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Sample records for ni60ag40 metallic glass

  1. Metallic glass composition

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Koch, Carl C.

    1986-01-01

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  2. Polyamorphism in metalic glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, H. W.; Liu, H. Z.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Wen, J.; Lee, P.L.; Luo, W.K.; Shastri, S.D.; Ma, E.; X-Ray Science Division; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2007-03-01

    A metal, or an alloy, can often exist in more than one crystal structure. The face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic forms of iron (or steel) are a familiar example of such polymorphism. When metallic materials are made in the amorphous form, is a parallel 'polyamorphism' possible? So far, polyamorphic phase transitions in the glassy state have been observed only in glasses involving directional and open (such as tetrahedral) coordination environments. Here, we report an in situ X-ray diffraction observation of a pressure-induced transition between two distinct amorphous polymorphs in a Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} metallic glass. The large density difference observed between the two polyamorphs is attributed to their different electronic and atomic structures, in particular the bond shortening revealed by ab initio modeling of the effects of f-electron delocalization. This discovery offers a new perspective of the amorphous state of metals, and has implications for understanding the structure, evolution and properties of metallic glasses and related liquids. Our work also opens a new avenue towards technologically useful amorphous alloys that are compositionally identical but with different thermodynamic, functional and rheological properties due to different bonding and structural characteristics.

  3. Metastable metallic hydrogen glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W J

    2001-02-06

    The quest for metallic hydrogen has been going on for over one hundred years. Before hydrogen was first condensed into a liquid in 1898, it was commonly thought that condensed hydrogen would be a metal, like the monatomic alkali metals below hydrogen in the first column of the Periodic Table. Instead, condensed hydrogen turned out to be transparent, like the diatomic insulating halogens in the seventh column of the Periodic Table. Wigner and Huntington predicted in 1935 that solid hydrogen at 0 K would undergo a first-order phase transition from a diatomic to a monatomic crystallographically ordered solid at {approx}25 GPa. This first-order transition would be accompanied by an insulator-metal transition. Though searched for extensively, a first-order transition from an ordered diatomic insulator to a monatomic metal is yet to be observed at pressures up to 120 and 340 GPa using x-ray diffraction and visual inspection, respectively. On the other hand, hydrogen reaches the minimum electrical conductivity of a metal at 140 GPa, 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, and 3000 K. These conditions were achieved using a shock wave reverberating between two stiff sapphire anvils. The shock wave was generated with a two-stage light-gas gun. This temperature exceeds the calculated melting temperature at 140 GPa by a factor of {approx}2, indicating that this metal is in the disordered fluid phase. The disorder permits hydrogen to become metallic via a Mott transition in the liquid at a much smaller pressure than in the solid, which has an electronic bandgap to the highest pressures reached to date. Thus, by using the finite temperature achieved with shock compression to achieve a disordered melt, metallic hydrogen can be achieved at a much lower pressure in a fluid than in a solid. It is not known how, nor even whether, metallic hydrogen can be quenched from a fluid at high pressures to a disordered solid metallic glass at ambient pressure and temperature. Because metallization occurs by simply

  4. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  5. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  6. Elastic heterogeneity in metallic glasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, , W.; Iwashita, T.; Chuang, C.-P.; Almer, J. D; Egami, T.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Tennessee; ORNL

    2010-01-01

    When a stress is applied on a metallic glass it deforms following Hook's law. Therefore it may appear obvious that a metallic glass deforms elastically. Using x-ray diffraction and anisotropic pair-density function analysis we show that only about 3/4 in volume fraction of metallic glasses deforms elastically, whereas the rest of the volume is anelastic and in the experimental time scale deform without resistance. We suggest that this anelastic portion represents residual liquidity in the glassy state. Many theories, such as the free-volume theory, assume the density of defects in the glassy state to be of the order of 1%, but this result shows that it is as much as a quarter.

  7. Processing of bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Jan

    2010-04-12

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made.

  8. Elastic Heterogeneity in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowski, W.; Iwashita, T.; Chuang, C.-P.; Almer, J.; Egami, T.

    2010-11-01

    When a stress is applied on a metallic glass it deforms following Hook’s law. Therefore it may appear obvious that a metallic glass deforms elastically. Using x-ray diffraction and anisotropic pair-density function analysis we show that only about (3)/(4) in volume fraction of metallic glasses deforms elastically, whereas the rest of the volume is anelastic and in the experimental time scale deform without resistance. We suggest that this anelastic portion represents residual liquidity in the glassy state. Many theories, such as the free-volume theory, assume the density of defects in the glassy state to be of the order of 1%, but this result shows that it is as much as a quarter.

  9. Magnetic antenna using metallic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Michael D. (Inventor); Farrell, William M. (Inventor); Houser, Jeffrey G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A lightweight search-coil antenna or sensor assembly for detecting magnetic fields and including a multi-turn electromagnetic induction coil wound on a spool type coil form through which is inserted an elongated coil loading member comprised of metallic glass material wrapped around a dielectric rod. The dielectric rod consists of a plastic or a wooden dowel having a length which is relatively larger than its thickness so as to provide a large length-to-diameter ratio. A tri-axial configuration includes a housing in which is located three substantially identical mutually orthogonal electromagnetic induction coil assemblies of the type described above wherein each of the assemblies include an electromagnetic coil wound on a dielectric spool with an elongated metallic glass coil loading member projecting therethrough.

  10. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  11. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  12. Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Travis E.; Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E.

    2014-02-28

    Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

  13. Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

  14. 'Work-Hardenable' Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen; Tang Meibo; Wang Weihua; Kim, Ki Buem; Baier, Falko; Theissmann, Ralf

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<1%) at room temperature. We present a new class of bulk metallic glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive 'work hardening' and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The 'work-hardening' capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  15. Large size metallic glass gratings by embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Yi, J.; Zhao, D. Q.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses have excellent thermoforming ability in their wide supercooled liquid region. We show that large-size metallic glass grating (˜8 × 8 mm2) with fine periodicity and ultra smooth surface feature can be readily fabricated by hot embossing. The method for fabrication of gratings is proved to be much cheaper, and requires low pressure and short time (less than 30 s). The metallic glass gratings exhibit comparable optical properties such as rainbow-like spectrum when shone by fluorescent lamp light.

  16. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Cyclic Deformation in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Sha, Z D; Qu, S X; Liu, Z S; Wang, T J; Gao, H

    2015-10-14

    Despite the utmost importance and decades of experimental studies on fatigue in metallic glasses (MGs), there has been so far little or no atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms involved. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of tension-compression fatigue in Cu50Zr50 MGs under strain-controlled cyclic loading. It is shown that the shear band (SB) initiation under cyclic loading is distinctly different from that under monotonic loading. Under cyclic loading, SB initiation takes place when aggregates of shear transformation zones (STZs) accumulating at the MG surface reach a critical size comparable to the SB width, and the accumulation of STZs follows a power law with rate depending on the applied strain. It is further shown that almost the entire fatigue life of nanoscale MGs under low cycle fatigue is spent in the SB-initiation stage, similar to that of crystalline materials. Furthermore, a qualitative investigation of the effect of cycling frequency on the fatigue behavior of MGs suggests that higher cycling frequency leads to more cycles to failure. The present study sheds light on the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of MGs that could be useful in developing strategies for their engineering applications.

  18. Porosity in metal-organic framework glasses.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A W; Jelfs, K E; Konstas, K; Doherty, C M; Hill, A J; Cheetham, A K; Bennett, T D

    2016-03-07

    The porosity of a glass formed by melt-quenching a metal-organic framework, has been characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results reveal porosity intermediate between the related open and dense crystalline frameworks ZIF-4 and ZIF-zni. A structural model for the glass was constructed using an amorphous polymerization algorithm, providing additional insight into the gas-inaccessible nature of porosity and the possible applications of hybrid glasses.

  19. Designing tensile ductility in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Baran; Schroers, Jan

    2013-07-01

    Effectiveness of a second phase in metallic glass heterostructures to improve mechanical properties varies widely. Unfortunately, methods to fabricate such heterostructures like foams and composites do not allow controlled variation of structural features. Here we report a novel strategy, which allows us to vary heterostructural features independently, thereby enabling a systematic and quantitative study. Our approach reveals the optimal microstructural architecture for metallic glass heterostructures to achieve tensile ductility. Critical design aspect is a soft second phase, which is most effective when spacing between the second phase assumes the critical crack length of the metallic glass. This spacing should coincide with the second phase’s size, and beyond, the specific second phase morphology of the heterostructure is crucial. These toughening strategies are only effective in samples that are large compared with the spacing of the second phase. The identified design aspects provide guidance in designing tensile ductility into metallic glasses.

  20. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  1. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  2. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-02-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals.

  3. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L

    2016-02-08

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals.

  4. Origin of embrittlement in metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Glenn R.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Launey, Maximilien E.; Johnson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their glassy nature, metallic glasses demonstrate a toughness that is extremely sensitive to the frozen-in configurational state. This sensitivity gives rise to “annealing embrittlement,” which is often severe and in many respects limits the technological advancement of these materials. Here, equilibrium configurations (i.e., “inherent states”) of a metallic glass are established around the glass transition, and the configurational properties along with the plane-strain fracture toughness are evaluated to associate the intrinsic glass toughness with the inherent state properties and identify the fundamental origin of embrittlement. The established correlations reveal a one-to-one correspondence between toughness and shear modulus continuous over a broad range of inherent states, suggesting that annealing embrittlement is controlled almost solely by an increasing resistance to shear flow. This annealing embrittlement sensitivity is shown to vary substantially between metallic glass compositions, and appears to correlate well with the fragility of the metallic glass. PMID:27573817

  5. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOEpatents

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  6. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOEpatents

    Cline, Carl F.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature range.

  7. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  8. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; ...

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  9. Thulium-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, H. B.; Yu, P.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2008-04-07

    We report the formation and properties of a thulium-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). Compared with other known rare-earth (RE) based BMGs, Tm-based BMGs show features of excellent glass formation ability, considerable higher elastic modulus, smaller Poisson's ratio, high mechanical strength, and intrinsic brittleness. The reasons for the different properties between the Tm-based and other RE-based BMGs are discussed. It is expected that the Tm-based glasses with the unique properties are appropriate candidates for studying some important issues in BMGs.

  10. Bulk metallic glasses deform via slip avalanches.

    PubMed

    Antonaglia, James; Wright, Wendelin J; Gu, Xiaojun; Byer, Rachel R; Hufnagel, Todd C; LeBlanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A

    2014-04-18

    For the first time in metallic glasses, we extract both the exponents and scaling functions that describe the nature, statistics, and dynamics of slip events during slow deformation, according to a simple mean field model. We model the slips as avalanches of rearrangements of atoms in coupled shear transformation zones (STZs). Using high temporal resolution measurements, we find the predicted, different statistics and dynamics for small and large slips thereby excluding self-organized criticality. The agreement between model and data across numerous independent measures provides evidence for slip avalanches of STZs as the elementary mechanism of inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses.

  11. Bulk Metallic Glasses Deform via Slip Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonaglia, James; Wright, Wendelin J.; Gu, Xiaojun; Byer, Rachel R.; Hufnagel, Todd C.; LeBlanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in metallic glasses, we extract both the exponents and scaling functions that describe the nature, statistics, and dynamics of slip events during slow deformation, according to a simple mean field model. We model the slips as avalanches of rearrangements of atoms in coupled shear transformation zones (STZs). Using high temporal resolution measurements, we find the predicted, different statistics and dynamics for small and large slips thereby excluding self-organized criticality. The agreement between model and data across numerous independent measures provides evidence for slip avalanches of STZs as the elementary mechanism of inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses.

  12. Microwave Absorbing Properties of Metallic Glass/Polymer Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-11022 Microwave Absorbing Properties of Metallic Glass/Polymer Composites Stephen Bartolucci...Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microwave Absorbing Properties of Metallic Glass/Polymer Composites 5a. CONTRACT...this study, the microwave absorption characteristics of metallic glass / polymer composites were investigated. Electromagnetic wave absorption

  13. Atomic Transport in Metallic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    creep, amorphous metals, canpositionally modulated films, structural relaxation, iso-configurational flow, bimolecular kinetics, Stokes-Einstein relation ...34 731471 60 rcoe F I iov s isasso Einstain relation from the viscosity. - S/N8CUN@4* 40 CLASSIPICATIOOW OF T04lS PAGEL(010 fON41 EW PREFACE This report...12- tion, B is related to the macroscopic interdiffusion coefficient, B, by r 2 K 13 I+ -.1 (2) where f; is the second derivative, with respect to

  14. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-08-26

    Disclosed is a method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  15. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  16. Metallic glass nanostructures: fabrication, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianci; Hasan, Molla; Kumar, Golden

    2014-02-21

    Remarkable progress has been made in fabrication and characterization of metal nanostructures because of their crucial role in energy conversion, nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and biodiagnostics. Less emphasis has been placed on the synthesis of nanostructures from metallic alloys, which are better suited than elemental metals for certain applications such as fuel-cell catalysts. The main challenges in fabrication of alloy nanostructures are controlling their chemical stoichiometry, crystal structures, and shapes because of anisotropic nucleation and growth rates. These limitations can be overcome by using metallic glasses (amorphous metal alloys) which are isotropic and provide additional control handles through their tunable compositions and degree of crystallinity. Here, we review the recent developments in fabrication and characterization of metallic glass (MG) nanostructures. The focus is on sub-micron structures synthesized by unconventional thermoplastic techniques. A concept of self-assembly is introduced for fashioning functional structures using MG nanostructures as building blocks. The article concludes with a brief discussion about unique properties and prospective applications of MG nanostructures.

  17. Phonon dispersion relation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Daniel; Bruna, Pere; Valles, Araceli; Pineda, Eloi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data on the phase sound speed of metallic glasses show anomalies in the terahertz range, reflecting an underlying complex behavior of their phonon dispersion spectrum not yet explained. We determine the phonon dispersion curve of metallic glasses by means of massive molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to obtain the low-q region behavior with unprecedented detail. Results confirm that the sound speed is constant below the THz range, down to the macroscopic limit. On the contrary, a hardening of the sound speed, more notable in the transverse case, is found in the THz range. This behavior is modeled in terms of a relaxation model. The model gives quantitative agreement and allows us to determine a new threshold frequency ωh, at the end of the boson-peak region. Above ωh the shear modulus increases dramatically, reflecting the end of the amorphous-like acoustic propagation region characterized by the excess density of vibrational states.

  18. Crystallization of Beryllium-Boron Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Wall, M A; Nieh, T G

    2002-02-14

    Prior studies of evaporation and sputter deposition show that the grain size of pure beryllium can be dramatically refined through the incorporation of metal impurities. Recently, the addition of boron at a concentration greater than 11% is shown to serve as a glassy phase former in sputter deposited beryllium. Presently, thermally induced crystallization of the beryllium-boron metallic glass is reported. The samples are characterized during an in-situ anneal treatment with bright field imaging and electron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy. A nanocrystalline structure evolves from the annealed amorphous phase and the crystallization temperature is affected by the boron concentration.

  19. Chemical segregation in metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2014-11-21

    Nanowires made of metallic glass have been actively pursued recently due to the superb and unique properties over those of the crystalline materials. The amorphous nanowires are synthesized either at high temperature or via mechanical disruption using focused ion beam. These processes have potential to cause significant changes in structure and chemical concentration, as well as formation of defect or imperfection, but little is known to date about the possibilities and mechanisms. Here, we report chemical segregation to surfaces and its mechanisms in metallic glass nanowires made of binary Cu and Zr elements from molecular dynamics simulation. Strong concentration deviation are found in the nanowires under the conditions similar to these in experiment via focused ion beam processing, hot imprinting, and casting by rapid cooling from liquid state. Our analysis indicates that non-uniform internal stress distribution is a major cause for the chemical segregation, especially at low temperatures. Extension is discussed for this observation to multicomponent metallic glass nanowires as well as the potential applications and side effects of the composition modulation. The finding also points to the possibility of the mechanical-chemical process that may occur in different settings such as fracture, cavitation, and foams where strong internal stress is present in small length scales.

  20. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  1. A Process for Making Bulk Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This invention relates to the preparation of glasses, and, in particular, relates to the preparation of heavy metal fluoride glasses with...reproducible high optical qualities. Considerable effort has been expended to develop heavy metal fluoride glasses ( HMFG ) as a viable family of infrared

  2. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J; Schroers, Jan

    2015-04-22

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top-down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties.

  3. A predictive structural model for bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Laws, K J; Miracle, D B; Ferry, M

    2015-09-15

    Great progress has been made in understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses, but there is still no clear connection between atomic structure and glass-forming ability. Here we give new insights into perhaps the most important question in the field of amorphous metals: how can glass-forming ability be predicted from atomic structure? We give a new approach to modelling metallic glass atomic structures by solving three long-standing problems: we discover a new family of structural defects that discourage glass formation; we impose efficient local packing around all atoms simultaneously; and we enforce structural self-consistency. Fewer than a dozen binary structures satisfy these constraints, but extra degrees of freedom in structures with three or more different atom sizes significantly expand the number of relatively stable, 'bulk' metallic glasses. The present work gives a new approach towards achieving the long-sought goal of a predictive capability for bulk metallic glasses.

  4. Hard and fragile holmium-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Q.; Zhao, D.Q.; Pan, M.X.; Wang, R.J.; Wang, W.H.

    2006-05-01

    A family of holmium-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with high glass-forming ability is obtained. The Ho-based BMGs exhibit much larger elastic moduli and high thermal stability in contrast to other known rare-earth (RE)-based BMGs. In particular, the BMGs show a large value of fragility. It is expected that the hard RE-based glasses with high glass-forming ability and fragile behaviors make them the appropriate candidate for glass transition study.

