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Sample records for ni-nb-zr-h glassy alloys

  1. Superconductivity of Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys with nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Yoshida, Hajime; Koyama, Keiichi; Inoue, Akihisa; Miura, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the hydrogen effect on superconductivity in the (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)(100-x)H(x)(0 < or = x < or = 6.4) glassy alloys with nanoclusters, as a function of temperature. The resistivity of these alloys started to drop from onset temperature of around 9.5 K. The (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)98.6H1.6 showed zero resistance at 2.1 K. However, the application of a magnetic field > 4.6 T arrested the drop of resistivity, showing the existence of superconductivity of type II. The maximum onset temperature of 11.3 K was observed at 4.4 at% H. The superconducting behavior of the glassy alloys would be associated with electron pair transport along zigzag paths, which link the shortened atomic -Ni-Ni-Ni- array in the Zr5Ni5Nb3 clusters, and tunneling among the clusters.

  2. Vacancy analysis in a Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-02-01

    The positron lifetimes of Ni36Nb24Zr40 and (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 glassy alloys are almost the same but longer than those of pure Zr, Nb, and Ni crystals, indicating that they have higher density of vacancies with smaller size than in crystals. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum for both specimens shows that the contribution of Ni around the vacancies is lower than that of Zr and Nb, suggesting that hydrogen atoms favour to exist between Ni atoms comprising neighboring distorted icosahedral Zr5Ni5Nb3 clusters. Thus, these results provide a substitute model of quantum dot tunneling along Ni-H-Ni atomic bond arrays among the clusters.

  3. Room-temperature nonlinear transport phenomena in low-dimensional Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys and its device

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-05-15

    We report the room-temperature switching and Coulomb blockade effects in three–terminal glassy alloy field effect transistor (GAFET), using the millimeter sized glassy alloy. By applying dc and ac voltages to a gate electrode, GAFET can be switched from a metallic conducting state to an insulating state with Coulomb oscillation at a period of 14 μV at room temperature. The transistor showed the three-dimensional Coulomb diamond structure. The fabrication of a low-energy controllable device throws a new light on cluster electronics without wiring.

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen diffusion and electron tunneling in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Niki, Haruo; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Morihito; Yogi, Mamoru; Seki, Ichiro; Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-06-15

    Using the Fourier transform of the echo envelope, the proton line shapes, spin-lattice relaxation time, and spin-spin relaxation time have been measured in a (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy at 1.83 T ({approx}78 MHz) and at temperatures between 1.8 and 300 K. First, the spectral line width decreases abruptly between 1.8 and 2.1 K. Next, it remains almost constant at 13 kHz up to {approx}150 K. Finally, the line width decreases as the temperature increases from {approx}150 to 300 K. The initial decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the distribution of the external field, which is caused by the penetration of vortices in the superconducting state. The subsequent leveling off in the spectral line width is ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between protons when hydrogen atoms are trapped into vacancies among the Zr-centered icosahedral Zr{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Nb{sub 3} clusters. The final decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the motional narrowing of the width that is caused by the movement of hydrogen atoms. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time showed that at temperature above 150 K and the activation energy of 8.7 kJ/mol allowed the hydrogen atoms to migrate among the clusters. The distance between the hydrogen atoms is estimated to be 2.75 A. Hydrogen occupancies among clusters in the (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy play an important role in the diffusion behavior and in the electronic properties of this alloy.

  5. Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Metallic Glassy Alloys and Glassy-Crystal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Li, S.; Kawashima, A.; Xie, G.; Yavari, A. R.; Inoue, A.

    2011-06-01

    The present work demonstrates the deformation behavior of Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk glassy alloys and Zr-Ni-Cu-Al-Pd glassy foils as well as Ni-Cu-Ti-Zr bulk crystal-glassy composites. Fracture of Zr60Cu16Ni14Al10 and Zr64.13Ni10.12Cu15.75Al10 bulk glassy alloys is featured by nearly equal fraction areas of cleavage-like and vein-type relief. The observed pattern of alternating cleavage-like and vein-type patterns illustrates a result of dynamically self-organizing shear propagation at the final catastrophic stage. The deformation behavior of Zr64.13Ni10.12Cu15.75Al10 alloy has also been tested at LN2 temperature. The strength of the sample decreases with temperature, and no clear serrated flow typical for bulk glassy samples tested at room temperature is observed in the case of the samples tested at LN2 temperature. We also studied the deformation behavior of Zr-Ni-Cu-Al-Pd glassy foils thinned to electron transparency in situ in tension in a transmission electron microscope. We also present a Ni-Cu-Ti-Zr crystal-glassy composite material having a superior strength paired with a considerable ductility exceeding 10 pct. The metastable cP2 crystalline phase promotes a strain-induced martensitic transformation leading to pseudoelastic behavior as well as enhanced plasticity at room temperature. Underlying mechanisms of plastic deformation are discussed in terms of the interplay between the dislocation slip in the crystalline phase and the shear deformation in the glassy matrix.

  6. Development of an Automatic Fabrication System for Cast Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The developed automatic fabrication system comprised three component functions: weighing, alloying, and casting. The measurement error of automatic weighing specimen was about less 1 pct for Zr-based master alloys (approximately 30 g). Especially, sufficient stirrer effect of arc-melting ingot for homogeneity can be achieved by the development of sinusoidal arcing and applying magnetic field. In order to achieve superior homogeneity of the glass structure with no secondary phase ( i.e., an intermetallic compound with a high melting temperature), a prealloying process should be advisable. In this study, high reliability of the density and mechanical properties of automatic processed cast glassy alloys (CGAs) was successfully obtained. The developed automatic fabrication process has a potential to accelerate the industrial application of CGAs in the near future.

  7. New Fe-Ni based metal-metalloid glassy alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Sunol, J.J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M.T.; Clavaguera, N.; Pradell, T.

    1997-12-31

    Mechanical alloying and rapid solidification are two important routes to obtain glassy alloys. New Fe-Ni based metal-metalloid (P-Si) alloys prepared by these two different processing routes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy. Mechanical alloyed samples were prepared with elemental precursors, and different nominal compositions. Rapidly solidified alloys were obtained by melt-spinning. The structural analyses show that, independent of the composition, the materials obtained by mechanical alloying are not completely disordered whereas fully amorphous alloys were obtained by rapid solidification. Consequently, the thermal stability of mechanically alloyed samples is lower than that of the analogous material prepared by rapid solidification. The P/Si ratio controls the magnetic interaction of the glassy ribbons obtained by rapid solidification. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the degree of amorphization and crystallization versus processing route and P/Si ratio content.

  8. Co-Fe-B-Si-Nb bulk glassy alloys with superhigh strength and extremely low magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Chuntao; Shen Baolong; Inoue, Akihisa

    2006-01-02

    Co-based bulk glassy alloys with diameters up to 4 mm were formed in a [(Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 0.75}B{sub 0.2}Si{sub 0.05}]{sub 96}Nb{sub 4} system. The bulk glassy alloys exhibit a superhigh fracture strength of 3980-4170 MPa and Young's modulus of 190-210 GPa. The bulk glassy alloys also exhibit excellent soft-magnetic properties, i.e., high saturation magnetization of 0.71-0.97 T, low coercive force of 0.7-1.8 A/m, high permeability of 1.48-3.25x10{sup 4}, and extremely low saturation magnetostriction of 0.55-5.76x10{sup -6}. The first successful synthesis of the Co-Fe-B-Si-based bulk glassy alloys exhibiting superhigh fracture strength and excellent soft-magnetic properties with extremely low magnetostriction is encouraging for future development of Co-based bulk glassy alloys as new engineering and functional materials.

  9. Fabrication of Ni-Nb-Sn metallic glassy alloy powder and its microwave-induced sintering behavior.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guoqiang; Li, Song; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Cao, Ziping; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared Ni59.35Nb34.45Sn6.2 metallic glassy alloy powder by an argon gas atomization process. Microwave (MW)-induced heating and sintering was carried out by a single-mode 2.45 GHz MW applicator in the separated magnetic field or electric field using the obtained glassy powders. The structure and thermal stability of the sintered glassy alloy specimens were investigated.

  10. Dielectric relaxation studies in Se90Cd8Sb2 glassy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nitesh; Rao, Vandita; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Se90Cd8Sb2 chalcogenide semiconducting alloy was prepared by melt quench technique. The prepared glassy alloy has been characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX).Dielectric properties of Se90Cd8Sb2 chalcogenide semiconductor have been studied using impedance spectroscopic technique in the frequency range 5×102Hz - 1×105Hz and in temperature range 303-318K. It is found that dielectric constant ɛ' and dielectric loss factor ɛ″ are dependent on frequency and temperature.

  11. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  12. Irradiation effect of swift heavy ion for Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk glassy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Naoto; Ishii, Akito; Ishii, Kouji; Iwase, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Saitoh, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Norito; Yabuuchi, Atsushi; Hori, Fuminobu

    2013-11-01

    It has been reported that heavy ion irradiation causes softening in some cases of Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloys. However, the fundamental mechanisms of such softening have not been clarified yet. In this study, Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk glassy alloys were irradiated with heavy ions of 10 MeV I at room temperature. The maximum fluence was 3 × 1014 ions/cm2. The positron annihilation measurements have performed before and after irradiation to investigate changes in free volume. We discuss the relationship between the energy loss and local open volume change after 10 MeV I irradiation compared with those obtained for 200 MeV Xe and 5 MeV Al. The energy loss analysis in ion irradiation for the positron lifetime has revealed that the decreasing trend of positron lifetime is well expressed as a function of total electronic energy deposition rather than total elastic energy deposition. It means that the positron lifetime change by the irradiation has a relationship with the inelastic collisions with electrons during heavy ion irradiation.

  13. Composition dependence of dielectric properties in Se{sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} glassy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.; Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper we report the composition dependent of dielectric properties in Se{sub 100-x}Cu{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) glassy alloys. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric constants and the dielectric losses in the above glassy systems in the frequency range (1k Hz-5 M Hz) and temperature range (300 K–350 K) have been measured. It has been found that dielectric constant and the dielectric loss both are highly dependent on frequency and temperature and also found to increase with increasing concentration of Cu in pure amorphous Se. The role of Cu, as an impurity in the pure a-Se glassy alloy, is also discussed in terms of electronegativity difference between the elements used in making the aforesaid glassy system. Apart from this, the results have been also correlated in terms of a dipolar model which considers the hopping of charge carriers over a potential barrier between charged defect states.

  14. Thermal analysis of specific heat measurements in glassy Se80-xTe20Sbx alloys in glass transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, S.; Mehta, N.; Sharma, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    In the present report, we have done specific heat measurements in glassy Se80-xTe20Sbx (0 ≤ x ≤ 15) alloys in glass transition region. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for this purpose. We have observed a tremendously huge increase in the specific heat (Cp) values at the glass transition temperature. The thermal analysis shows that the values of Cp below glass transition temperature and the difference of Cp values before and after glass transition (∆Cp) are highly composition-dependent.

  15. Effect of Nb Concentration on Thermal Stability and Glass-Forming Ability of Soft Magnetic (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Xingguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-07-01

    Addition of a small amount of Nb to the (Fe,Co)-Gd-B glassy alloy in (Fe0.9Co0.1)71.5- x Nb x Gd3.5B25 increased the stabilization of supercooled liquid. The largest supercooled liquid region of 104 K was obtained for the x = 2 alloy. A distinct two-stage-like glass transition was observed with further incresing Nb content. The nanoscale (Fe,Co)23B6 phase precipitated in the glassy matrix after annealing, while the two-stage-like glass transition disappeared, indicating that the anomalous glass transition behavior originates from the exothermic reaction for the formation of the (Fe,Co)23B6 phase in the supercooled liquid region. The glass-forming ability (GFA) also increased by addition of Nb, leading to formation of the bulk glass form for the Nb-doped alloys. The best GFA with a diameter of over 3 mm was achieved for the x = 4 alloy. The (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B glassy alloys exhibited good magnetic properties, i.e., rather high saturation magnetization of 0.81 to 1.22 T, low coercive force of 2.5 to 5.8 A/m, and low saturated magnetostriction of 9 to 19 × 10-6. In addition, the glassy alloys also possessed very high compressive fracture strength of 3842 to 3916 MPa and high Vickers hardness of 1025 to 1076.

  16. Casting Atmosphere Effects on the Precipitates, Magnetism, and Corrosion Resistance of Fe78Si9B13 Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L. L.; Li, X. Y.; Pang, J.; Wang, L.; An, B.; Yin, L. J.; Song, K. K.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-11-01

    The precipitates, magnetism, and corrosion resistance of Fe78Si9B13 glassy samples fabricated in vacuum and air atmospheres (labeled as VAC and AIR samples, respectively) were studied. The findings show that the fraction of the amorphous phase in VAC samples is lower than that in the AIR counterparts. The Fe phase in VAC samples grows preferentially along the <200> orientation. The distribution of magnetization M 4000 of VAC samples oriented parallel and orthogonal to the field ( H // and H ⊥) at H = 4000 Oe is more scattered than AIR samples. The corrosion resistance of VAC samples is lower than AIR counterparts, which can be attributed to the minor alloying effect of oxygen and the passive effect of silicon atoms supplied from the amorphous phase.

  17. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, E.; Rontó, V.; Sólyom, J.; Roósz, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu49Hf42Al9, Cu46Hf45Al9, Cu50Hf42.5Al7.5 and Cu50Hf45Al5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  18. Dual-phase glassy/nanoscale icosahedral phase materials in Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd system alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Churyumov, A.Yu.

    2014-10-15

    The present work is devoted to an investigation of the formation kinetics, stability and homogeneity area of the nanoscale icosahedral phase formed on heating in the dual-phase glassy/quasicrystalline phase Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd alloys. The data obtained indicate that the Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd icosahedral phase is not a Cu-rich part of the compositional homogeneity area of the Zr–Cu–Pd one. Moreover, Ti, as well as Pd, is found to be an important element stabilizing quasicrystalline phase in the Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd alloys. The formation criteria for Cu- and Zr/Hf-based icosahedral phases are discussed based on the quasilattice constant to average atomic diameter ratio. Deviation from a certain ratio leads to destabilization of the icosahedral phase. By using the isothermal calorimetry traces transformation kinetics above and below the glass-transition region was analyzed. Some difference in the transformation kinetics above and below the glass-transition region allows us to suggest that possible structure changes occur upon glass-transition. - Highlights: • Formation kinetics, stability and homogeneity area of nanoscale icosahedral phase • Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd icosahedral phase is not a Cu-rich part of Zr–Cu–Pd one. • Ti, as well as Pd, is an important element stabilizing quasicrystalline phase. • Difference in transformation kinetics above and below glass-transition region.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Reverse Monte Carlo study on structural order in liquid and glassy AlFe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing-Xiang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xi-Gui; Bian, Xiu-Fang

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports that anomalous local order in liquid and glassy AlFeCe alloy has been detected by x-ray diffraction measurements. The addition of the element Ce has a great effect on this local structural order. The element Ce favours interpenetration of the icosahedra by sharing a common face and edges. It argues that frustration between this short-range order and the long-range crystalline order controls the glass-forming ability of these liquids. The obtained results suggest that a system having a stronger tendency to show local icosahedral order should be a better glass-former. This scenario also naturally explains the close relationship between the local icosahedral order in a liquid, glass-forming ability, and the nucleation barrier. Such topological local order has also been analysed directly using the reverse Monte Carlo method. It also estimated the fraction of local ordered and disordered structural units in a glassy AlFeCe alloy.

  20. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Wang, Y G; An, B; Xu, H; Liu, Y; Zhang, L C; Ma, H Y; Wang, W M

    2016-01-01

    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  1. Design and Characterisation of Metallic Glassy Alloys of High Neutron Shielding Capability

    PubMed Central

    Khong, J. C.; Daisenberger, D.; Burca, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Mi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design, making and characterisation of a series of Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloys with the aim of achieving the combined properties of high neutron absorption capability and sufficient glass forming ability. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods were used to characterise the crystalline or amorphous states of the samples. Neutron transmission and macroscopic attenuation coefficients of the designed alloys were measured using energy resolved neutron imaging method and the very recently developed microchannel plate detector. The study found that the newly designed alloy (Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Gd2 with a glass forming ability of Ø5.8 mm) has the highest neutron absorption capability among all Fe-based bulk metallic glasses so far reported. It is a promising material for neutron shielding applications. PMID:27848991

  2. Design and Characterisation of Metallic Glassy Alloys of High Neutron Shielding Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khong, J. C.; Daisenberger, D.; Burca, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Mi, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design, making and characterisation of a series of Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloys with the aim of achieving the combined properties of high neutron absorption capability and sufficient glass forming ability. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods were used to characterise the crystalline or amorphous states of the samples. Neutron transmission and macroscopic attenuation coefficients of the designed alloys were measured using energy resolved neutron imaging method and the very recently developed microchannel plate detector. The study found that the newly designed alloy (Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Gd2 with a glass forming ability of Ø5.8 mm) has the highest neutron absorption capability among all Fe-based bulk metallic glasses so far reported. It is a promising material for neutron shielding applications.

  3. Ti-based glassy alloys in Ti-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZengRui; Dong, DanDan; Qiang, JianBing; Wang, Qing; Wang, YingMin; Dong, Chuang

    2013-07-01

    Bulk amorphous formation in Ti-Cu-based multicomponent alloys, free of Ni, Pd and Be elements, were studied using the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The basic cluster formula was revealed as [Ti9Cu6]Cu3 to explain the best binary glass forming composition Ti50Cu50=Ti9Cu9, where the CN14 rhombi-dodecahedron Ti9Cu6 was the principal cluster in the devitrification phase CuTi. This basic cluster formula was further alloyed with Zr and Sn and a critical glass forming ability was reached at (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.72Sn0.28) and (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.45Sn0.55) up to 5 mm in diameter by suction casting, which was the largest in Ti-Cu-based and Ni-, Pd- and Be-free alloys.

  4. Crystallization Kinetics and Phase Transformation Mechanisms in Cu56Zr44 Glassy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ilkay; Kramer, Matthew J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetics and phase selection mechanisms involved in the crystallization of an amorphous Cu-Zr alloy of eutectic composition (Cu56Zr44) were investigated using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under isothermal and constant heating rate conditions. In situ HEXRD results for 10 K/min (10 °C/min) heating indicate that the amorphous alloy devitrifies into CuZr2 and mainly Cu10Zr7 at the crystallization temperature of 725 K (452 °C). The sequence continues with the precipitation of CuZr (B2) at 1004 K (731 °C), where these three phases coexist until the decomposition of CuZr2 is observed at 1030 K (757 °C). The two equilibrium phases Cu10Zr7 and CuZr (B2) remain present on further heating until melting at the eutectic temperature for the Cu56Zr44 alloy. TEM investigation of the isothermal [705 K (432 °C)] crystallization sequence reveals primary nucleation and growth of the Cu10Zr7 phase, where growth of the Cu10Zr7 crystals is initially planar with a transition to a cellular morphology, associated with partitioning of Zr at the growth front. Related cellular structures and composition profiles are quantified.

  5. Potential applications of cold sprayed Cu50Ti20Ni30 metallic glassy alloy powders for antibacterial protective coating in medical and food sectors.

    PubMed

    El-Eskandrany, M Sherif; Al-Azmi, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical alloying was utilized for synthesizing of metallic glassy Cu50Ti20Ni30 alloy powders, using a low energy ball milling technique. The metallic glassy powders obtained after 100 h of ball milling had an average particle size of 1.7 mm in diameter and possessed excellent thermal stability, indexed by a relatively high glass transition temperature (358.3 °C) with a wide supercooled liquid region (61 °C). This amorphous phase crystallized into Ti2Cu and CuTiNi2 ordered phases through two overlapped crystallization temperatures at 419.3 °C and 447.5 °C, respectively. The total enthalpy change of crystallization was -4.8 kJ/mol. The glassy powders were employed as feedstock materials to double-face coating the surface of SUS 304 substrate, using cold spraying process under helium gas pressure at 400 °C. This coating material had an extraordinary high nanohardness value of 3.1 GPa. Moreover, it showed a high resistance to wear with a low value of the coefficient of friction ranging from 0.45 to 0.45. Biofilms were grown on 20-mm(2) SUS304 sheets coated coupons inoculated with 1.5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1)E. coli. Significant biofilm inhibition (p The inhibition of biofilm formation by nanocrystalline powders of Cu-based provides a practical approach to achieve the inhibition of biofilms formation.

  6. Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mailu, Stephen N; Waryo, Tesfaye T; Ndangili, Peter M; Ngece, Fanelwa R; Baleg, Abd A; Baker, Priscilla G; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) using C(6)H(5)O(7)Na(3) as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.56 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10(-7) M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity.

  7. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Wang, Y. G.; An, B.; Xu, H.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, L. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Wang, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials. PMID:26771194

  8. Devitrification of Mechanically Alloyed Zr-Ti-Nb-Cu-Ni-Al Glassy Powders Studied by Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Scudino, S.; Sordelet, D.J.; Eckert, J.

    2009-04-13

    The crystallization of mechanically alloyed Zr{sub 67}Ti{sub 6.14}Nb{sub 1.92}Cu{sub 10.67}Ni{sub 8.52}Al{sub 5.75} glassy powder is investigated by time-resolved X-ray diffraction. The powder displays a multi-step crystallization behavior characterized by the formation of a metastable nanoscale quasicrystalline phase during the first stage of the crystallization process. At higher temperatures, coinciding with the second crystallization event, the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline transformation is followed by the precipitation of the tetragonal Zr{sub 2}Cu phase (space group I4/mmm) and the tetragonal Zr{sub 2}Ni phase (space group I4/mcm). The transformations are gradual and the quasicrystals and the subsequent phases coexist over a temperature interval of about 25K.

  9. Glassy Metal Alloy Nanofiber Anodes Employing Graphene Wrapping Layer: Toward Ultralong-Cycle-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Won; Ryu, Won-Hee; Shin, Jungwoo; Park, Kyusung; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-07-28

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been intensively explored as one of the most attractive candidates for high-capacity and long-cycle-life anode in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) primarily because of its reduced volume expansion characteristic (∼280%) compared to crystalline Si anodes (∼400%) after full Li(+) insertion. Here, we report one-dimensional (1-D) electrospun Si-based metallic glass alloy nanofibers (NFs) with an optimized composition of Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2. On the basis of careful compositional tailoring of Si alloy NFs, we found that Ce plays the most important role as a glass former in the formation of the metallic glass alloy. Moreover, Si-based metallic glass alloy NFs were wrapped by reduced graphene oxide sheets (specifically Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO), which can prevent the direct exposure of a-Si alloy NFs to the liquid electrolyte and stabilize the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers on the surfaces of rGO sheets while facilitating electron transport. The metallic glass nanofibers exhibited superior electrochemical cell performance as an anode: (i) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs show a high specific capacity of 1017 mAh g(-1) up to 400 cycles at 0.05C with negligible capacity loss as well as superior cycling performance (nearly 99.9% capacity retention even after 2000 cycles at 0.5C); (ii) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO reveals outstanding rate behavior (569.77 mAh g(-1) after 2000 cycles at 0.5C and a reversible capacity of around 370 mAh g(-1) at 4C). We demonstrate the potential suitability of multicomponent a-Si alloy NFs as a long-cycling anode material.

  10. Structural analysis of quaternary Se{sub 85−x}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5}Ag{sub x} bulk glassy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rita Sharma, Shaveta; Kumar, Praveen; Chander, Ravi; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.

    2015-08-28

    The physical properties of chalcogenide semiconductor have attracted much attention recently due to their applications in optical recording media and inorganic resist due to photo induced structural transformations observed in these materials. The bulk samples of Se{sub 85-x}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5}Ag{sub x} system are prepared by melt-quenching technique. X-ray diffraction technique and RAMAN spectroscopy have been used to study the role of Ag additive on the amorphous/crystalline nature and molecular structure of Se{sub 85}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 5} glassy alloys. The phases Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, In-Sb and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been observed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of AgInSe{sub 2} phase along with the enhancement in intensity has been observed with the Ag addition.Three bands observed by raman spectroscopy for Se85Sb10In5 are at 70 cm-1, 212cm-1 and 252cm-1. The formation of small bands up to wavenumber 188cm{sup -1} and shifting in second band along with the increase in intensity up to sample x=5 has been observed with the Ag addition. The enhancement in intensity in third band with Ag content has been observed.

  11. Glassy thermal conductivity in the two-phase Cu(x)Ag(3-x)SbSeTe(2) alloy and high temperature thermoelectric behavior.

    PubMed

    Drymiotis, F; Drye, T; Rhodes, D; Zhang, Q; Lashey, J C; Wang, Y; Cawthorne, S; Ma, B; Lindsey, S; Tritt, T

    2010-01-27

    We have measured the thermal transport properties over the temperature range 1.8 Kalloy synthesized by reacting AgSbTe(2) and Ag(2)Se in a 1:1 molar ratio. Typical electrical resistivity values at 700 K are in the range ∼4 mΩ cm≤ρ≤20 mΩ cm, while low thermal conductivity values (κ<1 W m(-1) K(-1)) were obtained. We find that the thermal conductivity of this crystalline alloy has a temperature dependence strikingly similar to those of amorphous solids. In addition the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and electrical resistivity decouple. This result makes it possible to optimize thermoelectric performance by minimizing the electrical resistivity. It is therefore envisaged that this system has potential as a high performance bulk thermoelectric.

  12. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  13. Glassy correlations in nematic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Goldbart, Paul; Mao, Xiaoming

    2009-03-01

    We address the physical properties of an isotropic melt or solution of nematogenic polymers that is then cross-linked beyond the vulcanization point. To do this, we construct a replica Landau theory involving a coupled pair of order- parameter fields: one describing vulcanization, the other describing local nematic order. Thermal nematic fluctuations, present at the time of cross-linking, are trapped by cross- linking into the vulcanized network. The resulting glassy nematic fluctuations are analyzed in the Gaussian approximation in two regimes. When the localization length is shorter than the thermal nematic correlation length, the nematic correlations are well captured as glassy correlations. In the opposite regime, fluctuations in the positions of the localized polymers partially wash out the glassy nematic correlations.

  14. Morphology and formation process of diamond from glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Manabu; Akaishi, Minoru; Ohsawa, Toshikazu; Yamaoka, Shinobu; Fukunaga, Osamu

    1989-10-01

    Under static high pressure conditions in the presence of a catalyst metal, a diamond formation process was studied using glassy carbon as a starting source, which was prepared by pyrolysis of furfuryl alcohol resin. Above 1200 °C of the pyrolysis temperature, diamond formation was clearly observed in Ni, Fe, Co and their alloy catalysts. The hydrogen content in the starting carbon has a drastic effect on the diamond formation. The maximum content of the hydrogen in the glassy carbon had to be between 1200 and 2200 ppm to see diamond formation. In the Fe-rich catalyst, a characteristic needle-like diamond was formed due to the texture of the carbon source and the nature of the catalyst.

  15. Thermal expansion of glassy polymers.

    PubMed

    Davy, K W; Braden, M

    1992-01-01

    The thermal expansion of a number of glassy polymers of interest in dentistry has been studied using a quartz dilatometer. In some cases, the expansion was linear and therefore the coefficient of thermal expansion readily determined. Other polymers exhibited non-linear behaviour and values appropriate to different temperature ranges are quoted. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion was, to a first approximation, a function of both the molar volume and van der Waal's volume of the repeating unit.

  16. Fabrication and Investigation of Intermetallic Compound-Glassy Phase Composites having Tensile Ductility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-09

    with Mg-Y-Cu BGA, MgY phase also has a cP2 B2 structure), Mg-Y-Ag (AgMg phase also has a cP2 B2 structure and is ductile) and Y-Cu-Zn and some other...result were obtained is connected with cP2 TiNi phase which demonstrates martensitic transformations. Choice of alloys and sample preparation...1. The tentative compositions at which bulk glassy phase formation and possible formation of cP2 crystal-glassy composites are Cu-Y (starting from

  17. Influence of ball milling on atomic structure and magnetic properties of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} glassy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Taghvaei, Amir Hossein; Stoica, Mihai; Bednarčik, Jozef; Kaban, Ivan; Shahabi, Hamed Shakur; Khoshkhoo, Mohsen Samadi; Janghorban, Kamal; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    The influence of ball milling on the atomic structure and magnetic properties of the Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} metallic glass with a high thermal stability and excellent soft magnetic properties has been investigated. After 14 h of milling, the obtained powders were found to consist mainly of an amorphous phase and a small fraction of the (Co,Fe){sub 21}Ta{sub 2}B{sub 6} nanocrystals. The changes in the reduced pair correlation functions suggest noticeable changes in the atomic structure of the amorphous upon ball milling. Furthermore, it has been shown that milling is accompanied by introduction of compressive and dilatational sites in the glassy phase and increasing the fluctuation of the atomic-level hydrostatic stress without affecting the coordination number of the nearest neighbors. Ball milling has decreased the thermal stability and significantly affected the magnetic properties through increasing the saturation magnetization, Curie temperature of the amorphous phase and coercivity. - Highlights: • Ball milling affected the atomic structure of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} metallic glass. • Mechanically-induced crystallization started after 4 h milling. • Milling increased the fluctuation of the atomic-level hydrostatic stress in glass. • Ball milling influenced the thermal stability and magnetic properties.

  18. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  19. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  20. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  1. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  2. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-28

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  3. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-27

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF$-$PV P>NIF$-$HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  4. Kinetics of phase transformation of carbon nanotubes containing Se85Te10Ag5 glassy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, A. N.; Singh, Kedar

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) containing glassy composites [(Se85Te10Ag5)100-X(CNT)X] (X = 0, 3 and 5) have been prepared by the melt-quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique was used to study changes in the kinetics of phase transformations of [(Se85Te10Ag5)100-X(CNT)X] (X = 0, 3 and 5) after the incorporation of CNTs under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 K min-1). The calculated values of the activation energy of crystallization (E c) and the Avrami index (n) decrease whereas the activation energy of the glass transition (E g) increases for CNTs containing glass composites; such effects are explained on the basis of effective CNTs mediating through a cross-link with the pure-Se85Te10Ag5 glassy matrix. The superiority of the CNT-Se85Te10Ag5 glassy composite over the pure glassy alloy have also been briefly mentioned in regard to electrical, thermal and mechanical properties at room temperature.

  5. Understanding rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rangarajan; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies of rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials, we study numerically strain rate sweeps in simple yield stress fluids and viscosity bifurcating yield stress fluids. Our simulations of downward followed by upward strain rate sweeps, performed within fluidity models and the soft glassy rheology model, successfully capture the experimentally observed monotonic decrease of the area of the rheological hysteresis loop with sweep time in simple yield stress fluids, and the bell shaped dependence of hysteresis loop area on sweep time in viscosity bifurcating fluids. We provide arguments explaining these two different functional forms in terms of differing tendencies of simple and viscosity bifurcating fluids to form shear bands during the sweeps, and show that the banding behaviour captured by our simulations indeed agrees with that reported experimentally. We also discuss the difference in hysteresis behaviour between inelastic and viscoelastic fluids. Our simulations qualitatively agree with the experimental data discussed here for four different soft glassy materials.

  6. On the Marginal Stability of Glassy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Le; Baity-Jesi, Marco; Müller, Markus; Wyart, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In various glassy systems that are out of equilibrium, like spin glasses and granular packings, the dynamics appears to be critical: avalanches involving almost the whole system could happen. A recent conceptual breakthrough argues that such glassy systems sample the ensemble of marginal stable states, which inevitably results into critical dynamics. However, it is unclear how the marginal stability is dynamically guaranteed. We investigate this marginal stability assumption by studying specifically the critical athermal dynamics of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. We discuss how a pseudo-gap in the density distribution of local fields characterizing the marginal stability arises dynamically.

  7. On the cytoskeleton and soft glassy rheology.

    PubMed

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Govindjee, Sanjay; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2008-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex structure within the cellular corpus that is responsible for the main structural properties and motilities of cells. A wide range of models have been utilized to understand cytoskeletal rheology and mechanics (see e.g. [Mofrad, M., Kamm, R., 2006. Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]). From this large collection of proposed models, the soft glassy rheological model (originally developed for inert soft glassy materials) has gained a certain traction in the literature due to the close resemblance of its predictions to certain mechanical data measured on cell cultures [Fabry, B., Maksym, G., Butler, J., Glogauer, M., Navajas, D., Fredberg, J., 2001. Scaling the microrheology of living cells. Physical Review Letters 87, 14102]. We first review classical linear rheological theory in a concise fashion followed by an examination of the soft glassy rheological theory. With this background we discuss the observed behavior of the cytoskeleton and the inherent limitations of classical rheological models for the cytoskeleton. This then leads into a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages presented to us by the soft glassy rheological model. We close with some comments of caution and recommendations on future avenues of exploration.

  8. Inelastic Deformation and Fracture of Glassy Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    cyclic energy loss but also the so-called dinamic modulus as a function of temperature at a given frequency. As in the case of metal- lic glasses the...interactions molecular structures of several glassy polymers have been obtained by static energy minimization techniques. These include polypropy- lene

  9. Absorption Of Gases By Glassy Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedors, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses solubility of gas in glassy polymer, both above and below glass-transition temperature (Tg). Thermodynamic arguments brought to bear on previously-developed mathematical models, result being new model that enables calculation of infinite-dilution partial molar volume of solvent in glass or liquid solvent from data on pressure, volume, and temperature of solute in equilibrium with solvent.

  10. Plastic flow modeling in glassy polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Brad

    2010-12-13

    Glassy amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers exhibit strong rate, temperature, and pressure dependent polymeric yield. As a rule of thumb, in uniaxial compression experiments the yield stress increases with the loading rate and applied pressure, and decreases as the temperature increases. Moreover, by varying the loading state itself complex yield behavior can be observed. One example that illustrates this complexity is that most polymers in their glassy regimes (i.e., when the temperature is below their characteristic glass transition temperature) exhibit very pronounced yield in their uniaxial stress stress-strain response but very nebulous yield in their uniaxial strain response. In uniaxial compression, a prototypical glassy-polymer stress-strain curve has a stress plateau, often followed by softening, and upon further straining, a hardening response. Uniaxial compression experiments of this type are typically done from rates of 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} up to about 1 s{sup -1}. At still higher rates, say at several thousands per second as determined from Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar experiments, the yield can again be measured and is consistent with the above rule of thumb. One might expect that that these two sets of experiments should allow for a successful extrapolation to yet higher rates. A standard means to probe high rates (on the order of 105-107 S-I) is to use a uniaxial strain plate impact experiment. It is well known that in plate impact experiments on metals that the yield stress is manifested in a well-defined Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL). In contrast however, when plate impact experiments are done on glassy polymers, the HEL is arguably not observed, let alone observed at the stress estimated by extrapolating from the lower strain rate experiments. One might argue that polymer yield is still active but somehow masked by the experiment. After reviewing relevant experiments, we attempt to address this issue. We begin by first presenting our recently

  11. Equation of state of heated glassy carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekine, Toshimori; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    New Hugoniot data are presented for glassy carbon preheated to 1550 K and shocked to 20 GPa. The high-temperature Hugoniot is very similar to the principal Hugoniot. This results argues against the diffusional mechanism for the shock-induced transformaton of amorphous carbon to diamond, although the present results are obviously limited to below 20 GPa. This study provides the first Higoniot data for carbon preheated to significantly high temperatures.

  12. Wafer-level microstructuring of glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Loïc. E.; Prater, Karin; Kilchoer, Cédric; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Glassy carbon is used nowadays for a variety of applications because of its mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties. One application is glass molding that allows to realize high resolution diffractive optical elements on large areas and at affordable price appropriate for mass production. We study glassy carbon microstructuring for future precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature. For applications in optics the uniformity, surface roughness, edge definition and lateral resolution are very important parameters for a stamp and the final product. We study different methods of microstructuring of glassy carbon by etching and milling. Reactive ion etching with different protection layers such as photoresists, aluminium and titanium hard masks have been performed and will be compare with Ion beam etching. We comment on the quality of the structure definition and give process details as well as drawbacks for the different methods. In our fabrications we were able to realize optically flat diffractive structures with slope angles of 80° at typical feature sizes of 5 micron and 700 nm depth qualified for high precision glass molding.

  13. Mo-Si alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  14. Amorphous and Metastable Microcrystalline Rapidly Solidified Alloys: Status and Potential.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Curie temperatures of amorphous FeNi alloys . 75 Figure 14 Magnetically induced anisotropy as a function 77 of composition. Figure 15 The maximum...also needed in developing certain phase diagrams, understanding the role of alloying elements , predicting glassy behavior from thermo- dynamic...especially useful in determining the surroundings for elements that are a minor component of the alloy and/or have low relative scattering power. In

  15. Effect of tellurium addition on the physical properties of germanium selenide glassy semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Katyal, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    Effect of tellurium (Te) addition on the physical properties, density ( ρ), molar volume ( Vm), compactness ( δ), cohesive energy (CE), coordination number ( m), lone pair electrons ( L) and glass transition temperature ( Tg) of Ge 10Se 90-xTe x ( x=0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) bulk glassy alloy has been investigated. The density of the glassy alloys has been found to increase with the increasing Te content. The molar volume and compactness of the structure of the glass, determined from measured density of the glass, have been found to increase with the increase of Te content. The CE of the investigated samples has been calculated using the chemical bond approach (CBA) and is correlated with decrease in optical band gap with the increase of Te content. The glass transition temperature has been estimated using Tichy-Ticha approach and found to increase with the increase of Te content. This has been observed that the estimated glass transition temperature using Tichy-Ticha approach is not consistent with experimental results.

  16. Water uptake impedance of glassy organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, T.; Zobrist, B.; Krieger, U. K.; Luo, B. P.; Soonsin, V.; Marcolli, C.; Koop, T.

    2009-04-01

    Depending on their concentration and composition, aerosols affect various atmospheric properties and processes, such as atmospheric chemistry and Earth's radiative budget. The atmospheric aerosol itself is a complex mixture of various inorganic and organic components, whereas the organic fraction can represent more than 50% of the total aerosol mass. It was recently shown that aerosols high in organics may be present in a glassy state (Zobrist et al., ACP, 8, 5221-5244, 2008). The glassy nature of the aerosols may influence their properties and restrict their functionalities severely, e.g. their water uptake, heterogeneous chemical reactions in their bulk or on their surfaces, as well as ice nucleation and ice crystal growth. Here, we present the first experiments on the water uptake by single levitated glassy aerosol particles using an electrodynamic balance (EDB). Sucrose was chosen as a model substance, which comprises functional groups typical of organic species in the atmosphere. In addition we developed a microphysical model, which enables us to calculate the liquid diffusion inside a glassy particle using water diffusion coefficients in aqueous sucrose particles adapted from the literature. As the diffusion coefficient of water in the particle, D(cH2O), depends on the water concentration cH2O itself, the solution of the diffusion equation presents an interesting non-linear problem. The combined experimental and modelling approach allows describing in detail the water uptake by glassy aerosols at atmospherically relevant temperatures and relative humidities (RH). Hygroscopicity cycles were perfomed in the EDB starting from a crystalline (non-spherical) sucrose particle at 291 K. No water uptake was observed while RH was increased until the particle deliquesces at roughly 85% RH leading to a liquid (spherical) particle. In the subsequent drying cycle, surprisingly no efflorescence was observed when the particle was dried to below 5% and it remained spherical

  17. Glassy dynamics in thin films of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Koji; Koizumi, Hiroki

    2008-02-01

    Glassy dynamics was investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene by complex electric capacitance measurements using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. During the isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increased with time, whereas the imaginary part decreased with time. It follows that the aging time dependences of real and imaginary parts of the electric capacitance were primarily associated with change in volume (film thickness) and dielectric permittivity, respectively. Further, dielectric permittivity showed memory and rejuvenation effects in a similar manner to those observed for poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. On the other hand, volume did not show a strong rejuvenation effect.

  18. Deformation and failure of glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottler, Joerg Gerhard

    Elastoplastic deformation of disordered solids and the formation of polymer crazes in amorphous polymer glasses are studied using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that the pressure-modified von Mises criterion accurately describes the maximum shear yield stress under general loading conditions. The pressure coefficient is insensitive to most model parameters, but is related to the bead geometry in analogy to friction coefficients. The yield stress decreases linearly with rising temperature and the strain rate dependence can be described by a power-law, or in a limited range, by a logarithm. The rate dependence does not vary with temperature, which is inconsistent with simple rate-state models of thermal activation such as the Eyring model. An analysis of the dynamics of the local stress distribution as well as modern phenomenological theories of rheology of glassy materials are discussed in light of these findings. We then present a comprehensive investigation of the deformation of glassy polymeric systems into a dense load-bearing network of fibrils and voids called a craze at large strains. This expansion takes place in the form of a drawing process, where the strain rate is strongly localized in a narrow interface region between dense polymer and craze. The expansion is controlled by some polymer chain segments between entanglements that are stretched taut during crazing. We also find that the distribution of tension in the craze develops an exponential force tail in close analogy to compressed jammed systems such as granular media. This highly anisotropic stress distribution and the localization of large forces on relatively few chains indicate that earlier models of the crazing process that treat the polymer as a viscous fluid with hydrodynamic interactions are incorrect. Simulations and simple scaling arguments are presented that describe craze breakdown through disentanglement or chain scission. Glassy polymers exhibit an unusually

  19. Simulations of Soft Glassy Matter with Ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert; Crocker, John

    2015-03-01

    Soft glassy matter (SGM) such as foams, emulsions, and colloids, exhibit interesting rheological properties that have long defied explanation. In particular, the shear modulus of these materials displays weak power law frequency dependence. To understand the origin of this property in more depth, we have built a three-dimensional, modified Bubble Dynamics model. The bubbles interact with a purely repulsive harmonic potential and ripen according to diffusion-based governing equations. An energy minimizer is implemented to quasi-statically relax topological rearrangements in the system as ripening proceeds. Preliminary results show that the model displays expected intermittent particle rearrangements and a weakly frequency-dependent shear modulus behaving like a power law fluid. We find that the anomalous relaxation properties and avalanche-like nature of the rearrangements can be related to different measures of the systems potential energy landscape.

  20. Glassy Dynamics, Cell Mechanics and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Corey; Rajendran, Kavitha; Manomohan, Greeshma; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Martinelli, Roberta; Carman, Christopher V.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of all inflammatory processes is disruption of the vascular endothelial barrier. Such disruption is initiated in part through active contraction of the cytoskeleton of the endothelial cell (EC). Because contractile forces are propagated from cell to cell across a great many cell-cell junctions, this contractile process is strongly cooperative and highly nonlocal. We show here that the characteristic length scale of propagation is modulated by agonists and antagonists that impact permeability of the endothelial barrier. In the presence of agonists including thrombin, histamine, and H202, force correlation length increases, whereas in the presence of antagonists including sphingosine-1-phosphate, hepatocyte growth factor, and the rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, force correlation length decreases. Intercellular force chains and force clusters are also evident, both of which are reminiscent of soft glassy materials approaching a glass transition. PMID:23638866

  1. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  2. Shear banding in soft glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Fielding, S M

    2014-10-01

    Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic 'glassy' features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

  3. Computer simulations of athermal and glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ning

    2005-12-01

    We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations to better understand athermal and glassy systems near jamming transitions. We focused on four related projects. In the first project, we decomposed the probability distribution P(φ) of finding a collectively jammed state at packing fraction φ into two distinct contributions: the density of CJ states rho(φ) and their basins of attraction beta(φ). In bidisperse systems, it is likely that rho(φ) controls the shape of P(φ) in the large system size limit, and thus the most likely random jammed state may be used as a protocol independent definition of random close packing in this system. In the second project, we measured the yield stress in two different ensembles: constant shear rate and constant stress. The yield stress measured in the constant stress ensemble is larger than that measured in the constant shear rate ensemble, however, the difference between these two measurements decreases with increasing system size. In the third project, we investigated under what circumstances nonlinear velocity profiles form in frictionless granular systems undergoing boundary driven planar shear flow. Nonlinear velocity profiles occur at short times, but evolve into linear profiles at long times. Nonlinear velocity profiles can be stabilized by vibrating these systems. The velocity profile can become highly localized when the shear stress of the system is below the constant force yield stress, provided that the granular temperature difference across the system is sufficiently large. In the fourth project, we measured the effective temperature defined from equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations in athermal and glassy systems sheared at constant pressure. We found that the effective temperature is strongly controlled by pressure in the slowly sheared regime. Thus, this effective temperature and pressure are not independent variables in this regime.

