common feature of Behçet's disease (BD). Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with BD has been reported in Turkish population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and RAS, and evaluate if there was an association with clinical features in a relatively large cohort of Turkish patients. The study included 198 patients affected by RAS and 214 healthy controls. ACE gene I/D polymorphism genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction with I and D allele-specific primers. The genotype and allele frequencies of I/D polymorphism showed statistically significant differences between RAS patients and controls (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). After stratifying RAS patients according to clinical and demographical characteristics, no significant association was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was positively associated with predisposition to develop RAS in Turkish population. Further studies with larger populations are recommended.

  12. MTHFR gene C677T mutation and ACE gene I/D polymorphism in Turkish patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Inanir, Ahmet; Yigit, Serbulent; Tural, Sengul; Cecen, Osman; Yildirim, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disorder resulting in destruction of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis. In recent years, numerous genetic factors have been identified and implicated in osteoarthritis. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T mutation and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) variations on the risk of osteoarthritis. Genomic DNA is obtained from 421 persons (221 patients with osteoarthritis and 200 healthy controls). ACE gene I/D polymorphism genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction using I and D allele-specific primers. The MTHFR C677T mutation was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. We found significant difference between the groups with respect to both ACE and MTHFR genotype distributions (p< 0.001, p< 0.001 respectively). Our study suggests that ACE gene DD genotype and MTHFR gene CC genotype could be used as genetic markers in osteoarthritis in Turkish study populations.

  13. Using the Admitted Class Evaluation Service (ACES) to Conduct Institution-Specific Admission or Placement Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the 23rd Annual Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCU) Conference in Atlanta, GA, in September 2011. Admitted Class Evaluation Service (ACES) is the College Board's free online service that predicts how admitted students will perform at a college or university generally, and how successful students will be in specific…

  14. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  15. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Ship, Aircraft and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Kapustin, V. N.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Durkee, P. A.; Nielsen, K.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.; Covert, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We present analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements taken with a shipboard six-channel tracking sunphotometer during ACE-2. For 10 July 1997, results are also shown for measurements acquired 70 km from the ship with a fourteen-channel airborne tracking sunphotometer.

  16. ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis: A critical regulator of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation and cardiac dysfunction in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaibhav B.; Basu, Ratnadeep; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice. Loss of ACE2 results in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction which is mediated in part by epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Angiotensin 1-7 reduces the obesity associated cardiac dysfunction predominantly via its role in adiponectin expression and attenuation of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Human heart disease is also linked with inflammed epicardial adipose tissue. Here, we discuss the important interpretation of the novel of ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathway in obesity associated cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27617176

  17. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  18. Development of the assessment for collaborative environments (ACE-15): A tool to measure perceptions of interprofessional "teamness".

    PubMed

    Tilden, Virginia P; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Dieckmann, Nathan F

    2016-05-01

    As interprofessional education moves from classroom to clinical settings, assessing clinical training sites for a high level of "teamness" to ensure optimal learning environments is critical but often problematic ahead of student placement. We developed a tool (Assessment for Collaborative Environments, or ACE), suitable for a range of clinical settings and health professionals, that allows rapid assessment of a clinical practice's teamwork qualities. We collected evidence of tool validity including content, response process, internal structure, and convergent validity. Expert review and cognitive interviews allowed reduction of the initial 30-item tool to 15 items (the ACE-15). Data from 192 respondents from 17 clinical professions and varied clinical settings (inpatient, ambulatory, urban, and rural) were used for factor analysis, which resulted in a single factor solution. Internal consistency reliability Cronbach's alpha was high at 0.91. Subgroup analysis of 121 respondents grouped by their clinical teams (n = 16 teams) showed a wide range of intra-team agreement. Data from a subsequent sample of 54 clinicians who completed the ACE-15 and a measure of team cohesion indicated convergent validity, with a correlation of the tools at r = 0.81. We conclude that the ACE-15 has acceptable psychometric properties and promising utility for assessing interprofessional teamness in clinical training sites that are settings for learners, and, in addition may be useful for team development.

  19. An Assessment for Learning System Called ACED: Designing for Learning Effectiveness and Accessibility. Research Report. ETS RR-07-26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie J.; Hansen, Eric G.; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year, NSF-funded research and development project called ACED: Adaptive Content with Evidence-based Diagnosis. The purpose of the project was to design, develop, and evaluate an assessment for learning (AfL) system for diverse students, using Algebra I content related to geometric sequences (i.e., successive numbers…

  20. Structural determinants for binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Daniel; Hanchapola, Iresha; Thomas, Walter G.; Widdop, Robert E.; Smith, Alexander I.; Perlmutter, Patrick; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a zinc carboxypeptidase involved in the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and inactivates the potent vasopressive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) by removing the C-terminal phenylalanine residue to yield Ang1–7. This conversion inactivates the vasoconstrictive action of Ang II and yields a peptide that acts as a vasodilatory molecule at the Mas receptor and potentially other receptors. Given the growing complexity of RAS and level of cross-talk between ligands and their corresponding enzymes and receptors, the design of molecules with selectivity for the major RAS binding partners to control cardiovascular tone is an on-going challenge. In previous studies we used single β-amino acid substitutions to modulate the structure of Ang II and its selectivity for ACE2, AT1R, and angiotensin type 2 (AT2R) receptor. We showed that modification at the C-terminus of Ang II generally resulted in more pronounced changes to secondary structure and ligand binding, and here, we further explore this region for the potential to modulate ligand specificity. In this study, (1) a library of 47 peptides derived from the C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-IHPF) of Ang II was synthesized and assessed for ACE2 binding, (2) the terminal group requirements for high affinity ACE2 binding were explored by and N- and C-terminal modification, (3) high affinity ACE2 binding chimeric AngII analogs were then synthesized and assessed, (4) the structure of the full-length Ang II analogs were assessed by circular dichroism, and (5) the Ang II analogs were assessed for AT1R/AT2R selectivity by cell-based assays. Studies on the C-terminus of Ang II demonstrated varied specificity at different residue positions for ACE2 binding and four Ang II chimeric peptides were identified as selective ligands for the AT2 receptor. Overall, these results provide insight into the residue and structural requirements for ACE2 binding and angiotensin receptor selectivity. PMID

  1. Analysis of Wake VAS Benefits Using ACES Build 3.2.1: VAMS Type 1 Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.

    2005-01-01

    The FAA and NASA are currently engaged in a Wake Turbulence Research Program to revise wake turbulence separation standards, procedures, and criteria to increase airport capacity while maintaining or increasing safety. The research program is divided into three phases: Phase I near term procedural enhancements; Phase II wind dependent Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concepts of Operations (ConOps); and Phase III farther term ConOps based on wake prediction and sensing. The Phase III Wake VAS ConOps is one element of the Virtual Airspace Modelling and Simulation (VAMS) program blended concepts for enhancing the total system wide capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). This report contains a VAMS Program Type 1 (stand-alone) assessment of the expected capacity benefits of Wake VAS at the 35 FAA Benchmark Airports and determines the consequent reduction in delay using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) Build 3.2.1 simulator.

  2. Absence of Cardiac Benefit with Early Combination ACE Inhibitor and Beta Blocker Treatment in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Blain, Alison; Greally, Elizabeth; Laval, Steven H; Blamire, Andrew M; MacGowan, Guy A; Straub, Volker W

    2015-04-01

    Most patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will develop cardiomyopathy; however, the evidence for prophylactic treatment of children with cardiac medications is limited. We have used the mdx mouse model of DMD to assess if early combination treatment with beta blocker (BB) and ACE inhibitor (AI) is superior to single treatment with either one of these drugs. Mice were assessed with cardiac MRI (ventricular structure and function, in vivo calcium influx (manganese-enhanced MRI)), pressure-volume loops, and histopathology. Combination treatment did not show benefits over treatment with AI or BB alone. Indeed, some beneficial aspects of BB and AI were lost when used in combination. None of the treatments impacted RV function. Combination treatment had no significant effect on sarcolemmal damage or histopathology. The study suggests that combined BB and AI may not confer an advantage at an early stage in DMD cardiomyopathy. However, limitations of the mdx model should be considered.

  3. Modeling of "Stripe" Wave Phenomena Seen by the CHARM II and ACES Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two recent sounding-rocket missions—CHARM II and ACES—have been launched from Poker Flat Research Range, carrying the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE) among their primary instruments. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) E-field waveform measurements up to 5 MHz. The CHARM II sounding rocket was launched 9:49 UT on 15 February 2010 into a substorm, while the ACES mission consisted of two rockets, launched into quiet aurora at 9:49 and 9:50 UT on 29 January 2009. At approximately 350 km on CHARM II and the ACES High-Flyer, the HFE detected short (~2s) bursts of broadband (200-500 kHz) noise with a 'stripe' pattern of nulls imposed on it. These nulls have 10 to 20 kHz width and spacing, and many show a regular, non-linear frequency-time relation. These events are different from the 'stripes' discussed by Samara and LaBelle [2006] and Colpitts et al. [2010], because of the density of the stripes, the non-linearity, and the appearance of being an absorptive rather than emissive phenomenon. These events are similar to 'stripe' features reported by Brittain et al. [1983] in the VLF range, explained as an interference pattern between a downward-traveling whistler-mode wave and its reflection off the bottom of the ionosphere. Following their analysis method, we modeled our stripes as higher-frequency interfering whistlers reflecting off of a density gradient. This model predicts the near-hyperbolic frequency-time curves and high density of the nulls, and therefore shows promise at explaining the new observations.

  4. Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols from Zhenbeitai, China, and Gosan, South Korea, during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Zhang, X. Y.; Huebert, B. J.; Kang, C. H.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Sage, S. K.; Schloesslin, C. A.; Khaing, H. M.; Oh, S. N.

    2004-10-01

    Studies were conducted as part of Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) to characterize the major ion and elemental composition of aerosol particle samples collected at Gosan, an ACE-Asia supersite (GOS, Korea, total suspended particle or TSP samples) and at Zhenbeitai (ZBT, China, TSP and particles < 2.5 μm diameter or PM2.5 samples), a site closer to the sources for Asia dust. The concentrations of 24 elements in the ZBT PM2.5 samples were correlated with Al (an indicator of mineral dust), and the ratios of these elements to Al were similar to those in a loess certified reference material, but a second group of elements was enriched over crustal proportions most likely as a result of pollution emissions. The concentrations of various water-soluble (WS) cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) also were generally well correlated with Al in both the ZBT and GOS samples, with the exception being WS K+ at ZBT, where biomass burning may have had an effect. The percentage of calcium that was soluble approached 100% at ZBT versus ˜60% at GOS, and the ratio WS Ca2+/Al also was higher at ZBT. The molar ratio of sulfate to WS Ca2+ was ˜0.1 at ZBT but increased to near unity at GOS, where the aerosol nitrate/WS Ca2+ ratio was tenfold to hundredfold higher compared with ZBT, presumably because of anthropogenic influences. The observed differences in aerosol characteristics between sites can only be explained as the end product of different source contributions combined with complex processes involving gas-particle conversion, size-dependent fractionation, and aerosol mixing.

  5. Characterization of Dust Properties during ACE-Asia and PRIDE: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Ji, Q. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentration over particular pathways around the globe. For example, the ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). The PRIDE (Puerto RIco Dust Experiment, July 2000) was designed to measure the properties of Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Dust particles typically originate in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of dust aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the ocean. During ACE-Asia and PRIDE we had measured aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from ground-based remote sensing. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. We will present the results and discuss their implications in regional climatic effects.

  6. Original Research: ACE2 activator associated with physical exercise potentiates the reduction of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Prata, Luana O; Rodrigues, Carolina R; Martins, Jéssica M; Vasconcelos, Paula C; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus S; Ferreira, Anderson J; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Caliari, Marcelo V

    2017-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are poorly understood and there are currently no studies evaluating the association of physical exercise with an ACE2 activator (DIZE) as a possible treatment for this group of diseases. We evaluate the effects of pharmacological treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator drug, associated with exercise, on the pulmonary lesions induced by bleomycin. From the 96 male Balb/c mice used in the experiment, only 49 received 8 U/kg of bleomycin (BLM, intratracheally). The mice were divided into control (C) and bleomycin (BLM) groups, sedentary and trained (C-SED, C-EXE, BLM-SED, BLM-EXE), control and bleomycin and also sedentary and trained treated with diminazene (C-SED/E, C-EXE/E, BLM-SED/E, BLM-EXE/E). The animals were trained five days/week, 1 h/day with 60% of the maximum load obtained in a functional capacity test, for four weeks. Diminazene groups were treated (1 mg/kg, by gavage) daily until the end of the experiment. The lungs were collected 48 h after the training program, set in buffered formalin and investigated by Gomori's trichrome, immunohistochemistry of collagen type I, TGF-β1, beta-prolyl-4-hydroxylase, MMP-1 and -2. The BLM-EXE/E group obtained a significant increase in functional capacity, reduced amount of fibrosis and type I collagen, decreased expression of TGF-β1 and beta-prolyl-4-hydroxylase and an increase of metalloproteinase -1, -2 when compared with the other groups. The present research shows, for the first time, that exercise training associated with the activation of ACE2 potentially reduces pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Magnetic properties of Ni and Cu-Ni nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganga, B. G.; Santhosh, P. N.; Thomas, P. John

    2012-06-01

    Ni and Cu-Ni nanoparticles were prepared by solution phase method and crystal phase was identified by XRD. SEM and EDX were used to analyze morphology and elemental composition of nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and blocking temperature is around 103 K. Ferromagnetism is observed in the case of Cu-Ni nanoparticles with decrease in magnetization compared to Ni nanoparticles.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of ACE and the angiotensin II type1 receptor genes in children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim and Methods We investigated the association between polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1RA1166C) genes and the causation of renal disease in 76 advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) or conservative treatment (CT). Serum ACE activity and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) were measured in all groups. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to echocardiographic measurements. Seventy healthy controls were also genotyped. Results The differences of D allele and DI genotype of ACE were found significant between MHD group and the controls (p = 0.0001). ACE-activity and LVMI were higher in MHD, while CK-MB was higher in CT patients than in all other groups. The combined genotype DD v/s ID+II comparison validated that DD genotype was a high risk genotype for hypertension .~89% of the DD CKD patients were found hypertensive in comparison to ~ 61% of patients of non DD genotype(p = 0.02). The MHD group showed an increased frequency of the C allele and CC genotype of the AT1RA1166C polymorphism (P = 0.0001). On multiple linear regression analysis, C-allele was independently associated with hypertension (P = 0.04). Conclusion ACE DD and AT1R A/C genotypes implicated possible roles in the hypertensive state and in renal damage among children with ESRD. This result might be useful in planning therapeutic strategies for individual patients. PMID:21859496

  9. Zernike moments as a useful tool for ACE imager aerological data retrieval (stratospheric temperature and cloud product)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodion, Jan; Fussen, Didier; Filip, Vanhellemont; Mateshvili, Nina; Christine, Bingen; Maxime, Stapelle; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Gilbert, Kathy; Walker, Kaley; Bernath, Peter

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) was launched in August 2003 aboard the Canadian satellite SCISAT-I, and is at present fully operational. ACE circles the Earth at an altitude of 650 km with an orbital inclination of 74° . Solar occultation is the primary observation technique used by the on board instruments, which consist of a high resolution Fourier Transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), a dual optical spectrophotometer (MAESTRO) and two filtered imagers, subject of this presentation. While the Sun is setting below or rising from behind the Earth's horizon, at every timestamp, the imagers capture a snapshot of the Sun as seen through the atmosphere. On these pictures, the apparent Sun width is about 25 km at the tangent point and the apparent Sun height varies from almost 0.7 km in the optically thick, lower troposphere where the Sun image is highly flattened by the refraction to its maximum (about 25 km at the tangent point) where refractive effects are negligible. Used in image processing, image moments are certain particular weighted averages (moments) of the image pixel's intensities, or functions of those moments, usually chosen to have some attractive property on interpretation. Zernike moments were first introduced by Teague (1980) based on the complex, orthogonal functions called Zernike polynomials. Though computationally very complex compared to geometric and Legendre moments, Zernike moments have proved to be superior in terms of their feature representation capability and low noise sensitivity. Also, the construction of different moment invariants makes them well suited for our research. A detailed image analysis of ACE imager data using Zernike moments provides us the necessary information for the retrieval of temperature profiles from a series of distorted images of an object of known shape such as the Sun. These temperature profiles are validated with ACE-FTS data. Besides, a preliminary cloud product could be derived and, in addition, a