  5. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  6. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Magagnosc, Daniel J.; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale. PMID:26787400

  7. Thermomechanical Behavior of Molded Metallic Glass Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Magagnosc, Daniel J; Chen, Wen; Kumar, Golden; Schroers, Jan; Gianola, Daniel S

    2016-01-20

    Metallic glasses are disordered materials that offer the unique ability to perform thermoplastic forming operations at low thermal budget while preserving excellent mechanical properties such as high strength, large elastic strain limits, and wear resistance owing to the metallic nature of bonding and lack of internal defects. Interest in molding micro- and nanoscale metallic glass objects is driven by the promise of robust and high performance micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems and miniature energy conversion devices. Yet accurate and efficient processing of these materials hinges on a robust understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Here, we combine large-scale thermoplastic tensile deformation of collections of Pt-based amorphous nanowires with quantitative thermomechanical studies of individual nanowires in creep-like conditions to demonstrate that superplastic-like flow persists to small length scales. Systematic studies as a function of temperature, strain-rate, and applied stress reveal the transition from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow to be ubiquitous across the investigated length scales. However, we provide evidence that nanoscale specimens sustain greater free volume generation at elevated temperatures resulting in a flow transition at higher strain-rates than their bulk counterparts. Our results provide guidance for the design of thermoplastic processing methods and methods for verifying the flow response at the nanoscale.

  8. High temperature glass coatings for superalloys and refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. W.; Grekila, R. B.; Hirayama, C.; Mattox, D. M.

    1970-01-01

    New glasses are used as protective coatings on metals and alloys susceptible to oxidation at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres. Glasses are stable and solid at temperatures up to 1000 deg C, adhere well to metal surfaces, and are usable for metals with broad range of expansion coefficients.

  9. Stochastic metallic-glass cellular structures exhibiting benchmark strength.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, Marios D; Veazey, Chris; Harmon, John S; Schramm, Joseph P; Johnson, William L

    2008-10-03

    By identifying the key characteristic "structural scales" that dictate the resistance of a porous metallic glass against buckling and fracture, stochastic highly porous metallic-glass structures are designed capable of yielding plastically and inheriting the high plastic yield strength of the amorphous metal. The strengths attainable by the present foams appear to equal or exceed those by highly engineered metal foams such as Ti-6Al-4V or ferrous-metal foams at comparable levels of porosity, placing the present metallic-glass foams among the strongest foams known to date.

  10. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  11. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; ...

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  12. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  13. Nanoscale size effects in crystallization of metallic glass nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sungwoo; Jung, Yeonwoong; Xie, Yujun; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Cha, Judy J

    2015-09-01

    Atomistic understanding of crystallization in solids is incomplete due to the lack of appropriate materials and direct experimental tools. Metallic glasses possess simple metallic bonds and slow crystallization kinetics, making them suitable to study crystallization. Here, we investigate crystallization of metallic glass-forming liquids by in-situ heating metallic glass nanorods inside a transmission electron microscope. We unveil that the crystallization kinetics is affected by the nanorod diameter. With decreasing diameters, crystallization temperature decreases initially, exhibiting a minimum at a certain diameter, and then rapidly increases below that. This unusual crystallization kinetics is a consequence of multiple competing factors: increase in apparent viscosity, reduced nucleation probability and enhanced heterogeneous nucleation. The first two are verified by slowed grain growth and scatter in crystallization temperature with decreasing diameters. Our findings provide insight into relevant length scales in crystallization of supercooled metallic glasses, thus offering accurate processing conditions for predictable metallic glass nanomolding.

  14. Application of the model of delocalized atoms to metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Darmaev, M. V.; Sanditov, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    The parameters of the model of delocalized atoms applied to metallic glasses have been calculated using the data on empirical constants of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation (for the temperature dependence of viscosity). It has been shown that these materials obey the same glass-formation criterion as amorphous organic polymers and inorganic glasses. This fact qualitatively confirms the universality of the main regularities of the liquid-glass transition process for all amorphous materials regardless of their origin. The energy of the delocalization of an atom in metallic glasses, Δɛ e ≈ 20-25 kJ/mol, coincides with the results obtained for oxide inorganic glasses. It is substantially lower than the activation energies for a viscous flow and for ion diffusion. The delocalization of an atom (its displacement from the equilibrium position) for amorphous metallic alloys is a low-energy small-scale process similar to that for other glass-like systems.

  15. Bulk metallic glass coating of polymer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinila, Erno; Sharma, Parmanand; Heino, Markku; Pischow, Kaj; Inoue, Akihisa; Hänninen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) alloy with the composition of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 was deposited by sputtering as thin films on several different engineering polymers and polymer composites. Polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, polyamide 12, polyarylamide (50GF=50 % glass fibers), polyphenylene sulfide (30GF) and polybutylene terephthalate (30GF) were used as substrates. The microstructure of the deposited BMG coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of XRD and SEM studies were consistent with amorphous microstructure. Elemental compositions of the coatings were verified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties of the coatings were compared to copper mould cast BMG using nano- indentation tests with similar results. According to the cross-cut tape tests good adhesion was achieved between the studied BMG alloy and all other polymer substrates except polycarbonate. Nano-indentation results showed similar mechanical properties for coating and cast BMG. The results of this study look promising as they open new opportunities for BMG- polymer composite applications.

  16. Quantifying the origin of metallic glass formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Na, J. H.; Demetriou, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The waiting time to form a crystal in a unit volume of homogeneous undercooled liquid exhibits a pronounced minimum τX* at a `nose temperature' T* located between the glass transition temperature Tg, and the crystal melting temperature, TL. Turnbull argued that τX* should increase rapidly with the dimensionless ratio trg=Tg/TL. Angell introduced a dimensionless `fragility parameter', m, to characterize the fall of atomic mobility with temperature above Tg. Both trg and m are widely thought to play a significant role in determining τX*. Here we survey and assess reported data for TL, Tg, trg, m and τX* for a broad range of metallic glasses with widely varying τX*. By analysing this database, we derive a simple empirical expression for τX*(trg, m) that depends exponentially on trg and m, and two fitting parameters. A statistical analysis shows that knowledge of trg and m alone is therefore sufficient to predict τX* within estimated experimental errors. Surprisingly, the liquid/crystal interfacial free energy does not appear in this expression for τX*.

  17. The dynamic compressive behavior of beryllium bearing bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, H.A.; Rosakis, A.J.; Johnson, W.L.

    1996-02-01

    In 1993, a new beryllium bearing bulk metallic glass with the nominal composition of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} was discovered at Caltech. This metallic glass can be cast as cylindrical rods as large as 16 mm in diameter, which permitted specimens to be fabricated with geometries suitable for dynamic testing. For the first time, the dynamic compressive yield behavior of a metallic glass was characterized at strain rates of 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4}/s by using the split Hopkinson pressure bar. A high-speed infrared thermal detector was also used to determine if adiabatic heating occurred during dynamic deformation of the metallic glass. From these tests it appears that the yield stress of the metallic glass is insensitive to strain rate and no adiabatic heating occurs before yielding. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. H.; Huang, X.; Ling, Z.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones) mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale.

  19. Metal particle manipulation by laser irradiation in borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Takato; Itoh, Sho; Hiromatsu, Kuniaki; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2010-09-13

    We propose a new technique of manipulating a metal particle in borosilicate glass. A metal particle that is heated by laser illumination heats the surrounding glass by radiation and conduction. A softened glass enabled metal particle migration. A 1-µm-thick platinum film was deposited on the back surface of a glass plate and irradiated with a green CW laser beam through the glass. As a result, the platinum film was melted and implanted into the glass as a particle. Platinum particles with diameters of 3 to 50 μm migrated at speeds up to 10 mm/s. In addition to platinum particles, nickel and austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) particles can be implanted.

  20. Electromagnetic vibration process for producing bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takuya; Amiya, Kenji; Rachmat, Rudi S; Mizutani, Yoshiki; Miwa, Kenji

    2005-04-01

    It is known that the cooling rate from the liquid state is an important factor in the production of bulk metallic glasses. However, the effects of other factors such as electric and magnetic fields have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we present a new method for producing bulk metallic glasses by using electromagnetic vibrations with simultaneous imposition of an alternating electric current and a magnetic field. This method was found to be effective in enhancing apparent glass-forming ability in Mg65-Cu25-Y10 (atomic percent) alloys. Indeed, larger bulk metallic glasses could be obtained by the electromagnetic vibration process under the same cooling conditions. We presume that disappearance or decrement of clusters by the electromagnetic vibrations applied to the liquid state cause suppression of crystal nucleation. This electromagnetic vibration process should be effective in other bulk metallic glass systems if the clusters in the liquid state cause the crystal nucleation.

  1. The correlation between shear elastic modulus and glass transition temperature of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhibin; Li Jiangong; Shao Hang; Ni Xia; Gleiter, H.

    2009-03-02

    Based on Varshni equation, the shear elastic modulus at the glass transition temperature [G(T{sub g})] and the shear elastic modulus at 0 K [G(0)] were calculated from the elastic modulus measured at room temperature for various bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The G(T{sub g})/G(0) ratios for various BMGs are almost the same and have a value around 0.85. This unique correlation implies that the glass transition occurs when the shear modulus of a BMG decreases to about 85% of G(0). This correlation between shear modulus and glass transition is of significance in understanding the glass transition of BMGs.

  2. Process for direct conversion of reactive metals to glass

    DOEpatents

    Rajan, John B.; Kumar, Romesh; Vissers, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is introduced into a cyclone reactor in droplet form by an aspirating gas. In the cyclone metal reactor the aspirated alkali metal is contacted with silica powder introduced in an air stream to form in one step a glass. The sides of the cyclone reactor are preheated to ensure that the initial glass formed coats the side of the reactor forming a protective coating against the reactants which are maintained in excess of 1000.degree. C. to ensure the formation of glass in a single step.

  3. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Zemp, J; Gerstl, S S A; Löffler, J F; Schönfeld, B

    2016-03-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different - as yet unknown - physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses.

  4. Fractal atomic-level percolation in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, David Z; Shi, Crystal Y; An, Qi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Mao, Wendy L; Goddard, William A; Greer, Julia R

    2015-09-18

    Metallic glasses are metallic alloys that exhibit exotic material properties. They may have fractal structures at the atomic level, but a physical mechanism for their organization without ordering has not been identified. We demonstrated a crossover between fractal short-range (<2 atomic diameters) and homogeneous long-range structures using in situ x-ray diffraction, tomography, and molecular dynamics simulations. A specific class of fractal, the percolation cluster, explains the structural details for several metallic-glass compositions. We postulate that atoms percolate in the liquid phase and that the percolating cluster becomes rigid at the glass transition temperature.

  5. The shells of atomic structure in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S. P.; Feng, S. D.; Qiao, J. W.; Dong, B. S.; Qin, J. Y.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed a scheme to describe the spatial correlation between two atoms in metallic glasses. Pair distribution function in a model iron was fully decomposed into several shells and can be presented as the spread of nearest neighbor correlation via distance. Moreover, angle distribution function can also be decomposed into groups. We demonstrate that there is close correlation between pair distribution function and angle distribution function for metallic glasses. We think that our results are very helpful understanding the atomic structure of metallic glasses.

  6. The plastic yield and flow behavior in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamburaja, Prakash; Klusemann, Benjamin; Adibi, Sara; Bargmann, Swantje

    2015-02-01

    Metallic glasses have vast potential applications as components in microelectronics- and nanoelectronics-type devices. The design of such components through computer simulations requires the input of a faithful set of continuum-based constitutive equations. However, one long-standing controversial issue in modeling the plastic behavior of metallic glasses at the continuum level is the use of the most appropriate plastic yield criterion and flow rule. Guided by a series of molecular dynamics simulations conducted at low-homologous temperatures under homogeneous deformations, we quantitatively prove that the continuum plastic behavior in metallic glasses is most accurately described by a von Mises-type plastic yield criterion and flow rule.

  7. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  8. General nanomoulding with bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Schroers, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are ideal for nanomoulding as they possess desirable strength for molds as well as for moldable materials and furthermore lack intrinsic size limitations. Despite their attractiveness, only recently Pt-based BMGs have been successfully molded into pores ranging 10-100 nm (Kumar et al 2009 Nature 457 868-72). Here, we introduce a quantitative theory, which reveals previous challenges in filling nanosized pores. This theory considers, in addition to a viscous and a capillary term, also oxidation, which becomes increasingly more important on smaller length scales. Based on this theory we construct a nanomoulding processing map for BMG, which reveals the limiting factors for BMG nanomoulding. Based on the quantitative prediction of the processing map, we introduce a strategy to reduce the capillary effect through a wetting layer, which allows us to mold non-noble BMGs below 1 μm in air. An additional benefit of this strategy is that it drastically facilitates demoulding, one of the main challenges of nanomoulding in general.

  9. Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

  10. Isomechanical groups in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, J. D.; Todd, I.

    2012-08-01

    Isomechanical groups are, as defined by Frost and Ashby [H.J. Frost and M.F. Ashby, Deformation-Mechanism Maps, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982], separate classes of materials that exhibit similar deformation and transport properties when normalised by an appropriate parameter. Fundamentally, this separation results from significant differences in material structure and bonding. Here, such an analysis is applied to 40 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) grouped into three classes according to their Poisson's ratio, which is known to be an indicator of intrinsic toughness. Through rigorous statistical analysis, it is found that isomechanical groups are present and that they may result from (1) variation in the tendency for directional bonding, and (2) how liquid-like the structure is, which may be characterised by a quantification of local volumetric strain. These results suggest that, although experimentally observed properties from BMGs in different isomechanical groups are all typically considered within the same framework, differences in atomic packing and inter-atomic bonding mean that they should in fact be treated separately. These fundamental differences in bonding and structure may explain the known large variation in the tendency for toughness and plasticity in BMGs.

  11. Structure and constitution of glass and steel compound in glass-metal composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimova, Olga N.; Morkovin, Andrey V.; Dryuk, Sergey A.; Nikiforov, Pavel A.

    2014-11-14

    The research using methods of optical and scanning electronic microscopy was conducted and it discovered common factors on structures and diffusing zone forming after welding glass C49-1 and steel Ct3sp in technological process of creating new glass-metal composite. Different technological modes of steel surface preliminary oxidation welded with and without glass were investigated. The time of welding was varied from minimum encountering time to the time of stabilizing width of diffusion zone.

  12. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  13. Replacement of oxide glass with metallic glass for Ag screen printing metallization on Si emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se Yun; Jee, Sang Soo; Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Do Hyang; Lee, Eun-Sung; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Sang Mock; Lee, Jun Ho; Eckert, Jürgen

    2011-05-01

    Cu-Zr-based metallic glass (MG) has been applied as a binding agent of Ag paste for front contact formation in Si solar cell by screen printing process. Use of electroconductive MG binder significantly improves the quality of the contact by the formation of highly dense 10-50 nm size Ag crystallites and the noncorrugation of the emitter surface with a very shallow Ag crystallite penetration depth of 10-30 nm. Nanoscale Ag crystallites form on the emitter surface by local Si-Cu-Ag eutectic melting, leading to the formation of pyramidal pits on the Si emitter surface, followed by precipitation of Ag crystallites during cooling.

  14. High expansion coefficient glasses can be sealed to common metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, F. E.; Champman, J. W.; Hirayama, C.

    1970-01-01

    New series of high expansion coefficient glasses can be sealed by fusion onto hot surfaces of metals and alloys. Glasses have relatively low working temperatures, good chemical durability, and can be used in electrical insulators and feedthroughs to fluid or vacuum systems.

  15. Localized crystallization in shear bands of a metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhijie; Song, Kaikai; Hu, Yong; Dai, Fuping; Chu, Zhibing; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced viscous flow is the characteristic of atomic movements during plastic deformation of metallic glasses in the absence of substantial temperature increase, which suggests that stress state plays an important role in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. However, it is poorly understood. Here, we report on the stress-induced localized crystallization in individual shear bands of Zr60Al15Ni25 metallic glass subjected to cold rolling. We find that crystallization in individual shear bands preferentially occurs in the regions neighboring the amorphous matrix, where the materials are subjected to compressive stresses demonstrated by our finite element simulations. Our results provide direct evidence that the mechanically induced crystallization kinetics is closely related with the stress state. The crystallization kinetics under compressive and tensile stresses are interpreted within the frameworks of potential energy landscape and classical nucleation theory, which reduces the role of stress state in mechanically induced crystallization in a metallic glass. PMID:26758530

  16. Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

    1984-09-14

    This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  17. Statistical thermodynamics and atomic structure of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Eric Andrew

    The purpose of this research is to develop an improved atomic scale understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic behavior of a metallic glass. A realistic link between the macroscopic and atomic behavior of a metallic glass has not yet been achieved. The most widespread model describing the amorphous state, borrowed from the description of liquids, is the free volume model. It is primarily phenomenological, and does not explain the observed properties of a metallic glass in many aspects. This is because the idea of free volume in a metallic glass is fundamentally flawed in several respects. For example, unlike in the liquid phase, atomic mobility is limited in a glass, and requires thermal activation. Recently, structural models have been developed based on the idea of efficient atomic packing. While geometric these models successfully describe atomic structure, the underlying governing principles, thermodynamics, are mitigated or often neglected. The model described in this work takes advantage of the short-range atomic order inherent in metallic glasses. Developed around the central atoms model (CAM), it uses a statistical thermodynamic approach, and can more accurately describe the amorphous state on the atomic level. Each atom is considered to be surrounded by a "cage" of nearest-neighbors (NNs). In an ideal metallic glass, these cages are described by geometrically preferred configurations. The enthalpy of each possible NN cage is calculated from the energy of a cluster of two, three, or four atoms. The structure and thermodynamics of the metallic glass are dependent on the probability distributions of NN cages. Defects, termed bond deficiencies (BDs), are introduced into the model, and are analogous to vacancies in a crystalline material, except they occupy less volume, and cost less energy to create. These defects are considered to be thermodynamically stable, and provide the primary vehicle of atomic transport. CAM is applied to ideal and defect

  18. Plasticity in the Supercooled Liquid Region of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Wadsworth, J; Liu, C T; Ice, G E

    2000-10-30

    Intensive efforts have been carried out over the past decade to develop means to slow down the phase transformation kinetics during the forming of metallic glasses. As a result of these efforts, some metallic glasses can now be fabricated in bulk forms (BMG) from the liquid state at cooling rates on the order of 1-10 K/s, which is close to that of conventional casting. This enables the production of bulk amorphous alloys with a thickness of {approx}10 mm. While advances in amorphous metallic alloy development have been impressive, they have been made largely through experience [1]. Three main conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) Bulk metallic glasses generally have excellent mechanical formability in the supercooled liquid region. (2) Bulk metallic glasses may not be necessarily behave like a Newtonian fluid (i.e. m=1). The non-Newtonian behavior is associated with glass instability during deformation. (3) Multi-component Bulk metallic glasses can be used as the precursor of a nanocrystalline solid. However, the nanocrystalline solid is not necessarily superplastic. The non-superplastic behavior is caused by the difficult strain accommodation at grain triple junctions.