  4. Anodic electrosynthesis of some peroxy compounds on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khomutov, N.E.; Zakhodyakina, N.A.; Svirida, L.V.; Nesvat, N.V.

    1987-11-10

    The authors present the results of a study of the anodic electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its derivatives on glassy carbon in solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate with sodium borate. We studied the kinetics of anodic processes on glassy carbon with the aid of polarization measurements and a method for determining the concentrations of active oxygen in the anolyte and the current efficiency. The current efficiencies with respect to active oxygen obtained on glassy carbon in the mixed solution of sodium borate and sodium carbonate are close to the current efficiencies which are observed on platinum anodes in the industrial electrosynthesis of perborates.

  5. A Statistical Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials bya by DTIC Et. ECTE Karina Weron M A. and S "z’ Aleksander Weron ApptovC fcv - " Technical Report No. 82...STATISTICAL APPROACH TO RELAXATION IN GLASSY MATERIALS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Karina Weron and Aleksander Weron 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE A Statistical Approach to Relaxation in Glassy Materials1 Karina Weron Institute of Physics Technical University of Wroclaw 50-370

  6. Adhesion in hydrogels and model glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvendiren, Murat

    Two main topics are addressed in this dissertation: (1) adhesion in hydrogels; (2) interfacial interactions between model glassy polymers. A self-assembly technique for the formation of hydrogels from acrylic triblock copolymer solutions was developed, based on vapor phase solvent exchange. Structure formation in the gels was characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, and swelling was measured in controlled pH buffer solutions. Strong gels are formed with polymer weight fractions between 0.01 and 0.15, and with shear moduli between 0.6 kPa and 3.5 kPa. Adhesive functionality, based on 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) was also incorporated into the triblock copolymers. The effect of DOPA concentration on gel formation and swelling was investigated in detail. The adhesive properties of DOPA-functionalized hydrogels on TiO2 were investigated with an axisymmetric adhesion method. It was shown that the presence of DOPA enhances the adhesive properties of the hydrogels, but that the effect is minimized at pH values below 10, where the DOPA groups are hydrophobic. Thin film membranes were produced in order to study the specific interactions between DOPA and TiO2 and DOPA and tissue, using a membrane inflation method. The presence of DOPA in the membranes enhances the adhesion on TiO 2 and tissue, although adhesion to tissue requires that the DOPA groups be oxidized while in contact with the tissue of interest. Porous hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were formed by adding salt crystals to the triblock copolymer solution prior to solvent exchange. Salt was then leached out by immersing the gel into water. Structures of the porous hydrogels were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. These hydrogels were shown to be suitable for tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications. Diffusion-mediated adhesion between two component miscible polymer systems having very different glassy temperatures was also investigated. Axisymmetric

  7. No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

    1988-11-01

    Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  8. High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-25

    Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2012-008 High Strain Rate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Strain Rate Mechanical Properties of Glassy Polymers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...1990s, a range of experimental data has been generated describing the response of glassy polymers to high strain rate loading in compression. More

  9. Glassy state of native collagen fibril?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkian, S. G.; Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gevorgyan, D. S.; Hu, C.-K.

    2011-07-01

    Our micromechanical experiments show that viscoelastic features of type-I collagen fibril at physiological temperatures display essential dependence on the frequency and speed of heating. For temperatures of 20-30 °C the internal friction has a sharp maximum for a frequency less than 2 kHz. Upon heating the internal friction displays a peak at a temperature Tsoft(v) that essentially depends on the speed of heating v: Tsoft≈70°C for v=1°C/min, and Tsoft≈25°C for v=0.1°C/min. At the same temperature Tsoft(v) Young's modulus passes through a minimum. All these effects are specific for the native state of the fibril and disappear after heat-denaturation. Taken together with the known facts that the fibril is axially ordered as quasicrystal, but disordered laterally, we interpret our findings as indications of a glassy state, where Tsoft is the softening transition.

  10. Ultra-smooth glassy graphene thin films for flexible transparent circuits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao; Wu, Jiang; Qian, Zhicheng; Wang, Haiyan; Jian, Jie; Cao, Yingjie; Rummeli, Mark H.; Yi, Qinghua; Liu, Huiyun; Zou, Guifu

    2016-01-01

    Large-area graphene thin films are prized in flexible and transparent devices. We report on a type of glassy graphene that is in an intermediate state between glassy carbon and graphene and that has high crystallinity but curly lattice planes. A polymer-assisted approach is introduced to grow an ultra-smooth (roughness, <0.7 nm) glassy graphene thin film at the inch scale. Owing to the advantages inherited by the glassy graphene thin film from graphene and glassy carbon, the glassy graphene thin film exhibits conductivity, transparency, and flexibility comparable to those of graphene, as well as glassy carbon–like mechanical and chemical stability. Moreover, glassy graphene–based circuits are fabricated using a laser direct writing approach. The circuits are transferred to flexible substrates and are shown to perform reliably. The glassy graphene thin film should stimulate the application of flexible transparent conductive materials in integrated circuits. PMID:28138535

  11. Shear banding in soft glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic ‘glassy’ features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

  12. Thermodynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1998-03-01

    The behavior of metastable water at low temperatures is unusual. The isothermal compressibility, the isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient increase sharply upon supercooling, and structural relaxation becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures far above the glass transition(Angell, C.A., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 34, 593, 1983)(Debenedetti, P.G., Metastable Liquids. Concepts and Principles, Princeton University Press, 1996). Water has two distinct glassy phases, low- and high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA). The transition between LDA and HDA is accompanied by sharp volume and enthalpy changes, and appears to be first-order(Mishima, O., L.D.Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature, 314, 76, 1985)(Mishima, O., J. Chem. Phys., 100, 5910, 1994). The understanding of these observations in terms of an underlying global phase behavior remains incomplete(Speedy, R.J., J. Phys. Chem., 86, 982, 1982)(Poole, P.H., F. Sciortino, U. Essman, and H.E. Stanley, Nature, 360, 324, 1992)(Sastry, S., P.G. Debenedetti, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 53, 6144, 1996)(Tanaka, H., Nature, 380, 328, 1996)(Xie, Y., K.F. Ludwig, G. Morales, D.E. Hare, and C.M. Sorensen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 2050, 1993). Microscopic theories and computer simulations suggest several scenarios that can reproduce some experimental observations. Interesting and novel ideas have resulted from this body of theoretical work, such as the possibility of liquid-liquid immiscibility in a pure substance(Poole, P.H., F.Sciortino, T.Grande, H.E. Stanley, and C.A. Angell, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 1632, 1994)(Roberts, C.J., and P.G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys., 105, 658, 1996)(Roberts, C.J., P.G. Debenedetti, and A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 4386, 1996)(Harrington, S., R. Zhang, P.H. Poole, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2409, 1997). In this talk I will review the experimental facts, discuss their theoretical interpretation, and identify key

  13. Quasi-equilibrium in glassy dynamics: an algebraic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2013-02-01

    We study a chain of identical glassy systems in a constrained equilibrium, where each bond of the chain is forced to remain at a preassigned distance to the previous one. We apply this description to mean-field glassy systems in the limit of a long chain where each bond is close to the previous one. We show that this construction defines a pseudo-dynamic process that in specific conditions can formally describe real relaxational dynamics for long times. In particular, in mean-field spin glass models we can recover in this way the equations of Langevin dynamics in the long time limit at the dynamical transition temperature and below. We interpret the formal identity as evidence that in these situations the configuration space is explored in a quasi-equilibrium fashion. Our general formalism, which relates dynamics to equilibrium, puts slow dynamics in a new perspective and opens the way to the computation of new dynamical quantities in glassy systems.

  14. Peculiarities of the enthalpy relaxation of a glassy crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, O.; Descamps, M.; Even, J.; Bertault, M.; Willart, J. F.

    1997-02-01

    The relaxation of a supercooled orientational glassy crystal is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Aging performed both below and above Tg reveal two original features. (i) The glassy compound relaxes beyond the simple return to equilibration of the metastable rotator phase. The state which is reached upon aging however reverses back to the metastable state when crossing Tg. (ii) Upon reheating a transition between a low temperature ordered phase and the rotator phase is observed whose occurrence strongly depends on the aging conditions. The calorimetric signature of this transition and the usual glass relaxation endotherm are superimposed when annealing is performed below Tg. These results suggest that the peculiarities of the structure and dynamics of orientational glassy crystals lead to an effective acceleration of the relaxation process and enable the system to search for enthalpy states lower than it is usual for a glass.

  15. Void nucleation and disentanglement in glassy amorphous polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj K.; Singh, Bhupinder; Basu, Sumit

    2010-07-01

    Cavitation in glassy polymers is known to result from highly triaxial states of local stress and the presence of impurities. Understanding of cavitation, particularly void nucleation, is important as cavities are precursors to crazes, which in turn lead to fracture. In this work we study the early stages of void nucleation in glassy amorphous polymers by imposing, in well designed molecular dynamics simulations, highly triaxial states of stress on ensembles of entangled linear macromolecular chains and monitoring the evolution of the entanglement network. Our results demonstrate that deformation induced disentanglement and rearrangement of topological constraints along individual chains play an important role in the early stages of void nucleation. Even in the glassy state, deformation causes significant changes in the rheological constraints on a chain though the number of interchain binary contacts may not change much.

  16. Optical speckles of blood proteins embedded in porous glassy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, T.; Dehipawala, S.; Kokkinos, D.; Berisha, A.; Cheung, E.; Nguyen, A.; Golebiewska, U.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Blood protein molecules could be embedded in porous glassy substrate with 10-nm pores. The embedding principle is based on blood cell dehydration with the destruction of the cell membrane, and reconstitution and centrifuge could yield a suitable solution for doping into a porous glassy medium. The doped glassy substrate speckle pattern under laser illumination could be used to characterize the protein size distribution. Calibration with known protein embedded samples would result in an optical procedure for the characterization of a blood sample. Samples embedded with larger kilo-Dalton protein molecule show more variation in the speckle patterns, consistent with protein folding interaction inside a pore cavity. A regression model has been used to correlate the protein molecule sizes with speckle sizes. The use of diffusion mean free path information to study protein folding in the embedding process is briefly discussed.

  17. The Erevan howardite: Petrology of glassy clasts and mineral chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Ariskin, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Erevan howardite is a polymict regolith breccia containing xenoliths of carbonaceous chondrites. In this work, we studied glassy clasts, which could be considered as primary quenched melts, and mineral chemistry of the breccia. The study reveals that the Erevan howardite consists of common rocks of the HED suite. However, unique glassy clasts, which are present in some eucritic melts, were identified. The mineral chemistry and the simulation of crystallization of the melts suggest that the compositions of the melts reflect those of some primary lithologies of EPB.

  18. Course 14: Hiking through Glassy Phases: Physics beyond Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, L.; Viasnoff, V.; White, O.; et al.

    Experiments performed on a wide range of glassy materials display many interesting phenomena, such as aging behavior. In recent years, a large body of experiments probed this nonequilibrium glassy dynamics through elaborate protocols, in which external parameters are shifted, or cycled in the course of the experiment. We review here these protocols, as well as experimental and numerical results. Then, we critically discuss various theoretical approaches put forward in this context. Emphasis is put more on the generality of the phenomena than on a specific system. Experiments are also suggested.

  19. Study of Magnetic Alloys: Critical Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC ALLOYS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SEEBECK EFFECT , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, GADOLINIUM ALLOYS, GOLD ALLOYS, IRON ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, PLATINUM ALLOYS, RHODIUM ALLOYS

  20. Playback interference of glassy-winged sharp shooter communication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal communication is vital to reproduction, particularly for securing a mate. Insects commonly communicate by exchanging vibrational signals that are transmitted through host plants. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a pl...

  1. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  2. A method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify factors affecting glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production, a method to accurately estimate the number of mature eggs produced during a short-term assay is needed. Egg production is typically quantified by determining the number of eggs deposited during the assay plus the number of matu...

  3. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-03-14

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  4. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. PMID:26985910

  5. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed.

  6. Exceptionally high glass-forming ability of an FeCoCrMoCBY alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Chen, Qingjun; Sun, Jianfei; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Gang

    2005-04-01

    It has been well documented that the maximum thickness of as-cast glassy samples attainable through conventional metallurgical routes is the decisive criteria for measuring the glass-forming ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Here we report the exceptionally high GFA of an FeCoCrMoCBY alloy which can be fabricated in the form of glassy rods with a maximum sample thickness of at least 16mm. It is demonstrated that, by substituting Fe with a proper amount of Co in a previously reported Fe-based BMG alloy, the glass formation of the resultant new alloy can be extensively favored both thermodynamically and kinetically. The new ferrous BMG alloy also exhibits a high fracture strength of 3500MPa and Vickers hardness of 1253kgmm-2.

  7. 2H NMR studies of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, R.; Nowaczyk, A.; Geil, B.; Bohmer, R.

    2007-11-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid, deuterated at the methyl group, was investigated using 2H-NMR in its supercooled and glassy states. Just above the glass transition temperature the molecular reorientations were studied using stimulated-echo spectroscopy and demonstrated a large degree of similarity with other glass formers. Deep in the glassy phase the NMR spectra look similar to those reported for the crystal [A. Detken, P. Focke, H. Zimmermann, U. Haeberlen, Z. Olejniczak, Z. T. Lalowicz, Z. Naturforsch. A 50 (1995) 95] and below 20 K they are indicative for rotational tunneling with a relatively large tunneling frequency. Measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation times for temperatures below 150 K reveal a broad distribution of correlation times in the glass. The dominant energy barrier characterizing the slow-down of the methyl group is significantly smaller than the well defined barrier in the crystal.

  8. Understanding soft glassy materials using an energy landscape approach.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert A; Crocker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Many seemingly different soft materials-such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells-display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space. We find that these downhill paths, when viewed in this configuration space, are, surprisingly, fractal. The complex behaviour of our model, including power-law rheology and non-diffusive bubble motion and avalanches, stems directly from the fractal dimension and energy function of these paths. Our results suggest that ubiquitous soft glassy rheology may be a consequence of emergent fractal geometry in the energy landscapes of many complex fluids.

  9. Diamond film growth on Ti-implanted glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M. A.; Brown, I. G.; Evans, P. J.; Hoffman, A.

    1993-09-01

    The growth of diamond thin films on glassy carbon substrates has been investigated as a function of deposition time for different surface treatments. Implantation of Ti to a dose of 1.7 x 10 exp 17/sq cm and abrasion with diamond powder have both been examined to determine their effect on film nucleation and growth. At the shorter deposition times studied, diamond nucleation was observed on all test samples with those subjected to the abrasive pretreatment exhibiting the higher growth rates. However, the adhesion and uniformity of films on unimplanted glassy carbon were found to deteriorate significantly following deposition runs of 14 and 21 h duration. This was attributed to a destabilization of the underlying surface caused by plasma erosion.

  10. Loss of halogens from crystallized and glassy silicic volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Smith, V.C.; Peck, L.C.

    1967-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four F and Cl analyses of silicic welded tuffs and lavas and glass separates are presented. Comparison of the F and Cl contents of crystallized rocks with those of nonhydrated glass and hydrated glassy rocks from the same rock units shows that most of the halogens originally present were lost on crystallization. An average of about half of the F and four-fifths of the Cl originally present was lost. Analyses of hydrated natural glasses and of glassy rocks indicate that in some cases significant amounts of halogens may be removed from or added to hydrated glass through prolonged contact with ground water. The data show that the original halogen contents of the groundmass of a silicic volcanic rock can be reliably determined only from nonhydrated glass. ?? 1967.

  11. Understanding soft glassy materials using an energy landscape approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyun Joo; Riggleman, Robert A.; Crocker, John C.

    2016-09-01

    Many seemingly different soft materials--such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells--display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space. We find that these downhill paths, when viewed in this configuration space, are, surprisingly, fractal. The complex behaviour of our model, including power-law rheology and non-diffusive bubble motion and avalanches, stems directly from the fractal dimension and energy function of these paths. Our results suggest that ubiquitous soft glassy rheology may be a consequence of emergent fractal geometry in the energy landscapes of many complex fluids.

  12. Glassy correlations and thermal fluctuations in nematic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Xing, Xiangjun; Ye, Fangfu; Goldbart, Paul

    2010-03-01

    By means of the vulcanization theory framework we address the properties of nematic elastomers prepared in the isotropic liquid state and subsequently randomly cross-linked beyond the gelation point. We base our analysis on a model replica Landau free energy, in which the vulcanization order parameter is coupled to the order parameter describing the local degree of nematic ordering, retaining fluctuation terms to the Gaussian level. We explore how the cross-linking renormalizes the thermal correlations of the local nematic order, and also results in frozen-in, glassy nematic correlations. We examine these thermal and glassy correlations for two different preparation histories of the system: in the first, the cross-linking is done at temperatures close to the isotropic-nematic transition; in the other, the cross-linking is done at higher temperatures, but the system is subsequently cooled to near this transition temperature.

  13. Probing glassy states in binary mixtures of soft interpenetrable colloids.

    PubMed

    Stiakakis, E; Erwin, B M; Vlassopoulos, D; Cloitre, M; Munam, A; Gauthier, M; Iatrou, H; Hadjichristidis, N

    2011-06-15

    We present experimental evidence confirming the recently established rich dynamic state diagram of asymmetric binary mixtures of soft colloidal spheres. These mixtures consist of glassy suspensions of large star polymers to which different small stars are added at varying concentrations. Using rheology and dynamic light scattering measurements along with a simple phenomenological analysis, we show the existence of re-entrance and multiple glassy states, which exhibit distinct features. Cooperative diffusion, as a probe for star arm interpenetration, is proven to be sensitive to the formation of the liquid pockets which signal the melting of the large-star-glass upon addition of small stars. These results provide ample opportunities for tailoring the properties of soft colloidal glasses.

  14. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  15. Global equation of state for a glassy material: Fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for fused silica has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7387. This new EOS provides better agreement with experimental data than was achieved by all previous SESAME EOSs for fused silica. Material number 7387 also constitutes the most realistic SESAME-type EOS generated for any glassy material thus far.

  16. Localization and Glassy Dynamics in the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    We discuss use of the generalized NK model to examine evolutionary dynamics within the immune system. We describe how randomness and diversity play key roles in the immune response and how their effects are captured by this hierarchical spin glass model. We discuss analytical aspects of the model as well as practical applications to design of the annual influenza vaccine. We discuss the subtle role that the glassy evolutionary dynamics plays in suppressing autoimmune disease.

  17. Ultrasonic treatment of glassy carbon for nanoparticle preparation.

    PubMed

    Levêque, Jean-Marc; Duclaux, Laurent; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Reinert, Laurence; Komatsu, Naoki; Desforges, Alexandre; Afreen, Sadia; Sivakumar, Manickam; Kimura, Takahide

    2017-03-01

    Glassy carbon particles (millimetric or micrometric sizes) dispersions in water were treated by ultrasound at 20kHz, either in a cylindrical reactor, or in a "Rosette" type reactor, for various time lengths ranging from 3h to 10h. Further separations sedimentation allowed obtaining few nanoparticles of glassy carbon in the supernatant (diameter <200nm). Thought the yield of nanoparticle increased together with the sonication time at high power, it tended to be nil after sonication in the cylindrical reactor. The sonication of glassy carbon micrometric particles in water using "Rosette" instead of cylindrical reactor, allowed preparing at highest yield (1-2wt%), stable suspensions of carbon nanoparticles, easily separated from the sedimented particles. Both sediment and supernatant separated by decantation of the sonicated dispersions were characterized by laser granulometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Their multiscale organization was investigated by transmission electron microscopy as a function of the sonication time. For sonication longer than 10h, these nanoparticles from supernatant (diameter <50nm) are aggregated. Their structures are more disordered than the sediment particles showing typical nanometer-sized aromatic layer arrangement of glassy carbon, with closed mesopores (diameter ∼3nm). Sonication time longer than 5h has induced not only a strong amorphization (subnanometric and disoriented aromatic layer) but also a loss of the mesoporous network nanostructure. These multi-scale organizational changes took place because of both cavitation and shocks between particles, mainly at the particle surface. The sonication in water has induced also chemical effects, leading to an increase in the oxygen content of the irradiated material together with the sonication time.

  18. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-08

    polymers under high strain rates has been determined in compression. Some research programs have studied the combined effects of temperature and strain rate...glassy polymers to high strain rate loading in compression. More recently, research programs that study the combined effects of temperature and strain...Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2013-006 High Strain Rate

  19. Magnetoresistance, electrical conductivity, and Hall effect of glassy carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.F.

    1983-02-01

    These properties of glassy carbon heat treated for three hours between 1200 and 2700/sup 0/C were measured from 3 to 300/sup 0/K in magnetic fields up to 5 tesla. The magnetoresistance was generally negative and saturated with reciprocal temperature, but still increased as a function of magnetic field. The maximum negative magnetoresistance measured was 2.2% for 2700/sup 0/C material. Several models based on the negative magnetoresistance being proportional to the square of the magnetic moment were attempted; the best fit was obtained for the simplest model combining Curie and Pauli paramagnetism for heat treatments above 1600/sup 0/C. Positive magnetoresistance was found only in less than 1600/sup 0/C treated glassy carbon. The electrical conductivity, of the order of 200 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at room temperature, can be empirically written as sigma = A + Bexp(-CT/sup -1/4) - DT/sup -1/2. The Hall coefficient was independent of magnetic field, insensitive to temperature, but was a strong function of heat treatment temperature, crossing over from negative to positive at about 1700/sup 0/C and ranging from -0.048 to 0.126 cm/sup 3//coul. The idea of one-dimensional filaments in glassy carbon suggested by the electrical conductivity is compatible with the present consensus view of the microstructure.

  20. Yield Stress Enhancement in Glassy-Polyethylene Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, William; Register, Richard

    Polyethylene (PE) has the highest annual production volume of all synthetic polymers worldwide, and is valuable across many applications due to its low cost, toughness, processability, and chemical resistance. However, PE is not well suited to certain applications due to its modest yield stress and Young's modulus (approximately 30 MPa and 1 GPa, respectively for linear, high-density PE). Irreversible deformation of PE results from dislocation of crystal stems and eventual crystal fragmentation under applied stress. The liquid-like amorphous fraction provides no useful mechanical support to the crystal fold surface in a PE homopolymer, so the only method to enhance the force required for crystal slip, and hence the yield stress, is crystal thickening via thermal treatment. An alternative route towards modifying the mechanical properties of PE involves copolymerization of a minority high-glass transition temperature block into a majority-PE block copolymer. In this work, we investigate a system of glassy/linear-PE block copolymers prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclopentene and substituted norbornene monomers followed by hydrogenation. We demonstrate that a large change in mechanical properties can be achieved with the addition of a short glassy block (e.g. a doubling of the yield stress and Young's modulus versus PE homopolymer with the addition of 25 percent glassy block). Furthermore, owing to the low interaction energy between PE and the substituted polynorbornene blocks employed, these high-yield PE block copolymers can exhibit single-phase melts for ease of processability.

  1. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  2. Glassy materials for lithium batteries: electrochemical properties and devices performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclot, Michel; Souquet, Jean-Louis

    Amorphous or glassy materials may be used as electrolyte or electrode materials for lithium primary or secondary batteries. A first generation proceeded from classical coin cells in which the organic electrolyte was replaced by a high lithium conductive glassy electrolyte. The solid components were assembled under isostatic pressure. The main advantages of such cells are a good storage stability and ability to operate until 200°C. Nevertheless, the high resistivity of the glassy electrolyte below room temperature and a limited depth for charge and discharge cycles makes these cells not competitive compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries. More promising, are the thin films solid state microbatteries realised by successive depositions of electrodes and electrolyte. The low resistance of the electrolyte amorphous layer allows cycling at temperatures as low as -10°C. The total thickness of thin film batteries, including packaging is less than 100 μm. A capacity of about 100 μAh cm -2 with over 10 4 charge-discharge cycles at 90% in depth of discharge is well suited for energy independent smart cards or intelligent labels, which represent for these devices a large and unrivalled market.

  3. Quantifying glassy and crystalline basalt partitioning in the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately basaltic rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy basalts while the potential habitability of crystalline basalts are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline basalts, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing basalt fractionation: a pillow basalt with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow basalt with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline basalts within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.

  4. Fast algorithms for glassy materials: methods and explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, A. Alan

    2014-03-01

    Glassy materials with frozen disorder, including random magnets such as spin glasses and interfaces in disordered materials, exhibit striking non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to store a history of external parameters (memory). Precisely due to their glassy nature, direct simulation of models of these materials is very slow. In some fortunate cases, however, algorithms exist that exactly compute thermodynamic quantities. Such cases include spin glasses in two dimensions and interfaces and random field magnets in arbitrary dimensions at zero temperature. Using algorithms built using ideas developed by computer scientists and mathematicians, one can even directly sample equilibrium configurations in very large systems, as if one picked the configurations out of a ``hat'' of all configurations weighted by their Boltzmann factors. This talk will provide some of the background for these methods and discuss the connections between physics and computer science, as used by a number of groups. Recent applications of these methods to investigating phase transitions in glassy materials and to answering qualitative questions about the free energy landscape and memory effects will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF grant DMR-1006731. Creighton Thomas and David Huse also contributed to much of the work to be presented.

  5. Thermodynamics of water sorption in high performance glassy thermoplastic polymers

    PubMed Central

    Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging from 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different “populations” of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these “populations” in the case of PEI. The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non-equilibrium nature of glassy polymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data. PMID:24860802

  6. Thermodynamics of Water Sorption in High Performance Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino

    2014-05-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging fro 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different’populations’ of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these ‘populations’ in the case of PEI.The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non equilibrium nature of glassy poymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data.

  7. Investigation of glassy state molecular motions in thermoset polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jianwei

    This dissertation presents the investigation of the glassy state molecular motions in isomeric thermoset epoxies by means of solid-state deuterium (2H) NMR spectroscopy technique. The network structure of crosslinked epoxies was altered through monomer isomerism; specifically, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was cured with isomeric amine curatives, i.e., the meta-substituted diaminodiphenylsulfone (33DDS) and para-substituted diaminodiphenylsulfone (44DDS). The use of structural isomerism provided a path way for altering macroscopic material properties while maintaining identical chemical composition within the crosslinked networks. The effects of structural isomerism on the glassy state molecular motions were studied using solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy, which offers unrivaled power to monitor site-specific molecular motions. Three distinctive molecular groups on each isomeric network, i.e., the phenylene rings in the bisphenol A structure (BPA), the phenylene rings in the diaminodiphenylsulfone structure (DDS), and the hydroxypropoyl ether group (HPE) have been selectively deuterated for a comprehensive study of the structure-dynamics- property relationships in thermoset epoxies. Quadrupolar echo experiments and line shape simulations were employed as the main research approach to gain both qualitative and quantitative motional information of the epoxy networks in the glassy state. Quantitative information on the geometry and rate of the molecular motions allows the elucidation of the relationship between molecular motions and macro physical properties and the role of these motions in the mechanical relaxation. Specifically, it is revealed that both the BPA and HPE moieties in the isomeric networks have almost identical behaviors in the deep glassy state, which indicates that the molecular motions in the glassy state are localized, and the correlation length of the motions does not exceed the length of the DGEBA repeat unit. BPA ring motions contribute

  8. The equipment for the preparation of micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fibers.

    PubMed

    Ding, D W; Yi, J; Liu, G L; Sun, Y T; Zhao, D Q; Pan, M X; Bai, H Y; Wang, W H

    2014-10-01

    A supercooled liquid extraction method and apparatus for micro and nanoscale metallic glassy fiber preparation was developed. Using the fiber fabrication equipment, micro to nanoscale metallic glassy fibers with diameter ranging from 70 nm to 300 μm can be obtained by wire drawing in the supercooled liquid region of metallic glasses via superplastic deformation. The obtained metallic glassy fibers possess precisely designed and controlled sizes, high structural uniformity and high degree of surface smoothness.

  9. Crystallization of the glassy grain boundary phase in silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The role was studied of the intergranular glassy phase in silicon nitride as-processed with yttria as a sintering aid. The microstructure, crystallization, and viscosity of the glassy phase were areas studied. Crystallization of the intergranular glassy phase to more refractory crystalline phases should improve the high temperature mechanical properties of the silicon nitride. The addition of a nucleating agent will increase the rate of crystallization. The measurement of the viscosity of the glassy phase will permit the estimation of the high temperature deformation of the silicon nitride.

  10. Some Recent Developments in Structure and Glassy Behavior of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-02-01

    We have used ARVO developed by us to find that the ratio of volume and surface area of proteins in Protein Data Bank distributed in a very narrow region [1]. Such result is useful for the determination of protein 3D structures. It has been widely known that a spin glass model can be used to understand the slow relaxation behavior of a glass at low temperatures [2]. We have used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that polymer chains with neighboring monomers connected by rigid bonds can relax very slowly and show glassy behavior [3]. We have also found that native collagen fibrils show glassy behavior at room temperatures [4]. The results of [3] and [4] about the glassy behavior of polymers or proteins are useful for understanding the mechanism for a biological system to maintain in a non-equilibrium state, including the ancient seed [5], which can maintain in a non-equilibrium state for a very long time. (1) M.-C. Wu, M. S. Li, W.-J. Ma, M. Kouza, and C.-K. Hu, EPL, in press (2011); (2) C. Dasgupta, S.-K. Ma, and C.-K. Hu. Phys. Rev. B 20, 3837-3849 (1979); (3) W.-J. Ma and C.-K. Hu, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 79, 024005, 024006, 054001, and 104002 (2010), C.-K. Hu and W.-J. Ma, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 184, 369 (2010); S. G. Gevorkian, A. E. Allahverdyan, D. S. Gevorgyan and C.-K. Hu, EPL 95, 23001 (2011); S. Sallon, et al. Science 320, 1464 (2008).

  11. Arabidopsis GLASSY HAIR genes promote trichome papillae development

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Specialized plant cells form cell walls with distinct composition and properties pertinent to their function. Leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis form thick cell walls that support the upright growth of these large cells and, curiously, have strong light-reflective properties. To understand the process of trichome cell-wall maturation and the molecular origins of this optical property, mutants affected in trichome light reflection were isolated and characterized. It was found that GLASSY HAIR (GLH) genes are required for the formation of surface papillae structures at late stages of trichome development. Trichomes in these mutants appeared transparent due to unobstructed light transmission. Genetic analysis of the isolated mutants revealed seven different gene loci. Two—TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) and NOK (Noeck)—have been reported previously to have the glassy trichome mutant phenotype. The other five glh mutants were analysed for cell-wall-related phenotypes. A significant reduction was found in cellulose content in glh2 and glh4 mutant trichomes. In addition to the glassy trichome phenotype, the glh6 mutants showed defects in leaf cuticular wax, and glh6 was found to represent a new allele of the eceriferum 10 (cer10) mutation. Trichomes of the glh1 and glh3 mutants did not show any other phenotypes beside reduced papillae formation. These data suggest that the GLH1 and GLH3 genes may have specific functions in trichome papillae formation, whereas GLH2, GLH4, and GLH6 genes are also involved in deposition of other cell-wall components. PMID:24014871

  12. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K.-U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-06-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  13. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon.

    PubMed

    Brown, C R D; Gericke, D O; Cammarata, M; Cho, B I; Döppner, T; Engelhorn, K; Förster, E; Fortmann, C; Fritz, D; Galtier, E; Glenzer, S H; Harmand, M; Heimann, P; Kugland, N L; Lamb, D Q; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Lemke, H; Makita, M; Moinard, A; Murphy, C D; Nagler, B; Neumayer, P; Plagemann, K-U; Redmer, R; Riley, D; Rosmej, F B; Sperling, P; Toleikis, S; Vinko, S M; Vorberger, J; White, S; White, T G; Wünsch, K; Zastrau, U; Zhu, D; Tschentscher, T; Gregori, G

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the soft glassy rheology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuereder, Ingo; Ilg, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model is a mesoscopic framework which proved to be very successful in describing flow and deformation of various amorphous materials phenomenologically (e.g., pastes, slurries, foams, etc.). In this paper, we cast SGR in a general, model-independent framework for nonequilibrium thermodynamics called general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling. This leads to a formulation of SGR which clarifies how it can properly be coupled to hydrodynamic fields, resulting in a thermodynamically consistent, local, continuum version of SGR. Additionally, we find that compliance with thermodynamics imposes the existence of a modification to the stress tensor as predicted by SGR.

  15. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kozyukhin, S. A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Ingram, A.; Szatanik, R.

    2015-03-15

    Using As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsS{sub 2} glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models.

  16. Microscale rheology of a soft glassy material close to yielding.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre; Mansard, Vincent; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Bocquet, Lydéric; Colin, Annie

    2012-04-06

    Using confocal microscopy, we study the flow of a model soft glassy material: a concentrated emulsion. We demonstrate the micro-macro link between in situ measured movements of droplets during the flow and the macroscopic rheological response of a concentrated emulsion, in the form of scaling relationships connecting the rheological "fluidity" with local standard deviation of the strain-rate tensor. Furthermore, we measure correlations between these local fluctuations, thereby extracting a correlation length which increases while approaching the yielding transition, in accordance with recent theoretical predictions.

  17. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Gwangju; Inst. for Basic Science, Gwangju ; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K. -U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

  18. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  19. Effects of glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding, size, and lipid content on egg maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed during the adult stage to produce eggs. While glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production is related to adult feeding, rates of egg production are variable. In this study, effects of lipid allocation to eggs and fema...

  20. Evaluation of grapevine as a host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine was evaluated as a feeding and oviposition host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The first set compared performance and preference of glassy-winged sharpshooter females for grapevine (cv. Chardonnay) versus cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivar black...

  1. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  2. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  3. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  4. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  5. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; ...

    2014-06-09

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen closemore » to their original positions in the fluid.« less

  6. Glassy dynamics of nanoparticles in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yangwei; Deng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Linxi

    2017-01-01

    By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the dynamics of NPs in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts. A novel glass transition is observed for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts as the bending energy (Kb) of ring polymers increases. For NPs in flexible ring polymer melts (Kb = 0), NPs move in the classic diffusive behavior. However, for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts with large bending energy, NPs diffuse very slowly and exhibit the glassy state in which the NPs are all irreversibly caged be the neighbouring semiflexible ring polymers. This glass transition occurs well above the classical glass transition temperature at which microscopic mobility is lost, and the topological interactions of semiflexible ring polymers play an important role in this non-classical glass transition. This investigation can help us understand the nature of the glass transition in polymer systems. PMID:28290546

  7. Glassy dynamics of nanoparticles in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yangwei; Deng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Linxi

    2017-03-01

    By employing molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the dynamics of NPs in semiflexible ring polymer nanocomposite melts. A novel glass transition is observed for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts as the bending energy (Kb) of ring polymers increases. For NPs in flexible ring polymer melts (Kb = 0), NPs move in the classic diffusive behavior. However, for NPs in semiflexible ring polymer melts with large bending energy, NPs diffuse very slowly and exhibit the glassy state in which the NPs are all irreversibly caged be the neighbouring semiflexible ring polymers. This glass transition occurs well above the classical glass transition temperature at which microscopic mobility is lost, and the topological interactions of semiflexible ring polymers play an important role in this non-classical glass transition. This investigation can help us understand the nature of the glass transition in polymer systems.

  8. Surface treatment of Glassy Polymeric Carbon artifacts for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. G.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Rezende, M. C.

    1999-06-10

    Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) has been used for mechanical cardiac valves. GCP valves are chemically biocompatible and durable, but less thromboresistant than biological valves. Enhanced thromboresistance of mechanical cardiac components with porous surface has been demonstrated. The endothelialized tissue blood-contacting surface adheres to the porous prosthetic component and decreases the formation of thrombus. Our experience has shown that the porosity of GPC can be increased and controlled by MeV ion bombardment. We report here that the surface roughness of heat-treated GPC bombarded with C, O, Si and Au is also enhanced. The surface roughness of the ion-bombarded samples is on a smaller scale than those roughened by sand blasting (measurements made with Perthomete S and P). The roughness decreases slightly after heat treatment, in linear proportion to the shrinkage of the test piece. Possible beneficial effects of the imbedded ions on tissue adherence and thromboresistance must be determined by in vivo animal experiments.

  9. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. R. D.; Gericke, D. O.; Cammarata, M.; Cho, B. I.; Döppner, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Förster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Fritz, D.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Heimann, P.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Lemke, H.; Makita, M.; Moinard, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Plagemann, K.-U.; Redmer, R.; Riley, D.; Rosmej, F. B.; Sperling, P.; Toleikis, S.; Vinko, S. M.; Vorberger, J.; White, S.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Tschentscher, T.; Gregori, G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid. PMID:24909903

  10. Determination of Fracture Patterns in Glass and Glassy Polymers.

    PubMed

    Baca, Allison C; Thornton, John I; Tulleners, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    The study of fractures of glass, glassy-type materials, and plastic has long been of interest to the forensic community. The focus of this interest has been the use of glass and polymer fractures to associate items of evidence under the assumption that each fracture is different. Generally, it is well-accepted that deviations exist; however, the emphasis has been on classifying and predicting fracture rather than determining that each fracture is different. This study documented the controlled fracture patterns of 60 glass panes, 60 glass bottles, and 60 plastic tail light lens covers using both dynamic impact and static pressure methods under closely controlled conditions. Each pattern was intercompared, and based on the limited specimens tested in this study, the results illustrate that the fracture patterns are different. Further repetitive studies, under controlled conditions, will be needed to provide more statistical significance to the theory that each fracture forms a nonreproducible fracture pattern.

  11. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  12. Glassy fragmental rocks of Macquarie Island (Southern Ocean): Mechanism of formation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, J. A.; Harb, N.; Portner, R. A.; Daczko, N. R.

    2009-04-01

    Glassy fragmental rocks are interlayered with pillow basalt and tabular basalt on Macquarie Island (54°30' S, 158°54' E). These facies formed along the Proto-Macquarie Spreading Ridge between 6 and 12 Ma and have since been uplifted and exposed on the apex of the Macquarie Ridge Complex. Through a combination of field and microscopic analyses, we investigate the submarine production, transportation, deposition and lithification of basalt and sideromelane clasts within a spreading-ridge environment. The findings of this study indicate that these glassy grains form predominantly by cooling-contraction granulation of pillow lava rinds while crystalline basalt clasts are derived from the fragmentation of pillows along concentric and radial cooling joints. Hyaloclastite breccias consist of crystalline volcanic clasts in a matrix of glassy fragments, and are termed pillow-fragment breccias when clasts identifiable as pillows account for > 25% of the cobble-sized fraction. This glassy fragmental sediment was transported predominantly by short-lived grain flows and deposited as a result of syn-eruptive talus accumulation. The above interpretations culminate in the production of a depositional model: these glassy fragmental rocks formed on the slopes of pillow cones following gravitational collapse of a destabilised cone flank along the Proto-Macquarie Spreading Ridge. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that palagonite alteration rims on glassy grains lithify the sediment. The findings may be used as an analogue for the formation of glassy fragmental rocks along past and present mid-oceanic ridges.

  13. Polymorphism in glassy silicon: Inherited from liquid-liquid phase transition in supercooled liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Xinyu; Qi, Li; Zhang, Suhong; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2015-02-01

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and Voronoi polyhedral analyses, we discussed the microstructure evolution in liquid and glassy silicon during cooling by focusing on the fraction of various clusters. Liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) is detected in supercooled liquid silicon However, freezing the high-density liquid (HDL) to the glassy state is not achieved as the quenching rate goes up to 1014 K/s. The polyamorphism in glassy silicon is found to be mainly associated with low-density liquid (LDL).

  14. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  15. PILOT EVALUATION OF VANADIUM ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARCS, SHEETS, ROLLING(METALLURGY), HIGH TEMPERATURE, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, DUCTILITY, CREEP, OXIDATION, COATINGS , SILICIDES , HARDNESS, WELDING, EXTRUSION, TANTALUM ALLOYS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS....VANADIUM ALLOYS, * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TITANIUM ALLOYS, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS, CARBON ALLOYS, MELTING, ELECTRIC

  16. Nonswelling alloy

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  17. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  18. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  19. Mating behavior and intraspecific vibrational mimicry in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca vitripennis (hemiptera: cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrational communication is widespread in insects, particularly in leafhoppers where the pair formation process is mediated by species-specific vibrational signals. One important pest using vibrational communication, glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a vector of Xylella...

  20. Sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically stepped glassy substrates of silicate glass and acryl polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2015-11-01

    In the nanoimprint process, the resolution limit of patterning has attracted much attention from both scientific and industrial aspects. In this article, we briefly review the main achievements of our research group on sub-nanoscale nanoimprint fabrication of atomically patterned glassy substrates of oxide glass and polymer. By applying the sapphire (α-Al2O3 single crystal) wafers with self-organized nanopatterns of atomic steps as thermal nanoimprinting molds, we successfully transferred their nanoscale patterns onto the surfaces of glassy substrates such as soda-lime silicate glasses and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers. The surfaces of nanoimprinted glassy materials exhibited regularly arrayed atomic stairs with 0.2-0.3 nm step height, which were in good agreement with the sub-nanopatterns of sapphire molds. These atomically stepped morphologies on the glassy substrates were found to be stable for about 1 year.

  1. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Todd L.; Tenner, Travis Jay; Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth; Kinman, William Scott; Pollington, Anthony Douglas; Steiner, Robert Ernest

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  2. Probing the viscoelastic response of glassy polymer films using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanwen; Rao, Nanxia; Yin, Zejie; Zhu, Da-Ming

    2006-05-01

    The mechanical properties of glassy films and glass surfaces have been studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM) through various imaging modes and measuring methods. In this paper, we discuss the viscoelastic response of a glassy surface probed using an AFM. We analyzed the force-distance curves measured on a glassy film or a glassy surface at temperatures near the glass transition temperature, Tg, using a Burgers model. We found that the material's characteristics of reversible anelastic response and viscous creep can be extracted from a force-distance curve. Anelastic response shifts the repulsive force-distance curve while viscous creep strongly affects the slope of the repulsive force-distance curve. When coupled with capillary force, due to the condensation of a thin layer of liquid film at the tip-surface joint, the anelasticity and viscous creep can alter the curve significantly in the attractive region.