  10. Genome duplication and mutations in ACE2 cause multicellular, fast-sedimenting phenotypes in evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Bart; Guadalupe-Medina, Victor; Nijkamp, Jurgen F.; de Ridder, Dick; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evolution of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bioreactor batch cultures yielded variants that grow as multicellular, fast-sedimenting clusters. Knowledge of the molecular basis of this phenomenon may contribute to the understanding of natural evolution of multicellularity and to manipulating cell sedimentation in laboratory and industrial applications of S. cerevisiae. Multicellular, fast-sedimenting lineages obtained from a haploid S. cerevisiae strain in two independent evolution experiments were analyzed by whole genome resequencing. The two evolved cell lines showed different frameshift mutations in a stretch of eight adenosines in ACE2, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in cell cycle control and mother-daughter cell separation. Introduction of the two ace2 mutant alleles into the haploid parental strain led to slow-sedimenting cell clusters that consisted of just a few cells, thus representing only a partial reconstruction of the evolved phenotype. In addition to single-nucleotide mutations, a whole-genome duplication event had occurred in both evolved multicellular strains. Construction of a diploid reference strain with two mutant ace2 alleles led to complete reconstruction of the multicellular-fast sedimenting phenotype. This study shows that whole-genome duplication and a frameshift mutation in ACE2 are sufficient to generate a fast-sedimenting, multicellular phenotype in S. cerevisiae. The nature of the ace2 mutations and their occurrence in two independent evolution experiments encompassing fewer than 500 generations of selective growth suggest that switching between unicellular and multicellular phenotypes may be relevant for competitiveness of S. cerevisiae in natural environments. PMID:24145419

  11. Antenatal maternal low protein diet: ACE-2 in the mouse lung and sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Van-Wickle, Jonathan; Goyal, Dipali; Longo, Lawrence D

    2015-05-14

    Elevated blood pressure is an important global health problem, and in-utero under-nutrition may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal low protein diet (MLPD) leads to sexually dimorphic developmental programming of the components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. This may be important in the antenatal MLPD-associated development of hypertension. In pregnant mice, we administered normal (control) and isocaloric 50% protein restricted diet, commencing one week before mating and continuing until delivery of the pups. From the 18th to 24th week postnatal, we measured blood pressure in the offspring by use of a non-invasive tail-cuff method. In the same mice, we examined the mRNA and protein expression of the key components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. Also, we examined microRNA complementary to angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) 2 in the offspring lungs. Our results demonstrate that as a consequence of antenatal MLPD: 1) pup birthweight was significantly reduced in both sexes. 2) female offspring developed hypertension, but males did not. 3) In female offspring, ACE-2 protein expression was significantly reduced without any change in the mRNA levels. 4) miRNA 429, which has a binding site on ACE-2 - 3' UTR was significantly upregulated in the female antenatal MLPD offspring. 5) In males, ACE-2 mRNA and protein expression were unaltered. We conclude that in the mouse, antenatal MLPD-induced reduction of ACE-2 in the female offspring lung may be an important mechanisms in sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension.

  12. Potential advantages of cell administration on the inflammatory response compared to standard ACE inhibitor treatment in experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ciulla, Michele M; Montelatici, Elisa; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; Paliotti, Roberta; Annoni, Giuseppe; De Camilli, Elisa; Busca, Giuseppe; Chiappa, Luisa; Rebulla, Paolo; Magrini, Fabio; Lazzari, Lorenza

    2008-01-01

    Background Bone Marrow (BM) progenitor cells can target the site of myocardial injury, contributing to tissue repair by neovascolarization and/or by a possible direct paracrine effect on the inflammatory cascade. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are effective in reducing mortality and preventing left ventricular (LV) function deterioration after myocardial infarction. Methods We investigated the short term effects of BM mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) therapy on the pro-inflammatory cytokines (pro-CKs) and on LV remodelling and compared these effects over a standard ACE-I therapy in a rat model of myocardial cryodamage. Forty two adult inbread Fisher-F344 rats were randomized into three groups: untreated (UT; n = 12), pharmacological therapy (ACE-I; n = 14, receiving quinapril), and cellular therapy (BMMNCs; n = 16, receiving BMMNCs infusion). Rats underwent to a standard echocardiogram in the acute setting and 14 days after the damage, before the sacrifice. Pro-CKs analysis (interleukin (IL)1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α was performed (multiplex proteome arrays) on blood samples obtained by direct aorta puncture before the sacrifice; a control group of 6 rats was considered as reference. Results Concerning the extension of the infarcted area as well as the LV dimensions, no differences were observed among the animal groups; treated rats had lower left atrial diameters and higher indexes of LV function. Pro-Cks were increased in infarcted-UT rats if compared with controls, and significantly reduced by BMMNCs and ACE-I ; TNFα inversely correlated with LV fractional shortening. Conclusion After myocardial infarction, both BMMNCs and ACE-I reduce the pattern of pro-Ck response, probably contributing to prevent the deterioration of LV function observed in UT rats. PMID:18549470

  13. The Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Catalina; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Richly, Pablo; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Camino, Julieta; Manes, Facundo

    2012-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most prevalent causes of dementia, and it is frequently misdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical practice. Because neuropsychological outcome depends, among other factors, on the size and location of the vascular brain injury, characterizing the cognitive profile of VaD has been especially challenging. Yet, there has been sufficient evidence to show a marked impairment of attention and executive functions, in particular in relation to Alzheimer disease. Being able to detect these deficits at bedside is crucial for everyday clinical practice, and yet, brief cognitive screening toots such as the Mini-Mental Sate Examination (MMSE) may overlook at cognitive deficits typical of patients with VaD. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is also a brief cognitive screening tool designed to incorporate the items of the MMSE and further extend the test to assess orientation, attention, verbal fluency, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. In this study, we investigated the ability of the Spanish version of the ACE-R to detect the cognitive impairment showed in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, and we compared its usefulness to that of the MMSE in this population. Scores on these tests were compared to those of patients with Alzheimer disease and matched healthy controls. The 88-point cut-off proposed for the ACE-R was associated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of cognitive impairment, demonstrating a stronger capacity than the MMSE (sensitivity of 42% with its 23-point cut-off score). We also found that the verbal fluency subtest of the ACE-R may be potentially useful in discriminating patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia from patients with AD. We discuss the utility of these findings in the context of everyday clinical practice and we propose that future studies should evaluate the potential usefulness of combining the ACE-R with a

  14. Impact of I/D polymorphism of ACE gene on risk of development and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Homa-Mlak, Iwona; Powrózek, Tomasz; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Michnar, Marek; Krawczyk, Paweł; Dziedzic, Marcin; Rubinsztajn, Renata; Chazan, Ryszarda; Milanowski, Janusz; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects more than 10% of the world's population over 40 years of age. The main exogenous risk factor is cigarette smoking; however, only 20% of smokers develop COPD, indicating that some other factors, e.g. genetic, may play an important role in the disease pathogenesis. Recent research indicates that ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) may be a susceptibility gene for asthma or COPD. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism of the ACE gene (AluYa5, rs4646994) on the risk and course of COPD. Material and methods We investigated ACE I/D polymorphism in 206 COPD and 165 healthy Caucasian subjects. Results In the generalized linear model (GLZ) analysis of the influence of selected factors on presence of COPD we found a significant independent effect for male sex (repeatedly increases the risk of COPD, OR = 7.7, p = 0.049), as well as smoking or lower body mass index, but only in combination with older age (OR = 0.96, p = 0.003 and OR = 1.005, p = 0.04 respectively). Interestingly, analysis of factors which may influence the risk of a higher number of exacerbations demonstrated that occurrence of DD genotype, but only in men, is associated with a lower risk (OR = 0.7, p = 0.03) of this complication. Conclusions We suggest that ACE may not be a susceptibility gene for the origin of COPD but a disease-modifying gene. Since the impact of I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene on COPD risk is moderate or negligible, other molecular changes, that will help predict the development of this disease, should still be sought. PMID:27186170

  15. ACE2 activation by xanthenone prevents leptin-induced increases in blood pressure and proteinuria during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hisham Saleh; Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah; Omar, Effat; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of ACE2 activation on leptin-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, endothelial activation and ACE2 expression during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were given subcutaneous injection of either saline, or leptin, or leptin plus xanthenone (ACE2 activator), or xanthenone (XTN) alone. SBP, serum ACE, ACE2, endothelin-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were estimated; also their gene expressions were determined in the kidney and aorta respectively. Compared to control, SBP was higher in the leptin-only treated group (P<0.001) and lower in rats treated with xanthenone alone (P<0.01). Proteinuria, markers of endothelial activation were significantly higher than controls in leptin-only treated rats (P<0.05). ACE2 activity and expression were lower in leptin-only treated rats when compared to controls (P<0.05). It seems, leptin administration during pregnancy significantly increases SBP, proteinuria, endothelial activation, but decreases ACE2 level and expression. These effects are prevented by concurrent administration of xanthenone.

  16. Characterization of ACE inhibitory peptides from Mactra veneriformis hydrolysate by nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-ESI-MS) and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhu, Yunhan; Chen, Jiao; Wu, Hao; Shi, Lei; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Lingchong

    2014-06-30

    Food-derived bioactive compounds are gaining increasing significance in life sciences. In the present study, we identified angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides from Mactra veneriformis hydrolysate using a nano-LC-MS/MS method. Mactra veneriformis hydrolysate was first separated into four fractions (F1-F4) based on molecular weight by ultrafiltration. The fraction with molecular weight lower than 1 kDa (F1) showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity. F1 was then analyzed by a high throughput nano-LC-MS/MS method and sequences of peptides in F1 were calculated accordingly. The 27 peptides identified as above were chemically synthesized and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The hexapeptide VVCVPW showed the highest potency with an IC50 value of 4.07 μM. We then investigated the interaction mechanism between the six most potent peptides and ACE by molecular docking. Our docking results suggested that the ACE inhibitory peptides bind to ACE via interactions with His383, His387, and Glu411 residues. Particularly, similar to the thiol group of captopril, the cysteine thiol group of the most potent peptide VVCVPW may play a key role in the binding of this peptide to the ACE active site.

  17. Functional and molecular evidence for expression of the renin angiotensin system and ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding in COS7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Kashkari, Nada; Chodavarapu, Harshita; Somineni, Hari K.; Singh, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular and renal functions. COS7 is a robust and easily transfectable cell line derived from the kidney of the African green monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops. The aims of this study were to 1) demonstrate the presence of an endogenous and functional RAS in COS7, and 2) investigate the role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) in the ectodomain shedding of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Reverse transcription coupled to gene-specific polymerase chain reaction demonstrated expression of ACE, ACE2, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and renin at the transcript levels in total RNA cell extracts. Western blot and immunohistochemistry identified ACE (60 kDa), ACE2 (75 kDa), AT1R (43 kDa), renin (41 kDa), and ADAM17 (130 kDa) in COS7. At the functional level, a sensitive and selective mass spectrometric approach detected endogenous renin, ACE, and ACE2 activities. ANG-(1–7) formation (m/z 899) from the natural substrate ANG II (m/z 1,046) was detected in lysates and media. COS7 cells stably expressing shRNA constructs directed against endogenous ADAM17 showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media. This is the first study demonstrating endogenous expression of the RAS and ADAM17 in the widely used COS7 cell line and its utility to study ectodomain shedding of ACE2 mediated by ADAM17 in vitro. The transfectable nature of this cell line makes it an attractive cell model for studying the molecular, functional, and pharmacological properties of the renal RAS. PMID:25740155

  18. An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, Barry J.; Bates, Timothy; Russell, Philip B.; Shi, Guangyu; Kim, Young Joon; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Carmichael, Greg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2003-12-01

    The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program (IGAC) has conducted a series of Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) that integrate in situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles. ACE-Asia, the fourth in this series of experiments, consisted of two focused components: (1) An intensive field study that sought to quantify the spatial and vertical distribution of aerosol concentrations and properties, the processes controlling their formation, evolution, and fate, and the column-integrated radiative effect of the aerosol (late March through May 2001). (2) A longer-term network of ground stations that used in situ and column-integrated measurements to quantify the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosols in the ACE-Asia study area and to assess their spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variability (2000-2003). The approach of the ACE-Asia science team was to make simultaneous measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties and their radiative impacts in a variety of air masses, often coordinated with satellite overpasses. Three aircraft, two research ships, a network of lidars, and many surface sites gathered data on Asian aerosols. Chemical transport models (CTMs) were integrated into the program from the start, being used in a forecast mode during the intensive observation period to identify promising areas for airborne and ship observations and then later as tools for integrating observations. The testing and improvement of a wide range of aerosol models (including microphysical, radiative transfer, CTM, and global climate models) was one important way in which we assessed our understanding of the properties and controlling processes of Asian aerosols. We describe here the scientific goals and objectives of the ACE-Asia experiment, its observational strategies, the types of observations made by the mobile

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for hypertension in SLE nephritis.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vir S; Devaraju, Panneer; Gulati, Reena

    2015-09-01

    SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease with high prevalence of hypertension. Around 40-75 % of SLE patients develop nephritis, a major cause of hypertension and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) maintains the blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 of ACE gene was reported to influence the development of hypertension, nephritis, and cardiovascular diseases in different ethnic populations. Despite compelling evidence for the high prevalence of hypertension in individuals with SLE, underlying factors for its development are not well studied. With this background, we analyzed the influence of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE, development of nephritis and hypertension, other clinical features and autoantibody phenotype in South Indian SLE patients. Three hundred patients with SLE and 460 age and sex similar ethnicity matched individuals were included as patients and healthy controls, respectively. The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed by PCR. Insertion (I) and deletion (D) alleles were observed to be equally distributed among patients (57 and 43 %) and controls (59 and 41 %), respectively. The mutant (D) allele did not confer significant risk for SLE (II vs. ID: p = 0.4, OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.8-1.6; II vs. DD: p = 0.34, OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.8-1.85). There was no association of the ACE genotype or the allele with development of lupus nephritis (II vs. ID: p = 0.19, OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.84-2.36; II vs. DD: p = 0.41, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.38-1.41) or hypertension (II vs. ID: p = 0.85, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.43-1.8; II vs. DD: p = 0.66, OR 1.217, 95 % CI 0.5-2.8). The presence of mutant allele (D) was not found to influence any clinical features or autoantibody phenotype. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is not a genetic risk factor for SLE and does not influence development of hypertension or lupus nephritis in South Indian

  20. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  1. Evaluation of Aerosol Properties over Ocean from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Chern, J.-D.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P. B.; Xiong, X.; Ridgway, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) was conducted in March-May 2001 in the western North Pacific in order to characterize the complex mix of dust, smoke, urban/industrial pollution, and background marine aerosol that is observed in that region in springtime. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides a large-scale regional view of the aerosol during the ACE-Asia time period. Focusing only on aerosol retrievals over ocean, MODIS data show latitudinal and longitudinal variation in the aerosol characteristics. Typically, aerosol optical depth (tau(sub a)) values at 0.55 micrometers are highest in the 30 deg. - 50 deg. latitude band associated with dust outbreaks. Monthly mean tau(sub a) in this band ranges approx. 0.40-70, although large differences between monthly mean and median values indicate the periodic nature of these dust outbreaks. The size parameters, fine mode fraction (eta), and effective radius (r(sub eff)) vary between monthly mean values of eta = 0.47 and r(sub eff)= 0.75 micrometers in the cleanest regions far offshore to approximately eta = 0.85 and r(sub eff) =.30 micrometers in near-shore regions dominated by biomass burning smoke. The collocated MODIS retrievals with airborne, ship-based, and ground-based radiometers measurements suggest that MODIS retrievals of spectral optical depth fall well within expected error (DELTA tau(sub a) = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau(sub a)) except in situations dominated by dust, in which cases MODIS overestimate both the aerosol loading and the aerosol spectral dependence. Such behavior is consistent with issues related to particle nonsphericity. Comparisons of MODIS-derived r(sub eff) with AERONET retrievals at the few occurrences of collocations show MODIS systematically underestimates particle size by 0.2 micrometers. Multiple-year analysis of MODIS aerosol size parameters suggests systematic differences between the year 2001 and the years 2000 and 2002

  2. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A.; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Mazet, Jonna K.; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history1. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)2 suggests that this group of viruses remains a major threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested as the natural reservoirs of both viruses3–5, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa5–8, but none are considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins (S) to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)9,10. Here, we report whole genome sequences of two novel bat CoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China; RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat CoVs, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RDB) of the S protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat fecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses the ACE2s from human, civet and Chinese horseshoe bat for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness. PMID:24172901

  3. Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation by Aerosols during ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Pommier, J.; Rabbette, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redermann, J.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.; Quinn, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the upward and downward spectral solar radiant fluxes were measured with the Spectral Solar Flux Radiometer (SSFR), and the aerosol optical depth was measured with the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) aboard the Center for INterdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. IN this paper, we examine the data obtained for two cases: a moderately thick aerosol layer, 12 April, and a relatively thin aerosol case, 16 April 2001. ON both days, the Twin Otter flew vertical profiles in the Korean Strait southeast of Gosan Island. For both days we determine the aerosol spectral absorption of the layer and estimate the spectral aerosol absorption optical depth and single-scattering albedo. The results for 12 April show that the single-scattering albedo increases with wavelength from 0.8 at 400 nm to 0.95 at 900 nm and remains essentially constant from 950 to 1700 nm. On 16 April the amount of aerosol absorption was very low; however, the aerosol single-scattering albedo appears to decrease slightly with wavelength in the visible region. We interpret these results in light of the two absorbing aerosol species observed during the ACE-asia study: mineral dust and black carbon. The results for 12 April are indicative of a mineral dust-black carbon mixture. The 16 April results are possibly caused by black carbon mixed with nonabsorbing pollution aerosols. For the 12 April case we attempt to estimate the relative contributions of the black carbon particles and the mineral dust particles. We compare our results with other estimates of the aerosol properties from a Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite analysis and aerosol measurements made aboard the Twin Otter, aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ronald H Brown ship, and at ground sites in Gosan and Japan. The results indicate a relatively complicated aerosol

  4. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  5. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  6. A Survey of Magnetic Waves Excited by Newborn Interstellar He+ Observed by the ACE Spacecraft at 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Meghan K.; Argall, Matthew R.; Joyce, Colin J.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Sokół, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.