  19. Methods of Fabricating a Layer of Metallic Glass-Based Material Using Immersion and Pouring Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement layers of metallic glass-based materials. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating a layer of metallic glass includes: applying a coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to an object, the coating layer being applied in a sufficient quantity such that the surface tension of the liquid phase metallic glass causes the coating layer to have a smooth surface; where the metallic glass has a critical cooling rate less than 1000 K/s; and cooling the coating layer of liquid phase metallic glass to form a layer of solid phase metallic glass.

  20. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  1. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  2. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  3. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  4. Atomic-scale heterogeneity of a multicomponent bulk metallic glass with excellent glass forming ability.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Konno, K; Zhang, W; Kumar, V; Matsuura, M; Inoue, A; Sakurai, T; Chen, M W

    2009-08-14

    We report the atomic structure of a multicomponent Cu45Zr45Ag10 bulk metallic glass investigated by state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques. In comparison with a binary Cu50Zr50 metallic glass, Zr-rich interpenetrating clusters centered by paired and stringed Ag atoms and Cu-rich icosahedra are widely observed in the ternary Cu45Zr45Ag10 alloy. The atomic-scale heterogeneity caused by chemical short- and medium-range order is found to play a key role in stabilizing the liquid phase and in improving the glass forming ability of the multicomponent alloy.

  5. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  6. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  7. High strength glass-ceramic to metal seals

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L D; Kramer, D P; Moddeman, W E; Wooten, G W

    1986-12-01

    In many applications, ceramics are joined to other materials, especially metals. In such cases, interfacial strength is as important as the strength of each constituent material. Examples are presented for tailoring materials and processes to optimize the glass-ceramic-to-metal seal. Means for detecting defects, nondestructively, are also identified.

  8. Crystallization of heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Bruce, Allan J.; Doremus, R. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystallization of a number of fluorozirconate glasses were studied using isothermal and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The addition of the fluorides LiF, NaF, AlF3, LaF3 to a base glass composition of ZrF4-BaF2 reduced the tendency to crystallize, probably by modifying the viscosity-temperature relation. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass was the most stable against devitrification and perhaps is the best composition for optical fibers with low scattering loss. Some glasses first crystallize out into metastable beta-BaZr2F10 and beta-BaZrF6 phases, which transform into the most stable alpha-phases when heated to higher temperatures. The size of the crystallites was estimated to be about 600 A from X-ray diffraction.

  9. Metal coated glasses by sputtering and their microfouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougo, T.; Kanematsu, H.; Wada, N.; Hihara, T.; Minekawa, M.; Fujita, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Some elements as contaminant tend to be concentrated in biofilm. In order to prevent the fogging of glass, it is very important to control biofilm formation by metal dissolution. In this study, Metals were deposited on glass substrate by Helicon-wave-excited-plasma sputtering process. Sample was very thin metals layer like as half mirror, it could transmit light. The results of biofilm formation test, biofilm formation were inhibited on Cu, Sn and Cr, and light transmission of these samples was not degradation. It could be said that inhibition of biofilm formation was effective to suppressing cloudiness.

  10. High-throughput drawing and testing of metallic glass nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Molla; Kumar, Golden

    2017-03-02

    Thermoplastic embossing of metallic glasses promises direct imprinting of metal nanostructures using templates. However, embossing high-aspect-ratio nanostructures faces unworkable flow resistance due to friction and non-wetting conditions at the template interface. Herein, we show that these inherent challenges of embossing can be reversed by thermoplastic drawing using templates. The flow resistance not only remains independent of wetting but also decreases with increasing feature aspect-ratio. Arrays of assembled nanotips, nanowires, and nanotubes with aspect-ratios exceeding 1000 can be produced through controlled elongation and fracture of metallic glass structures. In contrast to embossing, the drawing approach generates two sets of nanostructures upon final fracture; one set remains anchored to the metallic glass substrate while the second set is assembled on the template. This method can be readily adapted for high-throughput fabrication and testing of nanoscale tensile specimens, enabling rapid screening of size-effects in mechanical behavior.

  11. Relating Dynamic Properties to Atomic Structure in Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, H.W.; Ma, E.; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2012-07-18

    Atomic packing in metallic glasses is not completely random but displays various degrees of structural ordering. While it is believed that local structures profoundly affect the properties of glasses, a fundamental understanding of the structure–property relationship has been lacking. In this article, we provide a microscopic picture to uncover the intricate interplay between structural defects and dynamic properties of metallic glasses, from the perspective of computational modeling. Computational methodologies for such realistic modeling are introduced. Exploiting the concept of quasi-equivalent cluster packing, we quantify the structural ordering of a prototype metallic glass during its formation process, with a new focus on geometric measures of subatomic “voids.” Atomic sites connected with the voids are found to be crucial in terms of understanding the dynamic, including vibrational and atomic transport, properties. Normal mode analysis is performed to reveal the structural origin of the anomalous boson peak (BP) in the vibration spectrum of the glass, and its correlation with atomic packing cavities. Through transition-state search on the energy landscape of the system, such structural disorder is found to be a facilitating factor for atomic diffusion, with diffusion energy barriers and diffusion pathways significantly varying with the degree of structural relaxation/ordering. The implications of structural defects for the mechanical properties of metallic glasses are also discussed.

  12. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2013-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate Rc below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing Rc, and thus good glass-formers possess small values of Rc. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change Rc significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ˜1011 K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than Rc for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  13. Computational studies of the glass-forming ability of model bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Minglei; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2013-09-28

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are produced by rapidly thermally quenching supercooled liquid metal alloys below the glass transition temperature at rates much faster than the critical cooling rate R(c) below which crystallization occurs. The glass-forming ability of BMGs increases with decreasing R(c), and thus good glass-formers possess small values of R(c). We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) mixtures to quantify how key parameters, such as the stoichiometry, particle size difference, attraction strength, and heat of mixing, influence the glass-formability of model BMGs. For binary LJ mixtures, we find that the best glass-forming mixtures possess atomic size ratios (small to large) less than 0.92 and stoichiometries near 50:50 by number. In addition, weaker attractive interactions between the smaller atoms facilitate glass formation, whereas negative heats of mixing (in the experimentally relevant regime) do not change R(c) significantly. These results are tempered by the fact that the slowest cooling rates achieved in our simulations correspond to ~10(11) K/s, which is several orders of magnitude higher than R(c) for typical BMGs. Despite this, our studies represent a first step in the development of computational methods for quantitatively predicting glass-formability.

  14. Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Seifert, Gerhard; Abdolvand, Amin

    Glasses and other dielectrics containing metallic nanoparticles are very promising materials for applications in optoelectronics due to their unique linear and non-linear optical properties. These properties are dominated by the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles. The SPR occurs when the electron and light waves couple with each other at a metal-dielectric interface. These are regarded as the collective oscillation of the nanoparticle (NP) electrons.

  15. Correlation Between Local Structure and Boson Peak in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Azkar Saeed; Zhao, Xiangnan; Xu, Mingxiang; Zhang, Dongxian; Hu, Junwen; Fecht, Hans J.; Wang, Xiaodong; Cao, Qingping; Jiang, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    We made a systematic study of the boson peak for six different Zr-based metallic glasses and found a universal correlation between average local atomic structure and boson peak. It is found that the boson peak can be decomposed into six characteristic vibratory modes, i.e., Debye's vibratory mode and five Einstein's vibratory modes. By using the Ioffe-Regel condition over all studied Zr-based metallic glasses, we reveal that atomic pair correlation function exactly maps on the low-temperature dynamics and the origin of the boson peak, which is the sum of vibrations of local density fluctuation domains in the glasses. In addition, it is found that the Debye's type oscillators are the major contributors to the low-temperature specific heat capacities. This study opens a new way of understanding the relationship of the physical properties with the atomic arrangements in glasses.

  16. Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain.

    PubMed

    Ketov, S V; Sun, Y H; Nachum, S; Lu, Z; Checchi, A; Beraldin, A R; Bai, H Y; Wang, W H; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Carpenter, M A; Greer, A L

    2015-08-13

    When a spatially uniform temperature change is imposed on a solid with more than one phase, or on a polycrystal of a single, non-cubic phase (showing anisotropic expansion-contraction), the resulting thermal strain is inhomogeneous (non-affine). Thermal cycling induces internal stresses, leading to structural and property changes that are usually deleterious. Glasses are the solids that form on cooling a liquid if crystallization is avoided--they might be considered the ultimate, uniform solids, without the microstructural features and defects associated with polycrystals. Here we explore the effects of cryogenic thermal cycling on glasses, specifically metallic glasses. We show that, contrary to the null effect expected from uniformity, thermal cycling induces rejuvenation, reaching less relaxed states of higher energy. We interpret these findings in the context that the dynamics in liquids become heterogeneous on cooling towards the glass transition, and that there may be consequent heterogeneities in the resulting glasses. For example, the vibrational dynamics of glassy silica at long wavelengths are those of an elastic continuum, but at wavelengths less than approximately three nanometres the vibrational dynamics are similar to those of a polycrystal with anisotropic grains. Thermal cycling of metallic glasses is easily applied, and gives improvements in compressive plasticity. The fact that such effects can be achieved is attributed to intrinsic non-uniformity of the glass structure, giving a non-uniform coefficient of thermal expansion. While metallic glasses may be particularly suitable for thermal cycling, the non-affine nature of strains in glasses in general deserves further study, whether they are induced by applied stresses or by temperature change.

  17. Relaxation Behavior of Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) April 2014 Interim 19 March 2014 – 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RELAXATION...liquids.[2 4] Almost all bulk metallic glasses show intermediate fragile behavior.[ 5 ] Slow kinet- ics of crystallization due to high viscosity/high...on u is used to calculate the activation enthalpy of structural relax- ation, DHg, at the glass transition: [17] DHg ¼ R d lnu d 1 . Tcalg ½ 5

  18. Glass-to-Metal Seal Against Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Gatewood, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Simple compression joint with indium gasket forms demountable seal for superfluids. Seal developed for metal lid on glass jar used in experiments on liquid helium. Glass container allows contents to be viewed for such purposes as calibration of liquid-level detectors and adjustments of displacement plungers. Seal contains liquid helium even when temperature drops below 2.19K. Made from inexpensive, commercially available materials and parts.

  19. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed.

  20. Relaxation Behavior of Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Almost all bulk metallic glasses show intermediate fragile behavior [ 5 The fragile behavior of supercooled glass forming liquids can generally be...transition [17 ( )calgg Td dRH 1 lnϕ −=∆ ]: ( 5 ) where R is the gas constant. The calorimetric fragility index mc is then often calculated as: mc...temperatures of the start and the end of the glass transition, respectively, and τg = 1000 s. Equation (6) is equivalent to Equation 4 5 (2) only if ∆Tg

  1. Ordering and dimensional crossovers in metallic glasses and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, David Z.; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Greer, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    The atomic-level structures of liquids and glasses are amorphous, lacking long-range order. We characterize the atomic structures by integrating radial distribution functions (RDF) from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several metallic liquids and glasses: C u46Z r54 , N i80A l20 , N i33.3Z r66.7 , and P d82S i18 . Resulting cumulative coordination numbers (CN) show that metallic liquids have a dimension of d =2.55 ±0.06 from the center atom to the first coordination shell and metallic glasses have d =2.71 ±0.04 , both less than 3. Between the first and second coordination shells, both phases crossover to a dimension of d =3 , as for a crystal. Observations from discrete atom center-of-mass position counting are corroborated by continuously counting Cu glass- and liquid-phase atoms on an artificial grid, which accounts for the occupied atomic volume. Results from Cu grid analysis show short-range d =2.65 for Cu liquid and d =2.76 for Cu glass. Cu grid structures crossover to d =3 at ξ ˜8 Å (˜3 atomic diameters). We study the evolution of local structural dimensions during quenching and discuss its correlation with the glass transition phenomenon.

  2. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  3. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  4. Room temperature homogeneous flow in a bulk metallic glass with low glass transition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Xia, X. X.; Bai, H. Y.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-04-04

    We report a high entropy metallic glass of Zn{sub 20}Ca{sub 20}Sr{sub 20}Yb{sub 20}(Li{sub 0.55}Mg{sub 0.45}){sub 20} via composition design that exhibiting remarkable homogeneous deformation without shear banding under stress at room temperature. The glass also shows properties such as low glass transition temperature (323 K) approaching room temperature, low density and high specific strength, good conductivity, polymerlike thermoplastic manufacturability, and ultralow elastic moduli comparable to that of bones. The alloy is thermally and chemically stable.

  5. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON FLOW OF METALLIC GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. NOURI; Y. LIU; P. WESSELING; J. LEWANDOWSKI

    2006-04-12

    Micro-hardness experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures using a Nikon QM micro-hardness machine on a number of metallic glass (e.g. Zr-, Fe-, Al-) systems. Although high micro-hardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. The effects of changes in test temperature on the micro-hardness will be reported. The effects of exposure time on the hardness evolution at a given temperature will also be summarized to illustrate some of the differences in behavior of the systems shown. The extreme softening near T{sub g}, characteristic of bulk metallic glass systems, enables the exploration of novel deformation processing. In order to develop deformation processing windows, the evaluation of bulk metallic glass mechanical properties under quasi-static conditions and the determination of flow properties at different temperatures and strain rates are reported. The use of such information to create layered/composite bulk metallic glasses will be summarized.

  6. Lithium and Sodium Resistance of Alkali Metal Vapor Resistant Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishinevski, Anatoly; Hall, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    A common challenge in atomic physics is that of containing an alkali metal vapor at an elevated temperature and concurrently being able to excite and probe atomic transitions within. Typically glass is used as the material to construct the container, as it is easy to manipulate into any geometry and offers thermal, mechanical, and optical properties that no other material is capable. Unfortunately it has been well established that alkali metal gasses/vapors react readily with silica containing glass and results in a progressive darkening of the material. As the darkening reaction progresses, the optical transmission properties of the glass progressively degrade to an eventual point of uselessness. Alkali metals have been used extensively in frequency standards and magnetometers. The finite life of these alkali metal vapor-containing devices has been accepted despite varying attempts by different teams to solve this problem. As a viable solution, it has been identified there exist a family of glass compositions that contain a marginal amount of silica, may be lampworked using traditional glassblowing techniques, and that offer substantially better alkali vapor resistance. The evaluation of these glasses and their resistance to sodium and lithium vapor at varying pressures and temperatures are discussed.

  7. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, R.C.

    1985-02-11

    Disclosed are: amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M/sub 1/)/sub a/(M/sub 2/)/sub b/ wherein M/sub 1/ is at least one transition metal, M/sub 2/ is at least one main group metal and the integers ''a'' and ''b'' provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  8. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M.sub.1).sub.a (M.sub.2).sub.b wherein M.sub.1 is at least one transition metal, M.sub.2 is at least one main group metal and the integers "a" and "b" provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  9. Synthesis of new amorphous metallic spin glasses

    DOEpatents

    Haushalter, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metallic precipitates having the formula (M.sub.1).sub.a (M.sub.2).sub.b wherein M.sub.1 is at least one transition metal, M.sub.2 is at least one main group metal and the integers "a" and "b" provide stoichiometric balance; the precipitates having a degree of local order characteristic of chemical compounds from the precipitation process and useful electrical and mechanical properties.

  10. Atomistic mechanisms of cyclic hardening in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chuang; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2012-06-01

    Molecular dynamics with an embedded-atom method potential is used to simulate the nanoindentation of Cu63.5Zr36.5 metallic glasses. In particular, the effects of cyclic loading within the nominal elastic range on the overall strength and plasticity of metallic glass are studied. The simulated results are in line with the characteristics of experimentally observed hardening effects. In addition, analysis based on local von Mises strain suggests that the hardening is induced by confined microplasticity and stiffening in regions of the originally preferred yielding path, requiring a higher applied load to trigger a secondary one.

  11. Structural features of plastic deformation in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Scudino, S. Shakur Shahabi, H.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Kaban, I.; Escher, B.; Eckert, J.; Vaughan, G. B. M.