  3. Quasi-one-dimensional models for glassy dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Prasanta

    2011-12-01

    We describe analytical calculations and simulations of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1-D) model for glassy dynamics. In the Q1-D models, hard rods undergo single-file diffusion through a series of narrow channels connected by J intersections. The topology of the model is specified by J, the maximum number of rods in each middle channel K, and the number of rods N. We assume that the rods cannot turn at the intersections, and thus there is a single, continuous route through the system. This model displays hallmarks of glassy dynamics including caging behavior and subdiffusion, rapid growth in the structural relaxation time and collective particle rearrangements. The mean-square displacement Sigma(t) for the Q1-D model displays four dynamical regimes: 1) short-time diffusion Sigma( t) ˜ t, 2) a plateau Sigma(t) ˜ t0 caused by caging behavior, 3) single-file diffusion characterized by anomalous scaling Sigma(t) ˜ t0.5 at intermediate times, and 4) a crossover to long-tine diffusion Sigma(t) ˜ t for times that grow with the system size. We develop a general procedure for calculating analytically the structural relaxation time tD, beyond which the system undergoes long-time diffusion, as a function of density and system topology. The method involves several steps: 1) uniquely defining the set of microstates for the system and transitions among them, 2) constructing networks of connected microstates and identifying minimal, closed, directed loops that give rise to structural relaxation, 3) calculating the probabilities for obtaining each of the microstates that form the closed loops and for transitioning from one microstate to another, and 4) using these probabilities to deduce the dependence of tD on packing fraction. We find that to obeys power-law scaling tD ˜ (φ g-φ)-alpha, where φ g (the packing fraction corresponding to complete kinetic arrest) and alpha depend on the system topology, and can be calculated exactly. The analytical calculations are supported

  4. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  5. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  6. Strain localization in glassy polymers under cylindrical confinement.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Amit; Riggleman, Robert A

    2014-06-14

    Although the origin of ductility in crystalline materials is well understood through the motion of dislocations and defects, a similar framework for understanding deformation in amorphous materials remains elusive. In particular, the difference in the mechanical response for small-molecule amorphous solids, such as organic glasses that are typically brittle, and polymer glasses, which are frequently very tough, has not been systematically explored. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the mechanical response of model glassy polymers confined to a nanoscopic pillar under tensile deformation. We vary the chain length, cooling rate for forming the glass, and the deformation rate and investigate the changes in the mechanical response. We find that samples that are cooled at a slower rate and deformed at a slower rate are more prone to localization of the strain response, or shear banding. Interestingly, this effect is independent of chain length over the range of parameters we have investigated so far, and we believe this is the first direct observation of shear banding in deformed polymer glasses under cylindrical confinement. Finally, by using the isoconfigurational ensemble approach, we provide evidence that the location where the shear band forms is due to structural features that are frozen in place during sample preparation.

  7. Mathematical modeling of glassy-winged sharpshooter population.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Mi; Hrynkiv, Volodymyr; Morano, Lisa; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Wilder, Sara; Mitchell, Forrest

    2014-06-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the California and the expanding Texas wine industries. Bacteria are vectored from one vine to the next by a number of xylem feeding insect species. Of these, the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (GWSS) is considered to be the primary xylem feeding insect in Texas vineyards. An extensive database of the xylem-feeding population frequencies was collected by USDA-APHIS for Texas vineyards over multiple years. This project focused on a subset of data, GWSS frequencies within 25 vineyards in Edwards Plateau located in central Texas. The proposed model investigates the natural population dynamics and the decline in GWSS, likely the result of pest management campaigns on the insects within the region. The model is a delay Gompertz differential equation with harvesting and immigration terms, and we use the data to estimate the model parameters.

  8. Frequency-dependent conductivity in bismuth-vanadate glassy semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aswini

    1990-01-01

    The first measurements are reported for the frequency-dependent (ac) conductivity (real as well as imaginary parts) for various compositions of the bismuth-vanadate glassy semiconductors in the frequency range 102-105 Hz and in the temperature range 77-420 K. The behavior of the ac conductivity is broadly similar to what has been observed previously in many other types of amorphous semiconductors, namely, nearly linear frequency dependence and weak temperature dependence. The experimental results are analyzed with reference to various theoretical models based on quantum-mechanical tunneling and classical hopping over barriers. The analysis shows that the temperature dependence of the ac conductivity is consistent with the simple quantum-mechanical tunneling model at low temperatures; however, this model completely fails to predict the observed temperature dependence of the frequency exponent. The overlapping-large-polaron tunneling model can explain the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent at low temperatures. Fitting of this model to the low-temperature data yields a reasonable value of the wave-function decay constant. However, this model predicts the temperature dependence of the ac conductivity much higher than what actual data showed. The correlated barrier hopping model is consistent with the temperature dependence of both the ac conductivity and its frequency exponent. This model provides reasonable values of the maximum barrier heights but higher values of characteristic relaxation times.

  9. Surface temperatures and glassy state investigations in tribology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The research in this report is divided into two categories: (1) lubricant rheological behavior, and (2) thermal behavior of a simulated elastohydrodynamic contact. The studies of the lubricant rheological behavior consists of high pressure, low shear rate viscosity measurements, viscoelastic transition measurements, by volume dilatometry, dielectric transitions at atmospheric pressure and light scattering transitions. Lubricant shear stress-strain behavior in the amorphous glassy state was measured on several fluids. It appears clear from these investigations that many lubricants undergo viscoplastic transitions in typical EHD contacts and that the lubricant has a limiting maximum shear stress it can support which in turn will determine the traction in the contact except in cases of very low slide-roll ratio. Surface temperature measurements were made for a naphthenic mineral oil and a polyphenyl ether. The maximum surface temperature in these experiments was approximately symmetrical about the zero slide-roll ration except for absolute values of slide-roll ratio greater than about 0.9. Additional surface temperature measurements were made in contacts with rough surfaces where the composite surface roughness was approximately equal to the EHD film thickness. A regression analysis was done to obtain a predictive equation for surface temperatures as a function of pressure, sliding speed, and surface roughness. A correction factor for surface roughness effects to the typical flash temperature analysis was found.

  10. Dielectric studies of molecular motions in glassy and liquid nicotine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Paluch, M.; Ziolo, J.; Ngai, K. L.

    2006-06-01

    The dielectric permittivity and loss spectra of glassy and liquid states of nicotine have been measured over the frequency range 10-2-109 Hz. The relaxation spectra are similar to common small molecular glass-forming substances, showing the structural α-relaxation and its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation. The α-relaxation is well described by the Fourier transform of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function with an approximately constant stretch exponent that is equal to 0.70 as the glass transition temperature is approached. The dielectric α-relaxation time measured over 11 orders of magnitude cannot be described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman-Hesse equation. The most probable Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time determined from the dielectric spectra is in good agreement with the primitive relaxation time of the coupling model calculated from parameters of the structural α-relaxation. The shape of the dielectric spectra of nicotine is compared with that of other glass-formers having about the same stretch exponent, and they are shown to be nearly isomorphic. The results indicate that the molecular dynamics of nicotine conform to the general pattern found in other glass-formers, and the presence of the universal Johari-Goldstein secondary relaxation, which plays a role in the crystallization of amorphous pharmaceuticals.

  11. Cryptoachneliths: Hidden glassy ash in composite spheroidal lapilli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Arostegui, J.; Sarrionandia, F.; Larrondo, E.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2010-09-01

    Cryptoachneliths, perceptible by means of electron microscopy but unresolved under the optical microscope, occur unnoticed inside spheroidal lapilli of ultrabasic composition of the Cabezo Segura volcano (Calatrava volcanic province, Spain). The cryptoachneliths are glassy spherical particles that have compositions of Al-rich silicate with minor amounts of Fe, Ca and other elements. The smallest cryptoachneliths of < 1 μm in diameter (nanoachneliths) joined by coalescence to form microspheres > 1 μm (microachneliths) and homogeneous less regular masses of similar composition. Nano and microachneliths welded each other or to other types of volcanic particles (crystals, crystal fragments, spinning droplets, cognate lithic clasts, etc.) to form spheroidal lapilli and even bomb size clasts within proximal fall deposits of the Cabezo Segura volcano. The welding processes took place inside the eruptive column, previous to the fall of the spheroidal lapilli on top of the volcanic cone. The presence of the cryptoachneliths implies that lapilli and even bomb size tephra within deposits formed during explosive eruptions of low-viscosity basic to ultrabasic magmas should be carefully examined in order to establish key parameters of eruption dynamics, like size, amount and distribution of juvenile fine particles.

  12. Mechanics of particulate composites with glassy polymer binders in compression

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, J. L.; Spowart, J. E.; Kendall, M. J.; Woodworth, B.; Siviour, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether used as structural components in design or matrix materials for composites, the mechanical properties of polymers are increasingly important. The compressive response of extruded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod with aligned polymer chains and Al–Ni–PMMA particulate composites are investigated across a range of strain rates and temperatures. The particulate composites were prepared using an injection-moulding technique resulting in highly anisotropic microstructures. The mechanics of these materials are discussed in the light of theories of deformation for glassy polymers. The experimental data from this study are compared with PMMA results from the literature as well as epoxy-based composites with identical particulates. The PMMA exhibited the expected strain rate and temperature dependence and brittle failure was observed at the highest strain rates and lowest temperatures. The Al–Ni–PMMA composites were found to have similar stress–strain response to the PMMA with reduced strain softening after yield. Increasing volume fraction of particulates in the composite resulted in decreased strength. PMID:24711495

  13. Redox behavior of biofilm on glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, D; Manoharan, S P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-01

    Marine and freshwater biofilm usually shift the open circuit potential (OCP) of stainless steel towards the electropositive direction by +450 mV vs SCE. The nature of oxide film and bacterial metabolism were also correlated with ennoblement process by various investigators. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used in the present study and a shifting of potential in the positive side (+450 mV) was noticed. It indicates that biofilm contributes to the ennoblement process without any n/p-type semiconducting oxide film. The nature of the cathodic curve for the biofilm covered GCE is compared with the previous literature on the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel. The present study explains the oxidation and reduction peaks of biofilm covered GCE by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical impedance result reveals the diffusion process within the manganese biofilm. The present study confirms the previous investigations that the manganese biofilm rules the electrochemical behavior of materials and suggests that oxide film is not necessary to assist the ennoblement process.

  14. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  15. How important are glassy SOA ice nuclei for the formation of cirrus clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Wang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Extremely low ice numbers (i.e. 5 - 100 / L) have been observed in the tropical troposphere layer (TTL) in a variety of field campaigns. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain these low numbers, including the effect of glassy secondary organic aerosol acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN). In this study, we explored these effects using the CAM5.3 model. SOA fields were provided by an offline version of the University of Michigan-IMPACT model, which has a detailed process-based mechanism that describes aerosol microphysics and SOA formation through both gas phase and multiphase reactions. The transition criterion of SOA to glassy heterogeneous IN follows the parameterization developed by Wang et al. 2012. With this parameterization, glassy SOA IN form mainly when the temperature (T) is lower than 210K. In the default CAM5.3 set-up in which only the fraction of Aitken mode sulfate aerosols with diameter larger than 100nm participate in the ice nucleation (Liu and Penner 2005 parameterization), glassy SOA IN are shown to decrease the ice number (Ni) by suppressing some of the homogeneous freezing at low temperatures thereby leading to an improved representation of the relationship between Ni and T compared to the observations summarized by Kramer et al. 2009. However, when we allow the total number of the Aitken mode sulfate particles to participate in homogeneous freezing, glassy SOA IN have only a small impact on the relationship between Ni and T. If the subgrid updraft velocity is decreased to 0.1 m/s (compared to 0.2 m/s in the default set-up), there is a large decrease of Ni, since homogeneous freezing is more easily suppressed by glassy SOA IN at these updrafts. We also present the effects of glassy SOA IN using an alternative ice nucleation scheme (Barahona and Nenes, 2009).

  16. Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Multiphase Mo Silicide Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherly, L.; Liu, C.T.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-11-30

    Multiphase Mo silicide alloys containing T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}), Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo phases where prepared by both melting and casting (M and C) and powder metallurgical (PM) processes. Glassy phases are observed in PM materials but not in M and C materials. Microstructural studies indicate that the primary phase is Mo-rich solid solution in alloys containing {le}(9.4Si+13.8B, at. %) and T2 in alloys with {ge}(9.8Si+14.6B). An eutectic composition is estimated to be close to Mo-9.6Si-14.2B. The mechanical properties of multiphase silicide alloys were determined by hardness, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. The multiphase alloy MSB-18 (Mo-9.4Si-13.8B) possesses a flexure strength distinctly higher than that of MoSi{sub 2} and other Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicide alloys containing no Mo particles. Also, MSB-18 is tougher than MoSi{sub 2} by a factor of 4.

  17. Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloys for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, jay; Valdez, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nanophase nickel-zirconium alloys have been investigated for use as electrically conductive coatings and catalyst supports in fuel cells. Heretofore, noble metals have been used because they resist corrosion in the harsh, acidic fuel cell interior environments. However, the high cost of noble metals has prompted a search for less-costly substitutes. Nickel-zirconium alloys belong to a class of base metal alloys formed from transition elements of widely different d-electron configurations. These alloys generally exhibit unique physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties that can include corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as corrosion is accelerated by free-energy differences between bulk material and grain boundaries, it was conjectured that amorphous (glassy) and nanophase forms of these alloys could offer the desired corrosion resistance. For experiments to test the conjecture, thin alloy films containing various proportions of nickel and zirconium were deposited by magnetron and radiofrequency co-sputtering of nickel and zirconium. The results of x-ray diffraction studies of the deposited films suggested that the films had a nanophase and nearly amorphous character.

  18. Glassy dynamics in CuMn thin-film multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qiang; Harrison, David C.; Tennant, Daniel; Dalhberg, E. Dan; Kenning, Gregory G.; Orbach, Raymond L.

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film multilayered spin-glass CuMn/Cu structures display glassy dynamics. The freezing temperature Tf was measured for 40 layers of CuMn films of thickness L =4.5 ,9.0 , and 20.0 nm, sandwiched between nonmagnetic Cu layers of thickness ≈60 nm. The Kenning effect, Tf∝lnL , is shown to follow from power-law dynamics where the correlation length grows from nucleation as ξ (t ,T ) =c1a0(t/τ0) c2(T /Tg) , leading to [(Tf/Tg) c2ln(tco/τ0) ] +lnc1=ln(L /a0) . Here, Tg is the bulk spin-glass temperature, c1 and c2 are constants determined from the spin-glass dynamics, tco is the time for the correlation length to grow to the film thickness, τ0 is a characteristic exchange time ≈ℏ /kBTg , and a0 is the average Mn-Mn separation. For t ≥tco , the magnetization dynamics are simple activated, with a single activation energy Δmax(L ) /kBTg=(1 /c2) [ln(L /a0) -lnc1] that does not change with time. Values for all these parameters are found for the three values of L explored in these measurements. We find experimentally Δmax(L ) /kB =907 , 1246, and 1650 K, respectively, for the three CuMn thin-film multilayer thicknesses, consistent with power-law dynamics. We perform a similar analysis based on the activated dynamics of the droplet model and find a much larger spread for Δmax(L ) than found experimentally.

  19. Modeling mechanophore activation within a crosslinked glassy matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Min, Kyoungmin; Cremar, Lee D.; Degen, Cassandra M.; Martinez, Todd J.; Aluru, Narayana R.; White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2013-07-01

    Mechanically induced reactivity is a promising means for designing self-reporting materials. Mechanically sensitive chemical groups called mechanophores are covalently linked into polymers in order to trigger specific chemical reactions upon mechanical loading. These mechanophores can be linked either within the backbone or as crosslinks between backbone segments. Mechanophore response is sensitive to both the matrix properties and placement within the matrix, providing two avenues for material design. A model framework is developed to describe reactivity of mechanophores located as crosslinks in a glassy polymer matrix. Simulations are conducted at the molecular and macromolecular scales in order to develop macroscale constitutive relations. The model is developed specifically for the case of spiropyran (SP) in lightly crosslinked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This optically trackable mechanophore (fluorescent when activated) allows the model to be assessed in terms of observed experimental behavior. The force modified potential energy surface (FMPES) framework is used in conjunction with ab initio steered molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of SP to determine the mechanophore kinetics. MD simulations of the crosslinked PMMA structure under shear deformation are used to determine the relationship between macroscale stress and local force on the crosslinks. A continuum model implemented in a finite element framework synthesizes these mechanochemical relations with the mechanical behavior. The continuum model with parameters taken directly from the FMPES and MD analyses under predicts stress-driven activation relative to experimental data. The continuum model, with the physically motivated modification of force fluctuations, provides an accurate prediction for monotonic loading across three decades of strain rate and creep loading, suggesting that the fundamental physics are captured.

  20. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Sangoro, Joshua R; Kremer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  1. Amorphous phase formation in mechanically alloyed iron-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Satyajeet

    Bulk metallic glasses have interesting combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and magnetic properties which make them attractive for a variety of applications. Consequently there has been a lot of interest in understanding the structure and properties of these materials. More varied applications can be sought if one understands the reasons for glass formation and the methods to control them. The glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys can be substantially increased by a proper selection of alloying elements and the chemical composition of the alloy. High GFA will enable in obtaining large section thickness of amorphous alloys. Ability to produce glassy alloys in larger section thicknesses enables exploitation of these advanced materials for a variety of different applications. The technique of mechanical alloying (MA) is a powerful non-equilibrium processing technique and is known to produce glassy (or amorphous) alloys in several alloy systems. Metallic amorphous alloys have been produced by MA starting from either blended elemental metal powders or pre-alloyed powders. Subsequently, these amorphous alloy powders could be consolidated to full density in the temperature range between the glass transition and crystallization temperatures, where the amorphous phase has a very low viscosity. This Dissertation focuses on identifying the various Fe-based multicomponent alloy systems that can be amorphized using the MA technique, studying the GFA of alloys with emphasis on improving it, and also on analyzing the effect of extended milling time on the constitution of the amorphous alloy powder produced at earlier times. The Dissertation contains seven chapters, where the lead chapter deals with the background, history and introduction to bulk metallic glasses. The following four chapters are the published/to be published work, where the criterion for predicting glass formation, effect of Niobium addition on glass-forming ability (GFA), lattice contraction on

  2. Understanding the Physical Aging Behavior of Glassy Polystyrene Layers in Close Contact with Rubbery Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Connie; Rauscher, Phil; Pye, Justin; Baglay, Roman

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in synthesis strategies and processing methods have led to new nanostructured polymer blend and block-copolymer materials containing domain sizes less than 100 nm with glassy and rubbery domains in close proximity. Given the outsized role interfacial perturbations have played in causing large changes in the glass transition temperature Tg and physical aging of ultrathin single-layer films, we are interested in studying how the presence of glassy-rubbery interfaces between neighboring polymer domains may alter the local stability and physical aging of confined glassy layers. Using a polystyrene (PS) / poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) weakly immiscible system with 7 nm interfacial width, we demonstrate how ellipsometry can be used to isolate the physical aging rate of thin PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA layers. Despite a 25-30 K reduction in the average Tg of 84 nm thick PS layers atop PnBMA as measured by fluorescence, we observe no change in the PS aging rate relative to bulk. These results are in contrast with previous works on single-layer polymer films that have found the local aging rate to often be correlated with local Tg changes. This appears not to be the case for glassy PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA suggesting some additional factor is affecting the structural relaxation occurring near the glassy-rubbery interface.

  3. Mechanisms of crazing in glassy polymers revealed by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj K.; Hartmaier, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Mechanisms leading to initiation of crazing type failure in a glassy polymer are not clearly understood. This is mainly due to the difficulty in characterizing the stress state and polymer configuration sufficiently locally at the craze initiation site. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have now been able to access this information and have shown that the local heterogeneous deformation leads to craze initiation in glassy polymers. We found that zones of high plastic activity are constrained by their neighborhood and become unstable, initiating crazing from these sites. Furthermore, based on the constant flow stresses observed in the unstable zones, we conclude that microcavitation is the essential local deformation mode to trigger crazing in glassy polymers. Our results demonstrate the basic difference in the local deformation mode as well as the conditions that lead to either shear-yielding or crazing type failures in glassy polymers. We anticipate our paper to help in devising a new criterion for craze initiation that not only considers the stress state, but also considers local deformation heterogeneities that form the necessary condition for crazing in glassy polymers.

  4. Effect of entanglements on mechanical properties of glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Robert Scott

    Glass forming polymers are of great industrial importance and scientific interest because of their unique mechanical properties, which arise from the connectivity and random-walk-like structure of the constituent chains. In this thesis I study the relation of entanglements to the mechanical properties of model polymer glasses and brushes using molecular dynamics simulations. We perform extensive studies of glassy strain hardening, which stabilizes polymers against strain localization and fracture. Fundamental inconsistencies in existing entropic models of strain hardening imply that our understanding of its microscopic origins is far from complete. The dependence of stress on strain and entanglement density is consistent with experiment and entropic models. However, many of the assumptions of these models are totally inconsistent with our simulation results. The dependence on temperature, rate and interaction strength can be understood as reflecting changes in the plastic flow stress rather than a network entropy. A substantial energetic contribution to the stress rises rapidly as segments between entanglements are pulled taut. The thermal component of stress is less sensitive to entanglements, mostly irreversible, and directly related to the rate of local plastic arrangements. The deformation of the entanglement network is not affine to the macroscopic stretch. Entangled and unentangled chains show the same strain hardening when plotted against the microscopic chain orientation rather than the macroscopic strain. The entropic back stress responsible for shape recovery arises from chain orientation rather than entanglement. We also present some other results unrelated to strain hardening. We analyze the entanglement of polymer brushes embedded in long-chain melts and in implicit good and theta solvents. The melt-embedded brushes are more self-entangled than those in the solvents. The degree of self-entanglement of the brushes in the solvents follows a simple

  5. Temporal disconnectivity of the energy landscape in glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempesis, Nikolaos; Boulougouris, Georgios C.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2013-03-01

    An alternative graphical representation of the potential energy landscape (PEL) has been developed and applied to a binary Lennard-Jones glassy system, providing insight into the unique topology of the system's potential energy hypersurface. With the help of this representation one is able to monitor the different explored basins of the PEL, as well as how - and mainly when - subsets of basins communicate with each other via transitions in such a way that details of the prior temporal history have been erased, i.e., local equilibration between the basins in each subset has been achieved. In this way, apart from detailed information about the structure of the PEL, the system's temporal evolution on the PEL is described. In order to gather all necessary information about the identities of two or more basins that are connected with each other, we consider two different approaches. The first one is based on consideration of the time needed for two basins to mutually equilibrate their populations according to the transition rate between them, in the absence of any effect induced by the rest of the landscape. The second approach is based on an analytical solution of the master equation that explicitly takes into account the entire explored landscape. It is shown that both approaches lead to the same result concerning the topology of the PEL and dynamical evolution on it. Moreover, a "temporal disconnectivity graph" is introduced to represent a lumped system stemming from the initial one. The lumped system is obtained via a specially designed algorithm [N. Lempesis, D. G. Tsalikis, G. C. Boulougouris, and D. N. Theodorou, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 204507 (2011), 10.1063/1.3663207]. The temporal disconnectivity graph provides useful information about both the lumped and the initial systems, including the definition of "metabasins" as collections of basins that communicate with each other via transitions that are fast relative to the observation time. Finally, the two examined

  6. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A.; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-01

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time.

  7. Fate of a genetically modified bacterium in foregut of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, José L; Perring, Thomas M; Miller, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Symbiotic control is a new strategy being investigated to prevent the spread of insect-transmitted pathogens by reducing vector competence. We are developing this strategy to reduce the spread of Xylella fastidiosa by Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) [formerly Homalodisca coagulata (Say)] (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), the glassy-winged sharpshooter. In this study, the fate of a transformed symbiotic bacterium, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans variety denitriicans (S1Axd), in the foregut of glassy-winged sharpshooter when fed on citrus (Citrus spp.) and grape (Vitris spp.) was assessed. TaqMan-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect and quantify bacterial cells remaining in the foregut at 0, 2, 4, 9, and 12 d after acquisition. S1Axd titer dropped rapidly by 2 d after acquisition, but in spite of this, at end of the 12-d experimental period, 45 and 38% of the glassy-winged sharpshooters retained the transformed bacteria, when fed on grape and citrus, respectively.

  8. Broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy : crystalline and glassy drug materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Seiji; Shibata, Tomohiko; Igawa, Hikaru; Mori, Tatsuya

    2014-03-01

    Low-energy IR active modes of glassy and crystalline drug materials were studied by the broadband Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 0.5 to 6.5 THz using a Cherenkov type THz generator. In order to determine the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constant, all samples were measured by the transmission using a pure pellet without mixing polyethylene. For glassy indomethacine, the broadband THz spectrum of real part of dielectric constant shows step-wise decrease with the increase of frequency, while the imaginary part shows a broad peak at about 3 THz reflecting quenched glassy disordered structure. The observed spectra of crystalline racemic ketoprofen show the noncoincidence of peak frequencies between low-frequency Raman scattering and THz absorbance spectra. It can be attributed to the fact that the mutual exclusion principle between Raman and IR activities holds below 6 THz.

  9. Direct Imaging of Dynamic Glassy Behavior in a Strained Manganite Film.

    PubMed

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Sheng, Zhigao; Yang, Yongliang; Lai, Keji; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Kelly, Michael A; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Tang, Qiaochu; Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinxin; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-12-31

    Complex many-body interaction in perovskite manganites gives rise to a strong competition between ferromagnetic metallic and charge-ordered phases with nanoscale electronic inhomogeneity and glassy behaviors. Investigating this glassy state requires high-resolution imaging techniques with sufficient sensitivity and stability. Here, we present the results of a near-field microwave microscope imaging on the strain-driven glassy state in a manganite film. The high contrast between the two electrically distinct phases allows direct visualization of the phase separation. The low-temperature microscopic configurations differ upon cooling with different thermal histories. At sufficiently high temperatures, we observe switching between the two phases in either direction. The dynamic switching, however, stops below the glass transition temperature. Compared with the magnetization data, the phase separation was microscopically frozen, while spin relaxation was found in a short period of time.

  10. Molecular modeling of mechanical stresses on proteins in glassy matrices: Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Harold W.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2012-07-01

    We present an expression for the calculation of microscopic stresses in molecular simulation, which is compatible with the use of electrostatic lattice sums such as the Ewald sum, with the presence of many-body interactions, and which allows local stresses to be calculated on surfaces of arbitrarily complex shape. The ultimate goal of this work is to investigate microscopic stresses on proteins in glassy matrices, which are used in the pharmaceutical industry for the long-term storage and stabilization of labile biomolecules. We demonstrate the formalism's usefulness through selected results on ubiquitin and an α-keratin fragment, in liquid and glassy states. We find that atomic-level normal stresses on hydrophilic side-chains exhibit a similar fingerprint in both proteins, and protein-level normal stresses increase upon vitrification. Both proteins experience compressive stresses of the order of 102 bar in the glassy state.

  11. Glassiness and exotic entropy scaling induced by quantum fluctuations in a disorder-free frustrated magnet.

    PubMed

    Klich, I; Lee, S-H; Iida, K

    2014-04-01

    When spins are arranged in a lattice of triangular motif, the phenomenon of frustration leads to numerous energetically equivalent ground states, and results in exotic states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Here we report an alternative situation: a system, classically a liquid, freezes in the clean limit into a glassy state induced by quantum fluctuations. We call such glassy state a spin jam. The case in point is a frustrated magnet, where spins are arranged in a triangular network of bipyramids. Quantum corrections break the classical degeneracy into a set of aperiodic spin configurations forming local minima in a rugged energy landscape. This is established by mapping the problem into tiling with hexagonal tiles. The number of tessellations scales with the boundary length rather than its volume, showing the absence of local zero-energy modes. Low-temperature thermodynamics is discussed to compare it with other glassy materials.

  12. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  13. A Thermodynamic Theory of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part 3: Nonlinear Glassy Viscoelasticity, Stability Constraints, Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan; Leonov, Arkady I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper, the last in the series, continues developing the nonlinear constitutive relations for non-isothermal, compressible, solid viscoelasticity. We initially discuss a single integral approach, more suitable for the glassy state of rubber-like materials, with basic functionals involved in the thermodynamic description for this type of viscoelasticity. Then we switch our attention to analyzing stability constraints, imposed on the general formulation of the nonlinear theory of solid viscoelasticity. Finally, we discuss specific (known from the literature or new) expressions for material functions that are involved in the constitutive formulations of both the rubber-like and glassy-like, complementary parts of the theory.

  14. lnterferometric Examination of Small (Glassy Spherules and Related Objects in a 5-Graml Lunar Dust Sample.

    PubMed

    Tolansky, S

    1970-01-30

    Over two hundred spherules and cylinders were extracted from the lunar dust sample. Sizes ranged from 0.7 to 0.03 millimeters, and most were shiny glassy objects, which were studied by interferometry. This study reveals very high spcular feflection, frequentperfect sphericity, and clear evidence n some objects of micracking and microchipping. Many spheres were once projectiles. Some have inpacted in free flight with much smaller pices of rocky material, which embedded in the surface. It is conjectured that the glassy spherules originated as a gas-blown shower from a pool of molten glass.

  15. Effects of xylem-sap composition on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation on high and low quality host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in...

  16. Characterization of molecular mobility within the glassy matrix of dry seeds using mechanical properties: pea cotyledon as a test study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed glasses form during maturation drying and regulate seed longevity. Seeds continue to age within the glassy state and, even during cryogenic storage, viability eventually declines. Inevitability of aging suggests some level of molecular motion within the glassy matrix and quantifying these “rel...

  17. Fabrication of Glassy and Crystalline Ferroelectric Oxide by Containerless Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Shinichi

    1. Instruction Much effort has been devoted to forming bulk glass from the melt of ferroelectric crystalline materials without adding any network-forming oxides such as SiO2 due to the potential for producing transparent glass ceramics with high dielectric constant and enhanced piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electro-optic effects. However, they require a higher cooling rate than glass formed by conventional techniques. Therefore, only amorphous thin-films have been formed, using rapid quenching with a cooling rate >105 K/s. The containerless processing is an attractive synthesis technique as it can prevent melt contamination, minimize heterogeneous nucleation, and allow melt to achieve deep undercooling for forming metastable phase and glassy material. Recently a new ferroelectric materiel, monoclinic BaTi2 O5 , with Currie temperature as 747 K was reported. In this study, we fabricated a bulk BaTi2 O5 glass from melt using containerless processing to study the phase relations and ferroelectric properties of BaTi2 O5 . To our knowledge, this was the first time that a bulk glass of ferroelectric material was fabricated from melt without adding any network-forming oxide. 2. Experiments BaTi2 O5 sphere glass with 2mm diameter was fabricated using containerless processing in an Aerodynamic Levitation Furnace (ALF). The containerless processing allowed the melt to achieve deep undercooling for glass forming. High purity commercial BaTiO3 and TiO2 powders were mixed with a mole ratio of 1:1 and compressed into rods and then sintered at 1427 K for 10 h. Bulk samples with a mass of about 20 mg were cut from the rod, levitated with the ALF, and then melted by a CO2 laser beam. After quenching with a cooling rate of about 1000 K/s, 2 mm diameter sphere glass could be obtained. To analyze the glass structure, a high-energy x-ray diffraction experiment was performed using an incident photon energy of 113.5 keV at the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline BL04B2 of SPring-8

  18. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  19. Substrate-borne vibrational signals in intraspecific communication of glassy-winged sharpshooters (GWSS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exploitation of vibrational signals for suppressing glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) populations could prove to be a useful tool. However, existing knowledge on GWSS vibrational communication is insufficient to implement a management program for this pest in California. Therefore, the objective of ...

  20. Glassy-winged sharpshooter oviposition effects on foliar grapevine and red-tipped photinia terpenoid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine and is a threat to grape production throughout the United States. Female GWSS deposit egg masses be...

  1. Effects of feeding on glassy-winged sharpshooter lipid content and egg production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter females emerge without mature eggs, and females must feed to produce mature eggs. As a result, allocation of incoming resources must be balanced between egg production and maintenance of other critical biological functions. Central to this process is allocation of lipids s...

  2. Glassy-winged sharpshooter oviposition effects on photinia volatile chemistry with implications on egg parasitoid effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective way to limit incidence of Pierce’s disease of grapevine is to reduce populations of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which transmit the causal bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. One strategy is to utilize egg parasitoids such as ...

  3. Glassy-winged sharpshooter can use a mechanical mechanism to inoculate Xylella fastidiosa into grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylem-feeding leafhoppers such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae), are thought to inoculate the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) from colonies bound to cuticle of the sharpshooter’s functional foregut (precibarium and cibarium). The mechanism of ...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of heat shock proteins in Glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four heat shock protein transcripts were produced from the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which is the major vector of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapes. As genomic information has continued to be produced resea...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of heat shock proteins in Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat shock proteins were identified in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis. The overall importance and function of HSPs lie in their ability to maintain protein integrity and activity during stressful conditions, such as extreme heat, cold, drought, or other stresses. The G...

  6. Sequence polymorphism of a glassy-winged sharpshooter phytoreovirus reveals a bottleneck in the Californian population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS; Homalodisca vitripennis Germar) is an invasive insect introduced to California circa 1989. Native to the southeastern U.S. and northeastern Mexico, GWSS is of economic concern as a vector of the Pierce’s disease bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Recently, a novel ...

  7. Microarray analysis of diapause in the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified several genes from the pathway which controls leafhopper diapause. Diapause in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, is poorly understood, yet is an important physiological condition which permits leafhoppers to survive adverse conditions such as winter tempera...

  8. Microarray analysis of gene expression and diapause in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The condition of diapause in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, is poorly understood. Diapause is better known from other, non hemipteran insects. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to address the specificities of transcriptional responses of adult female GWSS, which wer...

  9. Abundance and consumption rate of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on peaches and plums

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homalodisca vitripennis, also known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is a primary vector of phony peach and plum leaf scald diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Two of the following scions, (Prunus persica L. Batch cvs. Flordaking and June Gold and Prunus salicina L. cvs. Methley an...

  10. Optical and mechanical behaviors of glassy silicone networks derived from linear siloxane precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heejun; Seo, Wooram; Kim, Hyungsun; Lee, Yoonjoo; Kim, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based inorganic polymers are promising materials as matrix materials for glass fiber composites because of their good process ability, transparency, and thermal property. In this study, for utilization as a matrix precursor for a glass-fiber-reinforced composite, glassy silicone networks were prepared via hydrosilylation of linear/pendant Si-H polysiloxanes and the C=C bonds of viny-lterminated linear/cyclic polysiloxanes. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of the cross-linked states, and a thermal analysis was performed. To assess the mechanical properties of the glassy silicone networks, we performed nanoindentation and 4-point bending tests. Cross-linked networks derived from siloxane polymers are thermally and optically more stable at high temperatures. Different cross-linking agents led to final networks with different properties due to differences in the molecular weights and structures. After stepped postcuring, the Young's modulus and the hardness of the glassy silicone networks increased; however, the brittleness also increased. The characteristics of the cross-linking agent played an important role in the functional glassy silicone networks.

  11. Preface: Proceedings of the Workshop on Mechanical Behavior of Glassy Materials (Vancouver, 21 23 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottler, Joerg; Kennett, Malcolm; Stamp, Philip

    2008-06-01

    This special issue highlights some of the research topics presented at the workshop on Mechanical Behavior of Glassy Materials, which took place in Vancouver, Canada from 21-23 July 2007. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics (PITP) with support from the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) and Simon Fraser University (SFU). During this three-day event, 23 invited lectures were presented to an international group of about 40 participants. The full conference program as well as an archive of all presentations can be found online at www.pitp.physics.ubc.ca/confs/glass07/ The aim of the workshop was to bring together theorists and experimentalists working on glassy systems, with mechanical properties as the unifying theme. The talks touched on many aspects of the glass problem, from theories of the glass transition and mode coupling approaches to glassy dynamics, to spin glasses, simulations and theories of amorphous plasticity, the universal origin of ageing and dynamical heterogeneity in glasses, and glassy phenomena in biological systems. The interplay of ideas from high- and low-temperature (quantum) regimes of glasses led to lively discussions that brought researchers in both communities to explore similarities and differences in their respective ideas and physical systems. Progress was made on several fronts, and we hope that everyone involved left with some new perspective on their particular corner of interest in a class of problems that continues to present many challenges.

  12. Columbia River Basalt Chemistry, Degassing, and Eruption Dynamics: Insights From Quenched Glassy Lapilli and Tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Wolff, J.; Rowe, M. C.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    Primary eruptive vent areas for several lavas in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde Formations of the Columbia River Basalt exhibit phreatomagmatic character, due to the interaction of rising flood basalt magma with groundwater and/or surface water. Vent constructional forms range from extensive (>1 km) maar complexes with abundant basement lithics to small (<<1 km), lithic-poor low-angle cones. Phreatomagmatic tephra is lithified and variably palagonitized, but glassy basaltic lapilli can be recovered from many locations. Many lapilli have experienced variable degrees of Na leaching but preserve magmatic abundances of most other elements; nonetheless in many cases pristine, unmodified glass is amenable to analysis. In addition, phenocrysts in lapilli have fully glassy melt inclusions. Glassy lapilli have highly variable S contents between ~100 and ~1300 ppm. This is consistent with quenching before degassing was complete, a common feature of phreatomagmatic eruptions. Melt inclusions have ≤2900 ppm S, ≤3400 ppm CO2 and ≤2.6 wt% H2O, allowing estimates of atmospheric input from the main phase of Columbia River volcanism. In addition, the lithophile trace element contents, and petrogenetically significant ratios such as Ba/Nb, of glassy lapilli exhibit differ from those in the equivalent 'stony' lava flows by up to a factor of 2. This suggests that processes in the flow and crystallization of lava serve to modify trace element abundances, and may place limits on the petrogenetic significance of trace element data from crystalline lava samples.

  13. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Skrotzki, J.; Leisner, T.; Wilson, T. W.; Malkin, T. L.; Murray, B. J.

    2012-09-01

    The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA), levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition) before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re-vitrified in contact

  14. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Skrotzki, J.; Leisner, T.; Wilson, T. W.; Malkin, T. L.; Murray, B. J.

    2012-04-01

    The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA), levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition) before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosols that have re-vitrified in contact with the

  15. Quantitative comparison of stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter on selected hosts.

    PubMed

    Sandanayaka, W R M; Backus, E A

    2008-08-01

    New Zealand is threatened by invasion of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium that causes Pierce's disease in grape (Vitis spp.) and scorch diseases in many other horticultural crops. Therefore, an understanding of the host acceptability, feeding behavior, and potential vector efficiency of glassy-winged sharpshooter on New Zealand crops is important. We tested host plant acceptance and feeding behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter on three common horticultural crops grown in New Zealand (apple [Malus spp.], grape, and citrus [Citrus spp.]), and a native plant (Metrosideros excelsa [=tomentosa] Richard, pohutukawa), using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Probing (stylet penetration) behaviors varied among the host plants, primarily due to differences in waveform event durations. Apple and grape were the most accepted host plants, on which glassy-winged sharpshooter spent the majority of its time on the plant probing and readily located and accepted a xylem cell for ingestion. This resulted in long durations of sustained xylem fluid ingestion. In contrast, pohutukawa was the least accepted host. On this plant, glassy-winged sharpshooter spent less time probing and engaged in longer and more frequent testing/searching and xylem-testing activities, rejected xylem cells frequently, and spent less time with stylets resting, before accepting a xylem cell and ultimately performing the same amount of sustained ingestion. Citrus plants contaminated with sublethal insecticide residues were intermediate between these extremes, with some acceptance of xylem, but less ingestion, probably due to presumed partial paralysis of the cibarial muscles. Implications of the results in terms of host plant acceptance and the development of a stylet penetration index are discussed.

  16. Annealing effects on the migration of ion-implanted cadmium in glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Sebitla, L. D.; Njoroge, E. G.; Mlambo, M.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The migration behaviour of cadmium (Cd) implanted into glassy carbon and the effects of annealing on radiation damage introduced by ion implantation were investigated. The glassy carbon substrates were implanted with Cd at a dose of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and energy of 360 keV. The implantation was performed at room temperature (RT), 430 °C and 600 °C. The RT implanted samples were isochronally annealed in vacuum at 350, 500 and 600 °C for 1 h and isothermally annealed at 350 °C up to 4 h. The as-implanted and annealed samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Raman results revealed that implantation at room temperature amorphized the glassy carbon structure while high temperature implantations resulted in slightly less radiation damage. Isochronal annealing of the RT implanted samples resulted in some recrystallization as a function of increasing temperature. The original glassy carbon structure was not achieved at the highest annealing temperature of 600 °C. Diffusion of Cd in glassy carbon was already taking place during implantation at 430 °C. This diffusion of Cd was accompanied by significant loss from the surface during implantation at 600 °C. Isochronal annealing of the room temperature implanted samples at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while isothermal annealing at 500 and 600 °C resulted in the migration of implanted Cd toward the surface accompanied by a loss of Cd from the surface. Isothermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while for annealing time >1 h Cd diffused towards the surface. These results were interpreted in terms of trapping and de-trapping of implanted Cd by radiation damage.

  17. A novel pattern transfer technique for mounting glassy carbon microelectrodes on polymeric flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; van Niekerk, Pieter; Nguyen, Vivian; Gong, Nick; Hirabayashi, Mieko; Cinopri, Alessio; Logan, Kyle; Moghadasi, Ali; Varma, Priya; Kassegne, Sam

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel technology for transferring glassy carbon microstructures, originally fabricated on a silicon wafer through a high-temperature process, to a polymeric flexible substrate such as polyimide. This new transfer technique addresses a major barrier in Carbon-MEMS technology whose widespread use so has been hampered by the high-temperature pyrolysis process (⩾900 °C), which limits selection of substrates. In the new approach presented, patterning and pyrolysis of polymer precursor on silicon substrate is carried out first, followed by coating with a polymer layer that forms a hydrogen bond with glassy carbon and then releasing the ensuing glassy carbon structure; hence, transferring it to a flexible substrate. This enables the fabrication of a unique set of glassy carbon microstructures critical in applications that demand substrates that conform to the shape of the stimulated/actuated or sensed surface. Our findings based on Fourier transform infared spectroscopy on the complete electrode set demonstrate—for the first time—that carbonyl groups on polyimide substrate form a strong hydrogen bond with hydroxyl groups on glassy carbon resulting in carboxylic acid dimers (peaks at 2660 and 2585 cm-1). This strong bond is further confirmed by a tensile test that demonstrated an almost perfect bond between these materials that behave as an ideal composite material. Further, mechanical characterization shows that ultimate strain for such a structure is as high as 15% with yield stress of ~20 MPa. We propose that this novel technology not only offers a compelling case for the widespread use of carbon-MEMS, but also helps move the field in new and exciting directions.

  18. Glassy slags for minimum additive waste stabilization. Interim progress report, May 1993--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Gong, M.; Emery, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) for supporting DOE`s environmental restoration efforts. The glassy slag waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. The MAWS approach was adopted by blending multiple waste streams to achieve up to 100% waste loadings. The crystalline phases, such as spinels, are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. These crystalline phases may account for up to 80% of the total volume of slags having over 80% metal loading. The structural bond strength model was used to quantify the correlation between glassy slag composition and chemical durability so that optimized slag compositions were obtained with limited crucible melting and testing. Slag compositions developed through crucible melts were also successfully generated in a pilot-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace at Ukiah, California. Utilization of glassy slag waste forms allows the MAWS approach to be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than glass waste forms. The initial work at ANL has indicated that glassy slags are good final waste forms because of (1) their high chemical durability; (2) their ability to incorporate large amounts of metal oxides; (3) their ability to incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components; (4) their less stringent requirements on processing parameters, compared to glass waste forms; and (5) their low requirements for purchased additives, which means greater waste volume reduction and treatment cost savings.