    2016-10-01

    We report observations of low-frequency waves at 1 au by the magnetic field instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE/MAG) and show evidence that they arise due to newborn interstellar pickup He+. Twenty-five events are studied. They possess the generally predicted attributes: spacecraft-frame frequencies slightly greater than the He+ cyclotron frequency, left-hand polarization in the spacecraft frame, and transverse fluctuations with minimum variance directions that are quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field. Their occurrence spans the first 18 years of ACE operations, with no more than 3 such observations in any given year. Thus, the events are relatively rare. As with past observations by the Ulysses and Voyager spacecraft, we argue that the waves are seen only when the background turbulence is sufficiently weak as to allow for the slow accumulation of wave energy over many hours.

  7. Effects of ACE-inhibitors and beta-blockers on left ventricular remodeling in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Khattar, R S

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly recognised that a central feature of the disease progression associated with heart failure is the process of left ventricular remodeling. The remodeling process manifests as an increase in left ventricular volumes, leading to a rise in wall stress and a compensatory increase in myocardial mass. The left ventricle also gradually assumes a more spherical shape, resulting in functional mitral regurgitation leading to further haemodynamic overload, worsening myocardial function and an unfavourable clinical course. Accumulating clinical data support the hypothesis that the benefits in clinical outcome with ACE-inhibitors and beta-blockers may relate to modification of the remodeling process resulting in slowing of disease progression and preservation of contractile function. The general trend from a number of clinical studies indicates that whereas ACE-inhibitors seem to prevent progressive left ventricular dilatation, the third generation beta-blocker, carvedilol, may actually reverse the remodelling process by reducing left ventricular volumes and improving systolic function. Direct comparisons indicate that carvedilol has a similar safety and tolerability profile to ACE-inhibitors and thereby support the feasibility of administering this drug as first-line therapy in selected patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure. Therefore, the decision to initiate treatment with carvedilol or an ACE-inhibitor might in future be tailored on an individual basis and followed thereafter by combination therapy at the earliest and safest opportunity. Finally, the possible development of treatment strategies addressing the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the remodeling process and the recently published benefits of device therapies herald a combined, synergistic approach to the future management of heart failure.

  8. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  9. The ace-1 Locus Is Amplified in All Resistant Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes: Fitness Consequences of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Djogbénou, Luc S.; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Makoundou, Patrick; Baba-Moussa, Lamine S.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Belkhir, Khalid; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    Gene copy-number variations are widespread in natural populations, but investigating their phenotypic consequences requires contemporary duplications under selection. Such duplications have been found at the ace-1 locus (encoding the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides’ target) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (the major malaria vector); recent studies have revealed their intriguing complexity, consistent with the involvement of various numbers and types (susceptible or resistant to insecticide) of copies. We used an integrative approach, from genome to phenotype level, to investigate the influence of duplication architecture and gene-dosage on mosquito fitness. We found that both heterogeneous (i.e., one susceptible and one resistant ace-1 copy) and homogeneous (i.e., identical resistant copies) duplications segregated in field populations. The number of copies in homogeneous duplications was variable and positively correlated with acetylcholinesterase activity and resistance level. Determining the genomic structure of the duplicated region revealed that, in both types of duplication, ace-1 and 11 other genes formed tandem 203kb amplicons. We developed a diagnostic test for duplications, which showed that ace-1 was amplified in all 173 resistant mosquitoes analyzed (field-collected in several African countries), in heterogeneous or homogeneous duplications. Each type was associated with different fitness trade-offs: heterogeneous duplications conferred an intermediate phenotype (lower resistance and fitness costs), whereas homogeneous duplications tended to increase both resistance and fitness cost, in a complex manner. The type of duplication selected seemed thus to depend on the intensity and distribution of selection pressures. This versatility of trade-offs available through gene duplication highlights the importance of large mutation events in adaptation to environmental variation. This impressive adaptability could have a major impact on vector

  10. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; ...

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less

  11. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation in time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.

  12. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE).

    PubMed

    Zuur, J K; Muller, S H; de Jongh, F H C; van der Horst, M J; Shehata, M; van Leeuwen, J; Sinaasappel, M; Hilgers, F J M

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics. The ACE consists of a small diameter, heated air-sampling catheter connected to a heated sensor house, containing a humidity sensor. Air is sucked through the catheter by a controlled-flow pump. Validation was performed in a climate chamber using a calibrated reference sensor and in a two-flow system. Additionally, the analyser was tested in vivo. Over the clinically relevant range of humidity values (5-42 mg H2O/l air) the sensor output highly correlates with the reference sensor readings (R2 > 0.99). The 1-1/e response times are all <0.5 s. A first in vivo pilot measurement was successful. The newly developed, verified, fast-responding ACE is suitable for postlaryngectomy airway climate assessment.

  13. Role of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to diabetes mellitus type 2 in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Wollinger, L M; Dal Bosco, S M; Rempe, C; Almeida, S E M; Berlese, D B; Castoldi, R P; Arndt, M E; Contini, V; Genro, J P

    2015-12-29

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the InDel polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the rs699 polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in a sample population from Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 228 patients with DM2 and 183 controls without DM2. The ACE InDel polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, followed by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. The AGT rs699 polymorphism was genotyped using a real-time PCR assay. No significant association between the ACE InDel polymorphism and DM2 was detected (P = 0.97). However, regarding the AGT rs699 polymorphism, DM2 patients had a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype and lower frequency of the GG genotype when compared to the controls (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that there is an association between the AGT rs699 polymorphism and DM2 in a Brazilian sample.

  14. User`s guide for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), Version 2.0 software

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.; Horak, K.E.; Evanko, D.A.

    1998-04-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams (inspectors) and Inspected Parties (hosts). Traditional training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT is used for training both inspectors and hosts to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The training covers the entire sequence of events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. The primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, implementing the concept of managed access. (Managed access is a technique used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while at the same time protecting sensitive information unrelated to the CWC.) Information for all of the activities is located in the electronic {open_quotes}Exercise Manual.{close_quotes} In addition, interactive menus are used to negotiate access to each room and to alternate information during the simulated inspection. ACE-IT also demonstrates how various inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information.

  15. [ACE inhibitors and its usefulness in the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in chronic cerebrovascular disease patients with asymptomatic swallowing dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Seiji; Murahashi, Makoto; Inoue, Masahiko; Jimi, Takahiro; Wakayama, Yoshihiro

    2002-03-01

    The double contrast pharyngogram by use of computed radiography (DCP-CR) has been found to be useful in detection of asymptomatic swallowing dysfunction. Following the DCP-CR examination, we investigated the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in 143 patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) for 3 years and the effects of ACE inhibitors on the prevention of pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in 29 out of 143 patients, and more frequently in the elderly chronic CVD patients with multiple brain lesions. Aspiration pneumonia was confirmed in 26 out of 85 patients (30.6%) with abnormal barium adhesion to the pharyngeal wall on the double contrast pharyngogram image by DCP-CR; whereas pneumonia occurred in 3 out of 58 patients (5.2%) with normal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram. Among chronic CVD patients with abnormal findings of DCP-CR pharyngogram, the incidence of aspiration pneumonia was significantly lower in the patients treated with ACE inhibitors than in those treated with other antihypertensive agents or without antihypertensive agents (chi 2 value = 7.163, p < 0.05). Accordingly, ACE inhibitors may prevent the aspiration pneumonia and reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the chronic CVD patients with abnormal DCP-CR pharyngogram images.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Lower Stratospheric Trend Measurements: Approach and Preliminary Results based on Comparisons with ATMOS Midlatitude Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; McLeod, S.; Boone, C.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) was successfully launched on August 12, 2003, into a 73.9 degree inclined orbit at an altitude of 650 km onboard a U.S.-supplied Pegasus XL vehicle. The primary goal of the ACE mission is to measure solar occultation spectra from the UV to mid-infrared for a minimum of two years to determine whether or not the stratospheric ozone layer will begin to recover now that chlorofluorocarbon emissions have been banned. Among the instruments carried by the small Canadian-built satellite is a compact Fourier transform spectrometer designed to measure in the 750-4100 cm-1 region at 0.02 cm-1 spectral resolution. The measurements will provide an opportunity to determine lower stratospheric trends at midlatitudes by comparison of ACE measurements with measurements recorded by the Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectometer at 0.01-cm-1 resolution during its first shuttle flight in 1985. We describe the approach to be used for trend determination, the status of the investigation, and the other data relevant for comparisons.

  17. Aerosols, Chemistry, and Radiative Forcing: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite and ACE-Asia data (ACMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng

    2005-01-01

    We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into

  18. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE)

    PubMed Central

    Zuur, J. K.; Muller, S. H.; de Jongh, F. H. C.; van der Horst, M. J.; Shehata, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Sinaasappel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics. The ACE consists of a small diameter, heated air-sampling catheter connected to a heated sensor house, containing a humidity sensor. Air is sucked through the catheter by a controlled-flow pump. Validation was performed in a climate chamber using a calibrated reference sensor and in a two-flow system. Additionally, the analyser was tested in vivo. Over the clinically relevant range of humidity values (5–42 mg H2O/l air) the sensor output highly correlates with the reference sensor readings (R2 > 0.99). The 1–1/e response times are all <0.5 s. A first in vivo pilot measurement was successful. The newly developed, verified, fast-responding ACE is suitable for postlaryngectomy airway climate assessment. PMID:17629761

  19. ACE3P Computations of Wakefield Coupling in the CLIC Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, Arno; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Rawat, V.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; Grudiev, A.; Wuensch, W.; /CERN

    2010-10-27

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its novel two-beam accelerator concept envisions rf power transfer to the accelerating structures from a separate high-current decelerator beam line consisting of power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). It is critical to numerically verify the fundamental and higher-order mode properties in and between the two beam lines with high accuracy and confidence. To solve these large-scale problems, SLAC's parallel finite element electromagnetic code suite ACE3P is employed. Using curvilinear conformal meshes and higher-order finite element vector basis functions, unprecedented accuracy and computational efficiency are achieved, enabling high-fidelity modeling of complex detuned structures such as the CLIC TD24 accelerating structure. In this paper, time-domain simulations of wakefield coupling effects in the combined system of PETS and the TD24 structures are presented. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel CLIC two-beam accelerator scheme.

  20. Genetic ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Luciano, R P; Wajchenberg, M; Almeida, S S; Amorim, C E N; Rodrigues, L M R; Araujo, R C; Puertas, E B; Faloppa, F

    2016-11-03

    The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remains unknown. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and α-actinin-3 polymorphisms influence the characteristics of muscle fibers. The aim of this study was to examine the association between idiopathic scoliosis and genetic polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme and α-actinin-3. Ninety-seven females with scoliosis, and 137 healthy, age-matched control females were studied. The presence of polymorphisms was determined by PCR. A χ(2) test was used to analyze differences, and odds ratios were estimated. The frequencies of ACE genotypes in the scoliotic group were 46.4% DD, 45.4% ID, and 8.2% II, while in the control group they were 40.1% DD, 43.8% ID, and 16.1% II (P = 0.197). The D allele had a frequency of 69.1% in patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 62% in the control group (P = 0.116). The frequencies of ACTN3 genotypes in females with scoliosis were 31.8% RR, 49.4% RX, and 18.8% XX, while in the control group they were 35% RR, 49% RX, and 16% XX (P = 0.810). The frequency of the R allele was 56.4% in the scoliotic group and 59.6% in the control group (P = 0.518). There was no statistically significant association between angiotensin-converting enzyme or α-actinin-3 polymorphisms and the presence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in females.

  1. Optical properties of aerosols during APEX and ACE-Asia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Okada, Yasuhiko; Holben, Brent N.; Ohta, Sachio; Takamura, Tamio

    2003-12-01

    Sun/sky photometry and polarimetry of atmospheric light have been undertaken by multispectral photometers (CE-318-1 and -2, Cimel Electronique, France) and a polarimeter (PSR-1000, Opto Research, Japan) over Amami, Noto, and Shirahama, Japan, during APEX-E1, -E2, and ACE-Asia field campaigns. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Other aerosol characteristics, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on each inversion method corresponding each equipment. The former takes a standard AERONET processing, and the latter is according to our own procedure to analyze the polarimetry with PSR-1000. After several aerosol parameters are derived, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of aerosols. It is shown from these ground measurements that aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, and refractive index are classified into two typical categories as a background type detected in winter, and a soil dust type appeared in Asian dust events in spring. Further, it is found that the obtained size distribution of Asian dust indicates the dominance of large particles.

  2. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), genetic polymorphisms and neurochemical correlates in experimentation with psychotropic drugs among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Somaini, L; Donnini, C; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Gerra, M L; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Serpelloni, G; Gerra, G

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data show frequent associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and substance abuse susceptibility particularly in adolescents. A large body of evidences suggests that the possible dysregulation of neuroendocrine responses as well as neurotransmitters function induced by childhood traumatic experiences and emotional neglect could constitute one of the essential biological changes implementing substance abuse vulnerability. Moreover, genotype variables and its environment interactions have been associated with an increased risk for early onset substance abuse. In this paper we present several data that support the hypothesis of the involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mediating the combined effect of early adverse experiences and gene variants affecting neurotransmission. The presented data also confirm the relationship between basal plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH, on the one hand, and retrospective measures of neglect during childhood on the other hand: the higher the mother and father neglect (CECA-Q) scores are, the higher the plasma levels of the two HPA hormones are. Furthermore, such positive relationship has been proved to be particularly effective and important when associated with the "S" promoter polymorphism of the gene encoding the 5-HTT transporter, both in homozygote and heterozygote individuals.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Satellite-Derived Cloud and Surface Characteristics During FIRE-ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J.; Fowler, C. W.; Nguyen, T.; Wang, X.a

    2000-01-01

    Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) products calculated for the western Arctic for April-July 1998 are used to investigate spatial, temporal, and regional patterns and variability in energy budget parameters associated with ocean- ice-atmosphere interactions over the Arctic Ocean during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project and the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment - Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE-ACE). The AVHRR-derived parameters include cloud fraction, clear-sky and all-sky skin temperature and broadband albedo, upwelling and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, cloud top pressure and temperature, and cloud optical depth. The remotely sensed products generally agree well with field observations at the SHEBA site, which in turn is shown to be representative of a surrounding region comparable in size to a climate-model grid cell. Time series of products for other locations in the western Arctic illustrate the magnitude of spatial variability during the study period and provide spatial and temporal detail useful for studying regional processes. The data illustrate the progression of reduction in cloud cover, albedo decrease, and the considerable heating of the open ocean associated with the anomalous decrease in sea ice cover in the eastern Beaufort Sea that began in late spring. Above-freezing temperatures are also recorded within the ice pack, suggesting warming of the open water areas within the ice cover.