    2015-01-19

    Spatially resolved strain maps of a plastically deformed bulk metallic glass (BMG) have been created by using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that plastic deformation creates a spatially heterogeneous atomic arrangement, consisting of strong compressive and tensile strain fields. In addition, significant shear strain is introduced in the samples. The analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the strain tensor indicates that considerable structural anisotropy occurs in both the magnitude and direction of the strain. These features are in contrast to the behavior observed in elastically deformed BMGs and represent a distinctive structural sign of plastic deformation in metallic glasses.

  12. Structural Anisotropy in Metallic Glasses Induced by Mechanical Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, Wojtek; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Metallic glasses have been studied vigorously since the first report on amorphous gold-silicon alloy back in 1960.[1] Initially soft magnetic properties were the most promising features for industrial applications. The recent development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs)[2 5] initiated interests in engineering applications such as structural or biomedical materials because of attractive properties such as high strength,[6] high elasticity,[7,8] and good corrosion resistance,[9,10] among others. In addition, high temperature processing of BMGs allows for near-net-shape formability,[11 13] which could simplify and possibly reduce the cost of the final product. The glasses retain the disordered atomic structure of a liquid, and ideally are isotropic solids. Frequently because of processing conditions, such as directional heat flow, some structural anisotropy is produced during quenching, and has been observed by structural investigations. Usually, annealing at high temperatures results in an isotropic structure. Also, formation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy[14] had been observed in studies of creep deformed ferromagnetic metallic glasses. Samples with a near-zero magnetostriction coefficient had been studied to establish the origin of the magnetic anisotropy. It was concluded that anisotropy resulted from the atomic level anisotropy[15] and not the heterogeneous internal stress distribution. Indeed X-ray diffraction study of the creep deformed metallic glass showed bond anisotropy.[ 16,17] Such structural studies had been cumbersome and lengthy because they required measurement of many orientations with high statistics. Recently we have shown that use of an area detector and high energy X-rays at a synchrotron source can speed up data collection without compromising statistics.[18] In this contribution, we present data showing structural anisotropy in glassy samples after homogenous (creep) and inhomogeneous (compression) mechanical deformation. The observation of the

  13. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-03-01

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials.

  14. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-01-01

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials. PMID:28338092

  15. Superconducting property of Zr-Co-Al-Nb metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Nagai, R.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H. M.; Inoue, A.

    2011-11-01

    The superconducting property of Zr55Co(30-x)Al15Nbx (x = 0-20 at.%) metallic glasses fabricated by rapid solidification was investigated. The Zr55Co(30-x)Al15Nbx (x = 5-20 at.%) metallic glasses with a mixture structure of amorphous and nanocrystal phases exhibited superconductivity of Tc,on = 1.8-2.6 K. The maximum Tc,on = 2.6 K was obtained for the Zr55Co10Al15Nb20 metallic glass. This was attributable to the superconducting property of nanocrystalline particles contained in the Zr55Co10Al15Nb20 alloy. The increase of Nb element in the Zr55Co(30-x)Al15Nbx alloy led to the increase of Tc,on and the decrease of glass transition temperature. The glass transition temperature was between 704 and 749 K for the Zr55Co(30-x)Al15Nbx (x = 0-20 at.%) alloys. The temperature interval of supercooled liquid state was between 51 and 68 K for the Zr55Co(30-x)Al15Nbx (x = 0-20 at.%) alloys.

  16. Combinatorial Strategies for the Development of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiyan

    The systematic identification of multi-component alloys out of the vast composition space is still a daunting task, especially in the development of bulk metallic glasses that are typically based on three or more elements. In order to address this challenge, combinatorial approaches have been proposed. However, previous attempts have not successfully coupled the synthesis of combinatorial libraries with high-throughput characterization methods. The goal of my dissertation is to develop efficient high-throughput characterization methods, optimized to identify glass formers systematically. Here, two innovative approaches have been invented. One is to measure the nucleation temperature in parallel for up-to 800 compositions. The composition with the lowest nucleation temperature has a reasonable agreement with the best-known glass forming composition. In addition, the thermoplastic formability of a metallic glass forming system is determined through blow molding a compositional library. Our results reveal that the composition with the largest thermoplastic deformation correlates well with the best-known formability composition. I have demonstrated both methods as powerful tools to develop new bulk metallic glasses.

  17. Evolution of elastic heterogeneity during aging in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    The properties of glasses vary widely depending on the way they are prepared, even though their structures appear similar. We show that the local potential energy landscape (PEL) sensitively reflects the stability differences through simulation of local structural excitation in a model metallic glass. It is observed that the spectrum of local structural excitation develops a pseudogap at low energies as the glass becomes more stable. We also demonstrate that the spatial variation of the atomic level shear modulus, rather than the distribution of the magnitude of the single atom shear modulus, is more closely related to the nature of the PEL and the stabilities of glasses. In particular, local aggregation of atoms with low shear modulus greatly contributes to instability of the system.

  18. Evolution of elastic heterogeneity during aging in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    The properties of glasses vary widely depending on the way they are prepared, even though their structures appear similar. We show that the local potential energy landscape (PEL) sensitively reflects the stability differences through simulation of local structural excitation in a model metallic glass. It is observed that the spectrum of local structural excitation develops a pseudogap at low energies as the glass becomes more stable. We also demonstrate that the spatial variation of the atomic level shear modulus, rather than the distribution of the magnitude of the single atom shear modulus, is more closely related to the nature of the PEL and the stabilities of glasses. In particular, local aggregation of atoms with low shear modulus greatly contributes to instability of the system.

  19. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  20. The properties of metal-reinforced glass ionomer materials.

    PubMed

    Chung, K H

    1993-01-01

    The physical properties and bond strengths of two glass ionomer materials reinforced with silver and amalgam alloy powders were compared with those of a conventional material from the same manufacture as well as two commercially available products. The diametral tensile strength, hardness and bonding strength are improved with the addition of either commercial available silver particles or fabricated high-copper amalgam alloy powders to the glass. Simple mixture of the metal or alloy powders with the glass ionomer cement seems to be feasible to improve the properties of the regular cement. However, further studies in formulating an optimal composition of metal or alloy, setting characteristics and long-term clinical evaluation are necessary before proposing uses for this new material.

  1. Diffusion between glass and metals for optical fiber preform extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Felicia Yan Xin; Zhang, Zhifeng; Kumar Chakkathara Janardhanan Nair, Dileep; Zhang, Yilei

    2015-07-01

    When silica is extruded, diffusion of metal atoms into silica results contamination to the silica being heated, and thus is a serious concern for the glass extrusion process, such as extrusion of glass fiber preform. This paper examines diffusion between fused silica and two high strength metals, the stainless steel SS410 and the superalloy Inconel 718, at 1000 °C and under the normal atmosphere condition by SEM and Electron Dispersion Spectrum. It is found that diffusion occurs between silica and SS410, and at the same time, SS410 is severely oxidized during diffusion experiment. On the contrary, the diffusion between Inconel 718 and silica is unnoticeable, suggesting excellent high temperature performance of Inconel 718 for glass extrusion.

  2. Predicting Novel Bulk Metallic Glasses via High- Throughput Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perim, E.; Lee, D.; Liu, Y.; Toher, C.; Gong, P.; Li, Y.; Simmons, W. N.; Levy, O.; Vlassak, J.; Schroers, J.; Curtarolo, S.

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are materials which may combine key properties from crystalline metals, such as high hardness, with others typically presented by plastics, such as easy processability. However, the cost of the known BMGs poses a significant obstacle for the development of applications, which has lead to a long search for novel, economically viable, BMGs. The emergence of high-throughput DFT calculations, such as the library provided by the AFLOWLIB consortium, has provided new tools for materials discovery. We have used this data to develop a new glass forming descriptor combining structural factors with thermodynamics in order to quickly screen through a large number of alloy systems in the AFLOWLIB database, identifying the most promising systems and the optimal compositions for glass formation. National Science Foundation (DMR-1436151, DMR-1435820, DMR-1436268).

  3. Formation of nanostructured metallic glass thin films upon sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ketov, Sergey V; Joksimovic, Rastko; Xie, Guoqiang; Trifonov, Artem; Kurihara, Kazue; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V

    2017-01-01

    Morphology evolution of the multicomponent metallic glass film obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was investigated in the present work. Two modes of metallic glass sputtering were distinguished: smooth film mode and clustered film mode. The sputtering parameters, which have the most influence on the sputtering modes, were determined. As a result, amorphous Ni-Nb thin films with a smooth surface and nanoglassy structure were deposited on silica float glass and Si substrates. The phase composition of the target appeared to have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the deposited amorphous thin film. The differences in charge transport and nanomechanical properties between the smooth and nanoglassy Ni-Nb film were also determined.

  4. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals metals

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Day, Delbert E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  5. Focus: Nucleation kinetics of shear bands in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Q.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The development of shear bands is recognized as the primary mechanism in controlling the plastic deformability of metallic glasses. However, the kinetics of the nucleation of shear bands has received limited attention. The nucleation of shear bands in metallic glasses (MG) can be investigated using a nanoindentation method to monitor the development of the first pop-in event that is a signature of shear band nucleation. The analysis of a statistically significant number of first pop-in events demonstrates the stochastic behavior that is characteristic of nucleation and reveals a multimodal behavior associated with local spatial heterogeneities. The shear band nucleation rate of the two nucleation modes and the associated activation energy, activation volume, and site density were determined by loading rate experiments. The nucleation activation energy is very close to the value that is characteristic of the β relaxation in metallic glass. The identification of the rate controlling kinetics for shear band nucleation offers guidance for promoting plastic flow in metallic glass.

  6. Key factors affecting mechanical behavior of metallic glass nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qi-Kai; Li, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Both strengthening and weakening trends with decreasing diameter have been observed for metallic glass nanowires, sometimes even in the samples with the same chemical composition. How to reconcile the results has reminded a puzzle. Since the detailed stress state and microstructure of metallic glass nanowires may differ from each other significantly depending on preparation, to discover the intrinsic size effect it is necessary to study metallic glass nanowires fabricated differently. Here we show the complex size effects from one such class of metallic glass nanowires prepared by casting using molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with the nanowires of the same composition prepared by other methods, the cast nanowires deform nearly homogeneously with much lower strength but better ductility; and also show strengthening in tension but weakening in compression with decreasing wire diameter. The subtle size dependence is shown to be related to the key factors including internal and surface stress state, atomic structure variation, and presence of various gradients. The complex interplay of these factors at decreasing size leads to the different deformation behaviors. PMID:28134292

  7. Key factors affecting mechanical behavior of metallic glass nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qi-Kai; Li, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Both strengthening and weakening trends with decreasing diameter have been observed for metallic glass nanowires, sometimes even in the samples with the same chemical composition. How to reconcile the results has reminded a puzzle. Since the detailed stress state and microstructure of metallic glass nanowires may differ from each other significantly depending on preparation, to discover the intrinsic size effect it is necessary to study metallic glass nanowires fabricated differently. Here we show the complex size effects from one such class of metallic glass nanowires prepared by casting using molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with the nanowires of the same composition prepared by other methods, the cast nanowires deform nearly homogeneously with much lower strength but better ductility; and also show strengthening in tension but weakening in compression with decreasing wire diameter. The subtle size dependence is shown to be related to the key factors including internal and surface stress state, atomic structure variation, and presence of various gradients. The complex interplay of these factors at decreasing size leads to the different deformation behaviors.

  8. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-17

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  9. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  10. Structural anisotropy in metallic glasses induced by mechanical deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Egami, T.

    2009-03-06

    We observed structural anisotropy in metallic glasses samples deformed by homogenous mechanical creep and by inhomogeneous compression using high energy X-ray diffraction. Pair distribution function analysis indicates bond anisotropy in the first atomic shell. This suggests that mechanical deformation involves rearrangements in a cluster of atoms by a bond reformation.

  11. Glass transition temperature of bulk metallic glasses: A linear connection with the mixing enthalpy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelian; Bian, Xiufang; Hu, Lina; Wu, Yuqin; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Junyan

    2007-05-01

    A linear relationship is found between the glass transition temperature Tg and the absolute value of the mixing enthalpy, |ΔHchem|, for bulk metallic glass systems. The increasing (or lowering) of Tg with an admixture of metals or other elements manifests itself in the larger (or smaller) of |ΔHchem| in a given system. The results indicate that the composition dependence of Tg results from the change of excess entropy (Sex) during thermal excitation. The |ΔHchem|, which relates to the strength of interaction among different atoms, corresponds to part of the Sex at Tg [Sex(Tg)]. The glass transition temperatures for Cu-Zr (Hf)-, Zr-Cu-, and La-Al-based glassy alloys are correlated with the interaction intensity between their based binary eutectic compositions, respectively.

  12. Plastic Deformation in Zirconium Based Metallic Glasses via Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgarejo-Pinto, Zenon Humberto

    Since the discovery in 1960 of Au-Si amorphous alloy by rapidly quenching with cooling rates up to 106 K/s metallic glasses became as an important research topic in the materials science community because of their intriguing processing routes, structure and properties. Recently, new multicomponent glassy- alloy systems, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), appeared with lower critical cooling rates (103 to 1 K/s) and superlative properties, such as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and high strength/modulus ratio. Nevertheless, low temperature brittleness remains a concern. This brittleness comes from the tendency of plastic deformation to concentrate into extremely narrow shear bands. The present research pursues a better understanding of plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) by studying, via nanoindentation, the effect of thermal history, composition, and loading paths on the mechanical behavior of Zr-based MGs. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis helps to assess structural relaxation near glass transition temperature (T g). Broadband nanoindentation creep (BNC) and load transient nanoindentation experiments contribute to characterize the hardness-strain rate behavior and indentation size effects, respectively. As-cast Zr 50Cu45Al5 (at. %) metallic glasses evidenced hardness-strain rate loading path dependence, which gradually disappears by effect of the annealing treatments. Back-stresses effect is theorized as the cause of load path dependence behavior. Relaxation effect at low and high strain rates in BNC traces and load ramps "overshoots" in transient experiments enabled to confirm structural changes during mechanical deformation, which is not considered by thermal activation models of deformation. Most of the Zr-based metallic glasses exhibited measurable overshoot indentation size effect. Nonetheless, creep fraction size effect was observed just in as-cast Zr50Cu45Al5 alloys. Rheological mechanical model helps to both characterize the

  13. Alloy with metallic glass and quasi-crystalline properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Li-Qian; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ramesh, Kaliat T.

    2004-02-17

    An alloy is described that is capable of forming a metallic glass at moderate cooling rates and exhibits large plastic flow at ambient temperature. Preferably, the alloy has a composition of (Zr, Hf).sub.a Ta.sub.b Ti.sub.c Cu.sub.d Ni.sub.e Al.sub.f, where the composition ranges (in atomic percent) are 45.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.70, 3.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.7.5, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.4, 3.ltoreq.b+c.ltoreq.10, 10.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, 10.ltoreq.d+e.ltoreq.35, and 5.ltoreq.f.ltoreq.15. The alloy may be cast into a bulk solid with disordered atomic-scale structure, i.e., a metallic glass, by a variety of techniques including copper mold die casting and planar flow casting. The as-cast amorphous solid has good ductility while retaining all of the characteristic features of known metallic glasses, including a distinct glass transition, a supercooled liquid region, and an absence of long-range atomic order. The alloy may be used to form a composite structure including quasi-crystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Such a composite quasi-crystalline structure has much higher mechanical strength than a crystalline structure.

  14. Glass-metal objects from archaeological excavation: corrosion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner-Wronowa, Elżbieta; Zabiegaj, Dominika; Piccardo, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    This paper contributes to the investigations on history, technology, and degradation of middle age objects (metallic rings with mounted glass beads) recently excavated under the Main Square in Krakow (Poland). Moreover, they were discovered in soil layers differing by chemical composition and microclimate parameters. Historical material is indeed very limited in terms of quantity and sample size, and the following nondestructive analyses were applied: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The glass and the metal were separately tested. Metallography on cross-sections (by both optical and scanning electron microscopy) was applied only on microfragments sampled from metallic rings. The achieved results pointed out how the local microclimate affected the degradation of the analyzed rings developing locally different corrosion processes. Each tested glass of "ring eye" shows a specific chemical composition. All glass pieces were covered by silica gel, and locally more advanced corrosion has been found.

  15. Structural aspects of elastic deformation of a metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, T. C.; Ott, R. T.; Almer, J.

    2006-02-01

    We report the use of high-energy x-ray scattering to measure strain in a Zr{sub 57}Ti{sub 5}Cu{sub 20}Ni{sub 8}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass in situ during uniaxial compression in the elastic regime up to stresses of approximately 60% of the yield stress. The strains extracted in two ways--directly from the normalized scattering data and from the pair correlation functions--are in good agreement with each other for length scales greater than 4 A. The elastic modulus calculated on the basis of this strain is in good agreement with that reported for closely related amorphous alloys based on macroscopic measurements. The strain measured for atoms in the nearest-neighbor shell, however, is smaller than that for more distant shells, and the effective elastic modulus calculated from the strain on this scale is therefore larger, comparable to crystalline alloys of similar composition. These observations are in agreement with previously proposed models in which the nominally elastic deformation of a metallic glass has a significant anelastic component due to atomic rearrangements in topologically unstable regions of the structure. We also observe that the distribution of the atomic-level stresses in the glass becomes more uniform during loading. This implies that the stiffness of metallic glasses may have an entropic contribution, analogous to the entropic contribution in rubber elasticity.