  19. Effects of molecular architecture on fluid ingress behavior of glassy polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskson, Matthew Blaine

    This manuscript demonstrates the synthesis of glassy polymer network isomers to control morphological variations and study solvent ingress behavior independent of chemical affinity. Well-controlled network architectures with varying free volume average hole-sizes have been shown to substantially influence solvent ingress within glassy polymer networks. Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA), bisphenol-F diglycidyl ether (DGEBF), Triglycidyl p-aminophenol (pAP, MY0510), Triglycidyl maminophenol (mAP, MY0610), and tetraglydicyl-4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (TGDDM, MY721) were cured with 3,3'- and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 oxirane to amine active hydrogen to generate a series of network architectures with an average free volume hole-size (Vh) ranging between 54-82 A3. Polymer networks were exposed to water and a broad range of organic solvents ranging in van der Waals (vdW) volumes from 18-88 A3 for up to 10,000h time. A clear relationship between glassy polymer network Vh and fluid penetration has been established. As penetrant vdW volume approached Vh, uptake kinetics significantly decreased, and as penetrant vdW volume exceeded Vh, a blocking mechanism dominated ingress and prevented penetrant transport. These results suggest that reducing the free volume hole-size is a reasonable approach to control solvent properties for glassy polymer networks. New techniques to monitor and predict the diffusion behavior of liquids through glassy networks are also presented. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was employed to accurately measure the strain developed during case II diffusion. This technique also presented a new theory for a relationship between sample topology and irreversible macroscopic brittle failure induced by solvent absorption. A new modeling technique has been developed which can accurately predict the chemical and physical interactions a solvent may have with a glassy network. This new model can be used as a

  20. Composition of Crustal Melts at the Source Area: Information from Glassy Melt Inclusions in Anatectic Enclaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-vigil, A.; Cesare, B.; London, D.; Morgan, G. B., VI; Buick, I.; Hermann, J.; Bartoli, O.; Remusat, L.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal anatexis, together with melt extraction and ascent to upper crustal levels, generate plutons and volcanic edifices of granitoid composition. This process constitutes the main mechanism for the differentiation of the continental crust. A recent breakthrough in the study of crustal anatexis is the discovery of former melt inclusions in peritectic minerals of anatectic rocks. These melt droplets show now as glassy inclusions in rapidly cooled anatectic enclaves within volcanic rocks, or as polycrystalline aggregates (nanogranites) in migmatites. Analysis of glassy inclusions and of rehomogenized nanogranites provide direct information on the composition of crustal melts at the source of crustal magmas, on the extent of equilibration between melt and residue, and on the fluid regime during anatexis. A comprehensive geochemical study (≈350 EMP, 100 LA-ICPMS and 80 nanoSIMS analyses) of matrix glasses and glassy melt inclusions in Pl and Grt of anatectic enclaves within El Hoyazo dacite (Betic Cordillera, S Spain), recording melt compositions during regional anatexis at ≈700-850 °C and 0.5-0.7 GPa, shows that melts are leucogranitic (FeOt+MgO+TiO2=1.0-2.0 wt%), moderately to strongly peraluminous (ASI=1.10-1.25), with H2O concentrations well below saturation (3-5 wt%). They are heterogeneous and spread around the 0.5-0.7 GPa haplogranite H2O-undersaturated eutectics. Glassy inclusions in Pl are more heterogeneous, richer in normative Qtz and H2O, and poorer in FeOt and CaO compared to glassy inclusions in Grt and matrix glass. All glasses have moderate to high concentrations of LILE and low to very low concentrations in FRTE, HFSE and REE. Glass inclusions in Pl and Grt have higher concentrations of LILE, lower concentrations of Y, Zr, REE, and lower values of Th/U compared to matrix glasses. Surprisingly, and in spite of the compositional heterogeneity, glasses are at or close to equilibrium with their residue regarding most of the trace elements, except

  1. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  2. Effects of Zr and Si on the Glass Forming Ability and Compressive Properties of Ti-Cu-Co-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tan; Wu, Yidong; Si, Jiajia; Hui, Xidong

    2015-06-01

    To succeed in finding novel Ti-based bulk metallic glasses, which are free from Be, Ni, and noble metallic elements, a comprehensive study was performed on the effects of Zr and Si on the microstructural evolution, glass-forming ability (GFA), and mechanical properties of Ti46Cu44- x Zr x Co7Sn3 ( x = 0, 5, 10, 12.5, and 16 at. pct) and Ti46Cu31.5Zr12.5- x Co7Sn3Si x ( x = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 at. pct) alloys. It is shown that with the increase of Zr, the sequence of phase formation is β-Ti + α-Ti + (Ti, Zr)3Cu4 ⇒ β-Ti + α-Ti + TiCu ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + glass ⇒ glass ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + TiCuSn. The quinary Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Sn alloy with 12.5 pct Zr exhibits the best GFA. The addition of 1 pct Si results in the improvement of the critical size of glassy rods up to 3 mm in diameter. The yield stress and Young's modulus of Z-series alloys increases, and the plastic strain decreases with the addition of Zr. The yield stress and ultimate compression stress of Ti46Zr11.5Cu31.5Co7Sn3Si1 glassy alloy reach 2477.9 and 2623.3 MPa, respectively. It was found that the addition of Si promotes the generation and multiplication of shear bands, resulting in certain plasticity in these kinds of glassy alloys.

  3. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  4. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  5. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol at the titanate nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guifang; Zeng, Xiaoxue; Lu, Shuangyan; Dai, Hong; Gong, Lingshan; Lin, Yanyu; Wang, Qingping; Tong, Yuejin; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-01

    A new strategy for the construction of a sensitive and stable electrochemiluminescent platform based on titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and Nafion composite modified electrode for luminol is described, TNTs contained composite modified electrodes that showed some photocatalytic activity toward luminol electrochemiluminescence emission, and thus could dramatically enhance luminol light emission. This extremely sensitive and stable platform allowed a decrease of the experiment electrochemiluminescence luminol reagent. In addition, in luminol solution at low concentrations, we compared the capabilities of a bare glassy carbon electrode with the TNT composite modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The results indicated that compared with glassy carbon electrode this platform was extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, by combining with an appropriate enzymatic reaction, this platform would be a sensitive matrix for many biomolecules.

  6. The glassy random laser: replica symmetry breaking in the intensity fluctuations of emission spectra

    PubMed Central

    Antenucci, Fabrizio; Crisanti, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of a newly introduced overlap parameter, measuring the correlation between intensity fluctuations of waves in random media, is analyzed in different physical regimes, with varying amount of disorder and non-linearity. This order parameter allows to identify the laser transition in random media and describes its possible glassy nature in terms of emission spectra data, the only data so far accessible in random laser measurements. The theoretical analysis is performed in terms of the complex spherical spin-glass model, a statistical mechanical model describing the onset and the behavior of random lasers in open cavities. Replica Symmetry Breaking theory allows to discern different kinds of randomness in the high pumping regime, including the most complex and intriguing glassy randomness. The outcome of the theoretical study is, eventually, compared to recent intensity fluctuation overlap measurements demonstrating the validity of the theory and providing a straightforward interpretation of qualitatively different spectral behaviors in different random lasers. PMID:26616194

  7. Investigation of basic thermal behavior of a-Te-Se-Ge-Sb glassy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi, Anant Vidya; Modgil, Vivek; Chaudhary, Shobhna; Kumar, Prashant; Rangra, V. S.

    2015-05-01

    The bulk material Te9Se72Ge19-xSbx (8≤x≤12) has been prepared by melt quenching technique. The amorphous and glassy nature has been confirmed using XRD and DSC analysis respectively. The thermal kinetics of material is studied through differential scanning calorimetry under non-isothermal condition at constant heating rate. The thermal behavior, activation energy of glass transition and crystallization has been determined using appropriate models. The thermal parameter accounting for thermal stability and quality has been explored along with compositional dependence. A stable glass with high value of Tg and quality has been formed. The mild phase separation has been observed in the material at x=8, 9 and this phase separation dissolves when the Sb content further increases in glassy matrix.

  8. Relaxation of enthalpy fluctuations during sub-T(g) annealing of glassy selenium.

    PubMed

    Gulbiten, Ozgur; Mauro, John C; Lucas, Pierre

    2013-06-28

    The relaxation behavior of glass is influenced by the presence of dynamical heterogeneities, which lead to an intrinsically non-monotonic decay of fluctuations in density and enthalpy during isothermal annealing. This is apparently a universal feature of fragile glass forming systems associated with localized spatial variations in relaxation time. Here we present direct experimental observation of the nonmonotonic evolution of enthalpy fluctuations in glassy selenium annealed near room temperature. The nonmonotonic change in the distribution of enthalpy fluctuations measured by heat capacity spectroscopy offers direct evidence for the presence of dynamical heterogeneity in this glass. An enthalpy landscape model of selenium is then used to simulate annealing under identical conditions. The simulation results closely follow the evolution of enthalpy fluctuations observed experimentally. The close match between model and experiment demonstrate that enthalpy and density fluctuations are sources of dynamical heterogeneities in glassy materials.

  9. Low substrate temperature deposition of diamond coatings derived from glassy carbon

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Seals, R.D.

    1995-09-26

    A process is disclosed for depositing a diamond coating on a substrate at temperatures less than about 550 C. A powder mixture of glassy carbon and diamond particles is passed through a high velocity oxy-flame apparatus whereupon the powders are heated prior to impingement at high velocity against the substrate. The powder mixture contains between 5 and 50 powder volume percent of the diamond particles, and preferably between 5 and 15 powder volume percent. The particles have a size from about 5 to about 100 micrometers, with the diamond particles being about 5 to about 30 micrometers. The flame of the apparatus provides a velocity of about 350 to about 1000 meters per second, with the result that upon impingement upon the substrate, the glassy carbon is phase transformed to diamond as coaxed by the diamond content of the powder mixture. 2 figs.

  10. Low substrate temperature deposition of diamond coatings derived from glassy carbon

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for depositing a diamond coating on a substrate at temperatures less than about 550.degree. C. A powder mixture of glassy carbon and diamond particles is passed through a high velocity oxy-flame apparatus whereupon the powders are heated prior to impingement at high velocity against the substrate. The powder mixture contains between 5 and 50 powder volume percent of the diamond particles, and preferably between 5 and 15 powder volume percent. The particles have a size from about 5 to about 100 micrometers, with the diamond particles being about 5 to about 30 micrometers. The flame of the apparatus provides a velocity of about 350 to about 1000 meters per second, with the result that upon impingement upon the substrate, the glassy carbon is phase transformed to diamond as coaxed by the diamond content of the powder mixture.

  11. Direct visualization of photoinduced glassy dynamics on the amorphous silicon carbide surface by STM movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Glassy dynamics can be controlled by light irradiation. Sub- and above-bandgap irradiation cause numerous phenomena in glasses including photorelaxation, photoexpansion, photodarkening and pohtoinduced fluidity. We used scanning tunneling microscopy to study surface glassy dynamics of amorphous silicon carbide irradiated with above- bandgap 532 nm light. Surface clusters of ~ 4-5 glass forming unit in diameter hop mostly in a two-state fashion, both without and with irradiation. Upon irradiation, the average surface hopping activity increases by a factor of 3. A very long (~1 day) movie of individual clusters with varying laser power density provides direct evidence for photoinduced enhanced hopping on the glass surfaces. We propose two mechanisms: heating and electronic for the photoenhanced surface dynamics.

  12. Cytochrome c dynamics at gold and glassy carbon surfaces monitored by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens E. T.; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne V.; Ulstrup, Jens

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat composite structures of about 50 nm lateral extension at gold surfaces. The aggregates evolve in time, and structures resembling individual cyt c molecules can be distinguished in the space between the 50 nm structures. Cyt c aggregates also form at glassy carbon but have a different, unbroken character where cyt c both sticks well to the surface and exhibits notable mobility. The observations suggest that characteristic surface specific, internally mobile protein aggregates are formed at both surfaces and that in situ molecular resolution of the STM pictures may have been achieved.

  13. Direct Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin on Manganese III Oxide-Ag Nanofibers Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Negahdary, Masoud; Mazaheri, Gholamreza; Rad, Somyyeh; Hadi, Mohammadreza; Malekzadeh, Roya; Saadatmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Pishbin, Fariba; Khosravian-hemami, Mojdeh

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical behavior of hemoglobin by glassy carbon electrode modified with Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers. The Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers were used as facilitator electron transfer between Hb and glassy-carbon-modified electrode. The Mn2O3-Ag nanofibers are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hemoglobin showed a quasireversible electrochemical redox behavior with a formal potential of −49 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0. The designed biosensor possesses good stability and reproducibility and achieves 95% of the steady-state current in less than five seconds. PMID:22550487

  14. Unraveling the Mechanism of Nanoscale Mechanical Reinforcement in Glassy Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Belianinov, Alex; Xiong, Shaomin; Kisliuk, Alexander; Somnath, Suhas; Holt, Adam P.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Jesse, Stephen; Martin, Halie J.; Etampawala, Thusitha N.; Dadmun, Mark D.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) above the glass transition temperature, Tg, has been extensively researched. However, not much is known about the origin of this effect below Tg. In this paper, we unravel the mechanism of PNC reinforcement within the glassy state by directly probing nanoscale mechanical properties with atomic force microscopy and macroscopic properties with Brillouin light scattering. Our results unambiguously show that the "glassy" Young's modulus in the interfacial polymer layer of PNCs is two-times higher than in the bulk polymer, which results in significant reinforcement below Tg. We ascribe this phenomenon to a high stretching of the chains within the interfacial layer. Since the interfacial chain packing is essentially temperature independent, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanical reinforcement of PNCs also above Tg.

  15. Unraveling the Mechanism of Nanoscale Mechanical Reinforcement in Glassy Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Belianinov, Alex; ...

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) above the glass transition temperature, Tg, has been extensively researched. However, not much is known about the origin of this effect below Tg. In this paper, we unravel the mechanism of PNC reinforcement within the glassy state by directly probing nanoscale mechanical properties with atomic force microscopy and macroscopic properties with Brillouin light scattering. Our results unambiguously show that the "glassy" Young's modulus in the interfacial polymer layer of PNCs is two-times higher than in the bulk polymer, which results in significant reinforcement below Tg. We ascribe this phenomenon to a high stretchingmore » of the chains within the interfacial layer. Since the interfacial chain packing is essentially temperature independent, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanical reinforcement of PNCs also above Tg.« less

  16. Infrared spectra of crystalline and glassy silicates and application to interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, John R.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, Sergio; Bussoletti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared spectra of crystalline minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences do not match the astronomical observations. Since the astronomical spectra are a closer match to glassy silicates, the authors undertook a study to measure the infrared spectra of glassy silicates that have compositions similar to silicate minerals predicted in theoretical condensation sequences. The data should support observations aimed at elucidating condensation chemistry in dust forming regions. The authors measured the mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of ground samples of olivine, diopside, and serpentine and also smoke samples that were prepared from these minerals. The smoke samples prepared in this way are predominantly glassy with nearly the same composition as the parent minerals. The crystalline samples consisted of pure olivine ((Fe(0.1)Mg(0.9))(2)SiO(4)), serpentine, diopside. Sample purity was confirmed by x ray diffraction. Each mineral was ground for 10 hours and a measured mass of the powder was mixed with KBr powder for absorption measurements using the method of Borghesi et a. (1985). The smoke samples were prepared from the same samples used for grinding by vaporizing the minerals using pulsed laser radiation in air. The smoke samples formed by condensation of the resulting vapor. The smoke settled onto infrared transparent KRS-5 substrates and onto a quartz crystal microbalance used to obtain mass measurements. A description of the preparation method is given in Stephens (1980). The glassy diopside showed only diffuse electron diffraction peaks and hence was nearly amorphous, while the serpentine smoke showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to MgO. The smoke from olivine showed a weak diffraction pattern corresponding to Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4. The mass absorption coefficients, from 2.5 to 25 microns, of crystalline diopside, olivine, and serpentine and their corresponding smoke samples are shown in figures.

  17. Carbonization Studies of Glassy Carbon Derived from Bis-Ortho-Diynylarenes (BODA) (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-26

    Derived from Bis-Ortho-Diynylarenes ( BODA ) (Postprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott T. Iacono, Mark W. Perpall...have demonstrated bis-ortho-diynylarene ( BODA ) monomers undergo Bergman cyclopolymerizations to form hyper-branched, rigid naphthalene networks that...Std. 239.18 CARBONIZATION STUDIES OF GLASSY CARBON DERIVED FROM BIS-ORTHO-DIYNYLARENES ( BODA ) Scott T. Iacono1, Mark W. Perpall1, Wesley P

  18. Complex nonlinear deformation of nanometer intergranular glassy films in beta-Si3N4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ouyang, Lizhi; Rulis, Paul; Misra, Anil; Ching, W Y

    2005-12-16

    The mechanical properties of a model of Y-doped intergranular glassy film in silicon nitride ceramics are studied by large-scale ab initio modeling. By linking directly to its electronic structure, it is shown that this microstructure has a complex nonlinear deformation under stress and Y doping significantly enhances the mechanical properties. The calculation of the electrostatic potential across the film supports the space charge model in ceramic microstructures.

  19. Crystallization of the glassy phase of grain boundaries in silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, D. A.; Thomas, J. M.; Wen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of hot-pressed silicon nitride specimens (containing 5wt% Y2O3 and 2wt% Al2O3 additives) which were subjected to different temperature heat treatments were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray microanalysis and high resolution electron microscopy. The results indicated that there were phase changes in the grain boundaries after heat treatment and the glassy phase at the grain boundaries was crystallized by heat treatment.

  20. A Novel Method for Electroplating Ultra-High-Strength Glassy Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel method for electroplating ultra-high-strength glassy metals, nickel-phosphorous and nickel-cobalt-phosphorous, has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, cooperatively with the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Traditionally, thin coatings of these metals are achieved via electroless deposition. Benefits of the new electrolytic process include thick, low-stress deposits, free standing shapes, lower plating temperature, low maintenance, and safer operation with substantially lower cost.

  1. Highly Selective Membranes For The Separation Of Organic Vapors Using Super-Glassy Polymers

    DOEpatents

    Pinnau, Ingo; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid; Nguyen, Phuong; Segelke, Scott

    1997-11-18

    A process for separating hydrocarbon gases of low boiling point, particularly methane, ethane and ethylene, from nitrogen. The process is performed using a membrane made from a super-glassy material. The gases to be separated are mixed with a condensable gas, such as a C.sub.3+ hydrocarbon. In the presence of the condensable gas, improved selectivity for the low-boiling-point hydrocarbon gas over nitrogen is achieved.

  2. Clinical outcomes of advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a need for reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and patient outcomes for advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The study was restricted to cases in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the biopsied specimen. During the study period, 675 patients were diagnosed with primary cervical carcinoma. Five (0.7%) of the 675 patients had cervical glassy cell carcinoma; of these, three were premenopausal, and two were postmenopausal. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was the most frequent presenting symptom. Glassy cell carcinoma presented as a fungating, exophytic, or infiltrative mass. The greatest tumor dimension ranged from 3 to 9 cm. All patients had parametrial extension. Four patients had stage IIB tumors, and one had a stage IIIB tumor. All patients received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient with a stage IIIB tumor died of hypovolemic shock caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding during radiation therapy. Three patients with stage IIB tumors survived for more than 8 years without tumor recurrence or metastasis. One of these three patients died of pelvic recurrence 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Cervical glassy cell carcinoma has traditionally been considered an aggressive, highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, but our data suggest that patient survival is not significantly decreased compared with other histological types of cervical carcinoma. It will be necessary to analyze patient outcomes using a larger number of cervical glassy cell carcinoma cases to confirm our findings. PMID:27793022

  3. Generation of fine hydromagmatic ash by growth and disintegration of glassy rinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    2007-02-01

    The deposits of mafic hydromagmatic eruptions are more fine grained and variable in vesicularity than dry magmatic deposits. Blocky, equant shapes of many hydromagmatic clasts also contrast with droplet, thread, and bubble wall morphology of dry magmatic fragments. Small (<˜180 μm), blocky hydromagmatic pyroclasts have traditionally been interpreted to result from discrete vapor explosions, although such explosions tend to occur only under certain conditions. This paper considers a process of hydromagmatic ash formation that involves repeated growth and disintegration of glassy rinds on pyroclast surfaces as they deform within turbulent flows. This process, termed "turbulent shedding", may occur during the expansion phase of vapor explosions or during turbulent but nonexplosive mixing of magma with water, steam, or water sprays. The occurrence of turbulent shedding and the resulting fragment sizes depend on the timescale for rind growth and the timescale between disturbances that remove or disintegrate glassy rinds. Turbulent shedding is directly observable in some small littoral jets at Kilauea. Calculations suggest that, in the presence of liquid water or water sprays, glassy rinds having a thickness of microns to millimeters should form in milliseconds to seconds. This is similar to the timescale between turbulent velocity fluctuations that can shred lava globules and remove such rinds. The fraction of a deposit consisting of fine ash should increase with the duration of this process: Large-scale Surtseyan jets generate hundreds or thousands of shedding events; bubble bursts or tephra jets at Kilauea's coast may produce only a few.

  4. Thermal and elastic characterization of glassy carbon thin films by photoacoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Chirtoc, M.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.; Korte, D.; Franko, M.

    2017-01-01

    A portable photoacoustic device is designed and applied to measure thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient of glassy carbon by means of the standard photoacoustic model involving both the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic contributions. This is done by measuring the evolution of the open-cell photoacoustic signal within the modulation frequency interval of 20 Hz-10 kHz, for four samples with thicknesses of 180μm, 140μm, 100μm, and 60μm. A proper fitting procedure of the theoretical amplitude and phase to their corresponding experimental counterparts yielded an average thermal diffusivity of 0.68mm^2·s^-1 and expansion coefficient of 4.3× 10^{-6} K-1 which are in good agreement with their values reported in the literature for glassy carbon. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the theoretical amplitude does not properly describe the thermoelastic behavior of the samples thinner than l ≤ 100 μm, due to their strong bending and vibrations driven by the highly disordered fullerene microstructure of glassy carbon followed by the increasing non-homogeneity effects violating 1D heat conduction.

  5. Shear Banding of Soft Glassy Materials in Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Rangarajan; Fielding, Suzanne M.

    2016-10-01

    We study shear banding in soft glassy materials subject to a large amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS). By numerical simulations of the widely used soft glassy rheology model, supplemented by more general physical arguments, we demonstrate strong banding over an extensive range of amplitudes and frequencies of the imposed shear rate γ ˙(t )=γ˙0cos (ω t ), even in materials that do not permit banding as their steady state response to a steadily imposed shear flow γ ˙=γ˙0=const. Highly counterintuitively, banding persists in LAOS even in the limit of zero frequency ω →0 , where one might a priori have expected a homogeneous flow response in a material that does not display banding under conditions of steadily imposed shear. We explain this finding in terms of an alternating competition within each cycle between glassy aging and flow rejuvenation. Our predictions have far-reaching implications for the flow behavior of aging yield stress fluids, suggesting a generic expectation of shear banding in flows of even arbitrarily slow time variation.

  6. Modelling multi-scale deformation of amorphous glassy polymers with experimentally motivated evolution of the microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engqvist, Jonas; Wallin, Mathias; Ristinmaa, Matti; Hall, Stephen A.; Plivelic, Tomás S.

    2016-11-01

    Novel experimental data, obtained recently using advanced multi-scale experiments, have been used to develop a micro-mechanically motivated constitutive model for amorphous glassy polymers. Taking advantage of the experiments, the model makes use of a microstructural deformation gradient to incorporate the experimentally obtained deformation of the microstructure, as well as its evolving orientation. By comparing results from the model to experimental data, it is shown that the proposed approach is able to accurately predict glassy polymer deformation over a wide range of length-scales, from the macroscopic response (mm range) down to the deformation of the microstructure (nm range). The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the numerical response to experimental results on multiple scales from an inhomogeneous cold drawing experiment of glassy polycarbonate. Besides the macroscopic force-displacement response, a qualitative comparison of the deformation field at the surface of the specimen is performed. Furthermore, the predicted evolution of the fabric orientation is compared to experimental results obtained from X-ray scattering experiments. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of length scales.

  7. Generation of fine hydromagmatic ash by growth and disintegration of glassy rinds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of mafic hydromagmatic eruptions are more fine grained and variable in vesicularity than dry magmatic deposits. Blocky, equant shapes of many hydromagmatic clasts also contrast with droplet, thread, and bubble wall morphology of dry magmatic fragments. Small (glassy rinds on pyroclast surfaces as they deform within turbulent flows. This process, termed "turbulent shedding", may occur during the expansion phase of vapor explosions or during turbulent but nonexplosive mixing of magma with water, steam, or water sprays. The occurrence of turbulent shedding and the resulting fragment sizes depend on the timescale for rind growth and the timescale between disturbances that remove or disintegrate glassy rinds. Turbulent shedding is directly observable in some small littoral jets at Kilauea. Calculations suggest that, in the presence of liquid water or water sprays, glassy rinds having a thickness of microns to millimeters should form in milliseconds to seconds. This is similar to the timescale between turbulent velocity fluctuations that can shred lava globules and remove such rinds. The fraction of a deposit consisting of fine ash should increase with the duration of this process: Large-scale Surtseyan jets generate hundreds or thousands of shedding events; bubble bursts or tephra jets at Kilauea's coast may produce only a few.

  8. Relationship between local structure and relaxation in out-of-equilibrium glassy systems

    PubMed Central

    Cubuk, Ekin D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Liu, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical glass transition is typically taken to be the temperature at which a glassy liquid is no longer able to equilibrate on experimental timescales. Consequently, the physical properties of these systems just above or below the dynamical glass transition, such as viscosity, can change by many orders of magnitude over long periods of time following external perturbation. During this progress toward equilibrium, glassy systems exhibit a history dependence that has complicated their study. In previous work, we bridged the gap between structure and dynamics in glassy liquids above their dynamical glass transition temperatures by introducing a scalar field called “softness,” a quantity obtained using machine-learning methods. Softness is designed to capture the hidden patterns in relative particle positions that correlate strongly with dynamical rearrangements of particle positions. Here we show that the out-of-equilibrium behavior of a model glass-forming system can be understood in terms of softness. To do this we first demonstrate that the evolution of behavior following a temperature quench is a primarily structural phenomenon: The structure changes considerably, but the relationship between structure and dynamics remains invariant. We then show that the relaxation time can be robustly computed from structure as quantified by softness, with the same relation holding both in equilibrium and as the system ages. Together, these results show that the history dependence of the relaxation time in glasses requires knowledge only of the softness in addition to the usual state variables. PMID:28028217

  9. Relationship between local structure and relaxation in out-of-equilibrium glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenholz, Samuel S.; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Liu, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical glass transition is typically taken to be the temperature at which a glassy liquid is no longer able to equilibrate on experimental timescales. Consequently, the physical properties of these systems just above or below the dynamical glass transition, such as viscosity, can change by many orders of magnitude over long periods of time following external perturbation. During this progress toward equilibrium, glassy systems exhibit a history dependence that has complicated their study. In previous work, we bridged the gap between structure and dynamics in glassy liquids above their dynamical glass transition temperatures by introducing a scalar field called “softness,” a quantity obtained using machine-learning methods. Softness is designed to capture the hidden patterns in relative particle positions that correlate strongly with dynamical rearrangements of particle positions. Here we show that the out-of-equilibrium behavior of a model glass-forming system can be understood in terms of softness. To do this we first demonstrate that the evolution of behavior following a temperature quench is a primarily structural phenomenon: The structure changes considerably, but the relationship between structure and dynamics remains invariant. We then show that the relaxation time can be robustly computed from structure as quantified by softness, with the same relation holding both in equilibrium and as the system ages. Together, these results show that the history dependence of the relaxation time in glasses requires knowledge only of the softness in addition to the usual state variables.

  10. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms.

  11. Dielectric study of equimolar acetaminophen-aspirin, acetaminophen-quinidine, and benzoic acid-progesterone molecular alloys in the glass and ultraviscous states and their relevance to solubility and stability.

    PubMed

    Johari, G P; Kim, S; Shanker, Ravi M

    2010-03-01

    Equimolar mixtures of acetaminophen-aspirin, acetaminophen-quinidine, and benzoic acid-progesterone have been vitrified and dielectric properties of their glassy and ultraviscous alloys have been studied. For 20 K/min heating rate, their T(g)s are 266, 330, and 263 K, respectively. The relaxation has an asymmetric distribution of times, and the distribution parameter increases with increase in temperature. The dielectric relaxation time varies with T according to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, log(10)(tau(0)) = A(VFT) + [B(VFT)/(T - T(0))], where A(VFT), B(VFT), and T(0) are empirical constants. The equilibrium permittivity is highest for the aspirin-acetaminophen and lowest for the benzoic acid-progesterone alloy, indicating a substantial interpharmaceutical hydrogen bonding that makes the alloy more stable against crystallization than the pure components. The benzoic acid-progesterone alloy is thermodynamically the most nonideal. It showed cold crystallization on heating, which is attributed to its relatively greater magnitude of the JG relaxation in relation to its alpha-relaxation. It is argued that the difference between the free energy of an alloy and the pure components would have an effect on the solubility. Studies of solution thermodynamics of a glassy molecular alloy may be useful for optimizing choice of components and composition to form molecular alloys and to impact drug delivery.

  12. Study of local atomic and electronic structure in glassy metallic alloys. Progress report, December 1, 1979-November 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Messmer, R.P.; Wong, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the first reporting period, March 1, 1979-December 1, 1979, small clusters such as Fe/sub 4/, Ni/sub 4/, Ni/sub 2/Fe/sub 2/ alone and containing the metalloid atoms P and B were investigated. The effect of P and B on the magnetic moment of the clusters was investigated and found to parallel the known experimental trend. Significant metal-metalloid bonding was found in all the clusters studied. During the present reporting period a detailed analysis of the bonding in these small clusters was carried out. As a result of this detailed analysis a very significant conclusion has been reached: there are preferential metal-metalloid interactions which are predicted on the basis of the calculations. Room temperature extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra above the K absorption edge of metal constituents in the following metal-metalloid and metal-metal glasses have been measured in the February and June 1980 runs at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory: Fe/sub 1-x/B/sub x/, (FeNi)/sub 1-x/B/sub x/, Ni/sub 1-x/B/sub x/; Zr/sub 1-x/M/sub x/ (M- Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) and Nb/sub 1-x/Ni/sub x/.

  13. Influence of Cr on the nanoclusters formation and superferromagnetic behavior of Fe-Cr-Nb-B glassy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, H.; Whitmore, L.; Grigoras, M.; Ababei, G.; Stoian, G.; Lupu, N.

    2015-05-07

    High resolution imaging and electron diffraction confirm that in the as-quenched state the structure of Fe{sub 79.7−x}Cr{sub x}Nb{sub 0.3}B{sub 20} (x = 11–13 at. %) melt-spun ribbons is completely amorphous, independent of the Cr content. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping emphasizes clearly the presence of Fe and Cr clusters varying from approximately 1 to 2–3 nm in size with the increase of Cr content from 11 to 13 at. %. The Fe and Cr atoms segregate the atomic scale to form nanometer sized clusters, influencing strongly the macroscopic magnetic behavior. The Curie temperature of the system, T{sub C}{sup system}, confirmed by the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements, gives the strength of the magnetic interactions between clusters. The inter-cluster interactions are much stronger for lower contents of Cr, the microstructure is less uniform, and T{sub C}{sup system} increases from 290 K for 13 at. % Cr to 330 K for 11.5 at. % Cr. The whole system transforms to a ferromagnetic state through interactions between the clusters. Zero-field cooling and field cooling curves confirm the cluster behavior with a blocking temperature, T{sub b}, of about 250 K. Above T{sub b}, the ribbons behave as a superferromagnetic system, whilst below the blocking temperature a classical ferromagnetic behavior is observed.

  14. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  < 50 nA/cm(2). Electrochemical and surface analytical studies revealed a high stability of the new alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d <10 nm. A homogeneous constituent distribution in the melt-spun alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants.

  15. Magnetic Properties and Phase Diagram of Ni50Mn_{50-x}Ga_{x/2}In_{x/2} Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Yoshida, Yasuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2016-12-01

    Ni50Mn50- x Ga x/2In x/2 magnetic shape memory alloys were systematically prepared, and the magnetic properties as well as the phase diagram, including atomic ordering, martensitic and magnetic transitions, were investigated. The B2- L21 order-disorder transformation showed a parabolic-like curve against the Ga+In composition. The martensitic transformation temperature was found to decrease with increasing Ga+In composition and to slightly bend downwards below the Curie temperature of the parent phase. Spontaneous magnetization was investigated for both parent and martensite alloys. The magnetism of martensite phase was found to show glassy magnetic behaviors by thermomagnetization and AC susceptibility measurements.

  16. Structure, phases, and mechanical response of Ti-alloy bioactive glass composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G M; Nychka, J A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Porous titanium alloy-bioactive glass composite coatings were manufactured via the flame spray deposition process. The porous coatings, targeted for orthodontic and bone-fixation applications, were made from bioactive glass (45S5) powder blended with either commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) or Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Two sets of spray conditions, two metallic particle size distributions, and two glass particle size distributions were used for this study. Negative control coatings consisting of pure Ti-6Al-4V alloy or Cp-Ti were sprayed under both conditions. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized through quantitative optical cross-sectional metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ASTM Standard C633 tensile adhesion testing. Determination of the porosity and glassy phase distribution was achieved by using image analysis in accordance with ASTM Standard E2109. Theoretical thermodynamic and heat transfer modeling was conducted to explain experimental observations. Thermodynamic modeling was performed to estimate the flame temperature and chemical environment for each spray condition and a lumped capacitance heat transfer model was developed to estimate the temperatures attained by each particle. These models were used to establish trends among the choice of alloy, spray condition, and particle size distribution. The deposition parameters, alloy composition, and alteration of the feedstock powder size distribution had a significant effect on the coating microstructure, porosity, phases present, mechanical response, and theoretical particle temperatures that were attained. The most promising coatings were the Ti-6Al-4V-based composite coatings, which had bond strength of 20±2MPa (n=5) and received reinforcement and strengthening from the inclusion of a glassy phase. It was shown that the use of the Ti-6Al-4V-bioactive glass composite coatings may be a superior choice due to the possible osteoproductivity from the bioactive glass, the potential ability to

  17. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  18. Weldability of intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys are a unique class of material that have potential for structural applications at elevated temperatures. The paper describes the welding and weldability of these alloys. The alloys studied were nickel aluminide (Ni[sub 3]Al), titanium aluminide (Ti[sub 3]Al), and iron aluminide.

  19. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  20. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  1. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  2. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.; Bose, A.; Jerman, G.

    1989-01-01

    Alloying experiments were performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass % tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed-powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500 C in 60 min The rhenium-modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17, 4 Mg/m{sup 3} with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where net shaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding.

  3. Methyl group dynamics in glassy, polycrystalline, and liquid coenzyme Q10 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Christoph; Busch, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd; Unruh, Tobias

    2008-08-01

    The methyl group rotation of coenzyme Q10 confined in nanosized droplets was studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Q10 as an oligoisoprene derivative with ten isoprene units can easily be supercooled in nanodroplets. Fixed window scans and QENS spectra at several temperatures of glassy Q10 were recorded to study the methyl group rotation which can be described by a logarithmic Gaussian distribution of hopping rates for temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg~200 K). A mean activation energy of 4.8 kJ/mol with a distribution width of 2.1 kJ/mol was obtained from the evaluation of the QENS spectra. A corresponding analysis of a fixed window scan yielded an average activation energy of 5.1 kJ/mol with a distribution width of 1.8 kJ/mol. The results are compared and discussed with those of chain deuterated polyisoprene-d5. For polycrystalline Q10, the QENS spectra could be described by the same model yielding a similar average activation energy as found for glassy Q10. However, no temperature dependence of the distribution width was observed. Based on the performed low-temperature measurements, the correlation times for the methyl group rotation were extrapolated to temperatures of liquid Q10. The complex dynamics of liquid Q10 could be described by a model yielding an apparent diffusion coefficient, the jump rate of the methyl groups, as well as an overall molecular rotational diffusion coefficient. The correlation times of the methyl group rotation in liquid Q10 at a given temperature T0 coincide with values determined in the glassy phase and extrapolated to T0.

  4. Distribution and management of citrus in California: implications for management of glassy-winged sharpshooter.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Yacoub, Rosie; Montez, Greg; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Groves, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of Pierce's disease of grape (Vitis spp.) in California has changed over the past 10 yr due to the introduction of an exotic vector, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Although this insect is highly polyphagous, citrus (Citrus spp.) is considered a preferred host and proximity to citrus has been implicated as a significant risk factor in recent epidemics of Pierce's disease in southern California. Consequently, a detailed knowledge of the distribution and management of citrus in relation to grape is needed to improve insect and disease management. Analysis of data on the area planted to these two commodities indicates that only five counties in California concomitantly grow >1,000 ha of grape and >1,000 ha of citrus: Riverside, Kern, Tulare, Fresno, and Madera counties. Comparison of the distribution of grape and citrus within each of these counties indicates that the percentage of grape that is in proximity to citrus is greatest for Riverside County, but the total area of grape that is in proximity to citrus is greater for Fresno, Kern, and Tulare counties. The use of carbamates, neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and pyrethroids as part of the citrus pest management program for control of key insect pests was compared among the same five counties plus Ventura County from 1995 to 2006. Ventura County was included in this analysis as this county grows >10,000 ha of citrus and has established glassy-winged sharpshooter populations. The use of these broad-spectrum insecticides was lowest in Riverside and Ventura counties compared with the other four counties. Analysis of historical trapping data at the county scale indicates a negative association of broad-spectrum insecticide use with glassy-winged sharpshooter abundance. These results are used to retrospectively analyze the Pierce's disease outbreaks in Kern and Riverside counties.

  5. Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chen, Ming-Fei; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yang, Chung-Heng; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication of convex microfluidic channels on glassy carbon using an ultraviolet laser processing system to produce glass molding dies. The laser processing parameters, including various laser fluences and scanning speeds of galvanometers, were adjusted to mill a convex microchannel on a glassy carbon substrate to identify the effects of material removal. The machined glassy carbon substrate was then applied as a glass molding die to fabricate a glass-based microfluidic biochip. The surface morphology, milled width and depth, and surface roughness of the microchannel die after laser micromilling were examined using a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope. This study also investigates the transcription rate of microchannels after the glass molding process. To produce a 180 μm high microchannel on the GC substrate, the optimal number of milled cycles, laser fluence, and scanning speed were 25, 4.9 J/cm2, and 200 mm/s, respectively. The width, height, and surface roughness of milled convex microchannels were 119.6±0.217 μm, 180.26±0.01 μm, and 0.672±0.08 μm, respectively. These measured values were close to the predicted values and suitable for a glass molding die. After the glass molding process, a typical glass-based microchannel chip was formed at a molding temperature of 660 °C and the molding force of 0.45 kN. The transcription rates of the microchannel width and depth were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Thus, the proposed approach is suitable for performing in chemical, biochemical, or medical reactions.

  6. A geochemical approach to constraining the formation of glassy fallout debris from nuclear tests

    DOE PAGES

    Bonamici, Chloë E.; Kinman, William S.; Fournelle, John H.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Reprocessed earth material is a glassy nuclear fallout debris from near-surface nuclear tests. A geochemical approach to analysis of glassy fallout is uniquely suited to determine the means of reprocessing and shed light on the mechanisms of fallout formation. An improved understanding of fallout formation is of interest both for its potential to guide post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations and in the context of possible affinities between glassy debris and other glasses generated by high-energy natural events, such as meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. Our study presents a large major-element compositional dataset for glasses within aerodynamic fallout from the Trinity nuclearmore » test (“trinitite”) and a geochemically based analysis of the glass compositional trends. Silica-rich and alkali-rich trinitite glasses show compositions and textures consistent with formation through melting of individual mineral grains—quartz and alkali feldspar, respectively—from the test-site sediment. Furthermore, the volumetrically dominant glass phase—called the CaMgFe glass—shows extreme major-element compositional variability. Compositional trends in the CaMgFe glass are most consistent with formation through volatility-controlled condensation from compositionally heterogeneous plasma. Radioactivity occurs only in CaMgFe glass, indicating that co-condensation of evaporated bulk ground material and trace device material was the main mechanism of radioisotope incorporation into trinitite. CaMgFe trinitite glasses overlap compositionally with basalts, rhyolites, fulgurites, tektites, and microtektites but display greater compositional diversity than all of these naturally formed glasses. Indeed, the most refractory CaMgFe glasses compositionally resemble early solar system condensates—specifically, CAIs.« less

  7. A geochemical approach to constraining the formation of glassy fallout debris from nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bonamici, Chloë E.; Kinman, William S.; Fournelle, John H.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2016-12-15

    Reprocessed earth material is a glassy nuclear fallout debris from near-surface nuclear tests. A geochemical approach to analysis of glassy fallout is uniquely suited to determine the means of reprocessing and shed light on the mechanisms of fallout formation. An improved understanding of fallout formation is of interest both for its potential to guide post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations and in the context of possible affinities between glassy debris and other glasses generated by high-energy natural events, such as meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. Our study presents a large major-element compositional dataset for glasses within aerodynamic fallout from the Trinity nuclear test (“trinitite”) and a geochemically based analysis of the glass compositional trends. Silica-rich and alkali-rich trinitite glasses show compositions and textures consistent with formation through melting of individual mineral grains—quartz and alkali feldspar, respectively—from the test-site sediment. Furthermore, the volumetrically dominant glass phase—called the CaMgFe glass—shows extreme major-element compositional variability. Compositional trends in the CaMgFe glass are most consistent with formation through volatility-controlled condensation from compositionally heterogeneous plasma. Radioactivity occurs only in CaMgFe glass, indicating that co-condensation of evaporated bulk ground material and trace device material was the main mechanism of radioisotope incorporation into trinitite. CaMgFe trinitite glasses overlap compositionally with basalts, rhyolites, fulgurites, tektites, and microtektites but display greater compositional diversity than all of these naturally formed glasses. Indeed, the most refractory CaMgFe glasses compositionally resemble early solar system condensates—specifically, CAIs.

  8. A geochemical approach to constraining the formation of glassy fallout debris from nuclear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamici, Chloë E.; Kinman, William S.; Fournelle, John H.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2017-01-01

    Glassy nuclear fallout debris from near-surface nuclear tests is fundamentally reprocessed earth material. A geochemical approach to analysis of glassy fallout is uniquely suited to determine the means of reprocessing and shed light on the mechanisms of fallout formation. An improved understanding of fallout formation is of interest both for its potential to guide post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations and in the context of possible affinities between glassy debris and other glasses generated by high-energy natural events, such as meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. This study presents a large major-element compositional dataset for glasses within aerodynamic fallout from the Trinity nuclear test ("trinitite") and a geochemically based analysis of the glass compositional trends. Silica-rich and alkali-rich trinitite glasses show compositions and textures consistent with formation through melting of individual mineral grains—quartz and alkali feldspar, respectively—from the test-site sediment. The volumetrically dominant glass phase—called the CaMgFe glass—shows extreme major-element compositional variability. Compositional trends in the CaMgFe glass are most consistent with formation through volatility-controlled condensation from compositionally heterogeneous plasma. Radioactivity occurs only in CaMgFe glass, indicating that co-condensation of evaporated bulk ground material and trace device material was the main mechanism of radioisotope incorporation into trinitite. CaMgFe trinitite glasses overlap compositionally with basalts, rhyolites, fulgurites, tektites, and microtektites but display greater compositional diversity than all of these naturally formed glasses. Indeed, the most refractory CaMgFe glasses compositionally resemble early solar system condensates—specifically, CAIs.

  9. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper.

  10. Extrusion of aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the importance of extruded alloys has increased due to the decline in copper extrusion, increased use in structural applications, environmental impact and reduced energy consumption. There have also been huge technical advances. This text provides comprehensive coverage of the metallurgical, mathematical and practical features of the process. The contents include: continuum principles; metallurgical features affecting the extrusion of Al-alloys; extrusion processing; homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys; processing of 6XXX alloys; plant utilization; Appendix A: specification of AA alloys and DIN equivalents; Appendix B: chemical compositions; and Appendix C: typical properties.

  11. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  13. Influence of elastic strains on the mask ratio in glassy polymer nanoimprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Graham L. W.; O'Connell, Barry S.; Pethica, John B.

    2005-02-01

    During glassy polymer nanoimprint, a supported film is extruded from protruding (punch) to recessed (cavity) regions of a patterned stamp. The completeness of this extrusion determines the mask ratio for lithographic applications. We show that, for a given punch contact size, there is a residual layer of unextruded material with a mean thickness that is independent of initial film thickness, stamping time, or applied maximum load. Depth sensing indentation enables us to monitor deformation during the imprinting as well as after, and so understand the deformation process involved. It is found that both the geometry and mean thickness of the residual layer are influenced by the overall elastic properties of the stamping system.