  4. Modified ACES Portable Life Support Integration, Design, and Testing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Cody

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation of exploration missions provide a unique challenge to designers of EVA life support equipment, especially in a fiscally-constrained environment. In order to take the next steps of manned space exploration, NASA is currently evaluating the use of the Modified ACES (MACES) suit in conjunction with the Advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development. This paper will detail the analysis and integration of the PLSS thermal and ventilation subsystems into the MACES pressure garment, design of prototype hardware, and hardware-in-the-loop testing during the spring 2014 timeframe. Prototype hardware was designed with a minimal impact philosophy in order to mitigate design constraints becoming levied on either the advanced PLSS or MACES subsystems. Among challenges faced by engineers were incorporation of life support thermal water systems into the pressure garment cavity, operational concept definition between vehicle/portable life support system hardware, and structural attachment mechanisms while still enabling maximum EVA efficiency from a crew member's perspective. Analysis was completed in late summer 2013 to 'bound' hardware development, with iterative analysis cycles throughout the hardware development process. The design effort will cumulate in the first ever manned integration of NASA's advanced PLSS system with a pressure garment originally intended primarily for use in a contingency survival scenario.

  5. Collectrin, a homologue of ACE2, its transcriptional control and functional perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling Wada, Jun

    2007-11-09

    Collectrin is a type I membrane protein and shares significant homology with C-terminal domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). However, collectrin lacks catalytic domain and it suggests the presence of uncharacterized physiological functions of collectrin. Collectrin is transcriptionally regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-{alpha} and -{beta} and is highly expressed on renal proximal tubules and collecting ducts as well as pancreatic {beta}-cells. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated interesting physiological roles of collectrin related to insulin secretion, formation of primary cilia, renal cyst formation and amino acid transport. The common underlying molecular mechanism may be suggested by the evidence that collectrin binds to SNARE complex by interacting with snapin. Collectrin is involved in the process of vesicle transport and membrane fusion and thus it delivers insulin for exocytosis or various membrane proteins to apical plasmalemma and primary cilia. Collectrin may be the new therapeutic target for various pathological processes such as diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, hypertension and aminoaciduria.

  6. A Cloud and Precipitation Radar System Concept for the ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.; Epp, L.; Jamnejad, V.; Perez, R.; Prata, A.; Samoska, L.; Long, E; Fang, H.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; Lee, C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the instruments recommended for deployment on the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) mission is a new advanced cloud profiling radar. In this paper, we describe such a radar design, called ACERAD, which has 35- and 94-GHz channels, each having Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. ACERAD will scan at Ka-band and will be nadir-looking at W-band. To get a swath of 25-30 km, considered the minimum useful for Ka-band, ACERAD needs to scan at least 2 degrees off nadir; this is at least 20 beamwidths, which is quite large for a typical parabolic reflector. This problem is being solved with a Dragonian design; a scaled prototype of the antenna is being fabricated and will be tested on an antenna range. ACERAD also uses a quasi-optical transmission line at W-band to connect the transmitter to the antenna and antenna to the receiver. A design for this has been completed and is being laboratory tested. This paper describes the current ACERAD design and status.

  7. Ace: First Full Release of The New 30" Gdem Incoporating Satellite Altimeter Derived Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, P. A. M.; Hilton, R. D.; Johnson, C. P. D.

    Within the last 12 months, a new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) has been created by fusing the best available ground truth data sets with a unique database of over 100 million satellite altimeter derived heights from the ERS-1 Geodetic Mission to create a radically different global model at 30T spatial resolution. Over 29% of the earths land surface heights have been replaced completely with data derived from the altimeter echoes. A further 16% contain adjusted ground based data that have been corrected for vertical misplacement and height discontinuities. The first version of the new GDEM including a global quality matrix has just been released. This matrix contains not only information on the data source, but also an index of expected data quality derived from global intercomparisons of ground truth with the altimeter based datasets. This matrix allows the user, for the first time, access to detailed quality information and thus allows an informed decision to be made on the appropriateness of the ACE GDEM for the desired application. It is expected that an upgrade to the GDEM will be made following the inclusion of data from ENVISAT, which should allow additional data points to be gathered in mountainous regions.

  8. Observations of Suprathermal Power Law Tails with ACE, Ulysses, MESSENGER, and Voyager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Observations of ubiquitous, suprathermal power law tails with the unique spectral index of -5 on the velocity distributions of solar wind and pickup ions raise important questions and have far reaching consequences. The question of how these tails are formed during quiet times, when no shocks are present, was previously addressed and is briefly reviewed here. One consequence of the existence of these tails during quiet times is that sufficiently energetic particles are always readily available for further acceleration by shocks. To study the evolution of suprathermal tails over a large range of heliocentric distances, we will use proton spectra measured with ACE, Ulysses and Voyager during quiet times as well as upstream and downstream of quasi-stationary and traveling shocks. To look for the first time at suprathermal tails at distances closer to the Sun than 1 AU, we will present our preliminary results from the FIPS instrument on the Mercury MESSENGER Mission. Applying thermodynamic constraints on non-adiabatic heating of upstream particles by a shock, we obtain the downstream -5 power law spectra that are observed and derive an expression for the tail pressure jump across the shock.

  9. Optimal attitude maneuver execution for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark A.; Baker, David

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft will require frequent attitude reorientations in order to maintain the spacecraft high gain antenna (HGA) within 3 deg of earth-pointing. These attitude maneuvers will be accomplished by employing a series of ground-commanded thruster pulses, computed by ground operations personnel, to achieve the desired change in the spacecraft angular momentum vector. With each maneuver, attitude nutation will be excited. Large nutation angles are undesirable from a science standpoint. It is important that the thruster firings be phased properly in order to minimize the nutation angle at the end of the maneuver so that science collection time is maximized. The analysis presented derives a simple approximation for the nutation contribution resulting from a series of short thruster burns. Analytic equations are derived which give the induced nutation angle as a function of the number of small thruster burns used to execute the attitude maneuver and the phasing of the burns. The results show that by properly subdividing the attitude burns, the induced nutation can be kept low. The analytic equations are also verified through attitude dynamics simulation and simulation results are presented. Finally, techniques for quantifying the post-maneuver nutation are discussed.

  10. ACE/SWICS OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS WITHIN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Weberg, Micah J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lepri, Susan T. E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu

    2012-11-20

    We present the first in situ observations of heavy ion dropouts within the slow solar wind, observed for select elements ranging from helium to iron. For iron, these dropouts manifest themselves as depletions of the Fe/H ratio by factors up to {approx}25. The events often exhibit mass-dependent fractionation and are contained in slow, unsteady wind found within a few days from known stream interfaces. We propose that such dropouts are evidence of gravitational settling within large coronal loops, which later undergo interchange reconnection and become source regions of slow, unsteady wind. Previously, spectroscopic studies by Raymond et al. in 1997 (and later Feldman et al. in 1999) have yielded strong evidence for gravitational settling within these loops. However, their expected in situ signature plasma with heavy elements fractionated by mass was not observed prior to this study. Using data from the SWICS instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we investigate the composition of the solar wind within these dropouts and explore long term trends over most of a solar cycle.

  11. Auto-Calibration of SOL-ACES in the EUV Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Brunner, R.; Eberhard, D.; Hofmann, A.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Konz, W.; Riedel, W.-J.; Wolf, H.

    The Sol-ACES (SOLAR Auto-Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrometers) experiment is prepared to be flown with the ESA SOLAR payload to the International Space Station as planned for the Shuttle mission E1 in August 2006. Four grazing incidence spectrometers of planar geometry cover the wavelength range from 16-220 nm with a spectral resolution from 0.5-2.3 nm. These high-efficiency spectrometers will be re-calibrated by two three-signal ionization chambers to be operated with 44 band pass filters on routine during the mission. Re-measuring the filter transmissions with the spectrometers also allows a very accurate determination of the changing second (optical) order efficiencies of the spectrometers as well as the stray light contributions to the spectral recording in different wavelength ranges. In this context the primary requirements for measurements of high radiometric accuracy will be discussed in detail. - The absorption gases of the ionization chambers are neon, xenon and a mixture of 10 % nitric oxide and 90 % xenon. As the laboratory measurements show that by this method secondary effects can be determined to a high degree resulting in very accurate irradiance measurements that is ranging from 5 to 3 % in absolute terms depending on the wavelegth range.

  12. SOL ACES: Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Brunner, R.; Eberhard, D.; Halford, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Konz, W.; Riedel, W.-J.; Wolf, H.

    The SOL-ACES experiment is prepared to be flown with the ESA SOLAR payload to the International Space Station as planned for the Shuttle mission E1 (Columbus) in August 2006. Four grazing incidence spectrometers of planar geometry cover the wavelength range from 16 to 220 nm with a spectral resolution from 0.5 to 2.3 nm. These high-efficiency spectrometers will be re-calibrated by two three-signal ionization chambers to be operated with 42 band pass filters on routine during the mission. Re-measuring the filter transmissions with the spectrometers also allows a very accurate determination of the changing second order (optical) efficiencies of the spectrometers as well as the stray light contributions to the spectral recording in different wavelength ranges. In this context the primary requirements for measurements of low radiometric uncertainty are discussed in detail. The absorbing gases in the ionization chambers are neon, xenon and a mixture of 10% nitric oxide and 90% xenon. The laboratory measurements confirm very high count rates such that optical attenuators have to be applied. In addition, possible interfering contributions to the recorded data as generated by secondary effects can be determined to a high degree of accuracy by this method. Hence, very accurate irradiance measurements are expected in terms of relative standard uncertainties (RSU) ranging from 5% to 3% depending on the wavelength range.

  13. ASC Computational Environment (ACE) requirements version 8.0 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larzelere, Alex R. (Exagrid Engineering, Alexandria, VA); Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2006-11-01

    A decision was made early in the Tri-Lab Usage Model process, that the collection of the user requirements be separated from the document describing capabilities of the user environment. The purpose in developing the requirements as a separate document was to allow the requirements to take on a higher-level view of user requirements for ASC platforms in general. In other words, a separate ASC user requirement document could capture requirements in a way that was not focused on ''how'' the requirements would be fulfilled. The intent of doing this was to create a set of user requirements that were not linked to any particular computational platform. The idea was that user requirements would endure from one ASC platform user environment to another. The hope was that capturing the requirements in this way would assist in creating stable user environments even though the particular platforms would be evolving and changing. In order to clearly make the separation, the Tri-lab S&CS program decided to create a new title for the requirements. The user requirements became known as the ASC Computational Environment (ACE) Requirements.

  14. Molecular organic tracers of biogeochemical processes in a saline meromictic lake (Ace Lake)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, S.; Rijpstra, W. I. C.; Kok, M.; Hopmans, E. C.; Summons, R. E.; Volkman, J. K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2001-05-01

    The chemical structures, distribution and stable carbon isotopic compositions of lipids in a sediment core taken in meromictic Ace Lake (Antarctica) were analyzed to trace past biogeochemical cycling. Biomarkers from methanogenic archaea, methanotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria were unambiguously assigned using organic geochemical understanding and by reference to what is known about the lake's present-day ecosystem. For instance, saturated and unsaturated 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosane, archaeol and sn2-hydroxyarchaeol were derived from methanogenic archaea. Carotenoid analysis revealed chlorobactene and isorenieratene derived from the green-colored and brown-colored strains of the green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae); isotopic analyses showed that they were 13C-enriched. Phytenes appear to be derived from photoautotrophs that use the Calvin-Benson cycle, while phytane has a different source, possibly within the archaea. The most 13C-depleted compounds (ca. -55‰) identified were 4-methyl-5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol, identified using an authentic standard, and co-occurring 4-methylsteradienes: these originate from the aerobic methanotrophic bacterium Methylosphaera hansonii. Lipids of photoautotrophic origin, steranes and alkenones, are relatively depleted (ca. -28 to -36‰) whilst archaeal biomarkers are relatively enriched in 13C (ca. -17 to -25‰). The structural and carbon isotope details of sedimentary lipids thus revealed aspects of in situ biogeochemical processes such as methane generation and oxidation and phototrophic sulfide oxidation.

  15. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  16. The transcription factor Ace2 and its paralog Swi5 regulate ethanol production during static fermentation through their targets Cts1 and Rps4a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Du, Jie; Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used fermentation organism for ethanol production. However, the gene expression regulatory networks behind the ethanol fermentation are still not fully understood. Using a static fermentation model, we examined the ethanol yields on biomass of deletion mutants for 77 yeast genes encoding nonessential transcription factors, and found that deletion mutants for ACE2 and SWI5 showed dramatically increased ethanol yields. Overexpression of ACE2 or SWI5 in wild type cells reduced their ethanol yields. Furthermore, among the 34 target genes regulated by Ace2 and Swi5, deletion of CTS1,RPS4a,SIC1,EGT2,DSE2, or SCP160 led to increased ethanol yields, with the former two showing higher effects. Overexpression of CTS1 or RPS4a in both ace2/ace2 and swi5/swi5 mutants reduced their ethanol yields. In contrast, deletion of MCR1 or HO significantly decreased ethanol yields, with the former one showing the highest effect. Therefore, Ace2 and Swi5 are two negative regulators of ethanol yield during static fermentation of yeast cells, and both CTS1 and RPS4a are major effectors mediating these two transcription factors in regulating ethanol production.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase (ADAM17) mediates regulated ectodomain shedding of the severe-acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2).

    PubMed

    Lambert, Daniel W; Yarski, Mike; Warner, Fiona J; Thornhill, Paul; Parkin, Edward T; Smith, A Ian; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2005-08-26

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a critical regulator of heart function and a cellular receptor for the causative agent of severe-acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), SARS-CoV (coronavirus). ACE2 is a type I transmembrane protein, with an extracellular N-terminal domain containing the active site and a short intracellular C-terminal tail. A soluble form of ACE2, lacking its cytosolic and transmembrane domains, has been shown to block binding of the SARS-CoV spike protein to its receptor. In this study, we examined the ability of ACE2 to undergo proteolytic shedding and investigated the mechanisms responsible for this shedding event. We demonstrated that ACE2, heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells and endogenously expressed in Huh7 cells, undergoes metalloproteinase-mediated, phorbol ester-inducible ectodomain shedding. By using inhibitors with differing potency toward different members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family of proteases, we identified ADAM17 as a candidate mediator of stimulated ACE2 shedding. Furthermore, ablation of ADAM17 expression using specific small interfering RNA duplexes reduced regulated ACE2 shedding, whereas overexpression of ADAM17 significantly increased shedding. Taken together, these data provided direct evidence for the involvement of ADAM17 in the regulated ectodomain shedding of ACE2. The identification of ADAM17 as the protease responsible for ACE2 shedding may provide new insight into the physiological roles of ACE2.