  16. Characteristics of Johari-Goldstein relaxations in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jichao; Casalini, Riccardo; Pelletier, Jean-Marc; Kato, Hidemi; Yao, Yao; Yao'S Group Team; Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory Team; Pvmh, Mateis, Insa de Lyon Team; Kato'S Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of Pd-based metallic glasses was studied by mechanical spectroscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The results show the change in composition has a significant effect on the α relaxation dynamics. All Pd-based metallic glasses have similar fragilities, 59 < m <67, and Kohlrausch stretched exponents, 0.59 <βKWW <0.60. The values of m and βKWW correlate well with the general relation proposed by Böhmer et al. for other glassy materials and the substitution of the Ni with Cu induced a large change in the time constant of the β relaxation, τβ. The activation energy, Uβ, of the β relaxation was generally independent of chemical composition. In all cases, 25 glass formers. From the heat capacity and mechanical loss, the number of dynamically correlated units, Ncwere obtained; significantly larger Nc values for these metallic glasses were observed compared with glassy materials.

  17. Melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Xin, R.C.; Liu, Y.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Several high-temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to support these processes. This research project involves an experimental investigation of the melting, solidification, remelting, and separation of glass and metal and the development of an efficient separation technology. The ultimate goal of this project is to find an efficient way to separate the slag phase from the metal phase in the molten state. This two-year project commenced in October 1995 (FY96). In the first fiscal year, the following tasks were accomplished: (1) A literature review and an assessment of the baseline glass and metal separation technologies were performed. The results indicated that the baseline technology yields a high percentage of glass in the metal phase, requiring further separation. (2) The main melting and solidification system setup was established. A number of melting and solidification tests were conducted. (3) Temperature distribution, solidification patterns, and flow field in the molten metal pool were simulated numerically for the solidification processes of molten aluminum and iron steel. (4) Initial designs of the laboratory-scale DCS and CS technologies were also completed. The principal demonstration separation units were constructed. (5) An application for a patent for an innovative liquid-liquid separation technology was submitted and is pending.

  18. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  19. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  20. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-07-29

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  1. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    SciTech Connect

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  2. Correlation between average melting temperature and glass transition temperature in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhibin; Li, Jiangong

    2009-02-01

    The correlation between average melting temperature (⟨Tm⟩) and glass transition temperature (Tg) in metallic glasses (MGs) is analyzed. A linear relationship, Tg=0.385⟨Tm⟩, is observed. This correlation agrees with Egami's suggestion [Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 1601 (1984)]. The prediction of Tg from ⟨Tm⟩ through the relationship Tg=0.385⟨Tm⟩ has been tested using experimental data obtained on a large number of MGs. This relationship can be used to predict and design MGs with a desired Tg.

  3. Fracture and deformation of a zirconium based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Katharine Marie

    Combining low density, high strength, large elastic strains, and a high fracture toughness, bulk metallic glasses are ideal for a variety of applications. This study focuses on the fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms of a recently developed Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass. These alloys exhibit failure strengths of ˜2 GPa and toughness values of 10--30 MPa√m with remarkably little plastic deformation. Intense shear bands, associated with localized changes in free volume and glass viscosity, form and propagate seemingly unimpeded through the material, causing catastrophic failure. Shear band formation is associated with localized melting of the glass, as evidenced by molten droplets and vein patterns on the fracture surface. A central question regarding the formation of shear bands is whether this melting is a result of adiabatic heating or due to a mean stress induced free volume dilatation. To address these issues, the temperature increase on the side face of fracture samples was measured. Utilizing heat conduction and dissipation models, a crack tip temperature increase of 139 K was predicted at fracture initiation, consistent with the dissipation of plastic work as heat. The effect of mean stresses on the softening behavior of the metallic glass was also examined. A superimposed mean stress alters the initial free volume, changing the stress required for strain localization in a shear band. Experimental results indicated that a constant tensile mean stress characterized failure, and that this stress was sufficient to cause a significant viscosity decrease. In the vicinity of crack tips, shear bands form stable damage zones. When properly stabilized, these zones increase the apparent toughness to more than 80 MPa√m. By modeling the damage zone as an array of branch cracks, we show that the intrinsic toughness of the material is ˜15 MPa√m, consistent with estimates based on Taylor's fluid meniscus instability. This has important implications for

  4. Glass Stability and Kinetic Analysis of Iron-Metalloid Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhaweesuk, Charuayporn

    Multicomponent Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with a combination of excellent properties such as good soft magnetic properties, high strength, high hardness, and high corrosion resistance have attracted increasing attention both from a basic science research standpoint and due to their industrial application potential. However, many of the elemental additions which lead to the easiest glass formation are expensive. The identification of alloys composed of abundant and inexpensive elements that still retain excellent properties would promote applications for engineering and industry. In short, the development of the Fe-based BMG without any glass-forming metal elements and with high glass forming ability is desired. This study shows that the thermal stability of the Fe-based alloys can be improved beyond a simple rule of mixtures prediction by utilizing a well-balance multi-metalloid approach. The kinetics aspect of glass-forming ability is studied experimentally for Fe-B-Si-P alloys. The systematic variation in alloy composition gives access to differences in phase selection and the final dimensions of glass formation. Two alloys, representing the best glass-forming composition and the poorest glass-forming composition, were studied in terms of their stability to crystallization, solidification microstructure evolution and thermal history. The utility of the wedge-casting technique is developed to examine bulk glass-forming alloys by combining multiple temperature profiles of the quenching melt with a measurement-based kinetic analysis of the phase selection competition and critical cooling rate conditions. Based upon direct thermal measurement, microstructural analysis and kinetic modeling, it was found that both representative alloys show a board spectrum of solidification microstructures which include a critical cooling rate range. The kinetic competition in the formation of certain phases can enhance or detract from the final dimension of bulk glass

  5. Spinodal Decomposition of Ni-Nb-Y metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mattern, Norbert; G, Goerigk; Vainio, U; Miller, Michael K; Gemming, T; Eckert, J

    2009-01-01

    Phase-separated Ni-Nb-Y metallic glasses were prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The early stages of decomposition were characterized in Ni-Nb-Y alloys with Ni contents of more than 60 at.%. Strongly correlated chemical fluctuations with a nanometer length scale were found to exist in the as-quenched state. The observed fluctuation lengths range from 5 to 12 nm, depending on the actual composition of the glass. The 'frozen-in' early stages of decomposition occur in the deeply undercooled melt due to the reduction in the critical temperature of liquid-liquid phase separation with Ni content. Annealing of the phase-separated Ni{sub 70}Nb{sub 15}Y{sub 15} glass below the crystallization temperature leads to an increase in the amplitude of the fluctuations. However, the wavelength was unchanged, which provides evidence for the spinodal character of the decomposition.

  6. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; ...

    2016-03-31

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disordermore » transitions in condensed matter systems.« less

  7. Low Temperature Heat Capacity of a Severely Deformed Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünz, Jonas; Brink, Tobias; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Meng, Fanqiang; Wilde, Gerhard; Albe, Karsten

    2014-04-01

    The low temperature heat capacity of amorphous materials reveals a low-frequency enhancement (boson peak) of the vibrational density of states, as compared with the Debye law. By measuring the low-temperature heat capacity of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass relative to a crystalline reference state, we show that the heat capacity of the glass is strongly enhanced after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion, while subsequent thermal annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a significant reduction. The detailed analysis of corresponding molecular dynamics simulations of an amorphous Zr-Cu glass shows that the change in heat capacity is primarily due to enhanced low-frequency modes within the shear band region.

  8. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems. PMID:27030071

  9. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-03-31

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems.

  10. ‘Crystal Genes’ in Metallic Liquids and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Ott, Ryan T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the underlying structural order that transcends liquid, glass and crystalline states in metallic systems. A genetic algorithm is applied to search for the most common energetically favorable packing motifs in crystalline structures. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid or glass structures using a cluster-alignment method. Using this method, we have revealed the nature of the short-range order in Cu64Zr36 glasses. More importantly, we identified a novel structural order in the Al90Sm10 system. In addition, our approach brings new insight into understanding the origin of vitrification and describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter systems.

  11. Melting, Solidification, Remelting, and Separation of Glass and Metal

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian; R. C.Xin; Z. F. Dong

    1998-11-02

    Several kinds of radioactive waste exist in mixed forms at DOE sites throughout the United States. These Wastes consist of radionuclides and some usefil bme materials. One purpose of waste treatment technologies is to vitrify the radionuclides into durable, stable glass-like materials to reduce the size of the waste form requiring final disposal. The other purpose is to recycle and reuse most of the usefi.d base materials. Thus, improved techniques for the separation of molten metal and glass are essential. Several high temperature vitrification technologies have been developed for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level waste and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories currently in storage at DOE sites throughout the nation. These processes include the plasma hearth process, which is being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and the arc melter vitrification process, which is being developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The products of these processes are an oxide slag phase and a reduced metal phase. The metal phase has the potential to be recycled within the DOE Complex. Enhanced slag/metal separation methods are needed to suppoti these process. A separation method is also needed for the radioactively contaminated scrap metal recycling processe; in order to obtain highly refined recycled metals.

  12. Glass ceramics for sealing to high-thermal-expansion metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Jr., J. A.

    1980-10-01

    Glass ceramics were studied, formulated in the Na/sub 2/O CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.BaOP/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems to establish their suitability for sealing to high thermal expansion metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and 300 series stainless steels. Glass ceramics in Na/sub 2/O.CaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion in the range 140 x 10/sup -1/ per /sup 0/C less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 225 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C and fracture toughness values generally greater than those of phosphate glasses; they are suitable for fabricating seals to high thermal expansion metals. Crystal phases include NaPo/sub 3/, (NaPO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, NaBa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and NaCa(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. Glass ceramics formed in the Na/sub 2/O.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ systems have coefficients of thermal expansion greater than 240 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C, but they have extensive microcracking. Due to their low thermal expansion values (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 120 x 10/sup -7/ per /sup 0/C), glass ceramics in the Li/sub 2/O.BaO.P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ system are unsuitable for sealing to high thermal expansion metals.

  13. Characterization of Mechanical, Thermal and Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-20

    I D-Ai23 595 CHRACTERIZATION OF MECHANICAL THERMAL AND NEAR / I PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM RI..(U) NORTHEASTERN UNIY BOSTON INA INST OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS...Mechanical, Thermal andJun 78 - 15 ar 82 Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses 6. PERFORMINGORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) G. CONTRACT OR GRANT...b, blockh nmibor) metallic glasses transition metal glasses 2 titanium alloy glasses . /reactive alloys /alloys - properties " ABSTRAc C (emwn sm

  14. Bacterial adhesion to glass and metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Baikun; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-15

    Metal oxides can increase the adhesion of negatively-charged bacteria to surfaces primarily due to their positive charge. However, the hydrophobicity of a metal-oxide surface can also increase adhesion of bacteria. In order to understand the relative contribution of charge and hydrophobicity to bacterial adhesion, we measured the adhesion of 8 strains of bacteria, under conditions of low and high-ionic strength (1 and 100 mM, respectively) to 11 different surfaces and examined adhesion as a function of charge, hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and surface energy. Inorganic surfaces included three uncoated glass surfaces and eight metal-oxide thin films prepared on the upper (non-tin-exposed) side of float glass by chemical vapor deposition. The Gram-negative bacteria differed in lengths of lipopolysaccharides on their outer surface (three Escherichia coli strains), the amounts of exopolysaccharides (two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains), and their known relative adhesion to sand grains (two Burkholderia cepacia strains). One Gram positive bacterium was also used that had a lower adhesion to glass than these other bacteria (Bacillus subtilis). For all eight bacteria, there was a consistent increase in adhesion between with the type of inorganic surface in the order: float glass exposed to tin (coded here as Si-Sn), glass microscope slide (Si-m), uncoated air-side float glass surface (Si-a), followed by thin films of (Co(1-y-z)Fe(y)Cr(z))3O4, Ti/Fe/O, TiO2, SnO2, SnO2:F, SnO2:Sb, A1(2)O3, and Fe2O3 (the colon indicates metal doping, a slash indicates that the metal is a major component, while the dash is used to distinguish surfaces). Increasing the ionic strength from 1 to 100 mM increased adhesion by a factor of 2.0 +/- 0.6 (73% of the sample results were within the 95% CI) showing electrostatic charge was important in adhesion. However, adhesion was not significantly correlated with bacterial charge and contact angle. Adhesion (A) of the eight strains was

  15. Study of Alkali-Metal Vapor Diffusion into Glass Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiminori

    2013-08-01

    To investigate nanodispersion of alkali metals into glass materials, potassium vapor diffusion is conducted using SiO2 glass under well-controlled temperature conditions. It is found that potassium vapor significantly diffuses into the bulk of SiO2 glass with less precipitation on the surface when the host material is kept at a temperature slightly higher than that of the guest material. Positron annihilation spectroscopy reveals that angstrom-scale open spaces in the SiO2 matrix contribute to potassium vapor diffusion. The analysis of potassium concentration obtained by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) mapping with Fick's second law yields an extremely low potassium diffusion coefficient of 5.1×10-14 cm2 s-1, which arises from the overall diffusion from open spaces of various sizes. The diffusion coefficient attributable to angstrom-scale open spaces is thus expected to be less than ˜10-14 cm2 s-1. The present findings imply that angstrom-scale open spaces play an important role in loading alkali metals into glass materials.

  16. Ductile-to-brittle transition in spallation of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Ling, Z.; Dai, L. H.

    2014-10-14

    In this paper, the spallation behavior of a binary metallic glass Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50} is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing the impact velocity, micro-voids induced by tensile pulses become smaller and more concentrated. The phenomenon suggests a ductile-to-brittle transition during the spallation process. Further investigation indicates that the transition is controlled by the interaction between void nucleation and growth, which can be regarded as a competition between tension transformation zones (TTZs) and shear transformation zones (STZs) at atomic scale. As impact velocities become higher, the stress amplitude and temperature rise in the spall region increase and micro-structures of the material become more unstable. Therefore, TTZs are prone to activation in metallic glasses, leading to a brittle behavior during the spallation process.

  17. Optical reflectivity improvement by upgrading metallic glass film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. H.; Hsu, J. H.; Huang, J. C.

    2013-10-14

    The effects of atomic-defect and free-volume amounts of metallic glassy film on the optical reflectivity and mechanical properties of the sputtered metallic glass thin films are explored. With a lower Ar working pressure and the proper post-annealing at temperatures slightly lower than the glass-transition temperature T{sub g}, film free volumes and defects would reduce, resulting in better atomic bonding and higher film hardness/modulus, which in turn leads to lower electric resistivity and higher optical reflectivity. Annealing above T{sub g} would induce crystalline structure which would lead to competition with the optical transition of the Drude free electrons and hinder the optical reflectivity in the visible range.

  18. Elastic properties and atomic bonding character in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rouxel, T.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-07-28

    The elastic properties of glasses from different metallic systems were studied in the light of the atomic packing density and bonding character. We found that the electronegativity mismatch (Δe{sup −}) between the host- and the major solute-elements provides a plausible explanation to the large variation observed for Poisson's ratio (ν) among metallic glasses (MGs) (from 0.28 for Fe-based to 0.43 for Pd-based MGs), notwithstanding a similar atomic packing efficiency (C{sub g}). Besides, it is found that ductile MGs correspond to Δe{sup −} smaller than 0.5 and to a relatively steep atomic potential well. Ductility is, thus, favored in MGs exhibiting a weak bond directionality on average and opposing a strong resistance to volume change.

  19. An electronic criterion for assessing intrinsic brittleness of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. F.; Jones, T. E.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.; Halas, S.; Durakiewicz, T.; Eberhart, M. E.

    2014-07-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are characterized by a number of remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these same materials are often intrinsically brittle, which limits their utility. Consequently, considerable effort has been expended searching for correlations between the phenomenologically complex mechanical properties of metallic glasses and more basic properties, such correlations might provide insight into the structure and bonding controlling the deformation properties of BMGs. While conducting such a search, we uncovered a weak correlation between a BMG’s work function and its susceptibility to brittle behavior. We argue that the basis for this correlation is a consequence of a component of the work function – the surface dipole – and a fundamental bond property related to the shape of the charge density at a bond critical point. Together these observations suggest that simple first principle calculations might be useful in the search for tougher BMGs.

  20. Atomic structure of biodegradable Mg-based bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Christie, J K

    2015-05-21

    We have used highly accurate first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the structure of Mg60Zn35Ca5 and Mg72Zn23Ca5 bulk metallic glasses, which are candidate materials for biomedical implants; these two compositions exhibit different behaviours when implanted. The environments of each species are different, and average coordination numbers are ∼13 for Mg, ∼11 for Zn and ∼18-19 for Ca. A wide range of local environments were found and icosahedral motifs, often seen in bulk metallic glasses, were among the most common for both Mg and Zn. Through the computation of a chemical short-range order parameter, a moderate avoidance of Zn-Zn bonding over Zn-Mg or Zn-Ca was observed. No statistically significant difference in structure was observed between the two compositions.

  1. An electronic criterion for assessing intrinsic brittleness of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Jones, T E; Wu, Y; Lu, Z P; Halas, S; Durakiewicz, T; Eberhart, M E

    2014-07-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are characterized by a number of remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these same materials are often intrinsically brittle, which limits their utility. Consequently, considerable effort has been expended searching for correlations between the phenomenologically complex mechanical properties of metallic glasses and more basic properties, such correlations might provide insight into the structure and bonding controlling the deformation properties of BMGs. While conducting such a search, we uncovered a weak correlation between a BMG's work function and its susceptibility to brittle behavior. We argue that the basis for this correlation is a consequence of a component of the work function - the surface dipole - and a fundamental bond property related to the shape of the charge density at a bond critical point. Together these observations suggest that simple first principle calculations might be useful in the search for tougher BMGs.