  14. Analysis of glassy spherules extracted from Carpathian Mesozoic lime stone by μPIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Solt, P.; Dosztály, L.; Kákay Szabó, O.; Detre, Cs. H.

    1998-04-01

    Twenty-four glassy spherules collected from three Mesozoic sites of the Carpathian Basin have been analysed for major, minor and trace element composition using the scanning proton microprobe facility of the Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI) in Debrecen. μPIXE analyses revealed surprisingly high Ca and Ba concentrations (CaO ˜40%, BaO ˜2.5%) which have never been reported before. Samples proved to be homogeneous for the major elements (Si, Ca). From geological considerations it may be inferred that these spherules are terrestrial impact products, though, the details of the impact events have not been fully cleared yet.

  15. Multiple Uses of Hydrogen Isotopes as a Tracer of Rehydration Processes in Glassy Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, B. I.; Fink, J. H.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Silicic lava flows contain zones of enhanced vesicularity with high total H2O contents. This relationship between volatile content and vesicularity has promoted the monitoring of active lava domes using remote sensing techniques in an effort to forecast explosive activity. A persistent complication in attempts to relate surface texture to H2O content and explosivity was the confounding effect of meteoric H2O. Glassy and vesicular lavas exposed at the surface of the Earth for prolonged periods readily interact with meteoric H2O. Rehydration is a time-, temperature-, and porosity-dependent process governed by the slow diffusion of molecular H2O into the glass. This inevitable addition of secondary H2O obscures the spatial distribution of juvenile H2O in lava flows. The ability to distinguish magmatic from meteoric H2O in glassy lavas would help identify regions of overpressure on active domes and thereby improve hazard assessment. Three types of hydrogen isotopic studies of glassy lavas have been utilized to disentangle rehydration processes from primary magmatic ones. First, bulk hydrogen isotopic data on variably textured lava flows reveal enrichments in both δ D and total H2O as vesicularity increases. Mixing between a degassed magmatic and a partially evaporated meteoric H2O best explains the observed trend from lower δ D values in the interior massive obsidian samples to higher δ D in the most surficial vesicular pumice. Second, step-heated hydrogen isotopic analyses further prove that the vesicular samples contain a high percentage of meteoric H2O. Whereas dense massive obsidian samples release a large fraction of deuterium-depleted H2O at temperatures above 600° C, the bubble-rich pumiceous samples lose a majority of their H2O at temperatures below 400° C. Lastly, the Cameca 6f ion microprobe at ASU was used to measure hydrogen isotope transects into the vesicle-melt interface. The gradation from depleted δ D values in the glassy interstices to more

  16. Transmission of phage by glassy-winged sharpshooters, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Das, Mayukh; Heinz, Kevin M.; Krauter, Peter C.; Gonzalez, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xff) is the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines and is vectored by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis). Previously we have reported the development of a bacteriophage (phage) based biocontrol system for PD, but no information on insect transmission of phages has been reported. Here we communicate that laboratory reared GWSSs fed on cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) harboring the virulent phage Paz were able to uptake of phage efficiently when the phage was present in high concentration, but were inefficient in transfer to plants. PMID:27738554

  17. Permanent photoalignment of liquid crystals on nanostructured chalcogenide glassy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbaor, Miri; Abdulhalim, I.; Klebanov, Matvey; Lyubin, Victor

    2011-02-14

    Photoalignment of nematic liquid crystals is obtained on the chalcogenide glassy thin film of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} using irradiation with polarized blue light. A uniform homogeneously aligned device is obtained with high contrast and strong anchoring. The device alignment quality is permanent as checked by following its functionality over a period of few months. The origin of the observed photoalignment is attributed to the photoinduced anisotropy in chalcogenide glasses. No differences between the different As{sub 2}S{sub 3} film thicknesses observed, thus supporting the proposition that some orientational order is photoinduced on the surface of the glass and responsible for the photoalignment.

  18. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  19. Gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, M.; Inui, H.; Kishida, K.; Matsumuro, M.; Shirai, Y.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive progress and improvements have been made in the science and technology of gamma titanium aluminide alloys within the last decade. In particular, the understanding of their microstructural characteristics and property/microstructure relationships has been substantially deepened. Based on these achievements, various engineering two-phase gamma alloys have been developed and their mechanical and chemical properties have been assessed. Aircraft and automotive industries arc pursuing their introduction for various structural components. At the same time, recent basic studies on the mechanical properties of two-phase gamma alloys, in particular with a controlled lamellar structure have provided a considerable amount of fundamental information on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of the two-phase gamma alloys. The results of such basic studies are incorporated in the recent alloy and microstructure design of two-phase gamma alloys. In this paper, such recent advances in the research and development of the two-phase gamma alloys and industrial involvement are summarized.

  20. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of Brønsted acids by glassy carbon in acetonitrile-implications for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian D; Martin, Daniel J; Rountree, Eric S; Ullman, Alexander C; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2014-08-18

    Molecular catalysts for electrochemically driven hydrogen evolution are often studied in acetonitrile with glassy carbon working electrodes and Brønsted acids. Surprisingly, little information is available regarding the potentials at which acids are directly reduced on glassy carbon. This work examines acid electroreduction in acetonitrile on glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Reduction potentials, spanning a range exceeding 2 V, were found for 20 acids. The addition of 100 mM water was not found to shift the reduction potential of any acid studied, although current enhancement was observed for some acids. The data reported provides a guide for selecting acids to use in electrocatalysis experiments such that direct electrode reduction is avoided.

  2. Voltammetric Detection of Oxalic Acid by Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes with Covalently Attached Nitrogen-containing Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hiroaki; Akabe, Syuhei; Kitamura, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Takuto; Uchiyama, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a novel voltammetric detection of oxalic acid by using glassy carbon electrodes with covalently attached nitrogen-containing functional groups prepared by stepwise electrolysis. A glassy carbon electrode electrooxidized in an ammonium carbamate solution was electroreduced at -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1.0 M sulfuric acid for a long time. We found that the electrocatalytic oxidation wave of oxalic acid obtained by this modified glassy carbon electrode was moved to a more negative potential region than that obtained by a platinum electrode in an acidic medium. A good linearity for the peak current signals was observed in the concentration range from 0.1 to 50 mM.

  3. Boson peak as a probe of quantum effects in a glassy state of biomolecules: The case of L-cysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, T. A.; Ishikawa, M. S.; Martinho, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    Some physical properties of hydrated biomolecules, e.g., the occurrence of a boson peak, have been recognized to resemble those of glassy states. The present work shows that quantum fluctuations play a fundamental role in describing the glassy state of biomolecules, particularly at lower hydration levels. There is a linear relationship between the quantumness and the slope of the temperature dependence of the boson peak frequency, which is used to classify the extent of quantum contributions to the glassy state of glasses in general. Lastly, we demonstrate that the boson peak two-band spectral structure that is observed in some cases can be directly linked to the anisotropy of the elastic properties of the material. The amino acid L-cysteine is studied in detail. The findings are compared with previously reported data for other macromolecules.

  4. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the invasive glassy-winged sharpshooter: effects of temperature and egg parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi; Hoddle, Mark; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Irvin, Nicola A

    2011-08-01

    The capacity to predict the geographic distribution and relative abundance of invasive species is pivotal to developing policy for eradication or control and management. Commonly used methods fall under the ambit of ecological niche models (ENMs). These methods were reviewed and shortcomings identified. Weather-driven physiologically based demographic models (PBDMs) are proposed that resolve many of the deficiencies of ENMs. The PBDM approach is used to analyze the invasiveness of the polyphagous glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis [Germar]), a pest native to the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico that extended its range into California in 1989. Glassy-winged sharpshooter vectors the pathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Wells) that causes Pierce's disease in grape and scorch-like diseases in other plants. PBDMs for glassy-winged sharpshooter and its egg parasitoids (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault and G. triguttatus Girault) were developed and linked to a PBDM for grape published by Wermelinger et al. (1991). Daily weather data from 108 locations across California for the period 1995-2006 were used to drive the PBDM system, and GRASS GIS was used to map the simulation results. The geographic distribution of glassy-winged sharpshooter, as observed, is predicted to be largely restricted to the warm areas of southern California, with the action of the two egg parasitoids reducing its abundance >90%. The average indispensable mortality contributed by G. triguttatus is <1%. A temperature-dependent developmental rate model for X. fastidiosa was developed that suggests its geographic range is also limited to the warm inland areas of southern California. Biological control of glassy-winged sharpshooter further decreases the pathogen's relative range. Climate warming scenarios of +2°C and +3°C suggest that the distribution and severity of glassy-winged sharpshooter and X. fastidiosa will increase in the agriculturally rich central valley

  5. Microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys observed by magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Z. Y.; Han, S. H.; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, W. H.; Han, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    The microstructure and magnetic microstructure of the Pr 60Al 10Ni 10Cu 20-xFe x ( x=0, 4, 10, 15, 18) alloys have been achieved simultaneously by employing a magnetic force microscope directly on the as-cast cylinder rod surface for the first time. By varying the content of Fe, the microstructure of the Pr-based alloy changes progressively from a full glassy state to a composite state with nanocrystalline particles embedded in the glassy matrix, and finally into a nanostructured state. The accompanying magnetic property gradually changes from paramagnetic to hard. The experiment directly evidences the existence of exchange coupling between the crystallites and the variety of the grain-size-dependent magnetic properties can be well explained by Löffler et al.'s new random-anisotropy model (Löffler, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (9) (2000) 1990).

  6. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  7. Glassy Carbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    the layer plane spacing, d002; the in plane spacing, dll 0 , and the line broadening parameters, Lc and La, there is an experimentally significant...developed graphitic structure. The structure is certainly planar, with a near perfect graphitic spacing wi+hin planes. The line broadening parameters, Lc ...phase) Peak NVS: "Not Very Smooth" Peak 2P: Ŗ Phase" Peak 3P: ŗ Phase" Peak (002) Temp. Peak Sample Des,.qnation (rC) Type d(002) Lc d(10) La Graphite

  8. Mediatorless solar energy conversion by covalently bonded thylakoid monolayer on the glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Im, Jaekyun; Kim, Sunghyun

    2016-04-01

    Light reactions of photosynthesis that take place in thylakoid membranes found in plants or cyanobacteria are among the most effective ways of utilizing light. Unlike most researches that use photosystem I or photosystem II as conversion units for converting light to electricity, we have developed a simple method in which the thylakoid monolayer was covalently immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface. The activity of isolated thylakoid membrane was confirmed by measuring evolving oxygen under illumination. Glassy carbon surfaces were first modified with partial or full monolayers of carboxyphenyl groups by reductive C-C coupling using 4-aminobenzoic acid and aniline and then thylakoid membrane was bioconjugated through the peptide bond between amine residues of thylakoid and carboxyl groups on the surface. Surface properties of modified surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, contact angle measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photocurrent of 230 nA cm(-2) was observed when the thylakoid monolayer was formed on the mixed monolayer of 4-carboxylpheny and benzene at applied potential of 0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl. A small photocurrent resulted when the 4-carboxyphenyl full monolayer was used. This work shows the possibility of solar energy conversion by directly employing the whole thylakoid membrane through simple surface modification.

  9. Glassy behavior and jamming of a random walk process for sequentially satisfying a constraint satisfaction formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun

    2010-02-01

    Random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) is a model system for studying typical-case complexity of combinatorial optimization. Recent theoretical and simulation work revealed that the solution space of a random K-SAT formula has very rich structures, including the emergence of solution communities within single solution clusters. In this paper we investigate the influence of the solution space landscape to a simple stochastic local search process SEQSAT, which satisfies a K-SAT formula in a sequential manner. Before satisfying each newly added clause, SEQSAT walk randomly by single-spin flips in a solution cluster of the old subformula. This search process is efficient when the constraint density α of the satisfied subformula is less than certain value αcm; however it slows down considerably as α> αcm and finally reaches a jammed state at α≈αj. The glassy dynamical behavior of SEQSAT for α≥αcm probably is due to the entropic trapping of various communities in the solution cluster of the satisfied subformula. For random 3-SAT, the jamming transition point αj is larger than the solution space clustering transition point αd, and its value can be predicted by a long-range frustration mean-field theory. For random K-SAT with K ≥ 4, however, our simulation results indicate that αj = αd. The relevance of this work for understanding the dynamic properties of glassy systems is also discussed.

  10. Optical characterization of ion-doped crystalline and glassy matrices operating under hostile environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to give an overall picture of the activity on gamma radiation effects in the field of scintillators (crystals, glasses) with specific mention to the role of ions doped in different crystalline and glassy matrices. Interesting results were obtained in terms of radiation hardness improvement and of physical-chemical properties modification as a function of the nature of dopant (i.e. rare earth as well as metallic ions) and of the scintillating host glassy and glass-ceramic matrix (silicate, phosphate, borate, oxyfluoride and mixed oxides glasses). The research activities were carried out at the 60Co gamma Calliope plant, a pool-type irradiation facility located at the Research Centre ENEA-Casaccia (Rome). Since the eighties, the Calliope facility is deeply involved in radiation processing research on materials and on devices to be used in hostile radiation environment such as nuclear plants, aerospace and High Energy Physics experiments, in the framework of international projects and collaboration with industries and research institutions.

  11. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Enzymatically-generated Thiocholine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Mellen, Maria C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-11-01

    A carbon nanotube modified glassy-carbon (CNT/GC) electrode was used for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical measurements of enzymatically-generated thiocholine. Cyclic voltammetric and amperometric characteristics of thiocholine at CNT/GC, glassy carbon, carbon paste, and gold electrodes were compared. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine product including lower oxidation overpotential (0.15 V) and higher sensitivity because of its electrocatalytic activity, fast electron transfer and large surface area. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the operating conditions. Under the optimal batch conditions, a detection limit of 5 ?10 -6 mol/L was obtained with good precision (RSD = 5.2%, n=10). Furthermore, the attractive response of thiocholine on a CNT/GC electrode has allowed it to be used for constant-potential flow injection analysis. The detection limit was greatly improved to 0.3 ?10-6 mol/L. The high sensitivity electrochemical detection of enzymatically generated thiocholine with a CNT sensing platform holds great promise to prepare an acetylcholinesterase biosensor for monitoring organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

  12. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Du, Rongbing; Cao, Yong; Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Dew, Steven K.; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings. PMID:26263989

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of rupture in glassy polymer bridges within filler aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froltsov, Vladimir A.; Klüppel, Manfred; Raos, Guido

    2012-10-01

    We present a series of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, investigating the rupture mechanisms in glassy polymer films confined between two solid surfaces. Such systems provide a useful model for the strong nonlinear reinforcement of rubber by colloidal filler particles. Depending on the degree of confinement three qualitatively different rupture modes have been found, which originate from the interplay of internal (polymer-polymer) and external (polymer-wall) interactions. In very thin films we observe the formation and stretching of many single-chain bridges between the confining surfaces. Progressing to thicker samples we observe fewer bridges, consisting of bundled polymer chains, and eventually just one large bridge in thick specimens. The yield stress and the elongational modulus of the polymer films have been calculated from the stress-strain curves at various temperatures and confinements and their behavior has been analyzed in terms of polymer-polymer and polymer-surface interaction energies. The thinnest films (5 monomer diameters) are always glassy in our simulations, while the others display a glass transition temperature around 0.50-0.55 (in units ɛ0/kB of the Lennard-Jones interaction energy), depending on their thickness. This range of values, which has been determined using both the nonequilibrium tensile simulations and equilibrium diffusion data, agrees with the transition temperature previously found by shear simulations [Baljon and Robbins, ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.271.5248.482 271, 482 (1996)].

  14. An agglomeration induced glassy magnetic state in a carbon nanotube/NiO nanocomposite system.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S; Jana, S; Giri, S; Majumdar, S

    2012-10-31

    A series of nanocomposite materials were synthesized using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and NiO nanoparticles by varying the concentration of NiO in the MWCNT host matrix. Such an increment in the NiO particle density actually tunes the degree of isolation among the magnetic nanoparticles. Careful investigation by transmission electron microscopy shows that particle agglomeration increases substantially with NiO particle density. Field dependence of magnetization measurements depict a gradual enhancement of coercivity with increasing NiO concentration, signifying the enhancement of magnetic anisotropy in this nanocomposite system. Furthermore, field cooled and zero field cooled memory effect as well as magnetization relaxation measurements show that a glassy magnetic state gradually develops when the concentration increases. Analysis based on the result of high resolution transmission electron microscopy along with the magnetization data reveals that interparticle magnetic exchange interaction in the presence of interfacial disorders plays the major role in the emergence of the glassy magnetic state in this nanocomposite system.

  15. Multilevel micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    A consumer market for diffractive optical elements in glass can only be created if high efficient elements are available at affordable prices. In diffractive optics the efficiency and optical properties increases with the number of levels used, but in the same way the costs are multiplied by the number if fabrication steps. Replication of multilevel diffractive optical elements in glass would allow cost efficient fabrication but a suitable mold material is needed. Glassy carbon shows a high mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties, which makes it an excellent candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. We introduce an 8 level micro structuring process for glassy carbon molds with standard photolithography and a Ti layer as hard mask for reactive ion etching. The molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto low and high transition temperature glass. Optical performance was tested for the molded samples with different designs for laser beamsplitters. The results show a good agreement to the design specification. Our result allow us to show limitations of our fabrication technique and we discussed the suitability of precision glass molding for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  16. Tellurium-nanowire-coated glassy carbon electrodes for selective and sensitive detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2012-05-15

    Tellurium-nanowire-coated glassy carbon electrodes (TNGCEs) have been fabricated and employed for selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). TNGCEs were prepared by direct deposition of tellurium nanowires, 600 ± 150 nm in length and 16 ± 3 nm in diameter, onto glassy carbon electrodes, which were further coated with Nafion to improve their selectivity and stability. Compared to the GCE, the TNGCE is more electroactive (by approximately 1.9-fold) for DA, and its selectivity toward DA over ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is also greater. By applying differential pulse voltammetry, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, the TNGCE provides a limit of detection of 1 nM for DA in the presence of 0.5mM AA and UA. Linearity (R(2)=0.9955) of the oxidation current at 0.19 V against the concentration of DA is found over the range 5 nM-1 μM. TNGCEs have been applied to determine the concentration of dopamine to be 0.59 ± 0.07 μM in PC12 cells.

  17. Diffusion of liquid polystyrene into glassy poly(phenylene oxide) characterized by DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2013-03-01

    We report a diffusion study on the polystyrene/poly(phenylene oxide) (PS/PPO) mixture consisted by the PS and PPO nanoparticles. Diffusion of liquid PS into glassy PPO (l-PS/g-PPO) is promoted by annealing the PS/PPO mixture at several temperatures below Tg of the PPO. By tracing the Tgs of the PS-rich domain behind the diffusion front using DSC, we get the relationships of PS weight fractions and diffusion front advances with the elapsed diffusion times at different diffusion temperatures using the Gordon-Taylor equation and core-shell model. We find that the plots of weight fraction of PS vs. elapsed diffusion times at different temperatures can be converted to a master curve by Time-Temperature superposition, and the shift factors obey the Arrhenius equation. Besides, the diffusion front advances of l-PS into g-PPO show an excellent agreement with the t1/2 scaling law at the beginning of the diffusion process, and the diffusion coefficients of different diffusion temperatures also obey the Arrhenius equation. We believe the diffusion mechanism for l-PS/g-PPO should be the Fickean law rather than the Case II, though there are departures of original linearity at longer diffusion times due to the limited liquid supply system. Diffusion of liquid polystyrene into glassy poly(phenylene oxide) characterized by DSC

  18. Electron-microscopic microstructural examination of glassy Ge-Se semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. A.; Mamontova, T. N.; Nikitin, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    The microstructure of glassy Ge-Se semiconductors was studied under an electron microscope, synthetic GeSe2 being an important representative of the Ge-Se system. Specimens of this material had been produced by heating a mixture of Ge with electrical resistivity of 50 ohm cm and 99.999% pure Se in a T-40-600 tubular vacuum furnace to 1000 C at a rate not exceeding 150 C/h and holding at this temperature for 40-50 h prior to quenching the melt at a rate within 100-200 C/s. Examination under a JEM-5Y microscope with an acceleration voltage up to 100 kV revealed microdomains (200-300 A) and minidomains (1000-2000 A) forming macrodomains (3-4 micron). This confirms the hypothesis, based on earlier laser spectrophotography and luminescence measurements, that these glassy materials are heterogeneous with inclusions of fine imperfect crystallites. The replicas indicate also that microdomains with unsaturated bonds and carrying electric charges may be forming during segregation of phases.

  19. Physical aging of glassy PMMA/toluene films: influence of drying/swelling history.

    PubMed

    Doumenc, F; Bodiguel, H; Guerrier, B

    2008-09-01

    Gravimetry experiments in a well-controlled environment have been performed to investigate aging for a glassy PMMA/toluene film. The temperature is constant and the control parameter is the solvent vapor pressure above the film (i.e. the activity). Several experimental protocols have been used, starting from a high activity where the film is swollen and rubbery and then aging the film at different activities below the glass transition. Desorption and resorption curves have been compared for the different protocols, in particular in terms of the softening time, i.e. the time needed by the sample to recover an equilibrium state at high activity. Non-trivial behaviors have been observed, especially at small activities (deep quench). A model is proposed, extending the Leibler-Sekimoto approach to take into account the structural relaxation in the glassy state, using the Tool formalism. This model well captures some of the observed phenomena, but fails in describing the specific kinetics observed when aging is followed by a short but deep quench.

  20. Mechanistic study of carvacrol processing and stabilization as glassy solid solution and microcapsule.

    PubMed

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Geisthövel, Carola; Marmann, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Thommes, Markus

    2015-01-30

    Essential oils and other liquid active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are frequently microencapsulated to improve shelf life, handling, and for tailoring release. A glassy solid solution (GSS), a single-phase system, where the excipient is plasticized by the API, could be an alternative formulation system. Thus this study focuses on the investigation of two formulation strategies using carvacrol as a model compound, namely a microcapsule (MC) and a glassy solid solution (GSS). Applying the solubility parameter approach, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was chosen as a suitable matrix material for a GSS system, whereas maltodextrin and sucrose served as excipients for a microcapsule (MC) system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the excipients' glass transition temperatures and the melting point of carvacrol verified plasticizing properties of carvacrol on PVP. Batch mixing processes, as preliminary experiments for future extrusion processes, were performed to prepare GSSs and MCs with various amounts of carvacrol, followed by crushing and sieving. Maximally 4.5% carvacrol was encapsulated in the carbohydrate material, whereas up to 16.3% were stabilized as GSS, which is an outstanding amount. However, grinding of the samples led to a loss of up to 30% of carvacrol.

  1. Effect of water polyamorphism on the molecular vibrations of glycerol in its glassy aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Mishima, Osamu

    2016-07-14

    A glassy dilute glycerol-water solution undergoes a mutual polyamorphic transition relating to the transition between high- and low-density amorphous ices of solvent water. The polyamorphic transition behavior depends on the glycerol concentration, indicating that the glycerol affects the water polyamorphism. Here, we used the glassy dilute glycerol-water solution of the solute molar fraction of 0.07 and examined the effect of the polyamorphic change in solvent water on the molecular vibrations of glycerol via Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the molecular vibration of glycerol in high-density liquid like solvent water is different from that in the low-density liquid like solvent water and that the change in the molecular vibration of glycerol is synchronized with the polyamorphic transition of solvent water. The dynamical change of the solute molecule relates to the polyamorphic state of solvent water. This result suggests that the polyamorphic fluctuation of water structure emanated from the presumed liquid-liquid critical point plays an important role for the function of aqueous solution under an ambient condition such as the conformational stability of solute, the functional expression of solute, and so on.

  2. Effect of water polyamorphism on the molecular vibrations of glycerol in its glassy aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Mishima, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    A glassy dilute glycerol-water solution undergoes a mutual polyamorphic transition relating to the transition between high- and low-density amorphous ices of solvent water. The polyamorphic transition behavior depends on the glycerol concentration, indicating that the glycerol affects the water polyamorphism. Here, we used the glassy dilute glycerol-water solution of the solute molar fraction of 0.07 and examined the effect of the polyamorphic change in solvent water on the molecular vibrations of glycerol via Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the molecular vibration of glycerol in high-density liquid like solvent water is different from that in the low-density liquid like solvent water and that the change in the molecular vibration of glycerol is synchronized with the polyamorphic transition of solvent water. The dynamical change of the solute molecule relates to the polyamorphic state of solvent water. This result suggests that the polyamorphic fluctuation of water structure emanated from the presumed liquid-liquid critical point plays an important role for the function of aqueous solution under an ambient condition such as the conformational stability of solute, the functional expression of solute, and so on.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of an antiviral drug acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shetti, Nagaraj P; Malode, Shweta J; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of acyclovir at fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. In pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, acyclovir showed an irreversible oxidation peak at about 0.96V. The cyclic voltammetric results showed that fullerene-C(60)-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acyclovir. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the acyclovir determination by differential pulse voltammetry. Effects of anodic peak potential (E(p)/V), anodic peak current (I(p)/μA) and heterogeneous rate constant (k(0)) have been discussed. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit were 9.0×10(-8) to 6.0×10(-6)M and 1.48×10(-8)M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to acyclovir determination in pharmaceutical samples and human biological fluids such as urine and blood plasma as a real sample. This method can also be employed in quality control and routine determination of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. Magnetite-platinum nanoparticles-modified glassy carbon electrode as electrochemical detector for nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Gerent, Giles G; Spinelli, Almir

    2017-05-15

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with magnetite and platinum nanoparticles stabilized with 3-n-propyl-4-picoline silsesquioxane chloride. This chemically-modified electrode is proposed for the first time for the individual or simultaneous electrochemical detection of nitrophenol isomers. Nanoparticles act as catalysts and also increase the surface area. The polymer stabilizes the particles and provides the electrochemical separation of isomers. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents, obtained by differential-pulse voltammetry, of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol increased linearly with increases in their concentration in the range of 0.1-1.5μmolL(-1). In individual analysis, the detection limits were 33.7nmolL(-1), 45.3nmolL(-1) and 48.2nmolL(-1), respectively. Also, simultaneous analysis was possible for 2-, and 4-nitrophenol. In this case, the separation of the peak potentials was 0.138V and the detection limits were 69.6nmolL(-1) and 58.0nmolL(-1), respectively. These analytical figures of merit evidence the outstanding performance of the modified electrode, which was also successfully applied to the individual determination of isomers in environmental and biological samples. The magnetite and platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode was able to detect nitrophenol isomers at the ppm level in rain water and human urine samples.

  5. Electrochemical reduction of nalidixic acid at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Yolanda; Pilehvar, Sanaz; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador; De Wael, Karolien

    2017-02-05

    The aqueous phase electrochemical degradation of nalidixic acid (NAL) is studied in this work, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) as instrumental techniques. The promotional effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the performance of glassy carbon electrodes is demonstrated, being observed that these materials catalyze the NAL reduction. The effect of surface functional groups on MWCNT -MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-NH2-was also studied. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MWCNT leads to an improved performance for NAL reduction following the order of MWCNT>MWCNT-NH2>MWCNT-COOH. The best behavior at MWCNT-GCE is mainly due to both the increased electrode active area and the enhanced MWCNT adsorption properties. The NAL degradation was carried out under optimal conditions (pH=5.0, deposition time=20s and volume of MWCNT=10μL) using MWCNT-GCE obtaining an irreversible reduction of NAL to less toxic products. Paramaters as the number of DPV cycles and the volume/area (V/A) ratio were optimized for maximize pollutant degradation. It was observed that after 15 DPV scans and V/A=8, a complete reduction was obtained, obtaining two sub-products identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

  6. Incoherent chimera and glassy states in coupled oscillators with frustrated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Chol-Ung; Ri, Ji-Song; Kim, Ryong-Son

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a site disorder model that describes the population of identical oscillators with quenched random interactions for both the coupling strength and coupling phase. We obtain the reduced equations for the suborder parameters, on the basis of Ott-Antonsen ansatz theory, and present a complete bifurcation analysis of the reduced system. New effects include the appearance of the incoherent chimera and glassy state, both of which are caused by heterogeneity of the coupling phases. In the incoherent chimera state, the system displays an exotic symmetry-breaking behavior in spite of the apparent structural symmetry where the oscillators for both of the two subpopulations are in a frustrated state, while the phase distribution for each subpopulation approaches a steady state that differs from each other. When the incoherent chimera undergoes Hopf bifurcation, the system displays a breathing incoherent chimera. The glassy state that occurs on a surface of three-dimensional parameter space exhibits a continuum of metastable states with zero value of the global order parameter. Explicit formulas are derived for the system's Hopf, saddle-node, and transcritical bifurcation curves, as well as the codimension-2 crossing points, including the Takens-Bogdanov point.

  7. Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol.

    PubMed

    Bones, David L; Reid, Jonathan P; Lienhard, Daniel M; Krieger, Ulrich K

    2012-07-17

    Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from < 0.1 to > 10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.

  8. Structural characterization and aging of glassy pharmaceuticals made using acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, J K R; Tailor, Amit N; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Mou, Qiushi; Weber, Warner; Neuefeind, Joerg; Byrn, Stephen R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report the structural characterization of several amorphous drugs made using the method of quenching molten droplets suspended in an acoustic levitator. (13) C NMR, X-ray, and neutron diffraction results are discussed for glassy cinnarizine, carbamazepine, miconazole nitrate, probucol, and clotrimazole. The (13) C NMR results did not find any change in chemical bonding induced by the amorphization process. High-energy X-ray diffraction results were used to characterize the ratio of crystalline to amorphous material present in the glasses over a period of 8 months. All the glasses were stable for at least 6 months except carbamazepine, which has a strong tendency to crystallize within a few months. Neutron and X-ray pair distribution function analyses were applied to the glassy materials, and the results were compared with their crystalline counterparts. The two diffraction techniques yielded similar results in most cases and identified distinct intramolecular and intermolecular correlations. The intramolecular scattering was calculated based on the crystal structure and fit to the measured X-ray structure factor. The resulting intermolecular pair distribution functions revealed broad-nearest and next-nearest neighbor molecule-molecule correlations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1290-1300, 2013.

  9. Study of the electrochemical behavior of isorhamnetin on a glassy carbon electrode and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Chen, Wei; Huang, Li-Ying; Lin, Xin-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2008-10-19

    The electrochemical behavior of isorhamnetin (ISO) at a glassy carbon electrode was studied in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 4.0 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric method (DPV). A well-defined redox wave of ISO involving one electrons and one proton appeared. The electrode reaction is a reactant weak adsorption-controlled process with a charge transfer coefficient (alpha) of 0.586. Based on the understanding of the electrochemical process of ISO at the glassy carbon electrode, analysis of ISO can be realized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current showed linear dependence on the concentration of ISO in the range of 1.0x10(-8) to 4.0x10(-7)M and 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-5)M. The detection limit is 5.0x10(-9)M. This method has been successfully applied to the detection of ISO in tablets.

  10. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Du, Rongbing; Cao, Yong; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Dew, Steven K; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-07-30

    Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings.

  11. Gas-to-liquid permeation in silicon-containing, crosslinked, glassy copolymers of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Yang, W M; Peppas, N A

    1983-10-01

    Copolymers of methyl methacrylate with disiloxane derivatives have been proposed as biomaterials for contact lens applications. Although glassy, these copolymers exhibit high oxygen permeability and adequate wettability so that they can be used for manufacture of hard, extended wear lenses. Crosslinked copolymers of poly(methylmethacrylate-co-1,3-bis(methacryloxymethyl) -1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-disiloxane), P(MMA-co-BMTDS), containing from 0.085 to 0.53 mole fraction of BMTDS were prepared and tested for oxygen permeation using a novel apparatus which simulates the atmosphere/lens/cornea conditions. The gas-to-liquid dissolved oxygen permeability, P gd1 was determined and it was found to increase with BMTDS content. Permeability values for P(MMA-co-BMTDS) at 34 degrees C were significantly higher than for pure homopolymer PMMA, although these copolymers were glassy at this temperature. The increased oxygen permeation was attributed to increased oxygen solubility in the copolymers due to the presence of the -Si-O-bonds.

  12. Glassy dynamics in the isotropic phase of a smectogenic liquid crystalline compound.

    PubMed

    Rzoska, Sylwester J; Pawlus, Sebastian; Czupryński, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    The temperature evolution of the primary relaxation time in the isotropic phase of 4-cyano-4'-tetradecylbiphenyl (14CB) above the isotropic-smectic A (I-SmA) transition is discussed. Based on the enthalpy space and distortion-sensitive analysis, the prevalence of the mode coupling theory (MCT) "critical" and "glassy" dynamics is shown. The obtained singular dependence is related to the MCT critical temperature located approximately 48 K below the clearing (I-SmA) temperature. However, a weak but detectable distortion in the immediate vicinity of the transition occurs. It is also shown that the value of the fragile strength coefficient D(T) is characteristic of a very fragile glassy liquid whereas the steepness index m is typical of a strong one. Both magnitudes anomalously change on approaching the I-SmA phase transition. The static permittivity shows the pretransitional effect linked to the temperature of the hypothetical continuous phase transition located approximately 10.2 K below the I-SmA transition.

  13. Detection of lead ions in picomolar concentration range using underpotential deposition on silver nanoparticles-deposited glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, R; Sangaranarayanan, M V

    2011-09-30

    The efficacy of silver-deposited glassy carbon electrode for the determination of lead ions at the sub-nanomolar concentration ranges is investigated. The silver nanoparticles are electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode using chronoamperometry and the electrode surface is characterized using SEM. Lead ions are detected in the region of underpotential deposition. The analysis is performed in square wave mode in the stripping voltammetry without the removal of oxygen. The detection limit of 10 pM has been obtained with a constant potential of -0.7 V during the electrodeposition step for a period of 50s. The interference of surfactants in the detection of lead ions is also studied.

  14. Nucleation and growth of thin films of the organic conductor TTF-iodide over glassy carbon. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez, L; Rodríguez-Amaro, R

    2009-04-21

    On the basis of the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of thin films of TTF over a glassy carbon electrode in iodide media, a new, more complete mechanism for the electrode processes involved is proposed. The voltammetric and chronoamperometric results for the films can be explained in light of a recently developed nucleation-growth model involving a layer-by-layer mechanism. Also, their in situ UV-vis spectral data expand the available knowledge about the overall mechanism and the nature of the compound formed over the glassy carbon electrode.

  15. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Jia, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2016-09-01

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials.

  16. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Z Y; Liu, X J; Jia, B; Wang, H; Wu, Y; Lu, Z P

    2016-09-28

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials.

  17. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Jia, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials. PMID:27677462

  18. The glass transition, crystallization and melting in Au-Pb-Sb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Allen, J. L.; Fecht, H. J.; Perepezko, J. H.; Ohsaka, K.

    1988-01-01

    The glass transition, crystallization and melting of Au(55)Pb(22.5)Sb(22.5) alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Crystallization on heating above the glass transition temperature Tg (45 C) begins at 64 C. Further crystallization events are observed at 172 C and 205 C. These events were found to correspond to the formation of the intermetallic compounds AuSb2, Au2Pb, and possibly AuPb2, respectively. Isothermal DSC scans of the glassy alloy above Tg were used to monitor the kinetics of crystallization. The solidification behavior and heat capacity in the glass-forming composition range were determined with droplet samples. An undercooling level of 0.3T(L) below the liquidus temperature T(L) was achieved, resulting in crystallization of different stable and metastable phases. The heat capacity C(P) of the undercooled liquid was measured over an undercooling range of 145 C.

  19. Rapidly solidified surface melts of Ni-B-Si-Cr brazing alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, T. R.; Ayers, J. D.

    1981-10-01

    Sintered powder layers of a Ni-based brazing alloy were consolidated by scanned electron beam radiation to produce a continuous fused coating. The surface of this coating was then remelted by laser and electron beams under differing conditions, resulting in a variety of resolidification structures. Alloy BNi2 was chosen for these studies because it exhibits substantial hardening on grain refinement and because it can be prepared in the glassy state relatively easily. Surface microhardness for BNi2 reaches a maximum of about 1200 DPH at a cooling rate approaching 105 K/s. For higher quench rates, hardness decreases and ductility increases. As the cooling rate approaches 107 k/s, overlapping beam scans produce an extended amorphous surface. A solidification rate higher than that needed to produce an amorphous structure in a single melt pass is necessary to avoid surface cracking or crystallization when overlapping melt passes are employed.

  20. Mechanochemical investigation of a glassy epoxy-amine thermoset subjected to fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Stephen Finley

    Covalent bonds in organic molecules can be produced, altered, and broken through various sources of energy and processes. These include photochemical, thermochemical, chemical, and mechanochemical processes. Polymeric materials derive their physical properties from the time scale of motion, summation of intermolecular forces, and number of chain entanglements and crosslinks. Glassy thermoset polymers experience mechanical fatigue during dynamic stress loading and properties diminish with inevitable material failure at stress levels below the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Damage modeling has been successful in predicting the number of cycles required to induce failure in a specimen due to stress. However, it does not directly provide an explanation of the origin of fatigue in polymers. It is hypothesized herein that mechanical failure at stress levels below the ultimate strength property is due to the accumulation of mechanically induced homolytic chain scission events throughout the glassy thermoset network. The goal of this research will be to quantify homolytic chain scission events with fatigue cycles with the ultimate goal of correlating mechanical property loss with degradation of covalent network structure. To accomplish this goal, stable free nitroxyl radicals were incorporated into an epoxy-amine matrix to detect homolytic chain scission resulting from fatigue. Chapter II discusses a successful synthesis and characterization of the nitroxyl radical molecule, a product of 4-hydroxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpiperdin-1-yl-oxyl (TEMPO) and isophorone diisocyanate designated as BT-IPDI. In Chapter III, the epoxy-amine reaction was determined to be unaffected by incorporation of up to 5 wt% of BT-IPDI. Although 50% UTS fatigue studies produced property degradation and fatigue failure as shown in Chapter IV, analysis of BT-IPDI through EPR did not detect homolytic chain scission. Chapter V reveals that mechano-radicals were produced from cryo-grinding the glassy

  1. Electrical and thermal conductivities of rapidly crystallized Cu-Zr alloys: The effect of anharmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporov, S.; Bykov, V.; Estemirova, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electrical and thermal conductivities, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of rapidly crystallized Cu100-xZrx (x = 20-90) alloys. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that all the prepared compositions had strongly textured and distorted crystal structures. Different monoclinic and other non-equilibrium phases were detected in the case of glass-forming samples, whereas the alloys without a tendency to form glassy state show almost equilibrium phase content. Metallic type of electrical conductivity and the Kondo anomaly were observed for all the examined samples. It was found that the electrical resistance data cannot be adequately described within the standard Bloch-Grüneisen theory. We use the Debye characteristic temperature as a linear function to fit the electrical conductivity accurately. The composition dependence of the electron density of states at the Fermi level (DOS) has been extracted from room temperature magnetic susceptibility. We found that the glass-forming alloys are characterized by abnormally large values of DOS, which are comparable to those of glassy analogues. Noticeable anharmonic contribution in total specific heat has been revealed for all the studied compositions. In order to estimate the effect of anharmonicity in the system under consideration, we analyzed composition and temperature dependencies of the studied thermal characteristics related to the Grüneisen coefficient. Basing on the results obtained in this study we propose a phenomenological concept to explain abnormal behavior of physical properties of glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys within the standard solid state theory taking into account anharmonic effects.

  2. Modeling of Disordered Binary Alloys Under Thermal Forcing: Effect of Nanocrystallite Dissociation on Thermal Expansion of AuCu3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Cress, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Disordered binary alloys are modeled as a randomly close-packed assembly of nanocrystallites intermixed with randomly positioned atoms, i.e., glassy-state matter. The nanocrystallite size distribution is measured in a simulated macroscopic medium in two dimensions. We have also defined, and measured, the degree of crystallinity as the probability of a particle being a member of nanocrystallites. Both the distribution function and the degree of crystallinity are found to be determined by alloy composition. When heated, the nanocrystallites become smaller in size due to increasing thermal fluctuation. We have modeled this phenomenon as a case of thermal dissociation by means of the law of mass action. The crystallite size distribution function is computed for AuCu3 as a function of temperature by solving some 12 000 coupled algebraic equations for the alloy. The results show that linear thermal expansion of the specimen has contributions from the temperature dependence of the degree of crystallinity, in addition to respective thermal expansions of the nanocrystallites and glassy-state matter.

  3. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys.

  4. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  5. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  6. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  7. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  8. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  9. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  10. Supersaturated Aluminum Alloy Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-15

    shown in Fig. 18 . It .an be clearly seen that most of the iron is concentrated in the precipitates (Fig. 18 ), X-ray mapping immage for the chromium...At 232°C our alloys are comparable to 2� and 2618 in their tensile properties, and except for alloy #1 which at t i temperature has elongation of...demonstrate better yield strength and UTS than the 2219, 2618 and are comparable to the ALCOA alloy. They show however higher ductility than the ALCOA alloy

  11. Glassy-winged sharpshooter Microbiota explored using deep 16S rRNA sequencing from individual insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is an invasive insect species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium causing Pierce’s disease of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases. X. fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium) of sharpshooters, where ...

  12. Exploring glassy-winged sharpshooter microbiota using deep 16S rRNA sequencing from individual insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is an invasive insect species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium causing Pierce’s disease of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases. X. fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium) of sharpshooters, where ...

  13. Salivary enzymes are injected into xylem by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain hemipteran insects such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, subsist entirely on xylem fluid, notwithstanding the poor nutrition of such food. Among many adaptations enabling xylem-feeding are aspects of the insect’s salivation that may also allow these insects to tra...

  14. Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Density of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a serious pest of grapes and other crop and ornamental plants mainly through its role as a vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Citrus harbors large populations of GWSS throughout much of the year in areas where the pest is pr...

  15. Sequential sampling plans for estimating censity of glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a serious pest of grapes and other crop and ornamental plants mainly through its role as a vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Citrus harbors large populations of GWSS throughout much of the year in areas where the pest is pr...

  16. Determination of s-triazines with copper and glassy carbon electrodes. Flow injection analysis of aziprotryne in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, A; Bermejo, E; Pérez, J A; Chicharro, M

    2000-07-01

    The detection and determination of s-triazines, atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne by cyclic voltammetry and an amperometric method using a metallic copper electrode and a glassy carbon electrode are described. The concentrations of atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne in 0.1 M NaOH solutions were determined using the oxidation signal corresponding to the Cu(0)/Cu(I) redox process. The detection level calculated for these s-triazines were 0.3 and 0.5 microg/mL of analyte, respectively. The glassy carbon electrode was shown to give sensitive reduction response to aziprotryne in flow injection mode. No special activation was required for the glassy carbon electrode. A detection limit of 0.2 microg/mL (20 ng aziprotryne) was obtained for a sample loop of 0.1 mL at a fixed potential of -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M HCl and a flow rate of 3.5 mL/min. Furthermore, the glassy carbon electrode showed stable response in such a system, and the relative standard deviation was only 2.7% using the same surface, and 6.3% using different surfaces. The method developed was applied to the determination of aziprotryne in environmental and tap water samples; using a prior solid-phase extraction step, aziprotryne concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL could be measured.

  17. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  18. Identification and whole extraction of Homalodisca coagulata Virus 01 (HoCv-01)from Texas Glassy-winged sharpshooter populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral infection makes insects more sensitive to insecticide treatment, resulting in lower LD50 rates needed to achieve significant control. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an invasive pest and important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem...

  19. X-ray parabolic lenses made from glassy carbon by means of laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemiev, A.; Snigirev, A.; Kohn, V.; Snigireva, I.; Artemiev, N.; Grigoriev, M.; Peredkov, S.; Glikin, L.; Levtonov, M.; Kvardakov, V.; Zabelin, A.; Maevskiy, A.