  18. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  19. Angiotensin II receptor blockade or deletion of vascular endothelial ACE does not prevent vascular dysfunction and remodeling in 20-HETE-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Victor; Joseph, Gregory; Shkolnik, Brian; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Frank Fan; Gotlinger, Katherine; Falck, John R; Dakarapu, Rambabu; Capdevila, Jorge H; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado

    2015-07-01

    Increased vascular 20-HETE is associated with hypertension and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through induction of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression. Cyp4a12tg mice, whose Cyp4a12-20-HETE synthase expression is under the control of a tetracycline (doxycycline, DOX) promoter, were used to assess the contribution of ACE/RAS to microvascular remodeling in 20-HETE-dependent hypertension. Treatment of Cyp4a12tg mice with DOX increased systolic blood pressure (SBP; 136 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by administration of 20-HEDGE, lisinopril, or losartan. DOX-induced hypertension was associated with microvascular dysfunction and remodeling of preglomerular microvessels, which was prevented by 20-HEDGE, a 20-HETE antagonist, yet only lessened, but not prevented, by lisinopril or losartan. In ACE 3/3 mice, which lack vascular endothelial ACE, administration of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a known inducer of 20-HETE production, increased SBP; however, the increase was about 50% of that in wild-type (WT) mice (151 ± 1 vs. 126 ± 1 mmHg). Losartan and 20-HEDGE prevented the DHT-induced increase in SBP in WT and ACE 3/3 mice. DHT treatment increased 20-HETE production and microvascular remodeling in WT and ACE 3/3 mice; however, remodeling was attenuated in the ACE 3/3 mice as opposed to WT mice (15.83 ± 1.11 vs. 22.17 ± 0.92 μm; P < 0.05). 20-HEDGE prevented microvascular remodeling in WT and ACE 3/3 mice, while losartan had no effect on microvascular remodeling in ACE 3/3. Taken together, these results suggest that RAS contributes to 20-HETE-mediated microvascular remodeling in hypertension and that 20-HETE-driven microvascular remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation does not fully rely on ACE activity in the vascular endothelium.

  20. Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Baer, Donald R.; Lea, Alan S.; Zhu, Zihua; Strohm, James J.; Sitzman, S. D.; King, David L.

    2010-02-09

    Understanding the migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ can potentially help to design a better solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We have observed that extensive hydrogen reduction and methane steam reforming of Ni-YSZ caused bulk migration of Ni/NiO to at least ~ 5 µm deeper from the Ni-YSZ surface. No significant bulk migration effects were detected after simple thermal treatments in non-reducing/non-reforming environment. Surface analysis of a single zirconia grain in the first 10-20 nm region from annealed, hydrogen reduced and methane steam reformed Ni-YSZ shows Ni-enriched surface supporting earlier claims of Ni exsolution. 3D-EBSD analysis of thermally treated sample before exposing it to reducing and reforming environment indicated mixed NiO/YSZ phase with some porosity and random grain orientation. The surface analysis and mapping were carried out using ToF-SIMS and AES whereas EDS maps on FIB sliced areas on Ni-YSZ were utilized for the bulk analysis. The results provide additional information related to complex reactions occurring in SOFC during internal reforming conditions.

  1. Big Explosions, Strong Gravity: Making Girl Scouts ACEs of Space through Chandra Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lochner, J. C.; Ganguly, R.; Feaga, L. M.; Ford, K. E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Thanks to two years of Chandra E/PO funding we have carried out a number of successful activities with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, focusing on girls in the 11-17 year age range. Our reasons for targeting this age range include the general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age (meaning that we reach them early enough to have a positive effect). We initially target girls due to their underrepresentation in science, but the actitivities are all gender-neutral and highly adaptable to other groups. The program includes two components, in collaboration with Girl Scouts of Central Maryland. The first component is a well-established one-day Girl Scout patch activity entitled Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) where the girls earn a patch for their badge sash. The four BESG activities, mostly adapted from existing E/PO material, are available on the World Wide Web for use by others. The activities cover the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for astronomy, the cosmic abundance of the elements and the supernova origin of many of the elements, black holes and their detection, and supernova explosions/stellar evolution. Thus far approximately 200 girls and their parents have participated in BESG and it has now become part of the council culture. The second activity is new and is part of the relatively new Girl Scout Studio 2B program, which is a girl-led program for the 11-17 year age range. Based on several meetings with small groups of girls and adults, we have formed a Studio 2B "club" called the ACE of Space Club (Astronomical Cosmic Exploration). We'll describe our experiences interacting with the Girl Scouts in this girl-led program.

  2. A global aerosol model forecast for the ACE-Asia field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Lucchesi, Robert; Huebert, Barry; Weber, Rodney; Anderson, Tad; Masonis, Sarah; Blomquist, Byron; Bandy, Alan; Thornton, Donald

    2003-12-01

    We present the results of aerosol forecast during the ACE-Asia field experiment in spring 2001, using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and the meteorological forecast fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The model provides direct information on aerosol optical thickness and concentrations for effective flight planning, while feedbacks from measurements constantly evaluate the model for successful model improvements. We verify the model forecast skill by comparing model-predicted aerosol quantities and meteorological variables with those measured by the C-130 aircraft. The GEOS DAS meteorological forecast system shows excellent skills in predicting winds, relative humidity, and temperature, with skill scores usually in the range of 0.7-0.99. The model is also skillful in forecasting pollution aerosols, with most scores above 0.5. The model correctly predicted the dust outbreak events and their trans-Pacific transport, but it constantly missed the high dust concentrations observed in the boundary layer. We attribute this "missing" dust source to desertification regions in the Inner Mongolia Province in China, which have developed in recent years but were not included in the model during forecasting. After incorporating the desertification sources, the model is able to reproduce the observed boundary layer high dust concentrations over the Yellow Sea. We demonstrate that our global model can not only account for the large-scale intercontinental transport but also produce the small-scale spatial and temporal variations that are adequate for aircraft measurements planning.

  3. ACE inhibitors in heart failure--switching from enalapril to perindopril.

    PubMed

    Masuell, Marcelo; Brusca, Gustavo; Pardo, Augusto; Piñeiro, Daniel; Checkerdhemian, Sergio; Forcada, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Although ACE inhibitors have demonstrated their beneficial effects in heart failure, whether different agents may induce different benefits remains unclear. We designed an open, sequential, prospective study switching heart failure patients receiving enalapril to perindopril which has been reported to be longer acting and better tolerated. The objective of the study was to find out if clinical and functional status could be further improved by changing from enalapril 30 mg daily to a perindopril 4 mg daily. Assessments of clinical status, echocardiography and nuclear ventriculography were performed at baseline under enalapril (30 mg mean dose (b.i.d.)), then 6 and 12 months after the switch to perindopril (4 mg/day mean dose). Thirty-one patients were included (90% men, aged 56.5 +/- 11.8 years, mean radionuclide left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction 22.4 +/- 8.5 %). After 6 months of treatment, NYHA functional class was significantly improved; the percentage of patients in class I increased to 57% after perindopril versus 20% at baseline (p < 0.001), and 50% of the total study population gained at least one NYHA class. After 12 months of treatment, 80% of the patients were in NYHA class I. Blood pressure decreased significantly with a good tolerance at 6 months and then remained stable. After 12 months of treatment, significant reductions of LV end-diastolic diameter (61.4 +/- 5.3 vs. 64.5 +/- 6.5 mm; p = 0.001) and LV mass index (143.3 +/- 21.5 vs. 164.2 +/- 40.2 g/m2; p < 0.001) were observed, reflecting a positive effect on the LV remodelling process. Despite some limitations, because it is of an open-label design with a small number of patients, our study found significant differences in clinical and objective parameters in heart failure patients switched from enalapril to perindopril. The prognostic significance of these findings remains to be investigated.

  4. Influences of relative humidity on aerosol optical properties and aerosol radiative forcing during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Jiyoung

    In situ measurements at Gosan, South Korea, and onboard C-130 aircraft during ACE-Asia were analyzed to investigate the influence of relative humidity (RH) on aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. The temporal variation of aerosol chemical composition at the Gosan super-site was highly dependent on the air mass transport pathways and source region. RH in the springtime over East Asia were distributed with very high spatial and temporal variation. The RH profile onboard C-130 aircraft measurements exhibits a mixed layer height of about 2 km. Aerosol scattering coefficient ( σsp) under ambient RH was greatly enhanced as compared with that at dry RH (RH<40%). From the aerosol optical and radiative transfer modeling studies, we found that the extinction and scattering coefficients are greatly enhanced with RH. Single scattering albedo with RH is also sensitively changed in the longer wavelength. Asymmetry parameter ( g) is gradually increased with RH although g decreases with wavelength at a given RH. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm and RH of 50% increased to factors 1.24, 1.51, 2.16, and 3.20 at different RH levels 70, 80, 90, and 95%, respectively. Diurnal-averaged aerosol radiative forcings for surface, TOA, and atmosphere were increased with RH because AOD was increased with RH due to hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. This result implies that the hygroscopic growth due to water-soluble or hydrophilic particles in the lower troposphere may significantly modify the magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing both at the surface and TOA. However, the diurnal-averaged radiative forcing efficiencies at the surface, TOA, and atmosphere were decreased with increasing RH. The decrease of the forcing efficiency with RH results from the fact that increasing rate of aerosol optical depth with RH is greater than the increasing rate of aerosol radiative forcing with RH.

  5. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations On Aerosol-Radiation Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Valero, F. P. J.; Nakajima, T.; Holben, B.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergin, M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Vogelmann, A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ACE-Asia's extensive measurements from land, ocean, air and space quantified aerosol-radiation interactions. Results from each platform type, plus satellite-suborbital combinations, include: 1. Time series of multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (ADD), Angstrom exponent (alpha), single-scattering albedo (SSA), and size distribution from AERONET radiometry at 13 stations. In China and Korea AOD and alpha were strongly anticorrelated (reflecting transient dust events); dust volume-size modes peaked near 8 microns diameter; and SSA(dust) greater than SSA(pollution). 2. Calculations and measurements of photosynthetically active radiation and aerosols in China yield 24-h average downward surface radiative forcing per AOD(500 nm) of -27 W/sq m (400-700 nm). 3. The Hawaii-Japan cruise sampled a gradient with AOD(500 nm) extremes of 0.1 and 1.1. Shipboard measurements showed that adding dust to pollution increased SSA(550 nm, 55% RH), typically from -0.91 to approx. 0.97. Downwelling 8-12 micron radiances showed aerosol effects, especially in the major April dust event, with longwave forcing estimated at -5 to 15 W/sq m. 4. Extinction profiles from airborne sunphotometry and total-direct-diffuse radiometry show wavelength dependence often varying strongly with height, reflecting layering of dust-dominated over pollution-dominated aerosols. Comparing sunphotometric extinction profiles to those from in situ measurements (number and composition vs size, or scattering and absorption) shows layer heights agree, but extinction sometimes differs. 5. Airborne solar spectral flux radiometry yields absorption spectra for layers. Combining with AOD spectra yields best-fit aerosol single scattering albedo spectra. 6. Visible, NIR and total solar fluxes combined with AOD give radiative forcing efficiencies at surface and aloft.

  6. Deep Blue Retrievals of Asian Aerosol Properties During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Cee; King, Michael D.; Herman, Jay R.

    2006-01-01

    During the ACE-Asia field campaign, unprecedented amounts of aerosol property data in East Asia during springtime were collected from an array of aircraft, shipboard, and surface instruments. However, most of the observations were obtained in areas downwind of the source regions. In this paper, the newly developed satellite aerosol algorithm called "Deep Blue" was employed to characterize the properties of aerosols over source regions using radiance measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Based upon the ngstr m exponent derived from the Deep Blue algorithm, it was demonstrated that this new algorithm is able to distinguish dust plumes from fine-mode pollution particles even in complex aerosol environments such as the one over Beijing. Furthermore, these results were validated by comparing them with observations from AERONET sites in China and Mongolia during spring 2001. These comparisons show that the values of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness from Deep Blue are generally within 20%-30% of those measured by sunphotometers. The analyses also indicate that the roles of mineral dust and anthropogenic particles are comparable in contributing to the overall aerosol distributions during spring in northern China, while fine-mode particles are dominant over southern China. The spring season in East Asia consists of one of the most complex environments in terms of frequent cloudiness and wide ranges of aerosol loadings and types. This paper will discuss how the factors contributing to this complexity influence the resulting aerosol monthly averages from various satellite sensors and, thus, the synergy among satellite aerosol products.

  7. Investigation of the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in normal volunteers treated by an ACE inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Chauveau, D; Guyenne, T T; Cumin, F; Chatellier, G; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1992-01-01

    1. In order to investigate accurately the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in man, we have developed a sensitive assay to measure angiotensin I (1-10) decapeptide. 2. Angiotensins were extracted from plasma by adsorption to phenylsilylsilica, and angiotensin I (Ang I) was quantified by radioimmunoassay. The detection limit was 0.77 fmol ml-1, and the extraction recovery of [125I]-Ang I added to albumin buffer was 83% at the inflection point (10 fmol ml-1) of the standard curve. The overall recovery was 98.5 +/- 3.5%. The intra- and inter-assay reproducibility was 10.4% and 9.7% respectively. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum used was low (less than 0.3%) with all angiotensin peptides tested except Ang (2-10) nonapeptide. 3. A human pharmacological model was subsequently used to assess in vivo the biochemical effects of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A. Six healthy volunteers received 20 mg lisinopril, a long-acting ACE-inhibitor. During the following 24 h, the renin-angiotensin system was reset with typically elevated active plasma renin and Ang I, at respectively 275 and 429% of basal values. 4. In a randomized three-way cross-over protocol, the six volunteers received a 30 min infusion of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A (125 or 250 micrograms kg-1) or 5% glucose. The fall in plasma Ang I was 92% and 97.5% after the lowest and highest dose of the renin inhibitor, respectively. A concomitant increase in active plasma renin was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1315560

  8. A role for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan in kidney dysfunction during ACE-inhibitor fetopathy.

    PubMed

    Hansell, P; Palm, F

    2015-04-01

    Despite data showing that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system increase the risks of fetal morbidity and dysfunctionality later in life, their use during pregnancy has increased. The fetopathy induced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is characterized by anuria, hypotension and growth restriction, but can also be associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. In the kidney, this fetopathy includes atrophy of the medulla, reduced number of glomeruli, developmental lesions of tubules and vessels, tubulointerstitial inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibition during nephrogenesis interferes with normal growth and development, this review will focus on effects of the heavily accumulated matrix component hyaluronan (HA). An important mechanism of HA accumulation during nephrogenesis is disruption of its normal reduction as a consequence of lack of Ang II activation of hyaluronidase. Hyaluronan has very large water-attracting properties and is pro-inflammatory when fragmented. The ensuing inflammation and interstitial oedema affect kidney function. Hyaluronan is colocalized with CD44 overexpression and infiltrating immune cells. These properties make HA a plausible contributor to the observed structural and functional kidney defects associated with the fetopathy. Available data support an involvement of HA in kidney dysfunction of the foetus and during adulthood due to the physico-chemical characteristics of HA. No clinical treatment for HA accumulation exists. Treatment with the HA-degrading enzyme hyaluronidase and an HA synthesis inhibitor has been tested successfully in experimental models in the kidney, heart and pancreas. Reduced HA accumulation to reduce interstitial oedema and inflammation may improve organ function, but this concept needs to be tested in a controlled study before causal relationships can be established.

  9. Effects of bradykinin B2 receptor antagonism on the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, H; Joulin, Y; Safar, M; Benetos, A

    1994-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the participation of endogenous bradykinin (BK) in the antihypertensive effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), perindoprilat, in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) on different salt diets. 2. Conscious SHRs receiving either a low or a high NaCl diet were used in order to evaluate the respective roles of angiotensin II suppression and bradykinin stimulation in the acute hypotensive effects of perindoprilat. Two different B2 receptor antagonists (B 4146 and Hoe 140) were used after bolus administration of 7 mg kg-1 of the ACEI, perindoprilat. In separate animals, Hoe 140 was administered before the injection of perindoprilat. In other experiments, the effects of Hoe 140 on the hypotensive effects of the calcium antagonist, nicardipine, were tested. 3. The different NaCl diets had no effect on baseline blood pressure. Hoe 140 injection before ACE inhibition did not modify blood pressure. Perindoprilat caused more marked hypotension in the low salt-fed rats than in the high salt animals (P < 0.01). Administration of Hoe 140 or B4146 after perindoprilat significantly reduced the antihypertensive effects of perindoprilat in the different groups, but this effect was more pronounced in high salt-fed rats. However, in SHRs receiving Hoe 140 before perindoprilat, the antihypertensive effect of perindoprilat was completely abolished in both high or low salt diet rats. In separate experiments we confirmed that Hoe 140 did not affect the hypotensive efficacy of the calcium antagonist, nicardipine. 4. Our study shows that inhibition of endogenous bradykinin degradation participates in the acute antihypertensive effects of perindoprilat in SHRs. The role of bradykinin is more pronounced following exposure to a high salt diet i.e., when the renin-angiotensin system is suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858859

  10. Thermospheric and geomagnetic responses to interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, S.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.; Baur, O.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in situ by plasma and field instruments on board the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed (vmax), southward magnetic field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of 8 compared to the preevent level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (≈0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (≈0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H(≈0.9); the lowest correlations are obtained for Kp and AE (≈0.7), which show a nonlinear relation with the thermospheric density enhancements. Separating the response for the shock-sheath region and the magnetic structure of the ICME, we find that the Dst and SYM-H reveal a tighter relation to the Bz minimum in the magnetic structure of the ICME, whereas the polar cap indices show higher correlations with the Bz minimum in the shock-sheath region. Since the strength of the Bz component—either in the sheath or in the magnetic structure of the ICME—is highly correlated (≈0.9) with the neutral density enhancement, we discuss the possibility of satellite orbital decay estimates based on magnetic field measurements at L1, i.e., before the ICME hits the Earth magnetosphere. These results are expected to further stimulate progress in space weather understanding and applications regarding satellite operations.