  2. Flash Joule heating for ductilization of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Okulov, I V; Soldatov, I V; Sarmanova, M F; Kaban, I; Gemming, T; Edström, K; Eckert, J

    2015-07-29

    Metallic glasses (MGs) inherit their amorphous structure from the liquid state, which predetermines their ability to withstand high loads approaching the theoretical limit. However, the absence of slip systems makes them very sensitive to the type of loading and extremely brittle in tension. The latter can be improved by precipitation of ductile crystals, which suppress a catastrophic propagation of shear bands in a glassy matrix. Here we report a novel approach to obtain MG-matrix composites with tensile ductility by flash Joule heating applied to Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 (at.%) metallic glass. This homogeneous, volumetric and controllable rapid heat treatment allows achieving uniformly distributed metastable B2 CuZr crystals in the glassy matrix. It results in a significant tensile strain of 6.8±0.5%. Moreover, optimized adjustment of the heat-treatment conditions enables tuning of microstructure to achieve desired mechanical properties.

  3. Nano-scale solute partitioning in devitrified bulk metalic glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Miller, M. K.; Wang, X. L.; Liu, C. T.; Stoica, A. D.; Ma, D.; Almer, J.; Shi, D.; ORNL; Univ. of Cincinnati; Univ. of Tennessee

    2009-01-01

    Devitrification of bulk metallic glass leads to a novel microstructure, with high-density nanoscale crystalline precipitates evenly distributed in a glassy matrix. Significant chemical segregation is revealed at unprecedented detail by atom-probe tomography. This level of detail is crucial for understanding the interference peaks observed in small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering experiments, an unsolved mystery for over a decade.

  4. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; ...

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr50Cu35Al15 and Zr50Cu45Al5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr50Cu35Al15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, Tg, than in Zr50Cu45Al5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr50Cu35Al15 on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clustersmore » grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.« less

  5. Medium-range structure and glass forming ability in Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pei; Maldonis, Jason J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-03-05

    Fluctuation electron microscopy experiments combined with hybrid reverse Monte Carlo modeling show a correlation between medium-range structure at the nanometer scale and glass forming ability in two Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys. Both Zr50Cu35Al15 and Zr50Cu45Al5 exhibit two nanoscale structure types, one icosahedral and the other more crystal-like. In Zr50Cu35Al15, the poorer glass former, the crystal-like structure is more stable under annealing below the glass transition temperature, Tg, than in Zr50Cu45Al5. Variable resolution fluctuation microscopy of the MRO clusters show that in Zr50Cu35Al15 on sub-Tg annealing, the crystal-like clusters shrink even as they grow more ordered, while icosahedral-like clusters grow. Furthermore, the results suggest that achieving better glass forming ability in this alloy system may depend more on destabilizing crystal-like structures than enhancing non-crystalline structures.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study on the driving force and glass flow by laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass

    PubMed Central

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Wada, Jun; Iwamoto, Tatsuki; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Kishi, Tetsuo; Morita, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Light is able to remotely move matter. Among various driving forces, laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass has been reported. The temperature on the laser-illuminated side of the sphere was higher than that on the non-illuminated side. This temperature gradient caused non-uniformity in the interfacial tension between the glass and the melted metal as the tension decreased with increasing temperature. In the present study, we investigated laser-induced metal sphere migration in different glasses using thermal flow calculations, considering the temperature dependence of the material parameters. In addition, the velocity of the glass flow generated by the metal sphere migration was measured and compared with thermal flow calculations. The migration velocity of the stainless steel sphere increased with increasing laser power density; the maximum velocity was 104 μm/s in borosilicate glass and 47 μm/s in silica glass. The sphere was heated to more than 2000 K. The temperature gradient of the interfacial tension between the stainless steel sphere and the glass was calculated to be −2.29 × 10−5 N/m/K for borosilicate glass and −2.06 × 10−5 N/m/K for silica glass. Glass flowed in the region 15–30 μm from the surface of the sphere, and the 80-μm sphere migrated in a narrow softened channel. PMID:27934897

  7. Experimental and theoretical study on the driving force and glass flow by laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Wada, Jun; Iwamoto, Tatsuki; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Kishi, Tetsuo; Morita, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    Light is able to remotely move matter. Among various driving forces, laser-induced metal sphere migration in glass has been reported. The temperature on the laser-illuminated side of the sphere was higher than that on the non-illuminated side. This temperature gradient caused non-uniformity in the interfacial tension between the glass and the melted metal as the tension decreased with increasing temperature. In the present study, we investigated laser-induced metal sphere migration in different glasses using thermal flow calculations, considering the temperature dependence of the material parameters. In addition, the velocity of the glass flow generated by the metal sphere migration was measured and compared with thermal flow calculations. The migration velocity of the stainless steel sphere increased with increasing laser power density; the maximum velocity was 104 μm/s in borosilicate glass and 47 μm/s in silica glass. The sphere was heated to more than 2000 K. The temperature gradient of the interfacial tension between the stainless steel sphere and the glass was calculated to be -2.29 × 10-5 N/m/K for borosilicate glass and -2.06 × 10-5 N/m/K for silica glass. Glass flowed in the region 15-30 μm from the surface of the sphere, and the 80-μm sphere migrated in a narrow softened channel.

  8. MELTING, SOLIDIFICATION, REMELTING, AND SEPARATION OF GLASS AND METAL

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1998-11-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to find an efficient way to separate the slag phase from the metal phase in the molten state. A basic knowledge of the thermal, transport, and metallurgical phenomena that occur in the melting and solidification of glass, metal, and their mixtures is the foundation of the development of the separation methods. In association with this project, an innovative liquid-liquid extractor/separator will be developed to meet the separation needs for efficient extraction/separation devices for the various DOE liquid waste treatment processes.

  9. Energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.; Jiang, W.; Rahman, B. M. A.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2017-03-01

    A criterion of the energy efficiency of iron–boron–silicon metallic glasses in sulfuric acid solutions is proposed for the first time. The criterion has been derived based on calculating the limit of the ratio value of the conductivity of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air. In other words, the conductivity ratio of a metallic glass in aqueous solution to the conductivity of the metallic glass in air  = 1, was applied to determine the energy efficiency of the metallic glass in the aqueous solution when the conductivity of a metallic glass in air became equal (decreased) to the steady conductivity of the metallic glass in aqueous solution as a function of time of the exposure of the metallic glass to the aqueous solution. This criterion was not only used to determine the energy efficiency of different metallic glasses, but also, the criterion was used to determine the energy efficiency of metallic glasses exposed to a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations. These conductivity values were determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, the criterion can be applied under diverse test conditions with a predetermined period of the operational life of the metallic glasses as functional materials. Furthermore, variations of the energy efficiency of the metallic glasses as a function of the acid concentration and time were produced by fitting the experimental data to a numerical model using a nonlinear regression method. The profiles of the metallic glasses exhibit a less conservative behavior of the energy efficiency than the proposed analytical criterion.

  10. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-03-18

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation.

  11. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Peker, Atakan; Johnson, William L.

    1997-01-01

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

  12. Metallic glass thin films for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Ahadian, Samad; Khademhosseini, Ali; Takahashi, Masaharu; Makino, Akihiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2014-10-01

    We introduce metallic glass thin films (TiCuNi) as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. TiCuNi metallic glass thin films were deposited on the Si substrate and their structural, surface, and mechanical properties were investigated. The fabricated films showed good biocompatibility upon exposure to muscle cells. Also, they exhibited an average roughness of <0.2 nm, high wear resistance, and high mechanical properties (hardness ∼6.9 GPa and reduced modulus ∼130 GPa). Top surface of the TiCuNi films was shown to be free from Ni and mainly composed of a thin titanium oxide layer, which resulted in the high surface biocompatibility. In particular, there was no cytotoxicity effect of metallic glass films on the C2C12 myoblasts and the cells were able to proliferate well on these substrates. Low cost, viscoelastic behavior, patternability, high electrical conductivity, and the capability to coat various materials (e.g., nonbiocompatible materials) make TiCuNi as an attractive material for biomedical applications.

  13. Delocalized Plastic Flow in Proton-Irradiated Monolithic Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaewon; Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa; Jang, Dongchan

    2016-01-01

    Creating new materials with novel properties through structural modification is the Holy Grail of materials science. The range of targetable structures for amplification of mechanical properties in metallic glasses would include types of atomic short range orders at the smallest scale through compositions or morphologies of phases in composites. Even though the usefulness of the latter approach has been successfully demonstrated in the past decades, the feasibility of the former has been incompletely proved with only marginal property improvements reported within experimentally-accessible atomic-level structural changes. Here, we report the significant enhancement of deformability in Zr-based monolithic metallic glass only through the atomic disordering by proton irradiation without altering any other structural traits. Metallic glass nanopillars that originally failed catastrophically without any notable plasticity become capable of attaining more than 30% uniaxial plastic strain accommodated by homogeneous deformation when irradiated to ~1 displacement per atom (DPA). We discuss the atomistic origin of this improved plasticity in terms of density and spatial distributions of icosahedral short range order influenced by irradiation. PMID:26988265

  14. Polaronic Transport in Phosphate Glasses Containing Transition Metal Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Mark

    The goal of this dissertation is to characterize the basic transport properties of phosphate glasses containing various amounts of TIs and to identify and explain any electronic phase transitions which may occur. The P2 O5-V2O5-WO3 (PVW) glass system will be analyzed to find the effect of TI concentration on conduction. In addition, the effect of the relative concentrations of network forming ions (SiO2 and P2O5) on transport will be studied in the P2O5-SiO2-Fe2O 3 (PSF) system. Also presented is a numerical study on a tight-binding model adapted for the purposes of modelling Gaussian traps, mimicking TI's, which are arranged in an extended network. The results of this project will contribute to the development of fundamental theories on the electronic transport in glasses containing mixtures of transition oxides as well as those containing multiple network formers without discernible phase separation. The present study on the PVW follows up on previous investigation into the effect on mixed transition ions in oxide glasses. Past research has focused on glasses containing transition metal ions from the 3d row. The inclusion of tungsten, a 5d transition metal, adds a layer of complexity through the mismatch of the energies of the orbitals contributing to localized states. The data have indicated that a transition reminiscent of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs in this system as the concentration of tungsten increases. As opposed to some other MIT-like transitions found in phosphate glass systems, there seems to be no polaron to bipolaron conversion. Instead, the individual localization parameter for tungsten noticeably decreases dramatically at the transition point as well as the adiabaticity. Another distinctive feature of this project is the study of the PSF system, which contains two true network formers, phosphorous pentoxide (P2O 5) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is not usually possible to do a reliable investigation of the conduction properties of

  15. Ni- and Be-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high glass-forming ability and unusual plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Qin, Fengxiang; Wang, Xinmin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2012-09-01

    We developed Ni- and Be-free Zr(45+x)Cu(40-x)Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ bulk metallic glasses with large glass-forming ability and unusual plasticity. The alloys have large critical diameters (larger than 10 mm) in a wide composition range (x=0-20). The Zr₅₀Cu₃₅Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ and Zr₅₅Cu₃₀Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ alloys exhibit the largest critical diameter (between 18 and 20 mm). The Zr(45+x)Cu(40-x)Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ bulk metallic glasses also have large plastic elongation in wide composition range (x=10-17). The Zr₆₂Cu₂₃Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ bulk metallic glass exhibits significant plasticity (over 20% of plastic elongation). With increasing Zr content, the compressive strength decreases except for the Zr₆₇Cu₁₈Al₇Pd₅Nb₃ alloy. The fragility parameters were calculated to evaluate the glass-forming ability and plasticity. The fragility exhibits more sensitive correlation with plasticity than glass-forming ability. The ZrCuAlPdNb bulk metallic glasses have high crystallization activation energies of above 300 kJ/mol. The ZrCuAlPdNb bulk metallic glasses are favorable for application to biomaterials.

  16. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Fatigue-Resistance Enhancements by Glass-Forming Metallic Films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. X.; Liaw, Peter K; Jiang, W. H.; Chiang, C L; Gao, Yanfei; Guan, Y F; Chu, J. P.; Rack, P. D.

    2007-01-01

    Zr-based glass-forming metallic films were coated on a 316L stainless steel and a Ni-based alloy by the magnetron-sputter deposition. Four-point-bending fatigue tests were conducted on those coated materials with the film surface on the tensile side. Results showed that the fatigue life and fatigue-endurance limit of the materials could be considerably improved, and the enhancements vary with the maximum applied stress and the substrate material. Fractographs showed that the film remained well adhered to the substrate even after the severe plastic deformation. Surface-roughness measurements indicated the improvement of the surface finishes due to the deposition of the glass-forming film. Nanoindentation test results suggested that the thin film exhibited both high yield strength and good ductility. The reduction of the surface roughness, good adhesion between the film and the substrate, and the excellent strength and ductility of the glass-forming metallic film are the major factors for the fatigue-resistance enhancements of the coated material. A micromechanical model is developed to illustrate the mechanisms of fatigue-resistance enhancements through the interaction between the amorphous film and the substrate slip bands.

  18. Towards the Better: Intrinsic Property Amelioration in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Baran; Zhang, Long; Kosiba, Konrad; Pauly, Simon; Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the intrinsic length-scale effects in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) via post-heat treatment necessitates a systematic analyzing strategy. Although various achievements were made in the past years to structurally enhance the properties of different BMG alloys, the influence of short-term sub-glass transition annealing on the relaxation kinetics is still not fully covered. Here, we aim for unraveling the connection between the physical, (thermo)mechanical and structural changes as a function of selected pre-annealing temperatures and time scales with an in-house developed Cu46Zr44Al8Hf2 based BMG alloy. The controlled formation of nanocrystals below 50 nm with homogenous distribution inside the matrix phase via thermal treatment increase the material’s resistance to strain softening by almost an order of magnitude. The present work determines the design aspects of metallic glasses with enhanced mechanical properties via nanostructural modifications, while postulating a counter-argument to the intrinsic property degradation accounted for long-term annealing. PMID:27273477

  19. Atomic and electronic structure of Ni-Nb metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C. C.; Yang, Y.-F. Xi, X. K.

    2013-12-07

    Solid state {sup 93}Nb nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the atomic and electronic structures in Ni-Nb based metallic glass (MG) model system. {sup 93}Nb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) isotropic metallic shift of Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 35}Sn{sub 5} has been found to be ∼100 ppm lower than that of Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 35}Zr{sub 5} MG, which is correlated with their intrinsic fracture toughness. The evolution of {sup 93}Nb NMR isotropic metallic shifts upon alloying is clearly an electronic origin, as revealed by both local hyperfine fields analysis and first-principle computations. This preliminary result indicates that, in addition to geometrical considerations, atomic form factors should be taken into a description of atomic structures for better understanding the mechanical behaviors of MGs.

  20. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the Ho20Er20Co20Al20RE20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change ( ΔSMpk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg-1 K-1 and 627 J kg-1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔSMpk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔSMpk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

  1. Density variations of plastic carriers in metallic glasses during aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    Thermally induced deformation in metallic glasses was investigated by sampling the potential energy landscape (PEL) and probing the changes in the atomic properties (e.g. energy, displacement, stress). We demonstrate that there exists a universal plastic carrier in amorphous materials, which corresponds to the hopping between local minima on PEL. However very interestingly, the density of plastic carrier is largely affected by the aging history of the glasses. The higher fictive temperature (i . e . fast cooling rate), the larger density of plastic carrier is contained in the system. In particular, we observe a scaling of ρ~exp(- α/Tfic) , which is consistent with the prediction of shear transformation zone theory. The work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Second virial coefficient and mechanical moduli of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wan Qiang

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the bulk, shear moduli and second virial coefficient of amorphous materials is derived according to their dependences with the radial distribution function. Lennard-Jones-Gaussian potential is used to investigate the relationship between second virial coefficient and temperature, where Lennard-Jones potential represents interactions with the nearest neighbor atoms, and Gaussian potential is responsible for the multi-atom interactions including the next nearest neighbor atoms and heterogeneous structures for a metallic glass. The results show that deep potential well formed by Gaussian potential causes a large second virial coefficient at low temperatures, which is very obvious for the larger fragility glasses. The quadratic form relationship of shear modulus and compositions is proposed, and confirmed by the experimental results of PdxNi100-x-20P20 alloy.

  3. Reentrant spin glass ordering in an Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Qiang; Shen, Jun

    2015-02-07

    We report the results of the complex susceptibility, temperature, and field dependence of DC magnetization and the nonequilibrium dynamics of a bulk metallic glass Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 8}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2}. Solid indication of the coexistence of reentrant spin glass (SG) and ferromagnetic orderings is determined from both DC magnetization and AC susceptibility under different DC fields. Dynamics scaling of AC susceptibility indicates critical slowing down to a reentrant SG state with a static transition temperature T{sub s} = ∼17.8 K and a dynamic exponent zv = ∼7.3. The SG nature is further corroborated from chaos and memory effects, magnetic hysteresis, and aging behavior. We discuss the results in terms of the competition among random magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions and compare them with simulation predictions.

  4. Glass formation, chemical properties and surface analysis of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chunling; Zhao, Weimin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of alloying elements Mo, Nb, Ta and Ni on glass formation and corrosion resistance of Cu-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In order to obtain basic knowledge for application to the industry, corrosion resistance of the Cu-Hf-Ti-(Mo, Nb, Ta, Ni) and Cu-Zr-Ag-Al-(Nb) bulk glassy alloy systems in various solutions are reported in this work. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is performed to clarify the surface-related chemical characteristics of the alloy before and after immersion in the solutions; this has lead to a better understanding of the correlation between the surface composition and the corrosion resistance.