    2006-06-01

    Parabolic planar compound refractive lenses (CRLs) made from glassy carbon by means of laser ablation are presented. They have radii of curvatures of 5 and 200μm and geometric apertures of 40 and 900μm, respectively. The numbers of biconcave elements in the CRLs were 4, 7, and 200. The planar lenses allow formation of a linear focus of length comparable with the depths of their profiles. Usage of two CRLs in a crossed geometry provides formation of two-dimensional focus. The lenses were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility at the bending magnet beam line BM-5. The minimum experimental size of the focus has been achieved as 1.4μm.

  20. Glassy Dynamics in Disordered Electronic Systems Reveal Striking Thermal Memory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, A.; Havdala, T.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Amir, A.; Frydman, A.

    2016-09-01

    Memory is one of the unique qualities of a glassy system. The relaxation of a glass to equilibrium contains information on the sample's excitation history, an effect often refer to as "aging." We demonstrate that under the right conditions a glass can also possess a different type of memory. We study the conductance relaxation of electron glasses that are fabricated at low temperatures. Remarkably, the dynamics are found to depend not only on the ambient measurement temperature but also on the maximum temperature to which the system was exposed. Hence the system "remembers" its highest temperature. This effect may be qualitatively understood in terms of energy barriers and local minima in configuration space and therefore may be a general property of the glass state.

  1. Synthesis of One-Dimensional SiC Nanostructures from a Glassy Buckypaper

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-21

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures - nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) solution. The resulting “glassy buckypaper” was heated at 1300 - 1500 °C under Ar/H₂ to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of crystalline, glassy, and molten states of lead diborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, A. A.; Shukshin, V. E.; Zaitsev, A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Polarized Raman spectra of single crystals of lead diborate, PbB4O7 (PBO), are studied in detail at 300 K. The TO-, LO-, and IO-phonon lines of the A 1, A 2, B 1, and B 2 symmetries in the Raman spectra of this compound are assigned. Changes in the Raman spectra of the internal vibrations of boron-oxygen complexes upon transition from the crystalline to the glassy and the molten states of PBO are observed. On the basis of the obtained results, the regularities in the formation of boron-oxygen complexes in glasses, melts, and crystals of the PbO · 2B2O3, SrO · 2B2O3, and Li2O · 2B2O3. diborate compositions are analyzed.

  3. Can Stress Relaxation Experiments be Used to Assess Deformation Induced Mobility in Glassy Polymers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropka, Jamie; Long, Kevin

    The observance of an increase in glassy polymer relaxation rates under a mechanical deformation is often referred to as deformation induced mobility (DIM). It has been argued that stress relaxation experiments can provide indirect evidence of this phenomenon. Recently, stress relaxation experiments have been interpreted as demonstrating a mobility decrease with increased deformation when very slow strain rates, 1.2 x 10-5 s-1, are used to apply the deformation. This would suggest against generality of DIM and would have significant implications to constitutive models founded on this principle. Here, a mathematical exercise is performed to evaluate the implications of DIM on stress relaxation response. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Amperometric ascorbic acid sensor based on doped ferrites nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Teodora; Vulić, Predrag; Manojlović, Dragan; Nikolić, Aleksandar S; Stanković, Dalibor M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for quantification of ascorbic acid with amperometric detection in physiological conditions was constructed. For this purpose, cobalt and nickel ferrites were synthesized using microwave and ultrasound assistance, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and used for modification of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). It was shown that introducing these nanoparticles to the structure of GCPE led to increasing analytical performance. Co ferrite modified GCPE (CoFeGCPE) showed better characteristics toward ascorbic acid sensing. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained by sensor was calculated to be 0.0270 mg/L, with linear range from 0.1758 to 2.6010 mg/L. This sensor was successfully applied for practical analysis, and the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed procedure could be a promising replacement for the conventional electrode materials and time-consuming and expensive separation methods.

  5. Fast Electrocatalytic Determination of Methimazole at an Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Fahimeh; Hatami, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    A fast and simple voltammetric method for the determination of methimazole in pharmaceutical products was reported. A glassy carbon electrode was pretreated by anodization at +1.75 V (vs. SCE) for 5 min, followed by potential cycling in the range of 0.3-1.3 V (20 cycles). The pretreated electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of methimazole. Compared with untreated electrode, a large decrease (~300 mV) in the oxidation peak of methimazole was observed. The oxidation peak current at the new potential (0.4 V vs. SCE) was linearly dependent on the concentration of methimazole in the range of 7.0 - 130 μM with a detection limit of 3.7 μM (S/N = 3). The method was successfully used in the determination of methimazole in thyramozol tablets. Due to the simple and fast electrode preparation, there is no need for electrode cleaning or storage. PMID:28243269

  6. Models of glassy behavior that attempt to understand mode coupling theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Kyozi,

    2002-01-01

    Glass transitions are said to be long time scale and short length scale phenomena. This makes the problem extremely difficult to treat theoretically. In this respect the current mode coupling theory (MCT) for glassy behavior, which is the only existing first principle dynamical theory has conceptual problems despite its spectacular successes. Proper understanding for the reasons of success is still lacking. There is an urgent need for deeper understanding and proper extention of the theory below the so-called mode coupling temperature below which the theory generally fails. With this aim in mind we have been developing a mean field type toy model. We are also developing a dynamical generalization of van der Waals model with Kac-type long range interaction. The talk will try to explain these and related developments in a plain language.

  7. Simultaneous evaluation of viscosity and retardation time in glassy polymers by a parallel-plate technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, E.; Alegría, A.; Colmenero, J.

    1988-07-01

    In this work we describe a new experimental procedure for parallel-plate rheometry of glassy polymers above the glass-transition temperature range. This method has been used with an automated setup built by us which is linked to a HP-86 desk computer. Both our experimental procedure and experimental setup allow us not only to determine the Newtonian viscosity in the wide 104-109 Pa s range, but also the evaluation of a kind of retardation time. This is related to the time that the sample needs to reach the viscous behavior. Moreover, this time can be identified with the retardation time corresponding to the effects of the entanglements in the polymer melt, at least for the two polymers investigated here: polycarbonate and polysulfone.

  8. Amperometric biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length carbon nanotube and enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutaka, Hajime; Nemoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Yuki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and enzyme nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is presented. We demonstrate the effect of the MWCNT length on the amperometric response of the enzyme biosensor. The long length of MWCNT is 200 µm (average), whereas the normal length of MWCNT is 1 µm (average). The response of the long MWCNT-GDH electrode is 2 times more sensitive than that of the normal-length MWCNT-GDH electrode in the concentration range from 0.25-35 mM. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the long-length MWCNT-GDH electrode formed a better electron transfer network than the normal-length one.

  9. Electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-11-27

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  10. Amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide using glassy carbon electrode modified with copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sophia, J.; Muralidharan, G.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, fabrication of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nano copper particles is discussed. The modified electrode has been tested for the non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were prepared employing a simple chemical reduction method. The presence of Cu NPs was confirmed through UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The size and morphology of the particles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensor were studied via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensor displayed excellent performance features towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection exhibiting wide linear range, low detection limit, swift response time, good reproducibility and stability.

  11. Mechanoluminescent Imaging of Osmotic Stress-Induced Damage in a Glassy Polymer Network

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A chemiluminescent mechanophore, bis(adamantyl-1,2-dioxetane), is used to investigate the covalent bond scission resulting from the sorption of chloroform by glassy poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) networks. Bis(adamantyl)-1,2-dioxetane units incorporated as cross-linkers underwent mechanoluminescent scission, demonstrating that solvent ingress caused covalent bond scission. At higher cross-linking densities, the light emission took the form of hundreds of discrete bursts, widely varying in intensity, with each burst composed of 107–109 photons. Camera imaging indicated a relatively slow propagation of bursts through the material and permitted analysis of the spatial correlation between the discrete bond-breaking events. The implications of these observations for the mechanism of sorption and fracture are discussed. PMID:28316344

  12. Toward the Control of the Creation of Mixed Monolayers on Glassy Carbon Surfaces by Amine Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Groppi, Jessica; Bartlett, Philip N; Kilburn, Jeremy D

    2016-01-18

    A versatile and simple methodology for the creation of mixed monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) surfaces was developed, using an osmium-bipyridyl complex and anthraquinone as model redox probes. The work consisted in the electrochemical grafting on GC of a mixture of mono-protected diamine linkers in varying ratios which, after attachment to the surface, allowed orthogonal deprotection. After optimisation of the deprotection conditions, it was possible to remove one of the protecting groups selectively, couple a suitable osmium complex and cap the residual free amines. The removal of the second protecting group allowed the coupling of anthraquinone. The characterisation of the resulting surfaces by cyclic voltammetry showed the variation of the surface coverage of the two redox centres in relation to the initial ratio of the linking amine in solution.

  13. NMR evidence for inhomogeneous glassy behavior driven by nematic fluctuations in iron arsenide superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Dioguardi, A. P.; Lawson, M. M.; Bush, B. T.; ...

    2015-10-16

    We present 75As nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rate data in Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2 and Ba(Fe1–xCux)2As2 as a function of temperature, doping, and magnetic field. The relaxation curves exhibit a broad distribution of relaxation rates, consistent with inhomogeneous glassy behavior up to 100 K. The doping and temperature response of the width of the dynamical heterogeneity is similar to that of the nematic susceptibility measured by elastoresistance measurements. In this study, we argue that quenched random fields which couple to the nematic order give rise to a nematic glass that is reflected in the spin dynamics.

  14. Spatially resolved lasers using a glassy cholesteric liquid crystal film with lateral pitch gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Simon K. H.; Chen, Shaw H.

    2011-03-01

    To fabricate spatially resolved glassy cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) lasers, a lateral pitch gradient was introduced by thermally activated diffusion across the interface of two films comprising nematic and cholesteric oligofluorene doped with a red-emitting oligifluorene. The formation of spatially resolved Grandjean-Cano bands was accountable by strong surface anchoring at substrates and the qualitative chiral concentration profile. Across each band there was a common stop band, and a set of bands produced multiple lasing peaks across the spectral range determined by light-emitter's fluorescence spectrum. The resultant lasing thresholds, 6.6-7.6 mJ/cm2, and slope efficiencies, 0.2%-1.5%, are superior to those reported to date for gradient-pitch CLC lasers.

  15. NMR evidence for inhomogeneous glassy behavior driven by nematic fluctuations in iron arsenide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dioguardi, A. P.; Lawson, M. M.; Bush, B. T.; Crocker, J.; Shirer, K. R.; Nisson, D. M.; Kissikov, T.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Yuan, S.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.; Grafe, H. -J.; Curro, N. J.

    2015-10-16

    We present 75As nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rate data in Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2 and Ba(Fe1–xCux)2As2 as a function of temperature, doping, and magnetic field. The relaxation curves exhibit a broad distribution of relaxation rates, consistent with inhomogeneous glassy behavior up to 100 K. The doping and temperature response of the width of the dynamical heterogeneity is similar to that of the nematic susceptibility measured by elastoresistance measurements. In this study, we argue that quenched random fields which couple to the nematic order give rise to a nematic glass that is reflected in the spin dynamics.

  16. Plutonium segregation in glassy aerodynamic fallout from a nuclear weapon test.

    PubMed

    Holliday, K S; Dierken, J M; Monroe, M L; Fitzgerald, M A; Marks, N E; Gostic, R C; Knight, K B; Czerwinski, K R; Hutcheon, I D; McClory, J W

    2017-02-14

    This study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. A sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens were interrogated to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers. Furthermore, high concentrations of plutonium were never associated with several endmember compositions and concentrated with the so-called mafic glass endmember. This result suggests that it is the physical characteristics of the compositional endmembers and not the chemical characteristics of the individual component elements that govern the un-burnt plutonium distribution with respect to major element composition in fallout.

  17. Amended tunneling model to explain the anisotropy of the glassy properties of crystals and quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Churochkin, Dmitry

    2012-02-01

    The low temperature acoustic and thermal properties of amorphous, glassy materials are remarkably similar and they can be explained to a large extent by assuming that the material contains a large number of dynamic defects. These dynamic defects are tunneling systems and are modeled by an ensemble of two-level systems (TLS). Crystals with defects--with a large enough amount of disorder--exhibit also glass-like properties, but these properties are not so universal and, even more, they are not isotropic. In Phys. Rev. B 75, 064202 (2007) we proposed an amended model for the description of the interaction of two-level systems with arbitrary strain fields. Here we show how this model explains the anisotropy of the glass-like properties of disordered crystals and quasicrystals.

  18. Synthesis of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures from a glassy buckypaper.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures-nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution. The resulting "glassy buckypaper" was heated at 1300-1500 °C under Ar/H2 to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  19. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Abd El-Ghany, Nadia; Wahdan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy) film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN). The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV) square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  20. Polymer modified glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical determination of caffeine in coffee.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg; Admassie, Shimelis

    2012-05-15

    4-Amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid (AHNSA) was electropolymerized on a glassy carbon electrode. The deposited film showed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of caffeine. The polymer-modified electrode showed high sensitivity, selectivity and stability in the determination of caffeine in coffee. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of caffeine in the range of 6 × 10(-8) to 4 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 1.37 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (LoD = 3δ/slope). Analysis of caffeine in coffee was affected neither by sample matrices nor by structurally similar compounds. Recoveries ranging between 93.75 ± 2.32 and 100.75 ± 3.32 were achieved from coffee extracts indicating the applicability of the developed method for real sample analyses.

  1. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Abd El-Ghany, Nadia; Wahdan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy) film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN). The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV) square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples. PMID:27242945

  2. Thermal conductivity of glassy GeTe4 by first-principles molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Assil; Zaoui, Hayat; Luca Palla, Pier; Ori, Guido; Boero, Mauro; Massobrio, Carlo; Cleri, Fabrizio; Lampin, Evelyne

    2017-03-29

    A transient thermal regime is achieved in glassy GeTe4 by first-principles molecular dynamics following the recently proposed "approach-to-equilibrium" methodology. The temporal and spatial evolution of the temperature do comply with the time-dependent solution of the heat equation. We demonstrate that the time scales required to create the hot and the cold parts of the system and observe the resulting approach to equilibrium are accessible to first-principles molecular dynamics. Such a strategy provides the thermal conductivity from the characteristic decay time. We rationalize in detail the impact on the thermal conductivity of the initial temperature difference, the equilibration duration, and the main simulation features.

  3. Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5 by Containerless Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Kentei Yu, Yu; Kumar, Vijaya; Kameko, Masashi

    Many efforts have been devoted to forming bulk glass from the melt of ferroelectric crystalline materials without adding any network-forming oxides such as SiO2 due to the potential for producing transparent glass ceramics with high dielectric constant and enhanced piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electro-optic use. The containerless processing is an attractive synthesis tech-nique as it can prevent melt contamination, minimize heterogeneous nucleation, and allow melt to achieve deep undercooling for forming metastable and glassy materials. We have fabricated a new ferroelectric materiel BaTi2 O5 [1] as bulk glass from melt by us-ing containerless processing and studied the phase relationship between microstructure and ferroelectric properties of BaTi2 O5 [2]. The structures of glassy and metastable crystalline BaTi2 O5 fabricated by the containerless pro-cessing were comprehensively investigated by combined X-ray and neutron diffractions, XANES analyses and computer simulations [3]. The 3-dimensional atomic structure of glassy BaTi2 O5 (g-BaTi2 O5 ), simulated by Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling on diffraction data, shows that extremely distorted TiO5 polyhedra interconnected with both corner-and edge-shared oxy-gen, formed a higher packing density structure than that of conventional silicate glass linked with only corner-sharing of SiO4 polyhedra. In addition, XANES measurement reveales that five-coordinated TiO5 polyhedra were formable in the crystallized metastable a-and b-BaTi2 O5 phases. The structure of metastable b-BaTi2 O5 was solved by ab initio calculation, and refined by Rietveld refinement as group Pnma with unit lattices a = 10.23784 ˚, b = 3.92715 ˚, c A A = 10.92757 A ˚. Our results show that the glass-forming ability enhanced by containerless pro-cessing, not by `strong glass former', fabricated new bulk oxide glasses with peculiar structures and properties. The intermediate-range structure of g-BaTi2 O5 and the crystalline structure of

  4. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  5. An electrochemically aminated glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Xi, Min; Guo, Mengmeng; Sheng, Fangmeng; Xiao, Guang; Wu, Shuo; Uchiyama, Shunichi; Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2016-02-07

    In this contribution, a very simple and reliable strategy based on the easy modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by pre-electrolyzing GCE in ammonium carbamate aqueous solution was employed for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). Compared with bare GCE, the incorporation of nitrogen into the GCE surface structure improved the electrocatalytic properties of GCE towards the electro-oxidation of HQ and CC. The nitrogen-introduced GCE (N-GCE) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CC and the linear ranges for HQ and CC were both from 5 to 260 μM. Their detection limits were both evaluated to be 0.2 μM (S/N = 3). The present method was applied for the determination of HQ and CC in real river water samples with recoveries of 95.0-102.1%. In addition, a possible detection mechanism of HQ and CC was discussed.

  6. Glassy phases and driven response of the phase-field-crystal model with random pinning.

    PubMed

    Granato, E; Ramos, J A P; Achim, C V; Lehikoinen, J; Ying, S C; Ala-Nissila, T; Elder, K R

    2011-09-01

    We study the structural correlations and the nonlinear response to a driving force of a two-dimensional phase-field-crystal model with random pinning. The model provides an effective continuous description of lattice systems in the presence of disordered external pinning centers, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations. We find that the phase-field crystal with disorder assumes an amorphous glassy ground state, with only short-ranged positional and orientational correlations, even in the limit of weak disorder. Under increasing driving force, the pinned amorphous-glass phase evolves into a moving plastic-flow phase and then, finally, a moving smectic phase. The transverse response of the moving smectic phase shows a vanishing transverse critical force for increasing system sizes.

  7. Dynamic structure factor of a stiff polymer in a glassy solution.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Hallatschek, O; Kroy, K

    2008-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of the current theoretical understanding of the dynamic structure factor of stiff polymers in semidilute solution based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model. We extend previous work by computing exact numerical coefficients and an expression for the dynamic mean square displacement (MSD) of a free polymer and compare various common approximations for the hydrodynamic interactions, which need to be treated accurately if one wants to extract quantitative estimates for model parameters from experimental data. A recent controversy about the initial slope of the dynamic structure factor is thereby resolved. To account for the interactions of the polymer with a surrounding (sticky) polymer solution, we analyze an extension of the WLC model, the glassy wormlike chain (GWLC), which predicts near power law and logarithmic long-time tails in the dynamic structure factor.

  8. Voltammetric Determination of Dopamine in Human Serum with Amphiphilic Chitosan Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng Yin; Wang, Zhi Xian; Zhu, Ai Ping; Hu, Xiao Ya

    2006-01-01

    An improvement of selectivity for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) with differential pulse voltammetry is achieved by covalently modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with O-carboxymethylchitosan (OCMCS). The amphiphilic chitosan provides electrostatic accumulation of DA onto the electrode surface. In a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0), a pair of well-defined reversible redox waves of DA was observed at the OCMCS/GCE with a ΔEp of 52 mV. The anodic peak current obtained from the differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine was linearly dependent on its concentration in the range of 6.0 × 10-8 to 7.0 × 10-6 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was found to be 1.5 × 10-9 M. The modified electrode had been applied to the determination of DA in human serum samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Thermomechanical processing of metallic glasses: extending the range of the glassy state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yonghao; Concustell, Amadeu; Greer, A. Lindsay

    2016-09-01

    For crystalline metals, the science, technology and application of thermomechanical processing are established, but this is not true for glasses. Metallic glasses — because they can be plastically deformed — offer a unique opportunity to study the effects of thermomechanical treatments on the structure and properties of glasses. Depending on the rate of cooling, various glassy states can form from a liquid. Slower cooling gives states of lower enthalpy and smaller volume; such states might also be reached by annealing, which induces structural ‘relaxation’. A reduction in the degree of relaxation, or ‘rejuvenation’, is achievable through processes such as irradiation and mechanical deformation. In this Review, we explore the extent of relaxation and rejuvenation induced by thermomechanical processing (that is, elastic and plastic deformation, including cold and hot working, and cyclic loading). The issues that remain to be investigated and the prospects for further progress are discussed.

  10. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  11. Cytomorphological characteristics of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: histopathological correlation and human papillomavirus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Yang; Nahm, Ji Hae; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to describe the cytomorphological and histopathological findings and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes for glassy cell carcinoma (GCC) of the uterine cervix. Five cases of cervical GCC, in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the specimen, were included. Four patients had stage IIB GCCs and one had stage IIIB GCC. All patients underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Based on pretreatment cytology, only 1 of the 5 cases was correctly diagnosed as GCC. The remaining cases were diagnosed as carcinoma of undetermined type, adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, or unsatisfactory for evaluation. Cytological specimens had moderate cellularity and contained small clusters of tumor cells admixed with amphophilic, granular tumor diathesis. The tumor cells possessed large, round to oval nuclei and abundant, granular, ground-glass cytoplasm. The nuclei exhibited prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed sharp margins and molding, resulting in “intercellular windows” between neighboring attached cells. HPV genotyping revealed that high-risk HPV types 18, 16, and 31 were detected in 3, 1, and 1 cases, respectively. Consistent with this finding, all cases exhibited block p16 positivity, confirming the association of HPV infection with GCC. In conclusion, a distinct cytoplasmic margin, the characteristic histopathological feature of GCC, was observed in liquid-based cytological preparations. We suggest that sharp cytoplasmic outlines with molding and intercellular windows are characteristic cytomorphological features of GCC. Detection of high-risk HPV in all cases strongly supported the notion that high-risk HPV is involved in the pathogenesis of GCC. PMID:27708230

  12. Asphaltene-laden interfaces form soft glassy layers in contraction experiments: a mechanism for coalescence blocking.

    PubMed

    Pauchard, Vincent; Rane, Jayant P; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-11-04

    In previous studies, the adsorption kinetics of asphaltenes at the water-oil interface were interpreted utilizing a Langmuir equation of state (EOS) based on droplet expansion experiments.1-3 Long-term adsorption kinetics followed random sequential adsorption (RSA) theory predictions, asymptotically reaching ∼85% limiting surface coverage, which is similar to limiting random 2D close packing of disks. To extend this work beyond this slow adsorption process, we performed rapid contractions and contraction-expansions of asphaltene-laden interfaces using the pendant drop experiment to emulate a Langmuir trough. This simulates the rapid increase in interfacial asphaltene concentration that occurs during coalescence events. For the contraction of droplets aged in asphaltene solutions, deviation from the EOS consistently occurs at a surface pressure value ∼21 mN/m corresponding to a surface coverage ∼80%. At this point droplets lose the shape required for validity of the Laplace-Young equation, indicating solidlike surface behavior. On further contraction wrinkles appear, which disappear when the droplet is held at constant volume. Surface pressure also decreases down to an equilibrium value near that measured for slow adsorption experiments. This behavior appears to be due to a transition to a glassy interface on contraction past the packing limit, followed by relaxation toward equilibrium by desorption at constant volume. This hypothesis is supported by cycling experiments around the close-packed limit where the transition to and from a solidlike state appears to be both fast and reversible, with little hysteresis. Also, the soft glass rheology model of Sollich is shown to capture previously reported shear behavior during adsorption. The results suggest that the mechanism by which asphaltenes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions is by blocking coalescence due to rapid formation of a glassy interface, in turn caused by interfacial asphaltenes rapidly increasing in

  13. Determining the structural relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical Telmisartan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    By using the dielectric relaxation method proposed recently by Casalini and Roland (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 035701), we were able to determine the structural α-relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical, Telmisartan. Normally, deep in the glassy state τα is so long that it cannot be measured but τβ, which is usually much shorter, can be directly determined. The method basically takes advantage of the connection between the α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation of the Johari-Goldstein kind, including a relation between their relaxation times τα and τβ, respectively. Thus, τα of Telmisartan were determined by monitoring the change of the dielectric β-loss, ɛ'', with physical aging time at temperatures well below the vitrification temperature. The values of τα were compared with those expected by the coupling model (CM). Unequivocal comparison cannot be made in the case of Telmisartan because its β-loss peak is extremely broad, and the CM predicts only an order of magnitude agreement between the primitive relaxation frequency and the β-peak frequency. We also made an attempt to analyze all isothermal and aging susceptibility data after transformation into the electric modulus representation. The τα found in the glass state by using the method of Casalini and Roland in the modulus representation are similar to those obtained in the susceptibility representation. However, it is remarkable that the stretching parameter βKWW - M = 0.51 in the electric modulus representation gives more precise fits to the aging data than in the susceptibility representation with βKWW = 0.61. Our results suggest that the electric modulus representation may be useful as an alternative to analyze aging data, especially in the case of highly polar glassformers having a large ratio of low frequency and high frequency dielectric constants, such as the Telmisartan studied.

  14. Effects of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Feeding, Size, and Lipid Content on Egg Maturation.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2015-06-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed as an adult to produce eggs. Egg maturation rates depend on the host plant species provided to the adult female for feeding and are variable for females provided with the same host plant species. Here, the contribution of female size and lipid content to variation in egg maturation rates among females held on the same host plant species was assessed. To assess effects of female size and lipid content on egg maturation, feeding assays followed by measurements of egg load, female size, and lipid content were conducted. To accomplish this, females were field collected and held on cowpea until producing approximately 0, 12, 25, or 50 ml of excreta. After reaching prescribed excreta thresholds, females were dissected to determine egg load, hind tibia length, and head capsule width. Mature eggs were removed from the abdomen and dry weight of eggs and bodies (head, thorax, and abdomen) were obtained. Lipid content of eggs and bodies were determined using a quantitative colorimetric assay. Rates of body weight gain and body lipid gain were rapid with low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) but decelerated with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). In contrast, low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) resulted in little egg production, with rates of egg production accelerating with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). Accordingly, egg production was preceded by an increase in body dry weight and body lipid content. In agreement, probability that a female carried eggs increased with body lipid content in the 0-, 12-, and 25-ml feeding treatments. Across treatments, larger females carried more eggs than smaller females. Collectively, results suggest that variation in glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation rates partially may be explained by availability of lipid reserves at the start of a feeding bout and female size.

  15. Contrasting the Evaporation and Condensation of Water from Glassy and Amorphous Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. P.; Bones, D. L.; Power, R.; Lienhard, D.; Krieger, U. K.

    2012-04-01

    The partitioning of water between the condensed and gas phases in atmospheric aerosol is usually assumed to occur instantaneously and to be regulated by solution thermodynamics. However, the persistence of high viscosity, glassy and amorphous aerosol to low relative humidity without crystallisation occurring is now widely recognised, suggesting that the timescale for water transport to or from the particle during condensation or evaporation may be significant. A kinetic limitation on water transport could have important implications for understanding hygroscopic growth measurements made on ambient particles, the ability of particles to act as ice nuclei or cloud condensation nuclei, the kinetics of chemical aging/heterogeneous chemistry, and the rate or condensation/evaporation of semi-volatile organic components. In this study we will report on measurements of the timescale of water transport to and from glassy aerosol and ultra-high viscosity solution droplets using aerosol optical tweezers to investigate the time-response of single particles to changes in relative humidity. As a benchmark system, mixed component aerosol particles containing sucrose and sodium chloride have been used; varying the mole fractions of the two solutes allows a wide range of solution viscosities to be studied. We will show that coarse particles can take many thousands of seconds to equilibrate in size and that the timescale correlates with the estimated bulk viscosity of the particle. We will also confirm that significant inhomogeneities in particle composition can be established during evaporation or condensation. Using the experimental data to benchmark a model for equilibration time, predictions can be made of the timescale for the equilibration of accumulation mode particles during water condensation or evaporation and these predictions will be described and their significance explored. Finally, the coalescence dynamics of highly viscous aerosol particles will be reported

  16. Probing Properties of Glassy Water and Other Liquids with Site Selective Spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Nhan Chuong

    2005-01-01

    The standard non-photochemical hole burning (NPHB) mechanism, which involves phonon-assisted tunneling in the electronically excited state, was originally proposed to explain the light-induced frequency change of chemically stable molecules in glassy solids at liquid helium temperatures by this research group more than two decades ago. The NPHB mechanism was then further elucidated and the concept of intrinsic to glass configurational relaxation processes as pre-mediating step to the hole burning process was introduced. The latter provided the theoretical basis for NPHB to evolve into a powerful tool probing the dynamics and nature of amorphous media, which aside from ''simple'' inorganic glasses may include also ''complex'' biological systems such as living cells and cancerous/normal tissues. Presented in this dissertation are the experimental and theoretical results of hole burning properties of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (APT) in several different matrices: (1) hyperquenched glassy water (HGW); (2) cubic ice (Ic); and (3) water confined into poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (poly-HEMA). In addition, results of photochemical hole burning (PHB) studies obtained for phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (PcT) in HGW and free base phthalocyanine (Pc) in ortho-dichlorobenzene (DCB) glass are reported. The goal of this dissertation was to provide further evidence supporting the NPHB mechanism and to provide more insight that leads to a better understanding of the kinetic events (dynamics) in glasses, and various dynamical processes of different fluorescent chromorphores in various amorphous solids and the liquid that exist above the glass transition temperature (Tg). The following issues are addressed in detail: (1) time evolution of hole being burned under different conditions and in different hole burning systems; (2) temperature dependent hole profile; and (3) the structure/dynamics of water in confined space, which

  17. Permeability of Rubbery and Glassy Membranes of Ionic Liquid Filled Polymersome Nanoreactors in Water.

    PubMed

    So, Soonyong; Yao, Letitia J; Lodge, Timothy P

    2015-12-03

    Nanoemulsion-like polymer vesicles (polymersomes) having ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water are attractive for nanoreactor applications. In a previous study, we demonstrated that small molecules could pass through rubbery polybutadiene membranes on a time scale of seconds, which is practical for chemical transformations. It is of interest to determine how sensitive the rate of transport is to temperature, particularly for membranes in the vicinity of the glass transition (Tg). In this work, the molecular exchange rate of 1-butylimidazole through glassy polystyrene (PS) bilayer membranes is investigated via pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) over the temperature range from 25 to 70 °C. The vesicles were prepared by the cosolvent method in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([EMIM][TFSI]), and four different polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock polymers with varying PS molecular weights were examined. The vesicles were transferred from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature to form nanoemulsion solutions of polymer vesicles in water. The exchange rate of 1-butylimidazole added to the aqueous solutions was observed under equilibrium conditions at each temperature. The exchange rate decreased as the membrane thickness increased, and the exchange rate through the glassy membranes was three to four times slower than through the rubbery polybutadiene membranes under the same experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that the permeability through nanosized membranes depends on both the dimension and chemistry of membrane-forming blocks. Furthermore, the exchange rate was investigated as a function of temperature in the vicinity of the Tg of PS-PEO membranes. The exchange rate, however, is not a strong function of the temperature in the vicinity of the membrane Tg, due to a combination of the nanoscopic dimension of the membrane, and some degree of solvent

  18. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  19. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1983-04-19

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  20. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  1. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  2. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  3. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  4. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  5. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  6. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  7. Alloys in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  8. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  9. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  10. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  11. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  12. Electrical Resistivity of Ten Selected Binary Alloy Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    alloys --* Aluminum Alloys --*Copper alloys --*Gold alloys --*Nickel Alloys --*Silver alloys --*Iron alloys --*Palladium alloys ... aluminum -magnesium, and copper-zinc) are given for 27 compositions: 0 (pure element).* For aluminum -copper, aluninu.-eagnes tur, end copper-zinc alloy ...available data and infor- mation. The ten binary alloy systems selected are the systems of aluminum - copper, aluminum -magnesium, copper-gold,

  13. CHRONICLE: Fifth Conference of Scientists from Socialist Countries on Amorphous and Glassy Semiconductors ("Amorphous Semiconductors-80"), Kishinev, October 20-24, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. S.; Smirnov, V. L.

    1981-05-01

    A brief review is given of the papers and communications on the optical properties of glassy chalcogenide semiconductors and their optical data storage applications, presented at the Amorphous Semiconductors-80 Conference.

  14. Molecular motions in glassy crystal cyanoadamantane : a proton spin-lattice relaxation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoureux, J. P.; Decressain, R.; Sahour, M.; Cochon, E.

    1992-02-01

    Cyanoadamantane C{10}H{15}CN exhibits four different solid phases : two cubic plastic (I and I'), one cubic glassy (Ig) and one monoclinic ordered (II). In cubic plastic phases (I, I') three types of motion coexist : a uniaxial rotation of the molecule around its C—CequivN axis, a tumbling reorientation of this dipolar axis between the <~ngle 001rangle directions and a vacancy self-diffusion. In the cubic glassy state (Ig) the tumbling motion is frozen and therefore only the uniaxial rotation survives. In the ordered phase (II), the molecules only perform a 3-fold uniaxial rotation among identical positions. These different molecular motions in the four solid phases have been studied by the analysis of the T_{1 z} and T_{1 ρ} spin-lattice relaxation times in ^1H-NMR. The derived residence time are compared, when possible, to values previously deduced from quasi-elastic neutron scattering, dielectric relaxation and second moment of the ^1H-NMR lineshape. Le cyanoadamantane C{10}H{15}CN possède quatre phases solides différentes : deux plastiques cubiques (I et I'), une vitreuse cubique (Ig) et une ordonnée monoclinique (II). Dans les phases plastiques cubiques (I, I') trois types de mouvements coexistent : une rotation uniaxiale de la molécule autour de son axe C—CequivN, un basculement de cet axe dipolaire entre les directions <~ngle 001rangle et une diffusion moléculaire. Dans l'état vitreux cubique (Ig), le mouvement de basculement est gelé et seule la rotation uniaxiale subsiste. Enfin dans la phase ordonnée (II), les molécules effectuent une rotation uniaxiale d'ordre 3 entre positions indiscernables. Ces différents mouvements dans les quatre phases solides ont été évalués par l'analyse des temps de relaxation spin-réseau T_{1 z} et T_{1 ρ} en ^1H-RMN. Les temps de résidence qui en sont déduits sont comparés (lorsque cela est possible) aux valeurs correspondantes déduites précédemment par diffusion quasi-élastique des neutrons, par

  15. The fabrication of artifacts out of glassy carbon and carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, G M; Grigson, C J

    1979-05-01

    Polymeric carbons are produced by the carbonization of a wide range of organic polymeric systems. We have concentrated on the fabrication of two types of polymeric carbons, glassy carbon and carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon (CFRC), both involving phenolic resin precursors. We describe herein the technology which enables us to make dental implants and heart valves out of glassy carbon. We also show how carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon can be made in the form of rods and plates for orthopedic use and molded before firing to produce complex, rigid, individually sculptured shapes suitable for maxillofacial bone replacement. The mechanical properties will be discussed in relation to the structure of these various forms of polymeric carbon. The main purpose of the work is to show that the technology of polymeric-carbon manufacture is essentially simple and the manufacturing process is readily carried out in laboratories which have already been equipped to fabricate standard dental prostheses.

  16. Voltammetric oxidation and determination of cinnarizine at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Rajesh N; Hosamani, Ragunatharaddi R; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2009-09-01

    The voltammetric oxidation of cinnarizine was investigated. In pH 2.5 Britton-Robinson buffer, cinnarizine shows an irreversible oxidation peak at about 1.20 V at a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric results indicate that MWCNT-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of cinnarizine. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the cinnarizine determination by differential-pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit are 9.0x10(-8) to 6.0x10(-6) M and 2.58x10(-9) M, respectively for cinnarizine. The proposed method was successfully applied to cinnarizine determination in pharmaceutical samples. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of analyte in urine as a real sample.

  17. Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate based on Pt nanoparticles self-assembled on a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhou, Yuan; Xian, Hongying; Wang, Lun; Huo, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    A promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the self-assembling of Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pts) on a chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques were used for characterization of these composites. It has been found that nano-Pts are inserted into the CS layer uniformly, and have a larger surface area compared to the chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrocatalytic experiments for the oxidation of nitrite and the reduction of iodate have shown that nano-Pts/CS/GCE can decrease the over-potential and increase the faradic current, which can be used for the sensitive determination of nitrite and iodate. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility and stability, and it is possible that this novel electrochemical sensor can be applied in the sensing and/or biosensing field.

  18. Effect of the glassy carbon structure on the aspect ratio of micropoints of matrix field-emission cathodes prepared by thermochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshkova, L. S.; Shesterkin, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The application of thermochemical etching technology makes it possible to reveal and investigate the structure of SU-2000 glassy carbon using electron microscopy. The glassy carbon structure at the microscopic and nanoscopic levels is inhomogeneous and consists of pockets with an irregular cross section separated by partitions. This structure sets the limits on the aspect ratio of geometrical sizes and micropoint packing density in the matrix prepared by thermochemical etching.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Z.; Li, X.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z. P.; Zhong, H.; Xu, J. M.; Lu, J. S.; Wei, C. G.; Zhu, A. F.; Wu, F. Y.; Xu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with glassy carbon electrode were prepared using electrochemical synthesis method. The thin films of gold Nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of adrenaline hydrochloride at gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated. A simple, sensitive, and inexpensive method for determination of adrenaline hydrochloride was proposed.

  20. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  1. Alloy Selection System

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  2. Photoalignment of a Nematic Liquid Crystal Fluid and Glassy-Nematic Oligofluorenes on Coumarin-Containing Polymer Films

    SciTech Connect

    Trajkovska, A.; Kim, C.; Marshall, K.L.; Mourey, T.H.; Chen, S.H.

    2007-03-19

    The orientations of both a nematic liquid crystal fluid and a series of monodisperse glassy-nematic oligofluorenes were investigated on photoalignment films comprising a polymethacrylate backbone with 7-benzoyloxycoumarin pendants. Both classes of liquid crystalline material were found to undergo a transition from a parallel to a perpindicular orientation with reference to the polarization axis of UV-irradiation at a sufficiently high extent of dimerization.

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Petrography of Glassy Particles Produced by Lava Fountain Eruptions. Ph.D. Thesis - Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladle, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model of a lava fountain consists of a vent, spatter ramparts, fountain column, downwind plume and associated pumice deposits. Glassy particles produced by lava fountain eruptions consist primarily of sideromelane glass and minor to moderate amounts of vesicles and crystals. Particles are classified on the basis of morphology as: (1) spherical, (2) elongate, (3) glass-coated mineral grain, (4) shard, (5) reticulite, (6) composite particle, and (7) lithic fragment.

  4. Semiconductor Alloy Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-14

    ftoc*o~ow7 and Idenify’ by block nam. bor) Electron mobility , Lattice Relaxation, Bond Length, Bond Energy, Mixing Enthalpies, Band Structure, Core...including: (1) generalization of Brooks’ formula for alloy-scattering limited electron mobility to including multiple bands and indirect gaps, (2...calculation of SiGe alloys band structure, electron mobility and core-exciton binding energy and • :linewidth, (3) comprehensive calculation of bond

  5. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  6. Investigation of the origin of glassiness in La0.5Sr0.5CoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kaustuv; Elizabeth, Suja; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive magnetic study has been carried out on the two sets of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 samples with a view to understand the origin of low temperature glassiness in the ferromagnetic state. The samples prepared by the conventional solid-state synthesis method show a low temperature shoulder in both dc magnetization as well as in the ac susceptibility measurements, which exhibit characteristics of glassiness such as the frequency dependence and memory effect. These observations suggest the existence of a distinct low temperature cluster-glass like phase within dominant ferromagnetic phase. But, once the same sample is properly homogenized by repeated grinding and annealing process, the low temperature glassy phase disappears, and it shows a pure ferromagnetic behavior. Our comparative study clearly reveals that the reentrant spin-glass like nature is not intrinsic to La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 system, in fact this is an outcome of the compositional inhomogeneity.

  7. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta intermetallic alloys based on Cr-(6--10)Ta (at.%) is under development for structural use in oxidizing environments in the 1,000-1,300 C (1,832--2,372 F) temperature range. Development objectives relate to high temperature strength and oxidation resistance and room temperature fracture toughness. The 1,200 C (2,192 F) strength goals have been met: yield and fracture strengths of 275 MPa (40 ksi) and 345 MPa (50 ksi), respectively, were achieved. Progress in attaining reasonable fracture toughness of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta alloys has been made; current alloys exhibit room-temperature values of about 10--12 MPa{radical}m (1.1 MPa{radical}m = 1 ksi{radical}in.). Oxidation rates of these alloys at 950 C (1,742 F) in air are in the range of those reported for chromia-forming alloys. At 1,100 C (2,012 F) in air, chromia volatility was significant but, nevertheless, no scale spallation and positive weight gains of 1--5 mg/cm{sup 2} have been observed during 120-h, 6-cycle oxidation screening tests. These mechanical and oxidative properties represent substantial improvement over Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr alloys previously developed.

  8. A nanostructural investigation of glassy gelatin oligomers: molecular organization and interactions with low molecular weight diluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Enrione, J.; Diaz-Calderon, P.; Taylor, A. J.; Ubbink, J.; Alam, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of low molecular weight diluents (namely water and glycerol) on the nanostructure and thermodynamic state of low water content gelatin matrices are explored systematically by combining positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) with calorimetric measurements. Bovine gelatin matrices with a variation in the glycerol content (0-10 wt.%) are equilibrated in a range of water activities (aw = 0.11-0.68, T = 298 K). Both water and glycerol reduce the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the temperature of dissociation of the ordered triple helical segments, Tm, while having no significant effect on the level of re-naturation of the gelatin matrices. Our PALS measurements show that over the concentration range studied, glycerol acts as a packing enhancer and in the glassy state it causes a nonlinear decrease in the average hole size, vh, of the gelatin matrices. Finally, we report complex changes in vh for the gelatin matrices as a function of the increasing level of hydration. At low water contents (Qw ˜ 0.01-0.10), water acts as a plasticizer, causing a systematic increase in vh. Conversely, for water contents higher than Qw ˜ 0.10, vh is found to decrease, as small clusters of water begin to form between the polypeptide chains.

  9. Secondary relaxations in supercooled and glassy sucrose-borate aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Longinotti, M Paula; Corti, Horacio R; Pablo, Juan J de

    2008-10-13

    The dielectric relaxation spectra of concentrated aqueous solutions of sucrose-borate mixtures have been measured in the supercooled and glassy regions in the frequency range of 40Hz to 2MHz. The secondary (beta) relaxation process was analyzed in the temperature range 183-233K at water contents between 20 and 30wt%. The relaxation times were obtained, and the activation energy of that process was calculated. In order to assess the effect of borate on the relaxation of disaccharide-water mixtures, we also studied the dielectric behavior of sucrose aqueous solutions in the same range of temperatures and water contents. Our findings support the view that, beyond a water content of approximately 20wt%, the secondary relaxation of water-sucrose and water-sucrose-borate mixtures adopts a universal character that can be explained in terms of a simple exponential function of the temperature scaled by the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The behavior observed for water-sucrose and water-sucrose-borate mixtures is compared with previous results obtained in other water-carbohydrate systems.

  10. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  11. Dynamics of glassy systems using new algorithms for exact sampling on multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, A. Alan

    2010-03-01

    The complex aging and memory effects seen in glassy materials result from relaxation times that are much longer than microscopic times: direct numerical simulations that seek to reproduce these effects of course suffer from the need to run simulations for very long times. It is therefore of interest to find algorithms that will simulate nonequilbrium dynamics on very long time scales. I will present methods for rapid simulation of memory and aging effects in spin glasses and results from those simulations. The methods are based on (1) an algorithm that allows for exact sampling of equilibrium states and (2) simple coarse graining approaches to the dynamics based on exact sampling and ground state calculations. The exact sampling algorithms extend classical Pfaffian techniques to directly generate spin configurations in two-dimensional Ising spin glasses according to their Boltzmann weights, thereby avoiding the long run times needed for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. Equilibration can then be imposed at a chosen length scale by repeated selection of subconfigurations (patches) at that scale chosen from a larger sample. At T=0, memory effects can be replicated using this patchwork dynamics. Correlation functions at any temperature can also be exactly calculated. Results on thermodynamic quantities and nonequilibrium effects will be presented for samples of size at least 512^2. This work was carried out in collaboration with Creighton K. Thomas.