  11. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  12. Quantification of ACE inhibiting peptides in human plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Platerink, Chris J; Janssen, Hans-Gerd M; Horsten, Roos; Haverkamp, Johan

    2006-01-02

    An HPLC-MRM-MS method was developed for the quantification of 17 small ACE inhibiting (ACEI) peptides in plasma samples collected from human volunteers after the consumption of a peptide-enriched drink. The assay shows the high selectivity and sensitivity necessary to monitor small changes in the levels of the ACEI peptides after consumption of drinks developed to effect lowering of the blood pressure. Four different sample preparation methods were tested and evaluated. The final sample preparation method selected is simple and effective and consists mainly of the removal of proteins by acidification and heating, followed by a large volume injection. Additional sample preparation steps such as solid phase extraction and liquid/liquid partitioning were studied. Although they resulted in cleaner extracts, losses of specific peptides such as SAP were frequently seen. The isotope labeled form of one of the peptides to be quantified, [U(13)C]IPP, was used as an internal standard. The limit of detection of the assay is below 0.01 ng ml(-1). The limit of quantification is between 0.05 and 0.2 ng ml(-1), which is approximately 10% of the expected peptide concentration in plasma based on a normal diet. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations for all peptides have shown to be below 25% and the method has an accuracy of better than 75%. The long-term stability is good. At least 200 samples could be analysed before the system had to be cleaned. The assay has been successfully applied to blood samples collected from volunteers during a human trial.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of in vitro immune response against astacin-like metalloprotease Ace-MTP-2 from Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Bąska, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata; Długosz, Ewa; Zygner, Wojciech; Górski, Paweł; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-04-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to the group of parasites commonly known as hookworms, blood-sucking nematodes which infect around 576 million people and hundreds of millions of animals. The interactions between these parasites and host immune systems are complicated and yet to be determined. Hookworm infections are usually long lasting and recurrent, due in part to their ability to synthesize macromolecules capable of modulating the host immune response. The interaction of parasite proteins with host immune systems has been proven, but so far there is no data describing the influence of astacin-like metalloproteases (expressed among different parasitic nematodes) on the human immune system. The cDNA encoding A. ceylanicum metalloprotease 2 (Ace-mtp-2) was cloned using RACE-PCR. Computational analysis was used to examine the immunogenicity and recombinant Ace-MTP-2 was used to investigate its influence on human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. The Ace-mtp-2 gene encodes an astascin-like metalloprotease, with a theoretical molecular mass of 26.7 kDa. The protease has a putative signal peptide, 11 potential phosphorylation sites, and two disulfide bridges revealed by computational analysis. Maximal expression of Ace-mtp-2 by A. ceylanicum occurs in the adult stage of the parasite, and Western blot indicates the secretory nature of the protease. This suggests the protease is working at the host-parasite interface and would likely be exposed to the hosts immune response. Recombinant protein were expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Recombinant Ace-MTP-2 amplified the in vitro release of TNFα and induced release of IFNγ by lipopolysaccharide activated THP-1 macrophages. The presence of Ace-MTP-2 in secretory products of the adult parasite and the induction of IFNγ release may suggest an important role for Ace-MTP-2 in host-parasite interactions since IFNγ is suggested to be responsible for the protective immune response against adult hookworms.

  14. Downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing store-operated calcium entry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changhui; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yuhao; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Cai, Chunqing; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important component of the tumor microenvironment and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, migration and invasion. Meanwhile, the arm of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2/angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas axis in connection with RAS is associated with anti-proliferative, vasodilatory and anti-metastatic properties. Previous studies have shown that Ang-(1-7) reduces the proliferation of orthotopic human breast tumor growth by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, the role of ACE/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the metastasis of breast cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we found that ACE2 protein level is negatively correlated with the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells and breast tumor grade. Upregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activation inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways, and induces E-cadherin expression. In summary, our results demonstrate that downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates breast cancer metastasis through the activation of SOCE and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways. These results provide new mechanisms by which breast cancer develop metastasis and shed light on developing novel anti-metastasis therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer by modulating ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

  15. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism on progression of renal disease and the influence of ACE inhibition in IDDM patients: findings from the EUCLID Randomized Controlled Trial. EURODIAB Controlled Trial of Lisinopril in IDDM.

    PubMed

    Penno, G; Chaturvedi, N; Talmud, P J; Cotroneo, P; Manto, A; Nannipieri, M; Luong, L A; Fuller, J H

    1998-09-01

    We examined whether the ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism modulates renal disease progression in IDDM and how ACE inhibitors influence this relationship. The EURODIAB Controlled Trial of Lisinopril in IDDM is a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial in 530 nonhypertensive, mainly normoalbuminuric IDDM patients aged 20-59 years. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was measured every 6 months for 2 years. Genotype distribution was 15% II, 58% ID, and 27% DD. Between genotypes, there were no differences in baseline characteristics or in changes in blood pressure and glycemic control throughout the trial. There was a significant interaction between the II and DD genotype groups and treatment on change in AER (P = 0.05). Patients with the II genotype showed the fastest rate of AER progression on placebo but had an enhanced response to lisinopril. AER at 2 years (adjusted for baseline AER) was 51.3% lower on lisinopril than placebo in the II genotype patients (95% CI, 15.7 to 71.8; P = 0.01), 14.8% in the ID group (-7.8 to 32.7; P = 0.2), and 7.7% in the DD group (-36.6 to 37.6; P = 0.7). Absolute differences in AER between placebo and lisinopril at 2 years were 8.1, 1.7, and 0.8 microg/min in the II, ID, and DD groups, respectively. The significant beneficial effect of lisinopril on AER in the II group persisted when adjusted for center, blood pressure, and glycemic control, and also for diastolic blood pressure at 1 month into the study. Progression from normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria (lisinopril versus placebo) was 0.27 (0.03-2.26; P = 0.2) in the II group, and 1.30 (0.33-5.17; P = 0.7) in the DD group (P = 0.6 for interaction). Knowledge of ACE genotype may be of value in determining the likely impact of ACE inhibitor treatment.

  16. High Na intake increases renal angiotensin II levels and reduces expression of the ACE2-AT2R-MasR axis in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Preethi; Ali, Quaisar; Sabuhi, Rifat; Wu, Yonnie

    2012-01-01

    High sodium intake is known to regulate the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The complex nature of the RAS reveals that its various components may have opposing effects on natriuresis and blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that high sodium intake differentially regulates and shifts a balance between opposing components of the renal RAS, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-type 1 ANG II receptor (AT1R) vs. AT2-ACE2-angiotensinogen (Ang) (1–7)-Mas receptor (MasR), in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated protein and/or mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT1A/BR, ACE, AT2R, ACE2, and MasR in the kidney cortex following 2 wk of a 8% high-sodium (HS) diet in lean and obese Zucker rats. The expression data showed that the relative expression pattern of ACE and AT1BR increased, renin decreased, and ACE2, AT2R, and MasR remained unaltered in HS-fed lean rats. On the other hand, HS intake in obese rats caused an increase in the cortical expression of ACE, a decrease in ACE2, AT2R, and MasR, and no changes in renin and AT1R. The cortical levels of ANG II increased by threefold in obese rats on HS compared with obese rats on normal salt (NS), which was not different than in lean rats. The HS intake elevated mean arterial pressure in obese rats (27 mmHg) more than in lean rats (16 mmHg). This study suggests that HS intake causes a pronounced increase in ANG II levels and a reduction in the expression of the ACE2-AT2R-MasR axis in the kidney cortex of obese rats. We conclude that such changes may lead to the potentially unopposed function of AT1R, with its various cellular and physiological roles, including the contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. PMID:22592638

  17. High Na intake increases renal angiotensin II levels and reduces expression of the ACE2-AT(2)R-MasR axis in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Preethi; Ali, Quaisar; Sabuhi, Rifat; Wu, Yonnie; Hussain, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    High sodium intake is known to regulate the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The complex nature of the RAS reveals that its various components may have opposing effects on natriuresis and blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that high sodium intake differentially regulates and shifts a balance between opposing components of the renal RAS, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-ANG II-type 1 ANG II receptor (AT(1)R) vs. AT(2)-ACE2-angiotensinogen (Ang) (1-7)-Mas receptor (MasR), in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated protein and/or mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT(1A/B)R, ACE, AT(2)R, ACE2, and MasR in the kidney cortex following 2 wk of a 8% high-sodium (HS) diet in lean and obese Zucker rats. The expression data showed that the relative expression pattern of ACE and AT(1B)R increased, renin decreased, and ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR remained unaltered in HS-fed lean rats. On the other hand, HS intake in obese rats caused an increase in the cortical expression of ACE, a decrease in ACE2, AT(2)R, and MasR, and no changes in renin and AT(1)R. The cortical levels of ANG II increased by threefold in obese rats on HS compared with obese rats on normal salt (NS), which was not different than in lean rats. The HS intake elevated mean arterial pressure in obese rats (27 mmHg) more than in lean rats (16 mmHg). This study suggests that HS intake causes a pronounced increase in ANG II levels and a reduction in the expression of the ACE2-AT(2)R-MasR axis in the kidney cortex of obese rats. We conclude that such changes may lead to the potentially unopposed function of AT(1)R, with its various cellular and physiological roles, including the contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension.

  18. Upper troposphere and stratosphere distribution of hydrocarbon species in ACE-FTS measurements and GEOS-Chem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of carbon-containing species, referred to herein as "hydrocarbons", are important components needed for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons contributes to our understanding of the influence of regional and seasonal variation in air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven "hydrocarbon" species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the impact of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. By calculating correlations with CO, these results can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. The ACE-FTS measurements have also been compared with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns in the simulations.

  19. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR. We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere and they both agree remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within ten to twenty percent when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100% in some cases.

  20. Identification of the major ACE-inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate from cuttlefish wastewater.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-03-10

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC₅₀ = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL⁻¹) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC₅₀ value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL⁻¹. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A-D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC₅₀ values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL⁻¹, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions.

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Atmospheric Spectral Optical Depths with NASA Ames Airborne Sunphotometers During TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the scope of work of this contract, the following tasks were undertaken and completed during the course of the contract: (1) Participation in the design and development of the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), including the development and implementation of Visual Basic software for real-time data processing and display and post-acquisition data reduction and analysis. (2) Operation of the six-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) aboard the University of Washington C-131A during TARFOX and in-field analysis and presentation of data acquired with the AATS-6. (3) Post-mission analysis of data acquired during TARFOX with the AATS-6 and the AATS-14. (4) Pre-TARFOX calibration of the AATS-6 at Mauna Loa Observatory in May 1996, and post-TARFOX calibration of the AATS-6 and AATS- 14 at Zugspitze, Germany in October 1996, including analyses of all data sets. (5) Analysis of AATS-14 airborne calibration data acquired on 17 November 1996 during a late afternoon Pelican flight over the central California coast. (6) Operational training, instrument preparation, field coordination, and analysis of shipboard measurements of aerosol optical depth with the AATS-6 during ACE-2. (7) Coordination of data acquisition with the AATS-14 aboard the Pelican during ACE-2 and in-field preliminary data analysis and presentation. (8) Calibration of the AATS-6 and AATS-14 in April/May 1997 at Mauna Loa prior to ACE-2, and post-mission calibration of the AATS-6 at Mauna Loa in August 1997.

  2. Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Amado, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL−1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL−1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL−1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  3. Dst Prediction from CIR Events During 2008 Using Synthesized Signals Derived From SOHO, STEREO, and ACE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, E. A.; Andriyas, T.; Mays, M. L.; Sojka, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Observations from SOHO, STEREO, and ACE during the declining phase of the deep solar minimum in 2008 are analyzed in order to synthesize signals of the IMF Bz, solar wind velocity vx, and solar wind proton density Np at 1 AU. These synthesized signals are used as a substitute for ACE measurements to represent solar wind forcing due to coronal hole driven CIR events occuring during multiple Bartel rotations (BR 2381 - BR 2393). The signals drive a low order physics based model of the magnetosphere called WINDMI, one of whose outputs is the ground based measurement of the Dst index. Estimating the arrival of CIR events for future rotations using ACE and SOHO data during BR 2381 produced what we referred to as an uncalibrated yearly prediction. We proceeded to generate a video calibrated (VC) estimate of the arrival times of CIR events in addition to information from BR 2381 using SOHO and STEREO images of the Sun in order to produce a simulated 3.5 day ahead prediction of possible geomagnetic activity. The time of arrival of CIR events is taken to be the travel time of compressions as seen in a non-inertial frame according to a radial solar wind speed of 500 km/s and a distance of 1 AU. We found that we were able to predict the timing of CIR induced geomagnetic activity quite accurately by using the expected recurrence of the events through multiple Bartel rotations, and further improve it through SOHO and STEREO coronal hole sightings made 3.5 days before every event. The uncertainty in the IMF Bz led to predictions of levels of geomagnetic activity on an ensemble basis, yielding a distribution of different possible Dst signatures.

  4. Testing of ENDF71x: A new ACE-formatted neutron data library based on ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, S. J.; Conlin, J. L.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Lee, M. B.; Parsons, D. K.; White, M. C.

    2013-07-01

    The ENDF71x library [1] is the most thoroughly tested set of ACE-format data tables ever released by the Nuclear Data Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It is based on ENDF/B-VII. 1, the most recently released set of evaluated nuclear data files produced by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). A variety of techniques were used to test and verify the ENDF7 1x library before its public release. These include the use of automated checking codes written by members of the Nuclear Data Team, visual inspections of key neutron data, MCNP6 calculations designed to test data for every included combination of isotope and temperature as comprehensively as possible, and direct comparisons between ENDF71x and previous ACE library releases. Visual inspection of some of the most important neutron data revealed energy balance problems and unphysical discontinuities in the cross sections for some nuclides. Doppler broadening of the total cross sections with increasing temperature was found to be qualitatively correct. Test calculations performed using MCNP prompted two modifications to the MCNP6 source code and also exposed bad secondary neutron yields for {sup 231,233}Pa that are present in both ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0. A comparison of ENDF71x with its predecessor ACE library, ENDF70, showed that dramatic changes have been made in the neutron cross section data for a number of isotopes between ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1. Based on the results of these verification tests and the validation tests performed by Kahler, et al. [2], the ENDF71x library is recommended for use in all Monte Carlo applications. (authors)

  5. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. Materials and Methods: To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. Conclusion: On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively. PMID:24914275

  6. ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): The application of a UAV for close over-flights of thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Mach, D.; Goldberg, R.; Farrell, W.; Desch, M.; Croskey, C.; Mitchell, J.; Houser, J.