  5. Stability of Bulk Metallic Glass Structure. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, H.; Williams, D. B.

    2003-06-01

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80-x}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  6. Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Peker, A.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-04-08

    At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3} K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM{sub 1{minus}x}Ti{sub x}){sub a} Cu{sub b} (Ni{sub 1{minus}y}Co{sub y}){sub c} wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y{center_dot}c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b. 2 figs.

  7. The Effect of Cutting Speed in Metallic Glass Grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Serbest, Erdinc; Bakkal, Mustafa; Karipcin, Ilker; Derin, Bora

    2011-01-17

    In this paper, the effects of the cutting speed in metallic glass grinding were investigated in dry conditions. The results showed that grinding forces decrease as grinding energy increase with the increasing cutting speeds. The present investigations on ground surface and grinding chips morphologies -shows that material removal and surface formation of the BMG are mainly due to the ductile chip deformation and ploughing as well as brittle fracture of some particles from the edges of the tracks. The roughness values obtained with the Cubic Boron Nitride wheels are acceptable for the grinding operation.

  8. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1996-08-20

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

  9. Precisely predicting and designing the elasticity of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q. E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn; Wang, R. F.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F. E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn

    2014-05-28

    We reveal that the elastic moduli of metallic glasses (MGs) invariably vary in a much steeper manner than that predicted by the conventional “rule of mixtures” in individual alloy systems. Such deviations are proved to originate fundamentally from their disordered atomic structures and intrinsic local heterogeneities. By treating the MGs as atomic-level dual phase hybrids, we further propose universal relations to be capable of precisely predicting and designing the elastic constants of MGs. This may contribute to the development of MGs with intended properties and behaviors, and allow new understandings on the structures and properties as well as their relationships in MGs.

  10. Structural Signature of Plastic Deformation in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, H. L.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-04-01

    The structure feature of a model CuZr metallic glass during deformation is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A spatially heterogeneous irreversible rearrangement is observed in terms of nonaffine displacement. We find that regions with smaller nonaffine displacement have more Voronoi pentagons, while in those with larger nonaffine displacement other types of faces are more populated. We use the degree of local fivefold symmetry (LFFS) as the structural indicator to predict plastic deformation of local structures and find that the plastic events prefer to be initiated in regions with a lower degree of LFFS and propagate toward regions with a higher degree of LFFS.

  11. Electrical conductivity of a bulk metallic glass composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.; Nieh, T. G.; Okada, H.; Koyama, K.; Zhang, W.; Inoue, A.

    2007-10-01

    The authors report the electrical conductivity of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) based composite fabricated by warm extrusion of a mixture of gas-atomized glassy powders and ductile α-brass powders. The conductivity of the BMG composite can be well modeled by the percolation theory and the critical percolation threshold volume of the high-conductive brass phase was estimated to be about 10%. It was found that the short irregular brass fibers can dramatically reduce the resistivity of the BMG, leading to an improved material with both high strength and good conductivity for functional applications.

  12. Plastic stability of metallic glass composites under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. F.; Li, S. T.; Zhang, G. A.; Wu, X. F.; Lin, P.

    2013-10-01

    The plastic stability of metallic glass composites (MGCs) under tension was investigated. There exists a critical normalized strain-hardening rate determining the plastic stability of MGCs: if the normalized strain-hardening rate is smaller than the critical normalized strain-hardening rate, the plastic instability occurs, thus, leading to localized plastic strain in MGCs; otherwise the plastic stability is in charge of the plastic deformation of the MGCs, so the strain localization or necking is effectively suppressed, which results in homogeneous elongation in MGCs.

  13. Crossover from localized to cascade relaxations in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-21

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. As a result, the origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of local minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.

  14. The kinetic origin of delayed yielding in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y. F.; Liu, X. D.; Wang, S.; Fan, J.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Recent experiments showed that irreversible structural change or plasticity could occur in metallic glasses (MGs) even within the apparent elastic limit after a sufficiently long waiting time. To explain this phenomenon, a stochastic shear transformation model is developed based on a unified rate theory to predict delayed yielding in MGs, which is validated afterwards through extensive atomistic simulations carried out on different MGs. On a fundamental level, an analytic framework is established in this work that links time, stress, and temperature altogether into a general yielding criterion for MGs.

  15. Crossover from Localized to Cascade Relaxations in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. The origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of local minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.

  16. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Fisher, Robert W.; Hosking, Floyd M.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

  17. Spin-exchange interaction between transition metals and metalloids in soft-ferromagnetic metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santanu; Choudhary, Kamal; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Choi Yim, Haein; Bandyopadhyay, Asis K.; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-06-01

    High-performance magnetic materials have immense industrial and scientific importance in wide-ranging electronic, electromechanical, and medical device technologies. Metallic glasses with a fully amorphous structure are particularly suited for advanced soft-magnetic applications. However, fundamental scientific understanding is lacking for the spin-exchange interaction between metal and metalloid atoms, which typically constitute a metallic glass. Using an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics approach, we demonstrate the mechanism of electron interaction between transition metals and metalloids. Spin-exchange interactions were investigated for a Fe-Co metallic glass system of composition [(Co1-x Fe x )0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Cr4. The saturation magnetization increased with higher Fe concentration, but the trend significantly deviated from simple rule of mixtures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was used to identify the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic interaction between the transition metals and metalloids. The overlapping band-structure and density of states represent ‘Stoner type’ magnetization for the amorphous alloys in contrast to ‘Heisenberg type’ in crystalline iron. The enhancement of magnetization by increasing iron was attributed to the interaction between Fe 3d and B 2p bands, which was further validated by valence-band study.

  18. Structure of glasses containing transition metal ions. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    White, W B; Furukawa, T; Tsong, I S.T.; Fox, K; Herman, J S; Houser, C; Nelson, C

    1980-02-01

    New normal coordinate calculations were used to relate the vibrational frequencies of silicate glasses to Si-O force constants. These appear to account for the observed frequency shifts with degree of silica polymerization. Raman spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the structure of sodium borosilicate glasses and of sodium aluminosilicate glasses. Structures of compositionally complex glasses can be understood if spectra are measured on many glasses spaced at small compositional intervals. Optical absorption spectra were used to investigate the structural setting of iron in alkali silicate glasses. Research on the alkali-hydrogen exchange in alkali silicate glasses was completed and additional work on ternary glasses is under way. A series of appendices present completed work on the structural investigations of alkali borosilicate glasses, on the structural setting of transition metal ions in glasses, and on the diffusion of hydrogen in alkali silicate glasses.

  19. Glass Frit Filters for Collecting Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, John; Buttry, Dan; Irvine, Geoffrey; Pope, John

    2005-01-01

    Filter disks made of glass frit have been found to be effective as means of high-throughput collection of metal oxide particles, ranging in size from a few to a few hundred nanometers, produced in gas-phase condensation reactors. In a typical application, a filter is placed downstream of the reactor and a valve is used to regulate the flow of reactor exhaust through the filter. The exhaust stream includes a carrier gas, particles, byproducts, and unreacted particle-precursor gas. The filter selectively traps the particles while allowing the carrier gas, the byproducts, and, in some cases, the unreacted precursor, to flow through unaffected. Although the pores in the filters are much larger than the particles, the particles are nevertheless trapped to a high degree: Anecdotal information from an experiment indicates that 6-nm-diameter particles of MnO2 were trapped with greater than 99-percent effectiveness by a filtering device comprising a glass-frit disk having pores 70 to 100 micrometer wide immobilized in an 8-cm-diameter glass tube equipped with a simple twist valve at its downstream end.

  20. Glass Fiber Reinforced Metal Pressure Vessel Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Engineering Guide presents curves and general equations for safelife design of lightweight glass fiber reinforced (GFR) metal pressure vessels operating under anticipated Space Shuttle service conditions. The high composite vessel weight efficiency is shown to be relatively insensitive to shape, providing increased flexibility to designers establishing spacecraft configurations. Spheres, oblate speroids, and cylinders constructed of GFR Inconel X-750, 2219-T62 aluminum, and cryoformed 301 stainless steel are covered; design parameters and performance efficiencies for each configuration are compared at ambient and cryogenic temperature for an operating pressure range of 690 to 2760 N/sq cm (1000 to 4000 psi). Design variables are presented as a function of metal shell operating to sizing (proof) stress ratios for use with fracture mechanics data generated under a separate task of this program.

  1. Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: simplicity behind complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Herein, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures. PMID:26245801

  2. Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: Simplicity behind complexity

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; ...

    2015-08-06

    One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Here, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Lastly, our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomicmore » distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures.« less

  3. Inherent structure length in metallic glasses: Simplicity behind complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Yongqiang; Liu, Xiongjun; Hui, Xidong; Nieh, Taigang; Wang, Yandong; Lu, Zhaoping

    2015-08-06

    One of the central themes in materials science is the structure-property relationship. In conventional crystalline metals, their mechanical behaviour is often dictated by well-defined structural defects such as dislocations, impurities, and twins. However, the structure-property relationship in amorphous alloys is far from being understood, due to great difficulties in characterizing and describing the disordered atomic-level structure. Here, we report a universal, yet simple, correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength and shear modulus) and a unique characteristic structural length in metallic glasses (MGs). Lastly, our analysis indicates that this characteristic length can incorporate effects of both the inter-atomic distance and valence electron density in MGs, and result in the observed universal correlation. The current findings shed lights on the basic understanding of mechanical properties of MGs from their disordered atomic structures.

  4. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Zhou, Jie; ...

    2014-11-18

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr56Cu36Al8, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr46Cu46Al8, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  5. Design of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Glass Matrix Composites Near Intermetallic Composition by the Principle of Competitive Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G. Z.; Chen, D.

    2016-11-01

    A Cu49Zr51 intermetallic is used as a base for synthesizing metallic glasses and composites with glass matrixes [(Cu49Zr51)100 - x Al x , where x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 at.%]. The introduction of aluminum raises the microhardness and the ultimate compressive strength. In addition, the suppression of formation of crystalline phase upon the introduction of 8 at.% Al provides a glass-like structure in alloy (Cu49Zr51)92Al8. The formation of the glass-like structure is discussed within the concept of competitive nucleation of different intermetallics.

  6. Structural perspectives on the elastic and mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.; Zhu, Z. G.; Xue, R. J.; Ding, D. W.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2013-11-01

    The flow units of glasses are generally perceived to be a local rearrangement of atoms that are microstructural origin for plastic deformation and relaxations in metallic glasses. We find a relationship of the effective concentration of flow units and some properties such as elastic moduli, micro-hardness and plasticity of metallic glasses. The relationship helps in understanding the softening phenomenon, structural heterogeneous, evolution process of flow units, and widespread mechanical behavior of metallic glasses and can reveal the essential structural mechanism of the Poisson's ratio criterion for plasticity in metallic glasses. The relationship also indicates that the flow unit is a key structural parameter for understanding and controlling the properties and the performance of metallic glasses.

  7. Developing and Characterizing Bulk Metallic Glasses for Extreme Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Scott Nolan

    Metallic glasses have typically been treated as a "one size fits all" type of material. Every alloy is considered to have high strength, high hardness, large elastic limits, corrosion resistance, etc. However, similar to traditional crystalline materials, properties are strongly dependent upon the constituent elements, how it was processed, and the conditions under which it will be used. An important distinction which can be made is between metallic glasses and their composites. Charpy impact toughness measurements are performed to determine the effect processing and microstructure have on bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs). Samples are suction cast, machined from commercial plates, and semi-solidly forged (SSF). The SSF specimens have been found to have the highest impact toughness due to the coarsening of the dendrites, which occurs during the semi-solid processing stages. Ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) temperatures are measured for a BMGMC. While at room temperature the BMGMC is highly toughened compared to a fully glassy alloy, it undergoes a DTBT by 250 K. At this point, its impact toughness mirrors that of the constituent glassy matrix. In the following chapter, BMGMCs are shown to have the capability of being capacitively welded to form single, monolithic structures. Shear measurements are performed across welded samples, and, at sufficient weld energies, are found to retain the strength of the parent alloy. Cross-sections are inspected via SEM and no visible crystallization of the matrix occurs. Next, metallic glasses and BMGMCs are formed into sheets and eggbox structures are tested in hypervelocity impacts. Metallic glasses are ideal candidates for protection against micrometeorite orbital debris due to their high hardness and relatively low density. A flat single layer, flat BMG is compared to a BMGMC eggbox and the latter creates a more diffuse projectile cloud after penetration. A three tiered eggbox structure is also tested by firing

  8. On the Shear Band Direction in Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Lu; Bei, Hongbin; Nieh, Tai-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that it is inappropriate to relate the angle between loading axis and shear-band (or fracture) plane in metallic glasses under uniaxial loading conditions to the coefficient of internal friction in the Mohr-Coulomb model. Shear bands in metallic glasses are a result of material instability (which can be predicted from constitutive parameters and loading conditions), but not a yield phenomenon. Specifically, the shear band directions depend on Poisson s ratio, the ratios of three deviatoric principal stresses to Mises stress, the coefficient of internal friction, and the dilatancy factor. The last parameter describes whether the plastic flow is associative or non-associative. Theoretical predictions based on the classic Rudnicki-Rice model agree well with a compilation of observations in uniaxial mechanical tests. Furthermore, we identify three (two) regimes under the two-dimensional cylindrical (three-dimensional spherical) contact where different shear-band directions may occur. When using bonded interface technique to visualize the shear bands under the contact, it should be noted that the stress component normal to the bonded interface is released, resulting into the commonly observed semi-circular shear bands whose directions are predicted to follow the larger in-plane principal stress.

  9. Laser backwriting process on glass via ablation of metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelo, A.; Nieto, D.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Pérez, M. V.; Gómez-Reino, C.; López-Gascón, C.; de la Fuente, G. F.

    2007-05-01

    Ablation of metal targets onto pyrex glass substrates, using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser working at 355 nm, was used to study the potential of a laser backwriting process for the fabrication of optical waveguides via an index of refraction change. Metal foils of stainless steel, aluminum, copper, brass and gold have been used as blanks and irradiated by focusing the laser beam through a cylindrical lens under continuous movement in a direction perpendicular to the irradiation. An horizontal setup was found suitable to improve the effect of the plume in the sample. Results were obtained for two different configurations. Transversal profiles were analysed using a contact profilometer, comparing results obtained for the different configurations, traverse speeds and metal targets used. Two ablation regimes were identified, which are related to a critical laser fluence value of 2.7 J/cm 2. Surface micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy are discussed, together with the characteristics of the structures attained, taking into account the optical and thermal properties of the ablated metal blanks.

  10. Densification and strain hardening of a metallic glass under tension at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z T; Pan, J; Li, Y; Schuh, C A

    2013-09-27

    The deformation of metallic glasses involves two competing processes: a disordering process involving dilatation, free volume accumulation, and softening, and a relaxation process involving diffusional ordering and densification. For metallic glasses at room temperature and under uniaxial loading, disordering usually dominates, and the glass can fail catastrophically as the softening process runs away in a localized mode. Here we demonstrate conditions where the opposite, unexpected, situation occurs: the densifying process dominates, resulting in stable plastic deformation and work hardening at room temperature. We report densification and hardening during deformation in a Zr-based glass under multiaxial loading, in a notched tensile geometry. The effect is driven by stress-enhanced diffusional relaxation, and is attended by a reduction in exothermic heat and hardening signatures similar to those observed in the classical thermal relaxation of glasses. The result is significant, stable, plastic, extensional flow in metallic glasses, which suggest a possibility of designing tough glasses based on their flow properties.

  11. Beta relaxations and their correlations to plasticity in metallic glasses and soft disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Bin

    2015-03-01

    Focusing on metallic glasses as model systems, we show that mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of glassy materials are closely related to a kind of dynamical process inherent in glasses, i.e., the so-called Johari-Goldstein beta relaxations. Microscopically, we demonstrate that beta relaxations and the basic deformation units of glasses have the same activation energy, and this activation energy correlates with the deformability of metallic glasses. Macroscopically, we illustrate that metallic glasses with pronounced beta relaxations around room temperature could have outstanding tensile plasticity, and the transition from brittle to ductile in tension and the beta relaxations follow a same temperature-time relationship. We will also show how to tune the beta relaxations by the understanding of chemical influence to get desirable properties. Atomic signatures of beta relaxations in metallic glasses will be addressed based on recent computer simulations.

  12. Crystal nucleation in glass-forming alloy and pure metal melts under containerless and vibrationless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, D.

    1979-01-01

    Crystal nucleation behavior in metallic alloys known to form glasses in melt quenching was characterized and from this characterization the possibility that massive amounts of certain alloys could be slow cooled to the glass state was assessed. Crystal nucleation behavior of pure liquid metals was examined experimentally, under containerless conditions, and theoretically.

  13. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications. PMID:27725780

  14. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  15. Characteristic free volume change of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang; Zeng, Xie-Rong; Fu, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    The free volume change ΔVf(T) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) relative to a hypothesized amorphous reference state was measured using the thermal dilatation method. The characteristic free volume change, i.e., the free volume released in structural relaxation ΔVf -sr, was identified quantitatively from the ΔVf(T) curve. For a Fe-based BMG, it was found that ΔVf -sr increases with decreases in the sample diameter and heating rate. ΔVf -sr measured under the same sample diameter and heating rate conditions allowed the convenient comparison of different BMGs. The comparison revealed that the glass-forming ability (GFA) enhancement of each of two Pd-, Mg-, Cu-, Zr-, Ti-, and Fe-based BMGs can be sensitively reflected in the decrease in ΔVf -sr and the narrowing of the difference between the peak temperature of the thermal expansion coefficient and the end temperature of the glass transition process. In addition, for these twelve typical BMGs, there is a good linear relationship between ΔVf -sr and LogDc2 or LogDc, where Dc is the critical diameter. ΔVf -sr is thus sensitive to and has a close correlation with GFA. Furthermore, the ΔVf -sr measurement results are in good agreement with the free volume change measured with the specific heat capacity, room temperature density, and positron annihilation lifetime methods. In the study of the relationship between the structure and properties of BMGs, ΔVf -sr thus plays an important role given its comparability and convenience.