  12. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Gupta, Rahul K; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Slatter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment activities have been confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process and material parameters are needed but engineers are dealing with vast quantities of fundamentally poorly understood and unpredictable material Thus, accurate prediction of critically important, but analytically elusive process parameters is unattainable and is a matter of grave concern. Because engineers need reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological behaviour with well-known materials which have similar characteristics. Sludge liquid-like behaviour is already well documented so, we have focused mainly on the solid-like behaviour of both raw and digested sludge by performing oscillatory measurements in the linear and non-linear regimes. We have shown that the viscoelastic behaviour of sludge presents strong similarities with soft-glassy materials but differences can be observed between raw and digested sludge. Finally, we confirm that colloidal glasses and emulsions may be used to model the rheological behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge.

  13. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  14. Effect of interfacial entanglement density on the melt and glassy properties of attractive polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar

    2014-03-01

    Individual dispersion of silica nanoparticles of 13 nm and 56 nm sizes in poly(methyl methacrylate) is achieved by the right choice of a solvent.By using this well-defined model attractive system, it was shown in our previous work that the conformation of PMMA on attractive silica surfaces can be dynamically altered by applying large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) well above the Tg of the polymer.Correspondingly, the entanglement density of polymer is increased due to dynamic heterogeneities between the matrix and the adsorbed polymer. Here, we investigate, on the same system, the effect of different interfacial entanglement densities on the melt and glassy properties (Tg, fragility and physical aging).Instead of surface modification of particles, which leads to poor control over the dispersion, we tuned the interfaces by applying LAOS above Tg of the composites and by using binary blends of short (Mw<Me) PMMA chains.With various nanoparticle concentrations and polymer blend ratios, we systematically study the effect of the confinement parameter (ID/2Rg) on the glass transition and dynamic fragility obtained from DSC and rheometry.Our results suggest that unlike Tg, the fragility presents strong dependence on ID/2Rg.

  15. Graphene nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous detection of heroine, morphine and noscapine.

    PubMed

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah; Teymourian, Hazhir

    2012-01-15

    In the present study, the graphene nanosheets (GNSs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode is employed for simultaneous determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of these three important opiate drugs based on their direct electrochemical oxidation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique is utilized in order to study the surface morphology of the modified electrode. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of morphine, noscapine and heroin at reduced overpotentials in wide pH range. In the performed experiments, differential pulse voltammetric determination of morphine, noscapine and heroin yields calibration curves with the following characteristics; linear dynamic range up to 65, 40 and 100 μM, sensitivity of 275, 500 and 217 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and detection limits of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 μM at 3S(B), respectively. Fast response time, signal stability, high sensitivity, low cost and ease of preparation method without using any specific electron-transfer mediator or specific reagent are the advantageous of the proposed sensor. The modified electrode can be used for simultaneous or individual detection of three major narcotic components, heroin, noscapine and morphine at micromolar concentration without any separation or pretreatment steps.

  16. Temperature dependence of hole growth kinetics in aluminum-phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonate in hyperquenched glassy water.

    PubMed

    Dang, N C; Reinot, T; Reppert, M; Jankowiak, R

    2007-02-22

    The temperature (T) dependence of hole growth kinetics (HGK) data that span more than four decades of burn fluence are reported for aluminum-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT) in fresh and annealed hyperquenched glassy water (HGW) for temperatures between 5 and 20 K. The highly dispersive HGK data are modeled by using the "master" equation based on the two level system (TLS) model described in 2000 by Reinot and Small [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 10207]. We have demonstrated that thermal line broadening is not enough to account for temperature-dependent HGK for temperatures greater than 10 K. To overcome the discrepancy, the hole growth model must account for thermal hole filling (THF) processes. For the first time, the "master" equation used for HGK simulations is modified to take into account both the temperature dependence of the (single site) absorption spectrum and THF processes, effectively turning off those TLS which do not participate in the hole burning process at higher temperatures. A single set of parameters, some of which were determined directly from the hole spectra, was found to provide satisfactory fits to the HGK data for APT in fresh and annealed HGW for holes burned in the 679.7-676.9 nm range from the high to low energy sides of the Qx absorption band. Furthermore, we propose that HGK modeling at high burn fluences requires that the TLS model be further modified to take into account the existence of extrinsic multiple level systems.

  17. Self-Healing Glassy Thin Coating for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Castanié, Sandra; Carlier, Thibault; Méar, François O; Saitzek, Sébastien; Blach, Jean-François; Podor, Renaud; Montagne, Lionel

    2016-02-17

    Glass thin films (with nanometer to micrometer thicknesses) are promising in numerous applications, both as passive coatings and as active components. Self-healing is a feature of many current technological developments as a means of increasing the lifetime of materials. In the context of these developments, we report on the elaboration of the first self-healing glassy thin-film coating developed specifically for high-temperature applications. This coating is obtained by pulsed laser deposition of alternating layers of vanadium boride (VB) and a multicomponent oxide glass. Self-healing is obtained through the oxidation of VB at the operating temperature. The investigation of the effect of elaboration parameters on the coating composition and morphology made it possible to obtain up to seven-layer coatings, with good homogeneity and perfect interfaces, and with a total thickness of less than 1 μm. The autonomic self-healing capacity of the coating has been demonstrated by an in situ experiment, which shows that a crack of nanometric dimension can be healed within a few minutes at 700 °C.

  18. Temperature and frequency dependent conductivity of lithium doped bismuth zinc vanadate semiconducting glassy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, S.; Punia, R.; Murugavel, S.; Maan, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    The ac conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate glasses of compositions x Li2O (100 - x) (50V2O5·20 Bi2O3·30 ZnO); x = 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hzb-2 MHz and in temperature range 313-533 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Almond-West universal power law for all the studied lithium doped bismuth zinc vanadate glassy systems. Various parameters such as dc conductivity ( σ dc ), crossover frequency ( ω H ) and frequency exponent ( s) have been estimated by fitting the experimental data of ac conductivity to Almond-West universal power law. It has been observed that the ac conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate glass system decreases with the increase in Li2O content. The ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed in the frame work of various theoretical models. The ac conduction seems to take place via tunneling of overlapping large polarons in all the compositions.

  19. On the hybrid glassy carbon electrode/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) interface.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, Francesco; Tancini, Erik; Innocenti, Massimo; Schenetti, Luisa; Fontanesi, Claudio

    2012-11-06

    GC/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) hybrid interfaces are synthesized and characterized: GC is the glassy carbon surface; OligoThiophene stands for both an ultrathin bithiophene grafted film and a 4-Br-Bithiophene grafted polymer; Ag(NP) stands for silver nanoparticles. The hybrid interface preparation involves different steps: first, the electrode surface is functionalized through a combination of electrochemically assisted grafting (under reduction regime) and polymerization (under oxidation regime); then, silver nanoparticles are chemisorbed by dipping. In particular, an ultrathin film of grafted bithiophene can be obtained by applying one cyclic voltammetry reduction cycle (GC/BT surface), while subsequent cyclic voltammetry cycling under oxidation regime yields an immobilized 4Br-Bithiophene polymer (GC/4BrBT surface). AFM and TEM images were recorded to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of the Ag(NP). Fe(II)/Fe(III) cyclic voltammetry, Zn underpotential deposition (UPD), XPS, LA-ICP-MS, and Raman techniques were exploited to characterize both the GC/OligoThiophene and GC/OligoThiophene/Ag(NP) interfaces. Theoretical calculation, at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of the theory, enabled rationalization of the electroreduction mechanism and the Raman results.

  20. Local Structure and Ion Transport in Glassy Poly(ethylene oxide styrene) Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Chang; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer electrolytes have attracted attention for a wide variety of applications in energy production such as lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The concept of free volume provides important information about ion mobility and chain dynamics in the polymer matrix. Researchers have recently demonstrated that ion transport in glassy polymer can be improved by designing a system with high free volume. We have studied the effect of temperature and humidity on the intermolecular correlations of poly(ethylene oxide styrene-block-styrene) (PEOSt- b-St) block copolymer and poly(ethylene oxide styrene) (PEOSt) homopolymer using in situ multi-angle x-ray scattering across a wide range of scattering angles (q = 0.007-1.5 Å-1) . An increase in backbone-to-backbone distance is observed, indicating an increase in free volume between different polymer main chains. Structural characterization of the polymer segments will be discussed together with conductivity and dielectric results to better understand the ion transport mechanism in the local environment of the polymer system. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of the antifungal agents itraconazole, posaconazole and ketoconazole at a glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Knoth, H; Scriba, G K E; Buettner, B

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the azole antifungal agents itraconazole, posaconazole and ketoconazole has been investigated at a glassy carbon working electrode using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were carried out in a supporting electrolyte solution consisting of a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate buffers and acetonitrile at various substance concentrations and pH values. An amperometric cell with a three electrode system consisting of a working electrode, a palladium reference electrode and a platinum disk as the auxiliary electrode was used in all experiments. All azoles showed a similar electrochemical behavior involving two reactions. An irreversible oxidation occurred at potentials of about 0.5V. A reduction peak was detected at potentials between -0.28V and -0.14V with an associated oxidation peak, which was observed in consecutive repeated measurements at potentials between -0.03 and 0.28 V. The reduction and corresponding oxidation can be regarded as a quasi-reversible process. The proposed reaction mechanisms are an irreversible oxidation of the piperazine moiety at higher potentials as well as a reduction at lower potentials of the carbonyl group of the triazolone moiety in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole or a reduction of the methoxy group of ketoconazole.

  2. Construction of Au nanoparticles on choline chloride modified glassy carbon electrode for sensitive detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po; Mai, Zhibin; Dai, Zong; Li, Yongxin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-07-15

    A promising electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of nitrite was fabricated by construction of Au nanoparticles on the surface of choline chloride (Ch) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Field emission scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques were used for the surface characterization of the modified electrode. It was demonstrated that Ch was covalently immobilized onto the GCE surface forming a planted Ch monolayer, which could provide a suitable supporting material for the construction of Au nanoparticles. As a result, the Au nanoparticles with average size of about 110 nm were assembled to form a flowerlike structure on the surface of Ch monolayer. Moreover, the uniform nano-Au/Ch film exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitrite with obvious reduction of overpotential. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of nitrite was 4.0 x 10(-7) to 7.5 x 10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 0.354 microA microM(-1), and a low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-7)M. The proposed method was successfully applied in the detection of nitrite in water samples and sausage samples, and the results were consistent with those obtained by ion chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods.

  3. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Batista, Victor; Haumann, Michael; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [RuII(bda)(NO)(N–N2)2]3+, 23+ (N–N22+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid material has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpart in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOFis of 300 s–1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.

  4. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-hsin H

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  5. Singular-potential random-matrix model arising in mean-field glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Gernot; Villamaina, Dario; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2014-06-01

    We consider an invariant random matrix ensemble where the standard Gaussian potential is distorted by an additional single pole of arbitrary fixed order. Potentials with first- and second-order poles have been considered previously and found applications in quantum chaos and number theory. Here we present an application to mean-field glassy systems. We derive and solve the loop equation in the planar limit for the corresponding class of potentials. We find that the resulting mean or macroscopic spectral density is generally supported on two disconnected intervals lying on the two sides of the repulsive pole, whose edge points can be completely determined imposing the additional constraint of traceless matrices on average. For an unbounded potential with an attractive pole, we also find a possible one-cut solution for certain values of the couplings, which is ruled out when the traceless condition is imposed. Motivated by the calculation of the distribution of the spin-glass susceptibility in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model, we consider in detail a second-order pole for a zero-trace model and provide the most explicit solution in this case. In the limit of a vanishing pole, we recover the standard semicircle. Working in the planar limit, our results apply to matrices with orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic invariance. Numerical simulations and an independent analytical Coulomb fluid calculation for symmetric potentials provide an excellent confirmation of our results.

  6. Hysteresis, reentrance, and glassy dynamics in systems of self-propelled rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Blackwell, Robert; Hough, Loren E.; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Nonequilibrium active matter made up of self-driven particles with short-range repulsive interactions is a useful minimal system to study active matter as the system exhibits collective motion and nonequilibrium order-disorder transitions. We studied high-aspect-ratio self-propelled rods over a wide range of packing fractions and driving to determine the nonequilibrium state diagram and dynamic properties. Flocking and nematic-laning states occupy much of the parameter space. In the flocking state, the average internal pressure is high and structural and mechanical relaxation times are long, suggesting that rods in flocks are in a translating glassy state despite overall flock motion. In contrast, the nematic-laning state shows fluidlike behavior. The flocking state occupies regions of the state diagram at both low and high packing fraction separated by nematic-laning at low driving and a history-dependent region at higher driving; the nematic-laning state transitions to the flocking state for both compression and expansion. We propose that the laning-flocking transitions are a type of glass transition that, in contrast to other glass-forming systems, can show fluidization as density increases. The fluid internal dynamics and ballistic transport of the nematic-laning state may promote collective dynamics of rod-shaped micro-organisms.

  7. Transport effects in the electrooxidation of methanol studied on nanostructured Pt/glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Y E; Schneider, A; Jusys, Z; Wickman, B; Kasemo, B; Behm, R J

    2010-03-02

    Transport effects in the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) were investigated using nanostructured Pt/glassy carbon (GC) electrodes and, for comparison, a polycrystalline Pt electrode. The nanostructured Pt/GC electrodes, consisting of a regular array of catalytically active cylindrical Pt nanostructures with 55 +/- 10 nm in diameter and different densities supported on a planar GC substrate, were fabricated employing hole-mask colloidal lithography (HCL). The MOR measurements were performed under controlled transport conditions in a thin-layer flow cell interfaced to a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) setup. The measurements reveal a distinct variation in the MOR activity and selectivity (product distribution) with Pt nanostructure density and with electrolyte flow rate, showing an increasing overall activity, reflected by a higher Faradaic reaction current, as well as a pronounced increase of the turnover frequency for CO(2) formation and of the CO(2) current efficiency with decreasing flow rate and increasing Pt coverage. These findings are discussed in terms of the "desorption-readsorption-reaction" model introduced recently (Seidel et al. Faraday Discuss. 2008, 140, 67). Finally, consequences for applications in direct methanol fuel cells are outlined.

  8. Spinodals with Disorder: From Avalanches in Random Magnets to Glassy Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Biroli, Giulio; Tarjus, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the phenomenon of spinodals in the presence of quenched disorder and develop a complete theory for it. We focus on the spinodal of an Ising model in a quenched random field (RFIM), which has applications in many areas from materials to social science. By working at zero temperature in the quasistatically driven RFIM, thermal fluctuations are eliminated and one can give a rigorous content to the notion of spinodal. We show that the latter is due to the depinning and the subsequent expansion of rare droplets. We work out the associated critical behavior, which, in any finite dimension, is very different from the mean-field one: the characteristic length diverges exponentially and the thermodynamic quantities display very mild nonanalyticities much like in a Griffith phenomenon. From the recently established connection between the spinodal of the RFIM and glassy dynamics, our results also allow us to conclusively assess the physical content and the status of the dynamical transition predicted by the mean-field theory of glass-forming liquids.

  9. Confinement-Induced Glassy Dynamics in a Model for Chromosome Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hongsuk; Yoon, Young-Gui; Thirumalai, D.; Hyeon, Changbong

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, P (s )˜s-1 with the genomic distance s , are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of P (s ) varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosomes inside a nucleus as a homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction (ϕ ) inside the confinement approaches a critical value ϕc. The universal value of ϕc∞≈0.44 for a sufficiently long polymer (N ≫1 ) allows us to discuss genome dynamics using ϕ as the sole parameter. Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the segregated chromosome organization in humans (N ≈3 ×109, ϕ ≳ϕc∞), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast (N ≈108, ϕ <ϕc∞) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  10. Stochastic model prediction of the Kovacs' ``expansion gap'' effect for volume relaxation in glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    2015-03-01

    The classic series of experiments by A. Kovacs on volume relaxation following temperature jumps for poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, in the Tg region revealed the richness and complexity of the viscoelastic behavior of glassy materials. Over the years no theoretical model has been able to predict all the features of the Kovacs data, where the so-called ``expansion gap'' effect proved to be particularly challenging. Specifically, for a series of up-jump experiments with different initial temperatures, Ti, but with the same final temperature, as the relaxation approaches equilibrium it would be expected that the effective relaxation time would be the same regardless of Ti; however, Kovacs observed that the dependence on Ti persisted seemingly all the way to equilibrium. In this communication we will show that a recently developed Stochastic Constitutive Model (SCM) that explicitly acknowledges the nano-scale dynamic heterogeneity of glasses can capture the ``expansion gap'' as well as the rest of the Kovacs data set for PVAc. It will be shown that the success of the SCM is due to its inherent thermo-rheological complexity.

  11. Mechanisms of devitrification of grain boundary glassy phases in Si3N4 materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hench, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the grain boundary (g.b.) phases of Si3N4 are analyzed, the effects of composition and thermal history on devitrification of the g.b. phases are determined, devitrification of the g.b. phases of Si3N are related to mechanical behavior and oxidation sensitivity of the material. The phase relationships that occur within the grain boundaries of Si3N4 containing various densification aids are reviewed. Comparisons of the effects of MgO, Y2O3, CeO2, and Y2O3 + AL2O3 are made in terms of the phase equilibria of the Si3N4 + SiO2 + additive compositional system. Two new equilibrium phase diagrams for the Si3N4-SiO2 and Y2O3 and Si3N4-SiO2-Ce2O3 systems are preented. The effects of Y2O3 vs CeO2 densification aids on the fracture surfaces of Si3N4 are compared. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that both oxides are concentrated within the fracture surface. Scanning electron microscopy shows evidence that Si3N4 with CeO2 formed an intergranular structure of fine grained oxynitride reaction products, as predicted by phase quilibria, whereas the Y2O3 containing sample shows evidence of an intergranular glassy phase.

  12. Radical ions in glassy rare-earth phosphates containing various alkali modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kornienko, L.S.; Denker, B.I.; Osiko, V.V.; Rybal'tovskii, A.O.; Tikhomirov, V.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report studies the use of ESR to investigate the structural features of glassy phosphates of rare-earth elements which are widely used in quantum electronics as active laser materials. The study used alkali lanthanum phosphate glasses that were irradiated with gamma quanta from a Co/sup 60/ source in doses of 10/sup 6/-10/sup 8/ rad at liquid-nitrogen temperature and at room temperature. Under the action of gamma radiation, broad bands of additional optical absorption (BAA) arise in phosphate glass. These bands cover the UV and visible regions of the spectrum. When phosphate glasses and other inorganic compounds containing PO/sub 4/ tetrahedra are irradiated, PO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ and PO/sup 2 -//sub 3/ radicals of the phosphorus-oxygen complexes arise. The formation of either of these radicals is associated with the existence of particular structural groups in which the relationships between them is determined by the structure of the glass network.

  13. Short-Time Glassy Dynamics in Viscous Protein Solutions with Competing Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, P. Douglas; Hudson, Steven; Hong, Kunlun; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Peter; Wagner, Norman; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    Although there have been numerous investigations of the glass transition for colloidal dispersions with only a short-ranged attraction, less is understood for systems interacting with a long-ranged repulsion in addition to this attraction, which is ubiquitous in aqueous protein solutions at low ionic strength. Highly puri ed concentrated lysozyme solutions are used as a model system and investigated over a large range of protein concentrations at very low ionic strength. Newtonian liquid behavior is observed at all concentrations, even up to 480 mg/mL, where the zero shear viscosity increases by more than three orders of magnitude with increasing concentration. Remarkably, despite this macroscopic liquid-like behavior, the measurements of the dynamics in the short-time limit shows features typical of glassy colloidal systems. Investigation of the inter-protein structure indicates that the reduced short-time mobility of the protein is caused by localized regions of high density within a heterogeneous density distribution. This structural heterogeneity occurs on intermediate range length scale, driven by the competing potential features, and is distinct from commonly studied colloidal gel systems in which a heterogeneous density distribution tends to extend to the whole system. The presence of long-ranged repulsion also allows for more mobility over large length and long time scales resulting in the macroscopic relaxation of the structure. The experimental results provide evidence for the need to explicitly include intermediate range order in theories for the macroscopic properties of protein solutions interacting via competing potential features.

  14. Development of a new separation media using ultra-thin glassy carbon film modified silica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Olesik, Susan V

    2015-01-30

    A self-polymerizable octatetrayne, 1,8-dialdehydebenzyl-1,3,5,7-octatetrayne, is synthesized and covalently attached to an amino-functionalized surface of silica particles. The silica particles with a monolayer coverage of octatetrayne were then thermally processed to various final temperatures of 200, 400 and 700°C. The amino-functionalization, covalent attachment of octatetrayne and thermal process of silica particles were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermally processed particles were then packed into a capillary column and evaluated as a stationary phase for HPLC. After chromatographic evaluation, the optimized temperature for thermal processing was determined to be 400°C, which provides the best modified silica particles SiO2-OCT-T400 with an ultra-thin glassy carbon film coating. The linear solvation energy relationship model indicated that the primary contributors in retention are dispersion and H-bond basicity. The application of SiO2-OCT-T400 as a stationary phase was further demonstrated by successful separation of nonpolar hydrocarbons mixture and a nucleosides mixture.

  15. Short-Time Glassy-like Dynamics Observed in Viscous Protein Solutions with Competing Potential Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Norman; Godfrin, Doug; Liu, Yun

    Structures in concentrated protein solutions caused by the combination of short-range attraction (SA) and long-range repulsion (LR) have been extensively studied due to their importance in understanding therapeutic protein formulations and the phase behavior in general. Despite extensive studies of kinetically arrested states in colloidal systems with short-range attraction, less is understood for the effect of an additional longer-range repulsion on model colloidal systems with a SA interaction. Highly purified lysozyme is used a model experimental system due to its stable globular structure and SALR interactions at low ionic strength that can be quantitatively modeled. The fluid microstructure and protein short time self diffusion are measured across a broad range of conditions by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE), respectively. Newtonian liquid behavior is observed at all concentrations, even with an increase of zero shear viscosity by almost four orders of magnitude with increasing concentration. However, dynamic measurements demonstrate a sub-diffusive regime at relatively short time scales for concentrated samples at low temperature. The formation of a heterogeneous density distribution is shown to produce localized regions of high density that reduce protein motion, giving it a glassy-like behavior at the short time scale. This heterogeneity occurs at the length scale associated with the intermediate range order driven by the competing potential features, distinguishable from heterogeneous colloidal gels.

  16. Corrosion of glassy carbon neural electrodes under electrical stimulation and chemical exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Nick Thomas

    Advances in research of neural prosthetics have led to the development of novel materials used for neural stimulation applications. Glassy carbon (GC) has demonstrated promise as a novel and robust material that can be used in such applications. This study focused on reporting the in-vitro testing of GC microelectrodes under stimulation and chemical exposure to simulate an in-vivo environment, and to determine corrosion. Microelectrode arrays were fabricated and tested for an electrochemical (EC) setup for long-term corrosion tests. GC electrode pillars were used to test the testing apparatus, and confirm its ability to stimulate the GC microelectrodes. Electrode stimulation was conducted over 7 and 14 day time periods in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with two different types of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), USP and ACS. Corrosion of GC neural microelectrode arrays was monitored by physical, chemical, and electrochemical characterization methods. GC corrosion was characterized and evaluated over the duration of this study. Both GC and platinum microelectrode arrays were subjected to the same parameters. USP H2O2 did not corrode GC electrodes and characterization revealed that a protective layer can be preventing further electrode degradation. ACS H2O2 corroded GC electrodes. Implications of this work have given insights and new directions on testing neural prosthetic microelectrode arrays for stimulation applications.

  17. Ion Beam Optimized Mechanical Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M.G.; Cruz, N.C. da; Rangel, E.C.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Ila, D.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    2003-08-26

    Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) has medical applications owing to its inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Commercial GPC prosthetics include mitral, aortic and hydrocephalic valves. Surface treatment of GPC increases the adhesion of endothelic tissue on GPC and avoids the occurrence of thrombus in cardiac implant. In this work, ion beam was used to improve the mechanical characteristics of GPC surface. Hardness was measured as a function of depth in precursor and GPC samples heat treated from 300 to 2500 deg. C before and after bombardment with energetic ions of silicon, carbon, oxygen and gold at energies of 5, 6, 8 and 10 MeV and fluences between 1.0x1013 and 1.0x1016 ions/cm2. Comparison shows that hardness increases of the bombarded samples depend on heat treatment temperature. We verify that ion bombardment promotes carbonization due to an increased linkage between the chains of the polymeric material in lateral groups that are more numerous for samples heat treated to 700 deg. C.

  18. Electrocatalytic behaviour and application of manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle- surface modified glassy carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebarchievici, I.; Tăranu, B. O.; Birdeanu, M.; Rus, S. F.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to obtain manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes and to use them for the detection of H2O2. Two sets of modified electrodes were prepared by drop-cast deposition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methyl-phenyl)porphyrinato manganese(III) chloride alone and of the same Mn-porphyrin and gold-colloid solution and comparatively characterized by Raman, UV-vis, ellipsometry, AFM and TEM microscopy, XPS and cyclic voltammetry. XPS spectrum recorded for GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode displayed the characteristic signals of gold nanoparticles. The optical parameters have greater values for GC_MnP_nAu in comparison with GC_MnP, due to increasing charge transfer efficiency. The MnP_nAu film mediates the electron transfer between H2O2 and GC, evidenced by an increase in the current intensity of the anodic peak, and facilitates the electrochemical regeneration of oxidized H2O2 at cathodic potentials. From the cyclic voltammetry experiments a linear relationship between H2O2 concentration vs oxidation and reduction currents was observed. The linear dependence between density of current and the square root of the scan rate indicates that the oxidation and reduction processes of H2O2 are diffusion controlled. The GC_MnP_nAu modified electrode shows great potential as electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Hysteresis, reentrance, and glassy dynamics in systems of self-propelled rods

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Blackwell, Robert; Hough, Loren E.; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium active matter made up of self-driven particles with short-range repulsive interactions is a useful minimal system to study active matter as the system exhibits collective motion and nonequilibrium order-disorder transitions. We studied high-aspect-ratio self-propelled rods over a wide range of packing fractions and driving to determine the nonequilibrium state diagram and dynamic properties. Flocking and nematic-laning states occupy much of the parameter space. In the flocking state, the average internal pressure is high and structural and mechanical relaxation times are long, suggesting that rods in flocks are in a translating glassy state despite overall flock motion. In contrast, the nematic-laning state shows fluidlike behavior. The flocking state occupies regions of the state diagram at both low and high packing fraction separated by nematic-laning at low driving and a history-dependent region at higher driving; the nematic-laning state transitions to the flocking state for both compression and expansion. We propose that the laning-flocking transitions are a type of glass transition that, in contrast to other glass-forming systems, can show fluidization as density increases. The fluid internal dynamics and ballistic transport of the nematic-laning state may promote collective dynamics of rod-shaped micro-organisms. PMID:26764616

  20. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; ...

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [RuII(bda)(NO)(N–N2)2]3+, 23+ (N–N22+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid material has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpartmore » in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOFis of 300 s–1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.« less

  1. Highly Uniform and Reproducible Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on Air-stable Metallic Glassy Nanowire Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue; Shao, Yang; Tang, Yao; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanostructures with both high sensitivity as well as high reproducibility has always been difficult and costly for routine SERS detection. Here we demonstrate air-stable metallic glassy nanowire arrays (MGNWAs), which were prepared by a cheap and rapid die nanoimprinting technique, could exhibit high SERS enhancement factor (EF) as well as excellent reproducibility. It shows that Pd40.5Ni40.5P19 MGNWA with nanowires of 55 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch possesses high SERS activity with an EF of 1.1 × 105, which is 1–3 orders of magnitudes higher than that of the reported crystal Ni-based nanostructures, and an excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 9.60% measured by 121 points over an area of 100 μm*100 μm. This method offers an easy, rapid, and low-cost way to prepare highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates and makes the SERS more practicable. PMID:25060646

  2. Super-rough glassy phase of the random field XY model in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Perret, Anthony; Ristivojevic, Zoran; Le Doussal, Pierre; Schehr, Grégory; Wiese, Kay J

    2012-10-12

    We study both analytically, using the renormalization group (RG) to two loop order, and numerically, using an exact polynomial algorithm, the disorder-induced glass phase of the two-dimensional XY model with quenched random symmetry-breaking fields and without vortices. In the super-rough glassy phase, i.e., below the critical temperature T(c), the disorder and thermally averaged correlation function B(r) of the phase field θ(x), B(r)=([θ(x)-θ(x+r)](2)) behaves, for r > a, as B(r) is approximately equal to A(τ)ln(2)(r/a) where r=|r| and a is a microscopic length scale. We derive the RG equations up to cubic order in τ=(T(c)-T)/T(c) and predict the universal amplitude A(τ)=2τ(2)-2τ(3)+O(τ(4)). The universality of A(τ) results from nontrivial cancellations between nonuniversal constants of RG equations. Using an exact polynomial algorithm on an equivalent dimer version of the model we compute A(τ) numerically and obtain a remarkable agreement with our analytical prediction, up to τ≈0.5.

  3. Voltammetric determination of 4-nitrophenol at a sodium montmorillonite-anthraquinone chemically modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Xu, C; Wang, G; Cui, D

    2001-03-30

    A new method for the determination of 4-nitrophenol(4-NP) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) based on adsorptive stripping technique was described. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear scan voltammetry (LSV) were used in a comparative investigation into the electrochemical reduction of 4-NP at a Na-montmorillonite(SWy-2) and anthraquione (AQ) modified glassy carbon electrode. With this chemically modified electrode, 4-NP was first irreversibly reduced from phiNO(2) to phiNHOH at -0.78 V. A couple of well-defined redox peaks at +0.22 V (vs. SCE) were responsible for a two-electron redox peak between phiNHOH and phiNO. Studies on the effect of pH on the peak height and peak potential were carried out over the pH range 2.0-9.0 with the phosphate buffer solution. A pH of 3.4 was chosen as the optimum pH. The other experimental parameters, such as film thickness, accumulation time and potential etc. were optimized. Anodic peak currents were found to be linearly related to concentration of 4-NP over the range 0.3-45 mg l(-1), with a detection limit of 0.02 mg l(-1). The interference of organic and inorganic species on the voltammetric response have been studied. This modified electrode can be used to the determination of 4-NP in water samples.

  4. Structural Modifications And Mechanical Degradation Of Ion Irradiated Glassy Polymer Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Abunaemeh, Malek; Ila, Daryush; Seif, Mohamed; Elsamadicy, Abdalla; Muntele, Claudiu

    2011-06-01

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. GPC is used for artificial heart valves, heat-exchangers, and other high-tech products developed for the space and medical industries. This lightweight material can maintain dimensional and chemical stability in adverse environment and very high temperatures (up to 3000 deg. C). In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Ag equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) at samples prepared at 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg. C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A and M University. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used for analysis.

  5. Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Elastomeric Multiblock Terpolymers Containing Glassy, Rubbery, and Semicrystalline Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Feng; Alfonzo, C. Guillermo; Bates, Frank S.

    2012-11-14

    Multiblock copolymers containing glassy poly(cyclohexylethylene) (C), rubbery poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (P), and semicrystalline poly(ethylene) (E) were synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene, isoprene, and butadiene followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The resulting CECPCEC (denoted XPX) and CECP (XP) multiblock copolymers each contain 50 vol % of P and equal amounts of C and E. These materials have been studied by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile deformation to characterize the morphology, phase behavior, and mechanical properties. Microphase separation in these compounds is induced by crystallization of E and/or chemical incompatibility between the three blocks, leading to a new type of morphology which contains continuous region of P and continuous region of microphase-separated X, resulting in mechanically resilient materials. High molecular weight block copolymers microphase separate with two different length scales associated with segregation between C and E and X and P. These structural features produce a nonclassical scaling relationship for the C-E domain spacing, d {approx} N{sup 0.31}, where N is the degree of polymerization of CEC portion. The role of semicrystalline E domains during uniaxial deformation has been exposed with WAXS experiments, which support a two-step mechanism involving recoverable and nonrecoverable deformation to different extents. Strain hardening is observed in double-anchored XPX, but not in single-anchored XP, at large tensile strains.

  6. Structural Modifications And Mechanical Degradation Of Ion Irradiated Glassy Polymer Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunaemeh, Malek; Seif, Mohamed; Elsamadicy, Abdalla; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2011-06-01

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. GPC is used for artificial heart valves, heat-exchangers, and other high-tech products developed for the space and medical industries. This lightweight material can maintain dimensional and chemical stability in adverse environment and very high temperatures (up to 3000 °C). In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Ag equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) at samples prepared at 1000, 1500 and 2000 °C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used for analysis.

  7. Preparation of aminylferrocene/nanogold modified glassy carbon electrode and its electrocatalysis on dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Guangfeng; Jiao, Shoufeng; Guo, Zhihua; Fang, Bin

    2007-01-01

    Aminylferrocene(FcAI)-Nanogold(NG) modified glassy carbon electrode (FcAI/NG/GCE) was prepared by the Au-N bond between Au and FcAI. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to study the surface of the modified electrode. The electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) on the modified electrode was investigated and it was found that the modified electrode had an obvious electrocatalytic effect on DA. Compared with a bare GCE, the modified electrode exhibited an apparent shift of the oxidation peak potential in the negative potential direction and a marked enhancement in the current response for DA. We investigated the determination of DA on the modified electrode by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 7.0 x 10(-7) mol/L to 6x10(-4) mol/L of DA in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of DA was estimated to be 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L. Especially, by using the modified electrode, we can separate the oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid (AA) and DA in the PBS and it was satisfactory for the determination of DA with the interference of AA.

  8. Spinodals with Disorder: From Avalanches in Random Magnets to Glassy Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Biroli, Giulio; Tarjus, Gilles

    2016-04-08

    We revisit the phenomenon of spinodals in the presence of quenched disorder and develop a complete theory for it. We focus on the spinodal of an Ising model in a quenched random field (RFIM), which has applications in many areas from materials to social science. By working at zero temperature in the quasistatically driven RFIM, thermal fluctuations are eliminated and one can give a rigorous content to the notion of spinodal. We show that the latter is due to the depinning and the subsequent expansion of rare droplets. We work out the associated critical behavior, which, in any finite dimension, is very different from the mean-field one: the characteristic length diverges exponentially and the thermodynamic quantities display very mild nonanalyticities much like in a Griffith phenomenon. From the recently established connection between the spinodal of the RFIM and glassy dynamics, our results also allow us to conclusively assess the physical content and the status of the dynamical transition predicted by the mean-field theory of glass-forming liquids.

  9. Singular-potential random-matrix model arising in mean-field glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Villamaina, Dario; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2014-06-01

    We consider an invariant random matrix ensemble where the standard Gaussian potential is distorted by an additional single pole of arbitrary fixed order. Potentials with first- and second-order poles have been considered previously and found applications in quantum chaos and number theory. Here we present an application to mean-field glassy systems. We derive and solve the loop equation in the planar limit for the corresponding class of potentials. We find that the resulting mean or macroscopic spectral density is generally supported on two disconnected intervals lying on the two sides of the repulsive pole, whose edge points can be completely determined imposing the additional constraint of traceless matrices on average. For an unbounded potential with an attractive pole, we also find a possible one-cut solution for certain values of the couplings, which is ruled out when the traceless condition is imposed. Motivated by the calculation of the distribution of the spin-glass susceptibility in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model, we consider in detail a second-order pole for a zero-trace model and provide the most explicit solution in this case. In the limit of a vanishing pole, we recover the standard semicircle. Working in the planar limit, our results apply to matrices with orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic invariance. Numerical simulations and an independent analytical Coulomb fluid calculation for symmetric potentials provide an excellent confirmation of our results.

  10. Electrochemical investigation of methyl parathion at gold-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunya; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqin

    2011-01-01

    A gold/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Au/SDBS/GCE) was electrochemically fabricated with a constant potential at -0.4V. The obtained nano-Au/SDBS/GCE was characterized with scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical behaviors of methyl parathion at the nano-Au/SDBS/GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the peak current obviously increased and the oxidation peak potential negatively shifted. These changes indicated that the composite nanoparticles possess good electrocatalytic performance on the electrochemical reaction of methyl parathion. Experimental parameters such as deposition time, pH value and accumulation conditions were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxylamine group was found in a good linear relationship with the methyl parathion concentration. In addition, a calibration curve with excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) with an estimated detection limit of 8.6×10(-8)molL(-1) (S/N=3). The successful determination of methyl parathion in real samples demonstrated the usefulness and potential applications of this method.

  11. Evaluation of DC-sputtered Glassy TaCoN Thin Film for Copper Metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jau-Shiung; Ke, Min-Li; Chen, Hui-Chien

    2007-11-01

    The failure mechanism of the TaCoN barrier for copper metallization was examined using films by direct current (dc) magnetron reactive sputtering at various nitrogen flow rates. The as-deposited TaCoN films had a glassy structure and were free from intermetallic compounds. Optimizing the nitrogen flow rate during sputtering maximized the thermal stability of the Si/Ta66.8Co11.4N21.8/Cu metallization system up to an annealing temperature of 750°C when the film was deposited using a nitrogen flow rate of 1 sccm, as revealed by using X-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, a four-point probe and a transmission electron microscope. Structural analysis indicated that the failure mechanisms of the studied Si/TaCoN/Cu stacked films involved the initial dissociation of the barrier layer that was annealed at a specific temperature, and the subsequent formation of diffusion paths along which the copper penetrates through the TaCoN barrier layer to react with underlying Si. The high formation temperature of the Cu3Si phase demonstrated that the studied film was highly stable, indicating that the TaCoN thin film is highly promising for use as a diffusion barrier for Cu metallization.

  12. Characterization of cell lines developed from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Kamita, Shizuo G; Do, Zung N; Samra, Aman I; Hagler, James R; Hammock, Bruce D

    2005-01-01

    Four continuous cell lines were established from the embryos of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), an economically important insect vector of bacterial pathogens of grape, almond, citrus, oleander, and other agricultural and ornamental plantings. The cell lines were designated GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH. The GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, and GWSS-G3 lines were cultured in Ex-Cell 401 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), whereas the GWSS-LH line was cultured in LH medium supplemented with 20% FBS. The cell lines were characterized in terms of their morphology, growth, protein composition, and polymerase chain reaction- amplification patterns of their chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. The population doubling times of GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH were 46.2, 90.9, 100.3, and 60.2 h, respectively. These lines should be useful for the study of insect-pathogenic viruses of leafhoppers, aphids, treehoppers, and other related insects as well as plant-pathogenic viruses that are transmitted by these insects.

  13. Evolution of glassy gratings with variable aspect ratios under surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malshe, Rohit; Ediger, M. D.; Yu, Lian; de Pablo, J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The structural evolution of surface gratings on a glassy material is investigated by means of molecular simulations. The gratings provide a means to probe surface diffusion in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature. A theory by Mullins [J. Appl. Phys. 30, 77 (1959)], 10.1063/1.1734979 is used to extract qu-antitative measures of surface diffusivity that rely on calculation of grating amplitude as a function of time. The simulations are implemented in the context of a model binary glass mixture [S. S. Ashwin and S. Sastry, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, S1253 (2003), 10.1088/0953-8984/15/11/343]. We find that surface diffusion is faster than bulk diffusion by several orders of magnitude, consistent with recent experimental data for an organic glass former. The diffusivities extracted by the grating-decay approach are consistent with those estimated on the basis of mean-squared particle displacements. The grating-decay approach, however, is more efficient than traditional techniques based on Einstein's diffusion equation. Grating decay is also more versatile and is shown to be applicable in a variety of sample geometries.

  14. Enhanced electrochemical detection of ketorolac tromethamine at polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Senthil Kumar, Nagarajan; Renukadevi, Murugesan; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Vasudevan, Thiyagarajan; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2007-04-01

    A glassy carbon electrode modified with a coating of polypyrrole (Ppy) exhibited an attractive performance for the detection and determination of a non-steroidal and non-narcotic analgesic compound, ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry were used in a combined way to identify the electrochemical characteristics and to optimize the conditions for detection. For calibrating and estimating KT, square-wave voltammetry was mainly used. The drug shows a well-defined peak at -1.40 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the acetate buffer (pH 5.5). The existence of Ppy on the surface of the electrode gives higher electrochemical active sites at the electrode for the detection of KT and preconcentrate KT by adsorption. The square-wave stripping voltammetric response depends on the excitation signal and the accumulation time. The calibration curve is linear in the range 1 x 10(-11) to 1 x 10(-7) M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-12) M. Applicability to serum samples was also demonstrated. A detection limit of 1.0 ng ml for serum was observed. Square-wave voltammetry shows superior performance over UV spectroscopy and other techniques.

  15. Real Space Migdal-Kadanoff Renormalisation of Glassy Systems: Recent Results and a Critical Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2017-03-01

    In this manuscript, in honour of L. Kadanoff, we present recent progress obtained in the description of finite dimensional glassy systems thanks to the Migdal-Kadanoff renormalisation group (MK-RG). We provide a critical assessment of the method, in particular discuss its limitation in describing situations in which an infinite number of pure states might be present, and analyse the MK-RG flow in the limit of infinite dimensions. MK-RG predicts that the spin-glass transition in a field and the glass transition are governed by zero-temperature fixed points of the renormalization group flow. This implies a typical energy scale that grows, approaching the transition, as a power of the correlation length, thus leading to enormously large time-scales as expected from experiments and simulations. These fixed points exist only in dimensions larger than d_L>3 but they nevertheless influence the RG flow below it, in particular in three dimensions. MK-RG thus predicts a similar behavior for spin-glasses in a field and models of glasses and relates it to the presence of avoided critical points.

  16. Crystallization Kinetics of Fe76.5-x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x (x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyo Yun; Stoica, Mihai; Yi, Seonghoon; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    The influence of Cu on crystallization kinetics of Fe76.5-x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x (x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) bulk amorphous alloys was investigated by isothermal and isochronal differential scanning calorimetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The thermal analysis revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous matrix proceeds through at least two exothermic events. The Cu-free glassy alloy forms by primary crystallization the metastable Fe23C6 phase, while upon 0.5 at. pct Cu addition the primary crystallized phase is α-Fe. The activation energy for crystallization, calculated using both Kissinger and Ozawa methods, decreases from about 500 kJ/mol to about 330 kJ/mol. Further increase of Cu addition to 1 at. pct promotes the concomitant crystallization of several phases, as α-Fe, FeB, Fe3C, and Fe2P. In order to understand the crystallization behavior of the alloys as a function of Cu content, the Avrami exponent n, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, was in details analyzed. The current study reveals that the minor Cu addition plays a crucial role at the initial stage of the crystallization. Among the studied alloys, the glassy samples with 0.5 at. pct Cu addition have the optimum compositional condition for the single α-Fe formation with a high nucleation rate.

  17. Crystallization Kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyo Yun; Stoica, Mihai; Yi, Seonghoon; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The influence of Cu on crystallization kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) bulk amorphous alloys was investigated by isothermal and isochronal differential scanning calorimetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The thermal analysis revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous matrix proceeds through at least two exothermic events. The Cu-free glassy alloy forms by primary crystallization the metastable Fe23C6 phase, while upon 0.5 at. pct Cu addition the primary crystallized phase is α-Fe. The activation energy for crystallization, calculated using both Kissinger and Ozawa methods, decreases from about 500 kJ/mol to about 330 kJ/mol. Further increase of Cu addition to 1 at. pct promotes the concomitant crystallization of several phases, as α-Fe, FeB, Fe3C, and Fe2P. In order to understand the crystallization behavior of the alloys as a function of Cu content, the Avrami exponent n, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, was in details analyzed. The current study reveals that the minor Cu addition plays a crucial role at the initial stage of the crystallization. Among the studied alloys, the glassy samples with 0.5 at. pct Cu addition have the optimum compositional condition for the single α-Fe formation with a high nucleation rate.