    2002-12-01

    In August 2002, General Atomic's Aeronautical Systems Inc.'s ALTUS II UAV made a series of close thunderstorm over-flights during the ALTUS Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) to 1) determine the nature, occurrence, and power of the upward electrical currents over the storms (conduction vs displacement currents) and their contribution to the global circuit, 2) investigate the storm's lightning history and changing current nature over the storm lifetime, and 3) provide validation products for the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The storm sensor package included electric field mills for the detection of the electrostatic field, a Gerdien probe for sensing the ambient conductivity, an electric field change sensor to determine the ULF and ELF changes associated with lightning and cloud charge distribution, along with boom-mounted 3-axis ELF/VLF electric and magnetic sensors for lightning detection. Optical pulses sensors provided coincidence measurements in the visible and near-IR. A dedicated payload data system allowed the continuous sampling from all the sensors at low sampling rates and also the ability to smart-trigger into high-rate modes during specific "targets of opportunity" (such as lightning strokes, etc.). An innovative real-time weather system allowed the aircraft to be vectored to storms of interest during the campaign. ACES demonstrated the promise and utility of using UAV aircraft to investigate thunderstorms. We will describe the ACES program, the science payload, and the application of the unique UAV capabilities for completion of the science objectives. Preliminary results will also be presented.

  7. SolACES - Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Brunner, Raimund; Konz, Werner; Nikutowski, Bernd

    In the field of terrestrial climatology the most important goal is the quasi-continuous measurement of the solar irradiance with highest possible accuracy within the ISS (ESA) SOLAR mission. SolACES as a part of it will contribute to the solar EUV/UV irradiance aspects. These data will be provided to investigate further the impact of the solar irradiance variability on the Earth's climate changes as well as the thermospheric/ionospheric interactions that are pursued in the TIGER program, too. The four grating spectrometers of SolACES cover the wavelength range from 16 nm to 220 nm. 42 band pass filters are used to select EUV photon fluxes within wavelength subranges in order to determine their irradiances within three-signal recording ionisation chambers that are considered as primary detector standards. . Since spectrometers are not stable with respect to radiometric efficiency, re-measuring the filter transmissions and repeat the determination of the spectrometer efficiencies allow very accurate irradiance observations (2 The concept has been successfully tested with line emissions in the laboratory. Further, broadband as well as monochromatic synchrotron radiation has been used in the PTB laboratory of BESSY II electron synchrotron. There is good agreement with the BESSY II intercomparison. Still, the necessity to apply a re-calibration device showed up strongly. After the successful launch with the shuttle mission STS-122 on February 7th 2008 and the planned activation and commissioning of SolACES at the end of February 2008 we will extensively test all spectrometers and ionization chambers, i.e., we will repeatedly determine all filter transmissions and spectrometer efficiencies in the new environment and compare the results of the laboratory and BESSY II measurements. Additionally, a compare with SOVIM and SOL- SPEC of the SOLAR payload on the Columbus laboratory will help to perform measurements of high quality. First results of the EUV irradiance

  8. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  9. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR). We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in the form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere, and they agree with each other remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within 30 % when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100 % in some cases.

  10. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil,Benny Manuel; Ballance, Robert; Haskell, Karen

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  11. EARLY Treatment with azilsartan compared to ACE-inhibitors in anti-hypertensive therapy – rationale and design of the EARLY hypertension registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension is highly prevalent but poorly controlled. Blood pressure (BP) reduction substantially reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent randomized, double-blind clinical trials demonstrated that azilsartan medoxomil (AZM) is more effective in reducing BP than the ubiquitary ACE inhibitor ramipril. Therefore, we aimed to test whether these can be verified under clinical practice conditions. Methods/Design The “Treatment with Azilsartan Compared to ACE-Inhibitors in Anti-Hypertensive Therapy” (EARLY) registry is a prospective, observational, national, multicenter registry with a follow-up of up to 12 months. It will include up to 5000 patients on AZM or ACE-inhibitor monotherapy in a ratio of 7 to 3. A subgroup of patients will undergo 24-hour BP monitoring. EARLY has two co-primary objectives: 1) Description of the safety profile of azilsartan and 2) achievement of BP targets based on recent national and international guidelines for patients treated with azilsartan in comparison to those treated with ACE-inhibitors. The most important secondary endpoints are the determination of persistence with treatment and the documentation of cardiovascular and renal events. Recruitment commenced in January 2012 and will be completed by February 2013. Conclusions The data obtained will supplement previous results from randomized controlled trials to document the potential value of utilizing azilsartan medoxomil in comparison to ACE-inhibitor treatment for target BP achievement in clinical practice. PMID:23819631

  12. Enhancement of ACE and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory potency of protein hydrolysates from sardine and tuna by-products by simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Batista, Irineu; Ramos, Cristina; Montero, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This work was focused on the study of the bioactive potential of three fish protein hydrolysates, one of them prepared from industrial sardine by-products (head and viscera) and the others from tuna by-products (head, and muscle and viscera). These protein hydrolysates exhibited moderate ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE (IC50 between 0.24-1.16 mg dry weight per ml) and prolyl oligopeptidase or PO (IC50 between 3.30-9.57 mg ml(-1)), those obtained from tuna by-products being the most effective. Overall, ACE- and PO-inhibiting activities were enhanced by sequential nanofiltration through 3 and 1 kDa MWCO membranes (IC50 between 0.02-0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.10-4.21 mg ml(-1) (PO)). The inhibitory properties of the hydrolysates were greatly improved by in vitro gastric digestion, and were barely affected by further intestinal digestion. The digested tuna hydrolysates, mainly that from heads, proved to be the best source of PO- and ACE- inhibiting molecules (IC50 = 0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.04 mg ml(-1) (PO)) and could be potential new ingredients in food with interest in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases.

  13. Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) increase the insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to fosthiazate in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Kun; Wu, Qin-Song; Peng, Huan; Kong, Ling-An; Liu, Shi-Ming; Yin, Hua-Qun; Cui, Ru-Qiang; Zhan, Li-Ping; Cui, Jiang-Kuan; Peng, De-Liang

    2016-11-29

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes severe damage to continuously cropping vegetables. The control of this nematode relies heavily on organophosphate nematicides in China. Here, we described resistance to the organophosphate nematicide fosthiazate in a greenhouse-collected resistant population (RP) and a laboratory susceptible population (SP) of M. incognita. Fosthiazate was 2.74-fold less toxic to nematodes from RP than that from SP. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) transcription level in the RP was significantly higher than that in the SP. Eighteen nonsynonymous amino acid differences in ace2 were observed between the cDNA fragments of the RP and SP. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein activity in the RP was significantly reduced compared with that in the SP. After knocking down the ace2 gene, the ace2 transcription level was significantly decreased, but no negative impact on the infection of juveniles was observed. The 50% lethal concentration of the RNAi RP population decreased 40%, but the inhibition rate of fosthiazate against AChE activity was significantly increased in RP population. Thus, the increased fosthiazate insensitivity in the M. incognita resistant population was strongly associated with mutations in ace2. These results provide valuable insights into the resistance mechanism of root-knot nematode to organophosphate nematicides.

  14. Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) increase the insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to fosthiazate in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Kun; Wu, Qin-Song; Peng, Huan; Kong, Ling-An; Liu, Shi-Ming; Yin, Hua-Qun; Cui, Ru-Qiang; Zhan, Li-Ping; Cui, Jiang-Kuan; Peng, De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes severe damage to continuously cropping vegetables. The control of this nematode relies heavily on organophosphate nematicides in China. Here, we described resistance to the organophosphate nematicide fosthiazate in a greenhouse-collected resistant population (RP) and a laboratory susceptible population (SP) of M. incognita. Fosthiazate was 2.74-fold less toxic to nematodes from RP than that from SP. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the acetylcholinesterase2 (ace2) transcription level in the RP was significantly higher than that in the SP. Eighteen nonsynonymous amino acid differences in ace2 were observed between the cDNA fragments of the RP and SP. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein activity in the RP was significantly reduced compared with that in the SP. After knocking down the ace2 gene, the ace2 transcription level was significantly decreased, but no negative impact on the infection of juveniles was observed. The 50% lethal concentration of the RNAi RP population decreased 40%, but the inhibition rate of fosthiazate against AChE activity was significantly increased in RP population. Thus, the increased fosthiazate insensitivity in the M. incognita resistant population was strongly associated with mutations in ace2. These results provide valuable insights into the resistance mechanism of root-knot nematode to organophosphate nematicides. PMID:27897265

  15. Detector Data Simulation and Filtering Strategy for the European Laser Timing (ELT) Experiment On-board ACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamann, Christoph; Schlicht, Anja; Hugentobler, Urs; Pühl, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    Due to the rapid progress of frequency standards in the optical domain and increasingly demanding applications in metrology and fundamental physics studies, accuracy requirements on frequency and time transfer are continuously increasing. Most present satellite based clock comparison systems work in the microwave domain and are based on GPS and TWSTFT (Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer). Recently, systems such as LASSO (LAser Synchronization from a Stationary Orbit) and T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) promised even better performance in the optical domain. In 2016 the ESA mission ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will bring a new generation of atomic clocks into the microgravity environment of the ISS, which will distribute a stable and accurate time base. In the frame of this mission an optical link called ELT (European Laser Timing) is presently under study, which is subject of our work. The on-board hardware of ELT consists of a corner cube retro-reflector (CCR), a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD), and an event timer connected to the ACES time scale. The SPAD detects laser pulses fired towards the payload and the CCR reflects these pulses back to the ground station. The detection dates are recorded in the ACES time scale, while the two-way time of flight can be used for precise ranging. Consequently, time transfer and clock analysis can be performed based on data triplets comprising the time of transmission of a laser pulse, its time of reception at the ELT-detector and its time of reception back at the station-detector. We present simulations of these triplets based on simple ISS orbits including preset attitude and accurate Earth orientation data. In addition, we consider experimentally derived detector, reflector, and background noise characteristics as well as simulations of the ACES clocks. The ELT data center, which will be hosted by our institution, will have to extract the data triplets from the large amount of noisy detector dates

  16. RF optimization and analysis of the 805-MHz cavity for the MuCool program using ACE3P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zenghai; Ge, Lixin; Adolphsen, Chris; Li, Derun; Bowring, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    An 805 MHz pillbox cavity tested at Fermilab's MTA facility showed significant degradation in gradient when operated in a several Tesla solenoidal magnetic field. We have used the advanced ACE3P simulation codes developed at SLAC to study the cavity dark current and multipacting characteristics to gain more insight into the gradient limitations. We also checked whether there is an optimal cavity length that minimizes the dark current impact energy. Finally, we have improved on the cavity design, significantly lowering the fields outside the beam area. These and other results are presented in this paper.

  17. RF optimization and analysis of the 805-MHz cavity for the MuCool program using ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zenghai; Ge Lixin; Adolphsen, Chris; Li Derun; Bowring, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    An 805 MHz pillbox cavity tested at Fermilab's MTA facility showed significant degradation in gradient when operated in a several Tesla solenoidal magnetic field. We have used the advanced ACE3P simulation codes developed at SLAC to study the cavity dark current and multipacting characteristics to gain more insight into the gradient limitations. We also checked whether there is an optimal cavity length that minimizes the dark current impact energy. Finally, we have improved on the cavity design, significantly lowering the fields outside the beam area. These and other results are presented in this paper.

  18. Characterization of a double flux-rope magnetic cloud observed by ACE spacecraft on August 19-21, 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda González, A.; Mendes, O.; Domingues Oliveira, M.; Moestl, C.; Farrugia, C. J.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    2013-05-01

    Investigations have studied MC cases of double flux rope configuration with apparent asymmetry. Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique allows deriving the local magnetic structure from data of a single spacecraft. The results obtained show two cylindrical flux ropes next to each other, where a single X point forms between them. In all possible combinations of two bipolar MCs, the magnetic field between them is antiparallel in eight cases SWN-SWN, SWN-SEN, SEN-SWN, SEN-SEN, NWS-NWS, NWS-NES, NES-NWS, NES-NWS. If clouds are under magnetic coupling, reconnection evidences are expected from the interaction between them. In this work, we examine the event that occurred at Aug. 19-21, 1998 using solar wind measurements collected by ACE. In Fig. 1 a) presents the recovered cross-section of the two bipolar MCs (SEN-SWN). The black contour lines show the transverse magnetic field lines (calculated as the contours of the magnetic potential function A(x,y)), and the colors show the axial magnetic field Bz distribution. The yellow arrows along y=0 denote measured transverse magnetic field vectors, direction and magnitude measurements at ACE utilized as initial input into the numerical solver. The green arrows are residual velocities in the deHoffmann-Teller frame at ACE. The spacecraft crosses the X point and observes the exact moment of the magnetic reconnection, from 0.13 to 0.15 AU in x axis. In the opposite corners of the X point, the magnetic fields are antiparallel (see yellow arrows in this region). The residual velocity (green arrow in y=0) in the deHoffmann-Teller frame at ACE is perpendicular to the magnetic field line in the reconnection region. In principle, it is possible to adjust a two-dimension model considering the most common separator reconnection, in which four separate magnetic domains exchange magnetic field lines. In Fig. 1 b), the cross-section through four magnetic domains undergoing separator reconnection is represented. The green array in the top

  19. Effects of centrally acting ACE inhibitors on the rate of cognitive decline in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Healy, Liam; Kerins, David M; Eustace, Joseph; Guyatt, Gordon; Sammon, David; Molloy, D William

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is growing evidence that antihypertensive agents, particularly centrally acting ACE inhibitors (CACE-Is), which cross the blood–brain barrier, are associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline. Given this, we compared the rates of cognitive decline in clinic patients with dementia receiving CACE-Is (CACE-I) with those not currently treated with CACE-Is (NoCACE-I), and with those who started CACE-Is, during their first 6 months of treatment (NewCACE-I). Design Observational case–control study. Setting 2 university hospital memory clinics. Participants 817 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, vascular or mixed dementia. Of these, 361 with valid cognitive scores were included for analysis, 85 CACE-I and 276 NoCACE-I. Measurements Patients were included if the baseline and end-point (standardised at 6 months apart) Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) or Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) scores were available. Patients with comorbid depression or other dementia subtypes were excluded. The average 6-month rates of change in scores were compared between CACE-I, NoCACE-I and NewCACE-I patients. Results When the rate of decline was compared between groups, there was a significant difference in the median, 6-month rate of decline in Qmci scores between CACE-I (1.8 points) and NoCACE-I (2.1 points) patients (p=0.049), with similar, non-significant changes in SMMSE. Median SMMSE scores improved by 1.2 points in the first 6 months of CACE treatment (NewCACE-I), compared to a 0.8 point decline for the CACE-I (p=0.003) group and a 1 point decline for the NoCACE-I (p=0.001) group over the same period. Multivariate analysis, controlling for baseline characteristics, showed significant differences in the rates of decline, in SMMSE, between the three groups, p=0.002. Conclusions Cognitive scores may improve in the first 6 months after CACE-I treatment and use of CACE-Is is associated with a reduced rate of cognitive

  20. Astronomical component estimation (ACE v.1) by time-variant sinusoidal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on (fast) Fourier transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic can make it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. This drawback is circumvented by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach was proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature. Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals share similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic-frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, this difference is irrelevant for the problem of separating simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency. Using an approach with overlapping analysis frames, the model (Astronomical Component Estimation, version 1: ACE v.1) captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretations, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Uncertainty analyses of the model estimates are performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns reconstruct changes in

  1. In Situ Aerosol-Size Distributions and Clear-Column Radiative Closure During ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Gasso, S.; Hegg, D. A.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Oestroem, E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) during June and July of 1997, aerosol-size distributions were measured on board the CIRPAS Pelican aircraft through the use of a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and 2 Optical Particle Counters (OPCs). During the campaign, the boundary-layer aerosol typically possessed characteristics representative of a background marine aerosol or a continentally influenced aerosol, while the free-tropospheric aerosol was characterized by the presence or absence of a Saharan dust layer. A range of radiative closure comparisons were made using the data obtained during vertical profiles flown on 4 missions. Of particular interest here are the comparisons made between the optical properties as determined through the use of measured aerosol-size distributions and those measured directly by an airborne 14-wavelength sunphotometer and 3 nephelometers. Variations in the relative humidity associated with each of the direct measurements required consideration of the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol for size-distribution-based calculations. Simultaneous comparison with such a wide range of directly-measured optical parameters not only offers evidence of the validity of the physicochemical description of the aerosol when closure is achieved, but also provides insight into potential sources of error when some or all of the comparisons result in disagreement. Agreement between the derived and directly-measured optical properties varied for different measurements and for different cases. Averaged over the 4 case studies, the derived extinction coefficient at 525 nm exceeded that measured by the sunphotometer by 2.5% in the clean boundary layer, but underestimated measurements by 13% during pollution events. For measurements within the free troposphere, the mean derived extinction coefficient was 3.3% and 17% less than that measured by the sunphotometer during dusty and non-dusty conditions, respectively. Likewise

  2. In Situ Aerosol Size Distributions and Clear Column Radiative Closure During ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D. R.; Johnson, H. H.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Gasso, S.; Hegg, D. A.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Oestroem, E.; Noone, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Putaud, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) during June and July of 1997, aerosol size distributions were measured on board the CIRPAS Pelican aircraft through the use of a DMA and two OPCS. During the campaign, the boundary layer aerosol typically possessed characteristics representative of a background marine aerosol or a continentally influenced aerosol, while the free tropospheric aerosol was characterized by the presence or absence of a Saharan dust layer. A range of radiative closure comparisons were made using the data obtained during vertical profiles flown on four missions. Of particular interest here are the comparisons made between the optical properties as determined through the use of measured aerosol size distributions and those measured directly by an airborne 14-wavelength sunphotometer and three nephelometers. Variations in the relative humidity associated with each of the direct measurements required consideration of the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol for size distribution based calculations. Simultaneous comparison with such a wide range of directly measured optical parameters not only offers evidence of the validity of the physicochemical description of the aerosol when closure is achieved, but also provides insight into potential sources of error when some or all of the comparisons result in disagreement. Agreement between the derived and directly measured optical properties varied for different measurements and for different cases. Averaged over the four case studies, the derived extinction coefficient at 525 nm exceeded that measured by the sunphotomoter by 2.5% in the clean boundary later, but underestimated measurements by 13% during pollution events. For measurements within the free troposphere, the mean derived extinction coefficient was 3.3% and 17% less than that measured by the sunphotometer during dusty and nondusty conditions, respectively. Likewise, averaged discrepancies between the derived and measured

  3. Comparison of species-resolved energy spectra from ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison between energy spectra measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument and the Van Allen Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) for two significant and distinct events in early 2013. The first is an impulsive solar particle event on March 17th. While intense, this event presented no significant surprises in terms of its composition or anisotropy characteristics, thus providing a good baseline for response of the trapped radiation belts as observed by the Van Allen Probes. The second solar event occurred late May 22nd and early May 23rd. This event has a much greater concentration of medium and heavy ions than the St. Patrick's Day event, as well as having very peculiar energy spectra with evidence of two distinct populations. During the St. Patrick's Day Event, the energy spectra for helium, carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron all show the same spectral power law slope -3.1. The event shows strong anisotropy with intensities differing by a factor of four for both protons and Z>1 ions. The late May event also has strong anisotropy, and in the same directions as the St. Patrick's Day Event, but with very different composition and energy spectra. The spectra are much harder with power law spectral slopes of -0.5. Additionally, there is a significant spectral bump at 3 MeV/nuc for helium that is not present in the spectra of the heavier ions. The intensities of the heavier ions, however, show an increase that is an order of magnitude greater than the increase seen for helium. The March 17 RBSPICE observations show multiple injection events lasting for less than an hour each during the Van Allen Probes B apogees. These injections are seen in protons as well as Helium and only somewhat observed in Oxygen. Spectral slopes for the observations range from approximately -5 during quiet times to double peaked events with a spectral slope of approximately -2 at the beginning of the injection

  4. ACE Inhibitor and ARB Medication Use among Medicaid Enrollees with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Claudia M.; Sokolovsky, Alexander W.; Touchette, Daniel R.; Jin, Jing; Xiaojing, Hu; Gao, Weihua; Gerber, Ben S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine Ace-Inhibitor (ACEI)and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) prescription and adherence patterns by race in diabetic Public Aid recipients. Design, Subjects, and Measures We analyzed prescription records of 27,529 adults age 18–64 with diabetes enrolled in the State of Illinois Public Aid program during 2007 who had at least one clinical indication for receiving an ACEI/ARB prescription. We calculated Proportion of Days Covered (PDC) to assess adherence. Multivariate models adjusted for age, gender, ACEI/ARB indication, and any significant interaction terms. Results Only 47.4% of individuals with at least one indication for ACEI/ARB had filled an ACEI/ARB prescription. African American men were more likely than Caucasian men to ever fill an ACEI/ARB prescription [Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR (95% CI) 1.69 (1.55–1.83)]. Hispanic English and Spanish speaking men were also more likely than Caucasian men to ever fill an ACEI/ARB prescription [AOR (95% CI) 1.37 (1.16–1.62) and 1.27 (1.05–1.53), respectively]. Similarly, African American and Hispanic English and Spanish speaking women were more likely than Caucasian women to ever fill an ACEI/ARB prescription [AOR (95% CI) 1.70 (1.59–1.81)], 1.55 (1.36–1.76), and 1.98 (1.73–2.28), respectively]. However, African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely than Caucasians to achieve a PDC ≥ 80%. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanic Spanish speakers were the least likely to be adherent [AOR (95% CI) 0.49 (0.41–0.58)]. Furthermore, older individuals were more likely to achieve a PDC ≥ 80% than younger individuals. Conclusion African Americans and Hispanics with diabetes receiving public aid in Illinois were more likely than Caucasians to have filled at least one ACEI/ARB prescription. However, they were less adherent with these medications. Future studies should assess barriers to medication adherence in this population. PMID:23530300

  5. An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Karl A.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Li, Liping; Gamage, Hasinika K. A. H.; Liu, Qi; Jackson, Scott M.; Sharples, David; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in “superbugs” that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance can be under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance. Using this approach we have characterized several novel efflux pumps in bacteria. In one example we recently identified the Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux protein (AceI) efflux pump in Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a novel family of multidrug efflux pumps conserved in many proteobacterial lineages. The discovery of this family raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25954261

  6. A novel angiotensin-І converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15μM, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension.

  7. ACE inhibitors hypothesis generation for selective design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-mercapto-2-methyl-propanoyl-pyrrolidine-3-imine derivatives as antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed A H; Nabil Aboul-Enein, M; Abouzid, Khaled A M; Abou El Ella, Dalal A; Ismail, Nasser S M

    2009-05-15

    A series of new 3-mercapto-2-methyl-propanoyl-pyrrolidine derivatives (V, VIa-e) were designed. A new validated ACE inhibitors pharmacophore model (hypothesis) was generated for the first time in this research from the biologically active (frozen) conformation of Lisinopril-Human ACE complex that was downloaded from PDB, using stepwise technique of CATALYST modules. The molecular modeling compare-fit study of the designed molecules (V, VIa-e), with such ACE inhibitors hypothesis was fulfilled, and several compounds showed significant high simulation fit values. The compounds with high fit values were synthesized and biologically evaluated in vivo as hypotensive agents. It appears that the in vivo hypotensive activity of compounds V, VIa, VIb, and VIe was consistent with their molecular modeling results, and compound VIe showed the highest activity in comparison to Captopril.

  8. Imaging Chemical Aggregation of Ni/NiO Particles from Reduced NiO-YSZ

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2011-07-20

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of nickel oxide yttria-stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) was carried out after various hydrogen reducing and methane steam reforming conditions. Nickel aggregation was visualized after methane steam reforming by correlating Ni K{sub {alpha}} map with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. From the reduced O K{sub {alpha}} intensities in the Ni K{sub {alpha}} dominated regions after methane steam reforming, NiO reduction in to Ni can be interpreted. From correlation between Zr K{sub {alpha}} and O K{sub {alpha}} maps, high stability of YSZ was also realized. Examples of NiO-YSZ overlapped particles are considered to discuss chemical imaging of a single particle.

  9. Measurement of Organic and Inorganic Chemical Tracers for Source Apportionment of Tropospheric Aerosols Collected During the ACE-Asia Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, J. J.; Park, J.; Duvall, R.; Bae, M.; Shafer, M. M.; Chuang, P.; Chuang, P.; Kim, Y. J.

    2001-12-01

    Naturally occurring dust and anthropogenic air pollutants are important contributors to tropospheric aerosols and impact air quality and the radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere. In order to better understand the relationship between the origin, chemical composition and ultimate impact of Asian aerosols on climate forcing, aerosol samples were collected as part of the ACE-Asia experiment for detailed chemical analysis. Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from March 27, 2001 through May 6, 2001 at the ACE-Asia ground station located on Cheju Island, Korea. During this period, this region is impacted by anthropogenic air pollution emissions from highly urbanized region of Asia and by desert dust originating from northeastern Asia. As part of the experiment, atmospheric particulate matter samplers were also collected in urban and desert locations in Asia that represent regional sources of particulate matter in Asia. Size resolved aerosol samples were analyzed for trace metals by using microwave assisted-acid digestion and ICP-MS analysis, speciated organic compounds using solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis, as well as soluble ions and elemental and organic carbon (ECOC). These measurements provide fingerprints for source apportionment of the atmospheric particulate matter samples collected at the Cheju Island sampling site. The use of these chemical tracers for apportionment of wind-driven long range transported desert dust, local crustal derived dust, biogenically and anthropogenically derived sulfate, specific urban combustion source, and fossil fuel combustion will be presented.

  10. NMR Parameters Determination through ACE Committee Machine with Genetic Implanted Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Implanted Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa; Gholami, Amin

    2015-06-01

    Free fluid porosity and rock permeability, undoubtedly the most critical parameters of hydrocarbon reservoir, could be obtained by processing of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log. Despite conventional well logs (CWLs), NMR logging is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, idea of synthesizing NMR log from CWLs would be of a great appeal among reservoir engineers. For this purpose, three optimization strategies are followed. Firstly, artificial neural network (ANN) is optimized by virtue of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS) technique, then fuzzy logic (FL) is optimized by means of GA-PS, and eventually an alternative condition expectation (ACE) model is constructed using the concept of committee machine to combine outputs of optimized and non-optimized FL and ANN models. Results indicated that optimization of traditional ANN and FL model using GA-PS technique significantly enhances their performances. Furthermore, the ACE committee of aforementioned models produces more accurate and reliable results compared with a singular model performing alone.

  11. Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne in-situ, Space-borne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Troposoheric Aerosol in Ace-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Collins, D.; Gasso, S.; Ostrom, E.; Powell, D.; Welton, E.; Durkee, P.; Livingstron, J.; Russell, P.; Flagan, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report on clear-sky column closure experiments performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ aerosol measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidars A wide range of aerosol types was encountered throughout the ACE-2 area, including background Atlantic marine, European pollution-derived, and African mineral dust. During !he two days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud free air masses revealed three distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. We found that the presence of the elevated dust layer removes the good agreement between satellite and sunphotometer AOD usually found in the absence of the dust layer. Using size-resolved composition information we have computed optical properties of the ambient aerosol from the in-situ measurements and subsequently compared those to the sunphotometer results. In the dust, the agreement in layer aerosol optical depth (380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at 525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations.

  12. Interstellar flow longitude from pickup ion cut-off observations at 1 AU with STEREO and ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Drews, C.; Keilbach, D.

    2016-11-01

    A precision determination of the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction is important in several ways. As a cardinal axis of the heliosphere it has strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN velocity and interstellar magnetic field vector, which controls the shape of the heliosphere and its interaction with the interstellar medium. Continuing observations of the ISN flow through the heliosphere for several decades allow the search for potential temporal variations of the ISN flow and comparison with astronomical observations. Recent efforts to obtain a consistent ISN vector and temperature with Ulysses and IBEX neutral gas observations point to remaining uncertainties and potential systematic effects. In particular, IBEX measurements provide a very precise relation between ISN flow longitude and speed via the hyperbolic trajectory equation, but they contain larger uncertainties along the parameter tube defined by this relation. The pickup ion (PUI) cut-off variation with ecliptic longitude at 1 AU can provide a complementary determination of the ISN flow longitude with high precision. We compare STEREO PLASTIC and ACE SWICS observations with a simple analytical model of the cut-off. We perform a Pearson correlation analysis of the cut-off as a function of ecliptic longitude with its mirrored function and obtain the symmetry axis with a statistical uncertainty <0.1°. Here we test variations of this value due to Poisson fluctuations in the original data with simulations and due to systematic effects with multi year and location ACE SWICS and STEREO PLASTIC samples.

  13. SARS coronavirus, but not human coronavirus NL63, utilizes cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Chueh; Bosch, Berend Jan; Li, Fang; Li, Wenhui; Lee, Kyoung Hoa; Ghiran, Sorina; Vasilieva, Natalya; Dermody, Terence S; Harrison, Stephen C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Farzan, Michael; Rottier, Peter J M; Choe, Hyeryun

    2006-02-10

    Viruses require specific cellular receptors to infect their target cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a cellular receptor for two divergent coronaviruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). In addition to hostcell receptors, lysosomal cysteine proteases are required for productive infection by some viruses. Here we show that SARS-CoV, but not HCoV-NL63, utilizes the enzymatic activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells. Inhibitors of cathepsin L blocked infection by SARS-CoV and by a retrovirus pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein but not infection by HCoV-NL63 or a retrovirus pseudotyped with the HCoV-NL63 S protein. Expression of exogenous cathepsin L substantially enhanced infection mediated by the SARS-CoV S protein and by filovirus GP proteins but not by the HCoV-NL63 S protein or the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. Finally, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification had substantially less effect on infection mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein than on that mediated by the SARS-CoV S protein. Our data indicate that two coronaviruses that utilize a common receptor nonetheless enter cells through distinct mechanisms.

  14. Genetically-reduced serum ACE activity might be a causal risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Lan; Wang, Bin; Lang, Wei-Ya; Xue, Jing; Zhao, Da-Long; Li, Guo-Feng; Zheng, Li-Hong; Pan, Hong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We meta-analytically summarized the associations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with ACE activity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) to see whether ACE activity is causally associated with OSAS. Literature search and data abstraction were done in duplicate. Sixteen articles including 2060 OSAS patients and 1878 controls were summarized. Overall, no significance was observed for the association of I/D polymorphism with OSAS, whereas carriers of II genotype (weighted mean difference or WMD, 95% confidence interval or CI, P: −11.976, −17.168 to −6.783, <0.001) or I allele (−9.842, −14.766 to −4.918, <0.001) had a lower level of serum ACE activity compared with DD genotype carriers, respectively. In subgroup analyses, carriers of II genotype were 3.806 times more likely to develop OSAS (95% CI, P: 1.865 to 7.765, <0.001) in OSAS patients with hypertension, without heterogeneity. Mendelian randomization analysis indicated there was 37.4% (95% CI: 1.115 to 3.142) and 32.4% (1.106 to 2.845) increased risk of OSAS by a reduction of 1 U/L in ACE activity for the II genotype and I allele carriers versus DD genotype carriers, respectively. There was no observable publication bias. Collectively, genetically-reduced serum ACE activity might be a causal risk factor for OSAS. PMID:26486181

  15. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene rs4362 polymorphism on the progression of kidney failure in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Ghosh, Santu; Elumalai, Ramprasad; Periyasamy, Soundararajan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V.K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited systemic disorder, characterized by the fluid filled cysts in the kidneys leading to end stage renal failure in later years of life. Hypertension is one of the major factors independently contributing to the chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) genes have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of angiotensin converting enzyme tagging - single nucleotide polymorphisms (ACE tag-SNPs) in progression of CKD in patients with ADPKD. Methods: In the present study six ACE tagSNPs (angiotensin converting enzyme tag single nucleotide polymorphisms) and insertion/deletion (I/D) in 102 ADPKD patients and 106 control subjects were investigated. The tagSNPs were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method and ACE ID by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis. Genotypes and haplotypes were compared between ADPKD patients and controls. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of genotypes and hypertension on CKD advancement. Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis was performed to study the relationship between different CKD stages and hypertension and their interaction. Results: All loci were polymorphic and except rs4293 SNP the remaining loci followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of ACE genotypes and haplotypes in controls and ADPKD patients was not significant. A significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between SNPs forming two LD blocks. The univariate analysis revealed that the age, hypertension, family history of diabetes and ACE rs4362 contributed to the advancement of CKD. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that the ACE genotypes are effect modifiers of the relationship between hypertension and CKD advancement among the ADPKD patients. PMID:27748299

  16. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K.; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465