  18. Effect of minor Cu addition on phase evolution and magnetic properties of {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96Nb0.04}100-x Cux alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2009-01-01

    {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96Nb0.04}100-xCux (x = 0, 1, 1.5 and 2) alloys with different rapid solidification conditions were prepared by copper mold casting and melt spinning. The structures, the thermal and the magnetic properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. Minor Cu addition obviously depresses the glass-forming ability of the alloys (critical glassy diameter dc < 1 mm) compared with [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]96 Nb4 (dc = 3 mm). The effect of Cu addition on the evolution of crystalline phases corresponding to different rapid solidification conditions was evaluated. The existence of (Fe,Co), (Fe,Co)3B, (Fe,Co)2B and (Fe,Co)23B6 crystalline phases in {[(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75Si0.05B0.20]0.96 Nb0.04}100-x Cux alloys influences the saturation magnetization compared with the corresponding glassy alloys.

  19. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  20. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  1. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  2. Tissue Response to Base-Metal Dental Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), *CASTING ALLOYS, *BASE METAL, * DENTAL PROSTHESES, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), COMPATIBILITY, NICKEL ALLOYS, BERYLLIUM, DENTISTRY, CANCER, HISTOLOGY, DENTAL IMPLANTOLOGY , COBALT ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS.

  3. Finding the Alloy Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus L. W.; Nelson, Lance J.; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2012-10-01

    First-principles codes can nowadays provide hundreds of high-fidelity enthalpies on thousands of alloy systems with a modest investment of a few tens of millions of CPU hours. But a mere database of enthalpies provides only the starting point for uncovering the ``alloy genome.'' What one needs to fundamentally change alloy discovery and design are complete searches over candidate structures (not just hundreds of known experimental phases) and models that can be used to simulate both kinetics and thermodynamics. Despite more than a decade of effort by many groups, developing robust models for these simulations is still a human-time-intensive endeavor. Compressive sensing solves this problem in dramatic fashion by automatically extracting the ``sparse model'' of an alloy in only minutes. This new paradigm to model building has enabled a new framework that will uncover, automatically and in a general way across the periodic table, the important components of such models and reveal the underlying ``genome'' of alloy physics.

  4. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  5. Aluminum alloys with improved strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiasi, R.; Adler, P.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical strength and stress corrosion of new BAR and 7050 alloys that include Zn instead of Cr have been studied and compared with those of 7075 aluminum alloy. Added mechanical strength of new alloys is attributed to finer grain size of 5 to 8 micrometers, however, susceptibility to stress corrosion attack is increased.

  6. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  7. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  8. Impeded ice nucleation in glassy and highly viscous aerosol particles: the role of water diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.; Zobrist, B.; Krieger, U. K.; Luo, B. P.; Soonsin, V.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2010-05-01

    are therefore likely to form glasses in the upper troposphere. If aerosol particles are highly viscous or glassy, the equality between relative humidity of an air mass and water activity of the contained particles is no longer fulfilled because water diffusion within the particles is too slow to follow RH changes in the atmosphere. There is a lack of literature data for water diffusion within organic glasses at low temperatures. We therefore measured hygroscopicity cycles of aerosol particles with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at temperatures between 220 - 291 K and developed a microphysical model to calculate diffusion coefficients of water within the particles based on the EDB results together with available literature data. As model substance we chose sucrose, a substance that has been identified in biomass burning aerosols and may represent the high molecular weight constituents of the organic aerosol fraction. We indeed observed a hysteresis between water uptake and release for levitated sucrose particles that is due to slow water diffusion within the glassy particle and can be used to derive water diffusion coefficients at low temperatures with our microphysical model.

  9. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  10. Novel Cholesteric Glassy Liquid Crystals Comprising Benzene Functionalized with Hybrid Chiral-Nematic Mesogens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Marshall, K L; Wallace, J U; Ou, J J; Chen, S H

    2010-03-12

    With 4-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl benzoate nematogens chemically bonded to a benzene core via enantiomeric 2-methylpropyl spacers, a new series of cholesteric glassy liquid crystals has been synthesized for an investigation of structure-property relationships. Glass-forming ability, phase-transition temperatures, and stability against crystallization are affected by both the number and the position of substituent groups on the benzene ring with 1,3,5-trisubstituted system possessing the most favorable set of properties, Tg at 73 °C and Tc at 295 °C. With (S)-3-bromo-2-methylpropanol as the chiral precursor, left-handed helical stacking was observed for all the cholesteric GLCs reported herein. Films of the 1,3,5-trisubstituted and meta-disubstituted systems show a selective reflection wavelength, λR, at 413 and 422 nm, respectively, whereas that of the ortho-isomer exhibits a λR at 860 nm. Replacing one of the hybrid chiral-nematic mesogen in the 1,3,5-trisubstituted system by a nematogen loosens the helical pitch to yield a λR at 630 nm, still shorter than that of the ortho-isomer despite the dilution by a nematogen. This observation suggests the importance of regioisomerism to helical twisting. The difference in λR was interpreted in terms of molecular packing involving chiral spacers through computational chemistry. The susceptibility of cholesteric GLCs to photoalignment was tested using the ortho-isomer. The degree of photoalignment improves with an increasing rotational mobility of pendant coumarin monomers to an extent comparable to mechanical alignment on conventional rubbed polyimide films.

  11. A new Phytoreovirus infecting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)

    SciTech Connect

    Stenger, Drake C.; Sisterson, Mark S.; Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A.; Hunter, Wayne B.

    2009-04-10

    A new virus species of the genus Phytoreovirus was isolated from glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California and designated here as Homalodisca vitripennis reovirus (HoVRV). Extraction of nucleic acid from GWSS adults collected from three Californian populations revealed an array of double-stranded (ds) RNA species that was soluble in 2 M LiCl and resistant to degradation upon exposure to S1 nuclease and DNase. Analysis of nucleic acid samples from single GWSS adults indicated that HoVRV dsRNA accumulated to high titer in individual insects. Double-shelled isometric virus particles purified from GWSS adults resembled those observed in thin sections of GWSS salivary glands by transmission electron microscopy. Purified HoVRV virions contained 12 dsRNA segments that, based on complete nucleotide sequences, ranged in size from 4475 to 1040 bp. Sequence comparisons indicated that the HoVRV dsRNA segments were most closely related (58.5 to 43.7% nt sequence identity) to the corresponding genome segments of Rice dwarf virus (RDV). Each HoVRV dsRNA segment encoded a single open reading frame (> 300 nts) except for segment 11, which appears to be dicistronic. Terminal nucleotide sequences of HoVRV positive-sense RNAs were similar to other phytoreoviruses (GGCG or GGCA at the 5'-end and UGAU or CGAU at the 3'-end) with adjacent imperfect inverted repeats potentially able to base pair. Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-directed RNA polymerase (encoded by segment 1) and the outer capsid protein (encoded by segment 8) confirmed placement of HoVRV as a species of the genus Phytoreovirus sharing a most recent common ancestor with RDV. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that HoVRV infection of GWSS in California was common and that the virus also occurred in GWSS populations from the Carolinas and Texas.

  12. Dielectric study of the structure of hyperquenched glassy water and its crystallized forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin

    1992-10-01

    The dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of hyperquenched glassy water (HGW) have been measured for fixed frequencies of 1 and 10 kHz from 80 K to its crystallization temperature and corresponding measurements have been made of the crystallized forms. The effect of thermal cycling has been investigated. Except for a shoulder at T

  13. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Lujun; Gong, Jiemin; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS) and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE) in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3), with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  14. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. G.; Da Cruz, N. C.; Rangel, E. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Ila, Dr. Daryush; Poker, David B; Hensley, Dale K

    2005-01-01

    Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) is a useful material for medical applications due to its chemical inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Mitral and aortic and hydrocephalic valves are examples of GPC prosthetic devices that have been fabricated and commercialized in Brazil. In this work, ion beam was used to improve the mechanical characteristics of GPC surface and therefore to avoid the propagation of microcracks where the cardiac valves are more fragile. A control group of phenolic resin samples heat-treated at 300, 400, 700, 1000, 1500, and 2500 C was characterized by measuring their hardness and Young's reduced elastic modulus with the depth of indentation. The control group was compared to results obtained with samples heat-treated at 700, 1000, and 1500 C and bombarded with energetic ions of silicon, carbon, oxygen, and gold at energies of 5, 6, 8, and 10 MeV, respectively, with fluences between 1.0 x 10{sup 13} and 1.0 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. GPC nonbombarded samples showed that hardness depends on the heat treatment temperature (HTT), with a maximum hardness for heat treatment at 1000 C. The comparison between the control group and bombarded group also showed that hardness, after bombardment, had a greater increase for samples prepared at 700 C than for samples prepared at higher temperatures. The Young's elastic modulus presents an exponential relationship with depth. The parameters obtained by fitting depend on the HTT and on the ion used in the bombardment more than on energy and fluence. The hardness results show clearly that bombardment can promote carbonization, increase the linkage between the chains of the polymeric material, and promote recombination of broken bonds in lateral groups that are more numerous for samples heat-treated at 700 C.

  15. Short-Time Glassy Dynamics in Viscous Protein Solutions with Competing Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Godfrin, P. Douglas; Hudson, Steven; Hong, Kunlun; ...

    2015-11-24

    Although there have been numerous investigations of the glass transition for colloidal dispersions with only a short-ranged attraction, less is understood for systems interacting with a long-ranged repulsion in addition to this attraction, which is ubiquitous in aqueous protein solutions at low ionic strength. Highly puri ed concentrated lysozyme solutions are used as a model system and investigated over a large range of protein concentrations at very low ionic strength. Newtonian liquid behavior is observed at all concentrations, even up to 480 mg/mL, where the zero shear viscosity increases by more than three orders of magnitude with increasing concentration. Remarkably,more » despite this macroscopic liquid-like behavior, the measurements of the dynamics in the short-time limit shows features typical of glassy colloidal systems. Investigation of the inter-protein structure indicates that the reduced short-time mobility of the protein is caused by localized regions of high density within a heterogeneous density distribution. This structural heterogeneity occurs on intermediate range length scale, driven by the competing potential features, and is distinct from commonly studied colloidal gel systems in which a heterogeneous density distribution tends to extend to the whole system. The presence of long-ranged repulsion also allows for more mobility over large length and long time scales resulting in the macroscopic relaxation of the structure. The experimental results provide evidence for the need to explicitly include intermediate range order in theories for the macroscopic properties of protein solutions interacting via competing potential features.« less

  16. Glassy properties and viscous slowing down: An analysis of the correlation between nonergodicity factor and fragility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine; Dalle-Ferrier, Cécile; Giordano, Valentina M.; Monaco, Giulio; Frick, Bernhard; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2008-11-01

    We present an extensive analysis of the proposed relationship [T. Scopigno et al., Science 302, 849 (2003)] between the fragility of glass-forming liquids and the nonergodicity factor as measured by inelastic x-ray scattering. We test the robustness of the correlation through the investigation of the relative change under pressure of the speed of sound, nonergodicity factor, and broadening of the acoustic exitations of a molecular glass former, cumene, and of a polymer, polyisobutylene. For polyisobutylene, we also perform a similar study by varying its molecular weight. Moreover, we have included new results on liquids presenting an exceptionally high fragility index m under ambient conditions. We show that the linear relation, proposed by Scopigno et al. [Science 302, 849 (2003)] between fragility, measured in the liquid state, and the slope α of the inverse nonergodicity factor as a function of T /Tg, measured in the glassy state, is not verified when increasing the data base. In particular, while there is still a trend in the suggested direction at atmospheric pressure, its consistency is not maintained by introducing pressure as an extra control parameter modifying the fragility: whatever is the variation in the isobaric fragility, the inverse nonergodicity factor increases or remains constant within the error bars, and one observes a systematic increase in the slope α when the temperature is scaled by Tg(P). To avoid any particular aspects that might cause the relation to fail, we have replaced the fragility by other related properties often evoked, e.g., thermodynamic fragility, for the understanding of its concept. Moreover, we find, as previously proposed by two of us [K. Niss and C. Alba-Simionesco, Phys. Rev. B 74, 024205 (2006)], that the nonergodicity factor evaluated at the glass transition qualitatively reflects the effect of density on the relaxation time even though in this case no clear quantitative correlations appear.

  17. Molecular Simulations of Hydrogen Bond Cluster Size and Reorientation Dynamics in Liquid and Glassy Azole Systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qinfang; Harvey, Jacob A; Greco, Katharine V; Auerbach, Scott M

    2016-10-06

    We simulated the dynamics of azole groups (pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole) as neat liquids and tethered via linkers to aliphatic backbones to determine how tethering and varying functional groups affect hydrogen bond networks and reorientation dynamics, both factors which are thought to influence proton conduction. We used the DL_Poly_2 molecular dynamics code with the GAFF force field to simulate tethered systems over the temperature range 200-900 K and the corresponding neat liquids under liquid state temperatures at standard pressure. We computed hydrogen bond cluster sizes; orientational order parameters; orientational correlation functions associated with functional groups, linkers, and backbones; time scales; and activation energies associated with orientational randomization. All tethered systems exhibit a liquid to glassy-solid transition upon cooling from 600 to 500 K, as evidenced by orientational order parameters and correlation functions. Tethering the azoles was generally found to produce hydrogen bond cluster sizes similar to those in untethered liquids and hydrogen bond lifetimes longer than those in liquids. The simulated rates of functional group reorientation decreased dramatically upon tethering. The activation energies associated with orientational randomization agree well with NMR data for tethered imidazole systems at lower temperatures and for tethered 1,2,3-triazole systems at both low- and high-temperature ranges. Overall, our simulations corroborate the notion that tethering functional groups dramatically slows the process of reorientation. We found a linear correlation between gas-phase hydrogen bond energies and tethered functional group reorientation barriers for all azoles except for imidazole, which acts as an outlier because of both atomic charges and molecular structure.

  18. The glassy and supercooled state of elemental sulfur: vibrational modes, structure metastability, and polymer content.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, K S; Kalampounias, A G; Falagara, O; Yannopoulos, S N

    2013-09-28

    We report a detailed investigation of vibrational modes, structure, and dynamics of elemental sulfur in the glassy and the supercooled state, using Raman scattering and ab initio calculations. Polarized Raman spectra are recorded--for sulfur quenched from 473 K--over a broad temperature range from 93 K to 273 K where the supercooled liquid crystallized. The temperature induced shifts of the majority of the vibrational modes are determined and compared with the corresponding ones of crystalline sulfur. Analysis of the reduced isotropic spectra showed that the structure of the quenched product is composed of eight member rings (S8) and polymeric chains (Sμ) with a relative fraction comparable to that of the parent liquid at 473 K. Low temperature spectra, where spectral line broadening due to thermal effects is limited, revealed that two different polymeric species are present in the glass with distinct vibrational frequencies. Their interpretation was assisted by ab initio calculations used to simulate the vibrational frequencies of polymeric chains S(8k) (k = 1, ..., 7). Theoretical results exhibit an increasing breathing mode frequency for sulfur chains up to k = 2, although it remains constant beyond the above value. The polymeric content is metastable; heating the glass above its glass transition temperature, T(g), destabilizes the chains and drives them back to the more thermodynamically stable rings. This bond interchange mechanism provides the structural origin of a secondary relaxation process in supercooled sulfur reported long ago, which has been also considered as a complication in the correct fragility estimation of this material. Finally, the Boson peak of the glass was found to exhibit strong temperature dependence even at temperatures below T(g).

  19. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Transcriptome of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)

    PubMed Central

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Falk, Bryce W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The functional complexity of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis has not been elucidated thus far. It is a necessary blueprint for an understanding of the development of H. vitripennis and for designing efficient biorational control strategies including those based on RNA interference. Results Here we elucidate and explore the transcriptome of adult H. vitripennis using high-throughput paired end deep sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 32,803,656 paired-end reads were obtained with an average transcript length of 624 nucleotides. We assembled 32.9 Mb of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis that spanned across 47,265 loci and 52,708 transcripts. Comparison of our non-redundant database showed that 45% of the deduced proteins of H. vitripennis exhibit identity (e-value ≤1−5) with known proteins. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript isoform. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of key regulatory genes of H. vitripennis, we characterized predicted proteins involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, and biogenesis of small RNAs (Dicer and Piwi sequences) from the transcriptomic sequences. Analysis of transposable element sequences of H. vitripennis indicated that the genome is less expanded in comparison to many other insects with approximately 1% of the transcriptome carrying transposable elements. Conclusions Our data significantly enhance the molecular resources available for future study and control of this economically important hemipteran. This transcriptional information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the underlying biological and physiological mechanisms that govern H

  20. Glucose Biosensor Based on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Polythionine and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenwei; Li, Lei; Wu, Lujun; Gong, Jiemin; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like “conductive wires” connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS) and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of −0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE) in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM−1 cm−2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3), with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors. PMID:24816121

  1. Effect of CaF2 on Interfacial Phenomena of High Alumina Refractories with Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interfacial phenomena between Al-alloy and industrial grade high alumina refractories containing varying contents of CaF2 at 1250 °C. Interfacial reaction products and phases formed in the heat-treated refractory samples were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while interfacial phenomena including dynamic wetting behavior were analyzed using the sessile drop technique. Refractories containing less than 5 wt pct CaF2 showed good resistance to reactions with the molten alloy, due to the dominance of corundum, and the presence of anorthite at the interface. However, with a further increase in the additive content, a glassy matrix of anorthite with CaF2 was formed. Formation of this phase significantly increased the intensity of reactions resulting in the buildup of an interfacial layer. The study thus revealed the strong catalytic effect of CaF2 on reactions of high alumina refractories with Al-alloy.

  2. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    PubMed

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid.

  3. Generation and Characterization of Anisotropic Microstructures in Rare Earth-Iron-Boron Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate methods in which anisotropy could be induced in fine-grained alloys. We have identified two general processing routes to creating a fine, textured microstructure: form an amorphous precursor and devitrify in a manner that induces texture or form the fine, textured microstructure upon cooling directly from the liquid state. Since it is possible to form significant amounts of amorphous material in RE-Fe-B alloys, texture could be induced through biasing the orientationof the crystallites upon crystallization of the amorphous material. One method of creating this bias is to form glassy material and apply uniaxial pressure during crystallization. Experiments on this are presented. All of the work presented here utilizes melt-spinning, either to create precursor material, or to achieve a desired final microstructure. To obtain greater control of the system to process these materials, a study was done on the effects of heating the wheel and modifying the wheel’s surface finish on glass formation and phase selection. The second general approach—creating the desired microstructure directly from the liquid—can be done through directional rapid solidification. In particular, alloys melt-spun at low tangential wheel speeds often display directional columnar growth through a portion of the ribbon. By refining and stabilizing the columnar growth, a highly textured fine microstructure is achieved. The effects of adding a segregating element (Ag) on the columnar growth are characterized and presented.

  4. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  5. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  6. Laser-induced diffusion decomposition in Fe-V thin-film alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polushkin, N. I.; Duarte, A. C.; Conde, O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; García-García, A.; Kakazei, G. N.; Ventura, J. O.; Araujo, J. P.; Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the origin of ferromagnetism induced in thin-film (∼20 nm) Fe-V alloys by their irradiation with subpicosecond laser pulses. We find with Rutherford backscattering that the magnetic modifications follow a thermally stimulated process of diffusion decomposition, with formation of a-few-nm-thick Fe enriched layer inside the film. Surprisingly, similar transformations in the samples were also found after their long-time (∼103 s) thermal annealing. However, the laser action provides much higher diffusion coefficients (∼4 orders of magnitude) than those obtained under standard heat treatments. We get a hint that this ultrafast diffusion decomposition occurs in the metallic glassy state achievable in laser-quenched samples. This vitrification is thought to be a prerequisite for the laser-induced onset of ferromagnetism that we observe.

  7. Studies on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-molybdenum alloys in porous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at percent molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms have been carried out by process modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the initial pore volume fraction of the porous carbon preform is a critical parameter in determining the final composition of the raction-formed silicon carbide and other residual phases. The pore size of the carbon preform is very detrimental to the exotherm temperatures due to liquid silicon-carbon reactions encountered during the reactive melt infiltration process. A possible mechanism for the liquid silicon-porous (glassy) carbon reaction has been proposed. The composition and microstructure of the reaction-formed silicon carbide has been discussed in terms of carbon preform microstructures, infiltration materials, and temperatures.

  8. Evolution of ferromagnetic interactions from cluster spin glass state in Co-Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Yasin, Sk.; Saha, Ritwik; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature magnetic properties of binary CoxGa100-x (x=54-57) alloy have been investigated. Analysis of frequency dependence of ac susceptibility provided a conclusive evidence for the existence of cluster spin glass like behavior with the freezing temperature ~8, 14 K for x=54, 55.5 respectively. The parameters for conventional 'slowing down' of the spin dynamics have been extracted from the acs data, which confirm the presence of glassy phase. The magnitude of Mydosh parameter obtained from the fits is larger than that reported for typical canonical spin glasses and smaller than those for non-interacting ideal superparamagnetic systems but comparable to those of known cluster-glass systems. Memory phenomena using specific cooling protocols also support the spin-glass features in Co55.5Ga44.5 composition. Further the development of ferromagnetic clusters from the cluster spin glass state has been observed in x=57 composition.

  9. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  10. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  11. Electrochemical evaluation and determination of antiretroviral drug fosamprenavir using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-05-01

    Fosamprenavir is a pro-drug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir and is oxidizable at solid electrodes. The anodic oxidation behavior of fosamprenavir was investigated using cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. In cyclic voltammetry, depending on pH values, fosamprenavir showed one sharp irreversible oxidation peak or wave depending on the working electrode. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed. The voltammetric study of some model compounds allowed elucidation of the possible oxidation mechanism of fosamprenavir. The aim of this study was to determine fosamprenavir levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples by means of electrochemical methods. Using the sharp oxidation response, two voltammetric methods were described for the determination of fosamprenavir by differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. These two voltammetric techniques are 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 which allow quantitation over a 4 x 10(-6) to 8 x 10(-5) M range using boron-doped diamond and a 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) M range using glassy carbon electrodes, respectively, in supporting electrolyte. All necessary validation parameters were investigated and calculated. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of fosamprenavir pharmaceutical dosage forms, human serum and urine samples. The standard addition method was used in biological media using boron-doped diamond electrode. No electroactive interferences from the tablet excipients or endogenous substances from biological material were found. The results were statistically compared with those obtained through an established HPLC-UV technique; no significant differences were found between the voltammetric and HPLC methods.

  12. Paleointensity estimates from historic and modern Hawaiian lava flows using glassy basalt as a primary source material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Staudigel, H.; Ron, H.

    2015-04-01

    Published paleointensity estimates derived from lavas extruded in known fields are highly variable and rarely recover the expected field strength within an accuracy of better than 10%. Inconsistent results on modern volcanic rocks lend even greater uncertainty to intensity experiments performed on lava flows emplaced during periods of unknown geomagnetic field strength. The majority of published paleointensity data are collected from the slowly cooled, massive centers of lava flows, where the magnetic grains are more likely to be multi-domain and produce non-ideal experimental results. Glassy volcanic material (found on subaerial lava flow tops and in sub-aqueous and subglacial environments), however is rapidly cooled, and therefore most likely of all volcanic materials to behave as single-domain particles demanded by Néel theory. We present a new paleointensity study of historic and modern Hawaiian lavas and test the viability of subaerially emplaced glassy basaltic material as an accurate recorder of magnetic field intensity. Six of eight lava flows sampled on the Big Island of Hawaii (1843, 1859, 1935, 1950, 1960, 1990 C.E.) produce well behaved Arai plots and recover an average intensity to within 2.7 μT of the expected field strength or better than 8% accuracy. We apply very strict selection criteria, including a minimum of three specimens per site, to prevent extraneous field estimates from affecting the final results. Individual volcanic glass results from the 1960 C.E. lava flow have a much lower variance than published data from the same volcanic unit. Glassy materials should therefore be collected wherever possible as they allow recovery of geomagnetic field strength with unprecedented accuracy.

  13. A poly(3-acetylthiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode for selective voltammetric measurement of uric acid in urine sample.

    PubMed

    Aslanoglu, Mehmet; Kutluay, Aysegul; Abbasoglu, Sultan; Karabulut, Serpil

    2008-03-01

    A reliable and reproducible method for the determination of uric acid in urine samples has been developed. The method is based on the modification of a glassy carbon electrode by 3-acetylthiophene using cyclic voltammetry. The poly(3-acetylthiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic effect towards the oxidation of uric acid in 0.1 m phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2. Compared with a bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE), an obvious shift of the oxidation peak potential in the cathodic direction and a marked enhancement of the anodic current response for uric acid were observed. The poly(3-acetylthiophene)/GCE was used for the determination of uric acid using square wave voltammetry. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of uric acid in the range of 1.25 x 10(-5)-1.75 x 10(-4) M. The detection limit was 5.27 x 10(-7) M by square wave voltammetry. The poly(3-acetylthiophene)/GCE was also effective to determine uric acid and ascorbic acid in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of these two species into two well-defined voltammetric peaks in cyclic voltammetry at 0.030 V and 0.320 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively. The modified electrode exhibited stable and sensitive current responses toward uric acid and ascorbic acid. The method has successfully been applied for determination of uric acid in urine samples.

  14. A highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on (Ag-Au NPs)/poly[o-phenylenediamine] modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Karimi, Ziba; Amouzadeh Tabrizi, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Herein, the poly(o-phenylenediamine) decorated with gold-silver nanoparticle (Ag-Au NPs) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon was used for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical experiments indicated that the proposed sensor possesses an excellent sensitivity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The resulting sensor exhibited a good response to hydrogen peroxide over linear range from 0.2 to 60.0μM with a limit of detection of 0.08μM, good reproducibility, long-term stability and negligible interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in human serum sample.

  15. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Ag nanoparticles electrodeposited on natural nano-structure attapulgite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huihui; Zhang, Zhe; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Shengyi; Zhang, Bailin; Tang, Jilin; Wu, Zhengyan

    2011-10-30

    A novel strategy to fabricate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) sensor was developed by electrodepositing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a glassy carbon electrode modified with natural nano-structure attapulgite (ATP). The result of electrochemical experiments showed that such constructed sensor had a favorable catalytic ability to reduce H(2)O(2). The good catalytic activity of the sensor was ascribed to the ATP that facilitated the formation and homogenous distribution of small Ag NPs. The resulted sensor achieved 95% of the steady-state current within 2s and had a 2.4 μM detection limit of H(2)O(2).

  16. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  17. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  18. Microporosity in casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A J

    1975-06-01

    Three series of tensile test pieces were produced using a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. For the first series induction heating was employed, for the second a resistance crucible, and for the third an oxy-acetylene torch. Samples from each series were sectioned longitudinally, mounted, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of microporosity.

  19. Superplasticity in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T. G.

    1997-12-01

    We have characterized in the Al-Mg system the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled Al-6Mg-0.3Sc alloy. The alloy exhibited superplasticity at relatively high strain rates (about 10-2 s-1). At a strain rate of 10-2 s-1 there exists a wide temperature range (475-520`C) within which the tensile elongation is over 1000%. There also exists a wide strain rate range (10-3 - 10-1 s-1) within which the tensile elongation is over 500%. The presence of Sc in the alloy results in a uniform distribution of fine coherent Al3SC precipitates which effectively pin grain and subgrain boundaries during static and continuous recrystallization. As a result, the alloy retains its fine grain size (about 7 micron), even after extensive superplastic deformation (>1000%). During deformation, dislocations Mg with a high Schmidt factor slip across subgrains but are trapped by subgrain boundaries, as a result of the strong pining of Al3Sc. This process leads to the conversion of low-angled subgrain boundaries to high-angled grain boundaries and the subsequent grain boundary sliding, which produces superelasticity. A model is proposed to describe grain boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation glide across grains with a uniform distribution of coherent precipitates. The model predictions is consistent with experimental observations.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  1. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  2. Deposition of vaporized species onto glassy fallout from a near-surface nuclear test

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, David G.; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Marks, Naomi E.; Knight, Kim B.; Isselhardt, Brett H.; Matzel, Jennifer E.; Weber, Peter K.; Prussin, Stan G.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-10-29

    In a near-surface nuclear explosion where the resultant fireball can interact with the surface, vaporized materials from the nuclear device can be incorporated into molten soil and other carrier materials from that surface. This mixed material becomes a source of glassy fallout upon quenching and is locally deposited. Fallout formation models have been proposed; however, the specific mechanisms and physical conditions by which soil and other carrier materials interact in the fireball, as well as the subsequent incorporation of device materials with carrier materials, are not well constrained. We observe a surface deposition layer preserved at interfaces where two aerodynamic fallout glasses agglomerated and fused, and characterized 11 such boundaries using spatial analyses to better understand the vaporization and condensation behavior of species in the fireball. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we identify higher enrichments of uranium from the device (235U/238U ratio >7.5) in 8 of the interface layers. Major element analysis of the interfaces reveals the deposition layer to be enriched in Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Na-bearing species and depleted in Ti and Al-bearing species. Most notably, the Fe and Ca-bearing species are enriched approximately 50% at the interface layer relative to the average concentrations measured within the fallout glasses, while Ti and Al-bearing species are depleted by approximately 20%. SiO2 is found to be relatively invariable across the samples and interfaces (~3% standard deviation). The notable depletion of Al, a refractory oxide abundant in the soil, together with the enrichment of 235U and Fe, suggests an anthropogenic source of the enriched species or an unexpected vaporization/condensation behavior. The presence of both refractory (e.g., Ca and U) and volatile (e.g., Na) species approximately co-located in most of the observed layers (within 1.5 μm) suggests a

  3. Deposition of vaporized species onto glassy fallout from a near-surface nuclear test

    DOE PAGES

    Weisz, David G.; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Marks, Naomi E.; ...

    2016-10-29

    In a near-surface nuclear explosion where the resultant fireball can interact with the surface, vaporized materials from the nuclear device can be incorporated into molten soil and other carrier materials from that surface. This mixed material becomes a source of glassy fallout upon quenching and is locally deposited. Fallout formation models have been proposed; however, the specific mechanisms and physical conditions by which soil and other carrier materials interact in the fireball, as well as the subsequent incorporation of device materials with carrier materials, are not well constrained. We observe a surface deposition layer preserved at interfaces where two aerodynamicmore » fallout glasses agglomerated and fused, and characterized 11 such boundaries using spatial analyses to better understand the vaporization and condensation behavior of species in the fireball. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we identify higher enrichments of uranium from the device (235U/238U ratio >7.5) in 8 of the interface layers. Major element analysis of the interfaces reveals the deposition layer to be enriched in Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Na-bearing species and depleted in Ti and Al-bearing species. Most notably, the Fe and Ca-bearing species are enriched approximately 50% at the interface layer relative to the average concentrations measured within the fallout glasses, while Ti and Al-bearing species are depleted by approximately 20%. SiO2 is found to be relatively invariable across the samples and interfaces (~3% standard deviation). The notable depletion of Al, a refractory oxide abundant in the soil, together with the enrichment of 235U and Fe, suggests an anthropogenic source of the enriched species or an unexpected vaporization/condensation behavior. The presence of both refractory (e.g., Ca and U) and volatile (e.g., Na) species approximately co-located in most of the observed layers (within 1.5 μm) suggests a continuous condensation process may also

  4. Deposition of vaporized species onto glassy fallout from a near-surface nuclear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, David G.; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Marks, Naomi E.; Knight, Kim B.; Isselhardt, Brett H.; Matzel, Jennifer E.; Weber, Peter K.; Prussin, Stan G.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2017-03-01

    In a near-surface nuclear explosion where the resultant fireball can interact with the surface, vaporized materials from the nuclear device can be incorporated into molten soil and other carrier materials from that surface. This mixed material becomes a source of glassy fallout upon quenching and is locally deposited. Fallout formation models have been proposed; however, the specific mechanisms and physical conditions by which soil and other carrier materials interact in the fireball, as well as the subsequent incorporation of device materials with carrier materials, are not well constrained. We observe a surface deposition layer preserved at interfaces where two aerodynamic fallout glasses agglomerated and fused, and characterized 11 such boundaries using spatial analyses to better understand the vaporization and condensation behavior of species in the fireball. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we identify higher enrichments of uranium from the device (235U/238U ratio >7.5) in 8 of the interface layers. Major element analysis of the interfaces reveals the deposition layer to be enriched in Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Na-bearing species and depleted in Ti and Al-bearing species. Most notably, the Fe and Ca-bearing species are enriched approximately 50% at the interface layer relative to the average concentrations measured within the fallout glasses, while Ti and Al-bearing species are depleted by approximately 20%. SiO2 is found to be relatively invariable across the samples and interfaces (∼3% standard deviation). The notable depletion of Al, a refractory oxide abundant in the soil, together with the enrichment of 235U and Fe, suggests an anthropogenic source of the enriched species or an unexpected vaporization/condensation behavior. The presence of both refractory (e.g., Ca and U) and volatile (e.g., Na) species approximately co-located in most of the observed layers (within 1.5 μm) suggests a continuous condensation process may also be

  5. Mechanical alloying of brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; McDermott, B.; Koch, C. C.

    1988-12-01

    Mechanical alloying by high energy ball milling has been observed in systems with nominally brittle components. The phases formed by mechanical alloying of brittle components include solid solutions (Si + Ge → SiGe solid solution), intermetallic compounds (Mn + Bi → MnBi), and amorphous alloys (NiZr2 + Ni11Zr9 → amorphous Ni50Zr50). A key feature of possible mechanisms for mechanical alloying of brittle components is the temperature of the powders during milling. Experiments and a computer model of the kinetics of mechanical alloying were carried out in order to esti-mate the temperature effect. Temperature rises in typical powder alloys during milling in a SPEX mill were estimated to be ≤350 K using the kinetic parameters determined from the computer model. The tempering response of fresh martensite in an Fe-1.2 wt pct C alloy during milling was consistent with the maximum results of the computer model, yielding temperatures in the pow-ders of ≤575 K i.e., ΔT ≤ 300 K). Thermal activation was required for mechanical alloying of Si and Ge powder. No alloying occurred when the milling vial was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The pos-sible mechanisms responsible for material transfer during mechanical alloying of brittle components are considered.

  6. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  7. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  8. Uncovering Single-Molecule Photophysical Heterogeneity of Bright, Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters Dispersed in Glassy Hosts.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Rodrigo; Barnard, Edward S; Ursprung, Benedikt; Cotts, Benjamin L; Penwell, Samuel B; Schuck, P James; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2016-10-04

    Recently developed all-organic emitters used in display applications achieve high brightness by harvesting triplet populations via thermally activated delayed fluorescence. The photophysical properties of these emitters therefore involve new inherent complexities and are strongly affected by interactions with their host material in the solid state. Ensemble measurements occlude the molecular details of how host-guest interactions determine fundamental properties such as the essential balance of singlet oscillator strength and triplet harvesting. Therefore, using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we interrogate these emitters at the single-molecule level and compare their properties in two distinct glassy polymer hosts. We find that nonbonding interactions with aromatic moieties in the host appear to mediate the molecular configurations of the emitters, but also promote nonradiative quenching pathways. We also find substantial heterogeneity in the time-resolved photoluminescence of these emitters, which is dominated by static disorder in the polymer. Finally, since singlet-triplet cycling underpins the mechanism for increased brightness, we present the first room-temperature measurement of singlet-triplet equilibration dynamics in this family of emitters. Our observations present a molecular-scale interrogation of host-guest interactions in a disordered film, with implications for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices. Combining a single-molecule experimental technique with an emitter that is sensitive to triplet dynamics, yet read out via fluorescence, should also provide a complementary approach to performing fundamental studies of glassy materials over a large dynamic range of time scales.

  9. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-04-13

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%-104.7% and 102.2%-103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine.

  10. Micro-structural study of the GeS2-In2S3-KCl glassy system by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Haizheng, Tao; Xiujian, Zhao; Wei, Tong; Shun, Mao

    2006-07-01

    Room temperature Raman spectra of samples on three serials within the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glassy system have been investigated systematically. According to XRD patterns and Raman spectra of several pseudo-binary systems, the Cl atoms, which was added into the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3) glasses through KCl, was considered to be leading to the breaking of In-In bonds among the S(3)In-InS(3) ethane-like units and the forming of InS(4-x)Cl(x), InS(6-x)Cl(x) mixed polyhedra. Considering the effect of K(+) ions upon mixed anion units (InS(4-x)Cl(x) and InS(6-x)Cl(x)) and the corresponding micro-structural model, the Raman spectral evolution of the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glasses can be elucidated successfully. The microstructure of the GeS(2)-In(2)S(3)-KCl glasses was considered to be that the potassium atoms, which exist in the form of chlorine atoms as its nearest neighbor, are homogeneously dispersed in the glassy net formed by the micro-structural units such as InS(4), InS(6), InS(4-x)Cl(x), InS(6-x)Cl(x), GeS(4) polyhedra and S(3)In(Ge)-In(Ge)S(3) ethane-like units.

  11. Dielectric relaxation and the conformer equilibrium in the liquid and glassy states of β- D-fructose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombari, E.; Cardelli, C.; Salvetti, G.; Johari, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the ionic and molecular dynamics in the liquid and glassy states of β- D-fructose, its dielectric relaxation spectra (12 Hz-500 kHz) and dynamic heat capacity (3.33 mHz) have been measured from 5 K above its melting point through the vitrification range, by allowing sufficient time for attainment of the conformer (or chemical) equilibria. Effects of the change in the conformer population on thermal cycling has been further studied. The dielectric behavior of liquid β- D-fructose is characteristically different from that of other molecular liquids in three ways: (i) the contribution to orientation polarization associated with the fast relaxation process, which persists in the glassy state, is relatively high in the liquid state of β- D-fructose; (ii) this contribution decreases with temperature exceptionally rapidly on cooling; and (iii) the difference in the rates of the two process is exceptionally large. The dynamic heat capacity change through the vitrification region is ˜160 J/(mol K), and is spread over ˜20 K range, and the enthalpy relaxation time is ˜50 s at 383 K. Transformation of β-pyranose to other conformers and other conformer transformation equilibria change on thermal cycling with the result that the overall relaxation rate increases at T>315 K and decreases at T<315 K. The relaxation spectrum becomes broader, the dc conductivity increases and the rate of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation whose Arrhenius energy is 42.1 kJ/mol increases.

  12. Electroanalytical investigation and determination of pefloxacin in pharmaceuticals and serum at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Bengi; Topal, Burcu Dogan; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2008-02-15

    The anodic behavior and determination of pefloxacin on boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes were investigated using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. In cyclic voltammetry, pefloxacin shows one main irreversible oxidation peak and additional one irreversible ill-defined wave depending on pH values for both electrodes. The results indicate that the process of pefloxacin is irreversible and diffusion controlled on boron-doped diamond electrode and irreversible but adsorption controlled on glassy carbon electrode. The peak current is found to be linear over the range of concentration 2x10(-6) to 2x10(-4)M in 0.5M H(2)SO(4) at about +1.20V (versus Ag/AgCl) for differential pulse and square wave voltammetric technique using boron-doped diamond electrode. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods in all media were investigated. Selectivity, precision and accuracy of the developed methods were also checked by recovery studies. The procedures were successfully applied to the determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms and humans serum samples with good recovery results. No electroactive interferences from the excipients and endogenous substances were found in the pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples, respectively.

  13. Highly Stable Glassy Carbon Interfaces for Long-Term Neural Stimulation and Low-Noise Recording of Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; Castagnola, Elisa; Ciarpella, Francesca; Maggiolini, Emma; Goshi, Noah; Zucchini, Elena; Carli, Stefano; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We report on the superior electrochemical properties, in-vivo performance and long term stability under electrical stimulation of a new electrode material fabricated from lithographically patterned glassy carbon. For a direct comparison with conventional metal electrodes, similar ultra-flexible, micro-electrocorticography (μ-ECoG) arrays with platinum (Pt) or glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were manufactured. The GC microelectrodes have more than 70% wider electrochemical window and 70% higher CTC (charge transfer capacity) than Pt microelectrodes of similar geometry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the GC microelectrodes can withstand at least 5 million pulses at 0.45 mC/cm2 charge density with less than 7.5% impedance change, while the Pt microelectrodes delaminated after 1 million pulses. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) was selectively electrodeposited on both sets of devices to specifically reduce their impedances for smaller diameters (<60 μm). We observed that PEDOT-PSS adhered significantly better to GC than Pt, and allowed drastic reduction of electrode size while maintaining same amount of delivered current. The electrode arrays biocompatibility was demonstrated through in-vitro cell viability experiments, while acute in vivo characterization was performed in rats and showed that GC microelectrode arrays recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) with an almost twice SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) when compared to the Pt ones.

  14. Highly Stable Glassy Carbon Interfaces for Long-Term Neural Stimulation and Low-Noise Recording of Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vomero, Maria; Castagnola, Elisa; Ciarpella, Francesca; Maggiolini, Emma; Goshi, Noah; Zucchini, Elena; Carli, Stefano; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-01-01

    We report on the superior electrochemical properties, in-vivo performance and long term stability under electrical stimulation of a new electrode material fabricated from lithographically patterned glassy carbon. For a direct comparison with conventional metal electrodes, similar ultra-flexible, micro-electrocorticography (μ-ECoG) arrays with platinum (Pt) or glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were manufactured. The GC microelectrodes have more than 70% wider electrochemical window and 70% higher CTC (charge transfer capacity) than Pt microelectrodes of similar geometry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the GC microelectrodes can withstand at least 5 million pulses at 0.45 mC/cm2 charge density with less than 7.5% impedance change, while the Pt microelectrodes delaminated after 1 million pulses. Additionally, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) was selectively electrodeposited on both sets of devices to specifically reduce their impedances for smaller diameters (<60 μm). We observed that PEDOT-PSS adhered significantly better to GC than Pt, and allowed drastic reduction of electrode size while maintaining same amount of delivered current. The electrode arrays biocompatibility was demonstrated through in-vitro cell viability experiments, while acute in vivo characterization was performed in rats and showed that GC microelectrode arrays recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) with an almost twice SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) when compared to the Pt ones. PMID:28084398

  15. A 3D microfluidic chip for electrochemical detection of hydrolysed nucleic bases by a modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-22

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  16. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE. PMID:25621613

  17. Molecular Factors Governing the Liquid and Glassy States Recrystallization of Celecoxib in Binary Mixtures with Excipients of Different Molecular Weights.

    PubMed

    Grzybowska, K; Chmiel, K; Knapik-Kowalczuk, J; Grzybowski, A; Jurkiewicz, K; Paluch, M

    2017-03-08

    Transformation of poorly water-soluble crystalline pharmaceuticals to the amorphous form is one of the most promising strategies to improve their oral bioavailability. Unfortunately, the amorphous drugs are usually thermodynamically unstable and may quickly return to their crystalline form. A very promising way to enhance the physical stability of amorphous drugs is to prepare amorphous compositions of APIs with certain excipients which can be characterized by significantly different molecular weights, such as polymers, acetate saccharides, and other APIs. By using different experimental techniques (broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction) we compare the effect of adding the large molecular weight polymer-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30)-and the small molecular weight excipient-octaacetylmaltose (acMAL)-on molecular dynamics as well as the tendency to recrystallization of the amorphous celecoxib (CEL) in the amorphous solid dispersions: CEL-PVP and CEL-acMAL. The physical stability investigations of the binary systems were performed in both the supercooled liquid and glassy states. We found that acMAL is a better inhibitor of recrystallization of amorphous CEL than PVP K30 deep in the glassy state (T < Tg). In contrast, PVP K30 is a better crystallization inhibitor of CEL than acMAL in the supercooled liquid state (at T > Tg). We discuss molecular factors governing the recrystallization of amorphous CEL in examined solid dispersions.

  18. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

    PubMed

    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae.

  19. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341

  20. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.