  16. High stored energy of metallic glasses induced by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Yang, Z. Z.; Ma, T.; Sun, Y. T.; Yin, Y. Y.; Gong, Y.; Gu, L.; Wen, P.; Zhu, P. W.; Long, Y. W.; Yu, X. H.; Jin, C. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Modulating energy states of metallic glasses (MGs) is significant in understanding the nature of glasses and controlling their properties. In this study, we show that high stored energy can be achieved and preserved in bulk MGs by high pressure (HP) annealing, which is a controllable method to continuously alter the energy states of MGs. Contrary to the decrease in enthalpy by conventional annealing at ambient pressure, high stored energy can occur and be enhanced by increasing both annealing temperature and pressure. By using double aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the preserved high energy, which is attributed to the coupling effect of high pressure and high temperature, originates from the microstructural change that involves "negative flow units" with a higher atomic packing density compared to that of the elastic matrix of MGs. The results demonstrate that HP-annealing is an effective way to activate MGs into higher energy states, and it may assist in understanding the microstructural origin of high energy states in MGs.

  17. Unique Properties of Lunar Impact Glass: Nanophase Metallic Fe Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Thompson, James R; Schnare, Darren W.; Park, Jae-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Lunar regolith contains important materials that can be used for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) on the Moon, thereby providing for substantial economic savings for development of a manned base. However, virtually all activities on the Moon will be affected by the deleterious effects of the adhering, abrasive, and pervasive nature of lunar dust (<20 {micro}m portion of regolith, which constitutes {approx}20 wt% of the soil). In addition, the major impact-produced glass in the lunar soil, especially agglutinitic glass (60-80 vol% of the dust), contains unique nanometer-sized metallic Fe (np-Fe{sup 0}), which may pose severe pulmonary problems for humans. The presence of the np-Fe0 imparts considerable magnetic susceptibility to the fine portion of the lunar soil, and dust mitigation techniques can be designed using these magnetic properties. The limited availability of Apollo lunar soils for ISRU research has made it necessary to produce materials that simulate this unique np-Fe{sup 0} property, for testing different dust mitigation methods using electromagnetic fields, and for toxicity studies of human respiratory and pulmonary systems, and for microwave treatment of lunar soil to produce paved roads, etc. A method for synthesizing np-Fe{sup 0} in an amorphous silica matrix is presented here. This type of specific simulant can be used as an additive to other existing lunar soil simulants.

  18. EXAFS studies of the local atomic environment in metal-metal glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.; Lytle, F. W.; Liebermann, H. H.; Tanner, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    The interatomic distances and nearest neighbor coordinations of constituent atoms in a series of metal-metal glasses: M'/sub 100-x/M''/sub x/ where M' = Zr, Nb, M'' = Fe, Ni, Cu and x varies from 30 to 60 at %, have been determined using the EXAFS technique in conjunction with the x-ray synchrotron source at Stanford. Fourier transforms of the EXAFS signals clearly indicate there are like as well as unlike atom pairs in the first coordination shell about both the M' and M'' atoms. The ratio of like and unlike pairs scales linearly with composition and is indicative of random mixing in these binary glasses. The M'-M'' separation are shorter than sum of the Goldschmidt radii and implies chemical interaction between the M' and M'' atoms.

  19. Tuning apparent friction coefficient by controlled patterning bulk metallic glasses surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Xu, Erjiang; Liu, Ze; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Lin

    2016-12-19

    Micro-honeycomb structures with various pitches between adjacent cells were hot-embossed on Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass surface. The effect of pitch geometry on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface was systematically investigated. The results revealed that all textured metallic glass surfaces show a reduction in friction coefficient compared to smooth surface. More intriguingly, the friction coefficient first decreased and then increased gradually with increasing pitches. Such unique behavior can be understood fundamentally from the perspective of competing effects between contact area and local stress level with increasing pitches. This finding not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the significant role of surface topography on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface, but also opens a new route towards other functional applications for bulk metallic glasses.

  20. Tuning apparent friction coefficient by controlled patterning bulk metallic glasses surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, Erjiang; Liu, Ze; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Micro-honeycomb structures with various pitches between adjacent cells were hot-embossed on Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass surface. The effect of pitch geometry on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface was systematically investigated. The results revealed that all textured metallic glass surfaces show a reduction in friction coefficient compared to smooth surface. More intriguingly, the friction coefficient first decreased and then increased gradually with increasing pitches. Such unique behavior can be understood fundamentally from the perspective of competing effects between contact area and local stress level with increasing pitches. This finding not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the significant role of surface topography on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface, but also opens a new route towards other functional applications for bulk metallic glasses.

  1. Tuning apparent friction coefficient by controlled patterning bulk metallic glasses surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Xu, Erjiang; Liu, Ze; Wang, Xinyun; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micro-honeycomb structures with various pitches between adjacent cells were hot-embossed on Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass surface. The effect of pitch geometry on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface was systematically investigated. The results revealed that all textured metallic glass surfaces show a reduction in friction coefficient compared to smooth surface. More intriguingly, the friction coefficient first decreased and then increased gradually with increasing pitches. Such unique behavior can be understood fundamentally from the perspective of competing effects between contact area and local stress level with increasing pitches. This finding not only enhance the in-depth understanding of the mechanism of the significant role of surface topography on the frictional behavior of metallic glass surface, but also opens a new route towards other functional applications for bulk metallic glasses. PMID:27991571

  2. Mesomorphic glass nanocomposites made of metal alkanoates and nanoparticles as emerging nonlinear-optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbovskiy, Y.; Klimusheva, G.; Mirnaya, T.

    2016-09-01

    Mesomorphic metal alkanoates is very promising yet overlooked class of nonlinear-optical materials. Metal alkanoates can exhibit a broad variety of condensed states of matter including solid crystals, plastic crystals, lyotropic and thermotropic ionic liquid crystals, liquids, mesomorphic glasses, and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Glass-forming properties of metal alkanoates combined with their use as nano-reactors and anisotropic host open up simple and efficient way to design various photonic nanomaterials. Despite very interesting physics, the experimental data on optical and nonlinearoptical properties of such materials are scarce. The goal of the present paper is to fill the gap by discussing recent advances in the field of photonic materials made of metal alkanoates, organic dyes, and nanoparticles. Optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the following materials are reviewed: (i) mesomorphic glass doped with organic dyes; (ii) smectic glass composed of cobalt alkanoates; (iii) semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a glassy host; (iv) metal nanoparticles - glass (the cobalt octanoate) nanocomposites.

  3. Processing dependence of mechanical properties of metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2015-02-16

    Compared to their crystalline counterparts, nanowires made of metallic glass have not only superb properties but also remarkable processing ability. They can be processed easily and cheaply like plastics via a wide range of methods. To date, the underlying mechanisms of how these different processing routes affect the wires' properties as well as the atomic structure remains largely unknown. Here, by using atomistic modeling, we show that different processing methods can greatly influence the mechanical properties. The nanowires made via focused ion beam milling and embossing exhibit higher strength but localized plastic deformation, whereas that made by casting from liquid shows excellent ductility with homogeneous deformation but reduced strength. The different responses are reflected sensitively in the underlying atomic structure and packing density, some of which have been observed experimentally. The presence of the gradient of alloy concentration and surface effect will be discussed.

  4. Elasticity dominates strength and failure in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-07

    Two distinct deformation mechanisms of shearing and volume dilatation are quantitatively analyzed in metallic glasses (MGs) from the fundamental thermodynamics. Their competition is deduced to intrinsically dominate the strength and failure behaviors of MGs. Both the intrinsic shear and normal strengths give rise to the critical mechanical energies to activate destabilization of amorphous structures, under pure shearing and volume dilatation, respectively, and can be determined in terms of elastic constants. By adopting an ellipse failure criterion, the strength and failure behaviors of MGs can be precisely described just according to their shear modulus and Poisson's ratio without mechanical testing. Quantitative relations are established systematically and verified by experimental results. Accordingly, the real-sense non-destructive failure prediction can be achieved in various MGs. By highlighting the broad key significance of elasticity, a “composition-elasticity-property” scheme is further outlined for better understanding and controlling the mechanical properties of MGs and other glassy materials from the elastic perspectives.

  5. Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; ...

    2015-03-17

    The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples,more » mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.« less

  6. Thermal vibrations in the metallic glass Cu64Zr36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönfeld, Bernd; Zemp, Jérôme; Stuhr, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Neutrons with 14.7 and 34 meV energy were used to determine the elastic and inelastic part of the structure factor for the metallic glass Cu64Zr36 at 250 K. Based on the temperature dependence of the elastic scattering between 150 K and RT, an average mean-square displacement < {{u}2}> =0.027(3) ~{{{\\mathringA}}2} at 250 K is obtained. The experimental scattering-vector dependence of inelastic scattering in reference to elastic scattering is found to be well described by the Debye model. Both results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations. A procedure is presented to separate the elastic part also in total x-ray scattering. This allows the smearing of structural information due to thermal vibrations to be eliminated.

  7. Shear-banding Induced Indentation Size Effect in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Sun, B. A.; Zhao, L. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Shear-banding is commonly regarded as the “plasticity carrier” of metallic glasses (MGs), which usually causes severe strain localization and catastrophic failure if unhindered. However, through the use of the high-throughput dynamic nanoindentation technique, here we reveal that nano-scale shear-banding in different MGs evolves from a “distributed” fashion to a “localized” mode when the resultant plastic flow extends over a critical length scale. Consequently, a pronounced indentation size effect arises from the distributed shear-banding but vanishes when shear-banding becomes localized. Based on the critical length scales obtained for a variety of MGs, we unveil an intrinsic interplay between elasticity and fragility that governs the nanoscale plasticity transition in MGs. Our current findings provide a quantitative insight into the indentation size effect and transition mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity in MGs. PMID:27324835

  8. Fabrication of metallic glass micro grooves by thermoplastic forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Zhang, Hong; Liang, Xiong; Gong, Feng; Ma, Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are considered as ideal materials for miniature fabrication because of their excellent thermoplastic forming ability in the supercooled liquid region. We show that Pd-based MG micro grooves, which are essential for microdluidic devices, can be prepared by a highly efficient and precise fabrication method. The scanning electron microscope observation and surface profiler measurement show that the MG micro grooves have superior dimensional accuracy. The excellent corrosion resistance of MGs compared with silicon, which is the conventional microfluidic device material, is also proved by the weight-loss corrosion method. Our results indicate that MG can be a promising candidate material for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and may have broad applications in the biomedical areas.

  9. Universal mechanism of thermo-mechanical deformation in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; ...

    2015-02-11

    Here we investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermo-mechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in-situ, at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex-situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples undergone thermo-mechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due tomore » creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.« less

  10. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Bian, X. L.; Wu, S. W.; Hussain, I.; Jia, Y. D.; Yi, J.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10−6 s−1 to 10−2 s−1 are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  11. Universal structural parameter to quantitatively predict metallic glass properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Yong-Qiang; Sheng, Howard; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.; Ma, Evan

    2016-12-01

    Quantitatively correlating the amorphous structure in metallic glasses (MGs) with their physical properties has been a long-sought goal. Here we introduce `flexibility volume' as a universal indicator, to bridge the structural state the MG is in with its properties, on both atomic and macroscopic levels. The flexibility volume combines static atomic volume with dynamics information via atomic vibrations that probe local configurational space and interaction between neighbouring atoms. We demonstrate that flexibility volume is a physically appropriate parameter that can quantitatively predict the shear modulus, which is at the heart of many key properties of MGs. Moreover, the new parameter correlates strongly with atomic packing topology, and also with the activation energy for thermally activated relaxation and the propensity for stress-driven shear transformations. These correlations are expected to be robust across a very wide range of MG compositions, processing conditions and length scales.

  12. Universal structural parameter to quantitatively predict metallic glass properties

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Cheng, Yong-Qiang; Sheng, Howard; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.; Ma, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively correlating the amorphous structure in metallic glasses (MGs) with their physical properties has been a long-sought goal. Here we introduce ‘flexibility volume' as a universal indicator, to bridge the structural state the MG is in with its properties, on both atomic and macroscopic levels. The flexibility volume combines static atomic volume with dynamics information via atomic vibrations that probe local configurational space and interaction between neighbouring atoms. We demonstrate that flexibility volume is a physically appropriate parameter that can quantitatively predict the shear modulus, which is at the heart of many key properties of MGs. Moreover, the new parameter correlates strongly with atomic packing topology, and also with the activation energy for thermally activated relaxation and the propensity for stress-driven shear transformations. These correlations are expected to be robust across a very wide range of MG compositions, processing conditions and length scales. PMID:27941922

  13. Crossover from localized to cascade relaxations in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-07-21

    Thermally activated deformation is investigated in two metallic glass systems with different cooling histories. By probing the atomic displacements and stress changes on the potential energy landscape, two deformation modes, a localized process and cascade process, have observed. The localized deformation involves fewer than 30 atoms and appears in both systems, and its size is invariant with cooling history. However, the cascade deformation is more frequently observed in the fast quenched system than in the slowly quenched system. As a result, the origin of the cascade process in the fast quenched system is attributed to the higher density of localmore » minima on the underlying potential energy landscape.« less

  14. Microscopic origin of nonlinear nonaffine deformation in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, A.; Schall, P.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    The atomic theory of elasticity of amorphous solids, based on the nonaffine response formalism, is extended into the nonlinear stress-strain regime by coupling with the underlying irreversible many-body dynamics. The latter is implemented in compact analytical form using a qualitative method for the many-body dynamics. The resulting nonlinear stress-strain (constitutive) relation is very simple, with few fitting parameters, yet contains all the microscopic physics. The theory is successfully tested against experimental data on metallic glasses, and it is able to reproduce the ubiquitous feature of stress-strain overshoot upon varying temperature and shear rate. A clear atomic-level interpretation is provided for the stress overshoot, in terms of the competition between the elastic instability caused by nonaffine deformation of the glassy cage and the stress buildup due to viscous dissipation.

  15. Universal mechanism of thermo-mechanical deformation in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-02-11

    Here we investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermo-mechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in-situ, at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex-situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples undergone thermo-mechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due to creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.

  16. General 2.5 power law of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Yijin; Zeng, Zhidan; Shi, Crystal Y.; Zhang, Bo; Lou, Hongbo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Weihua; Sheng, Hongwei; Mao, Ho-kwang; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass (MG) is an important new category of materials, but very few rigorous laws are currently known for defining its “disordered” structure. Recently we found that under compression, the volume (V) of an MG changes precisely to the 2.5 power of its principal diffraction peak position (1/q1). In the present study, we find that this 2.5 power law holds even through the first-order polyamorphic transition of a Ce68Al10Cu20Co2 MG. This transition is, in effect, the equivalent of a continuous “composition” change of 4f-localized “big Ce” to 4f-itinerant “small Ce,” indicating the 2.5 power law is general for tuning with composition. The exactness and universality imply that the 2.5 power law may be a general rule defining the structure of MGs. PMID:26831105

  17. Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Wang, X D; Aryal, S; Zhong, C; Ching, W Y; Sheng, H W; Zhang, H; Zhang, D X; Cao, Q P; Jiang, J Z

    2015-03-17

    The tensile behavior of a Ni60Nb40 metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples, mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.

  18. Molecular dynamics analysis of relaxation state control of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Narumasa; Masato Wakeda Team; Shigenobu Ogata Team

    2014-03-01

    Metallic glasses have excellent properties such as high fracture toughness and large elastic strain limit, high corrosion resistance, however they generally exhibit brittle fracture mode at ambient temperature. Since mechanical properties of metallic glasses depend on the degree of relaxation state, it can be tuned by controlling the degree of relaxation state. In this computational study, we focus on a method to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings. Using molecular dynamics, a metallic glass model was applied thermal loading composed of heating, annealing and quenching with external stress. Here, different annealing temperatures ranging from 0.5Tg to 1.5Tg [K] (Tg: the glass transition temperature), and external stresses ranging from 0 to 10 [GPa] were applied. We found that thermal loading below Tg leads the metallic glasses more relaxed state. On the other hand, the external stress brings metallic glasses less relaxed state, because external stress changes the shape of potential energy surface. These finding allow us to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses. Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Osaka Univ., Center for Elements Strategy Initiative for Structural Materials, Kyoto Univ.

  19. Bulk Metallic Glass-like Scattering Signal in Small Metallic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Doan-Nguyen, VVT; Kimber, SAJ; Pontoni, D; Hickey, DR; Diroll, BT; Yang, XH; Miglierini, M; Murray, CB; Billinge, SJL

    2014-06-01

    The atomic structure of Ni-Pd nanoparticles has been studied using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray total scattering data and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Larger nanoparticles have PDFs corresponding to the bulk face-centered cubic packing. However, the smallest nanoparticles have PDFs that strongly resemble those obtained from bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In fact, by simply scaling the distance axis by the mean metallic radius, the curves may be collapsed onto each other and onto the PDF from a metallic glass sample. In common with a wide range of BMG materials, the intermediate range order may be fit with a damped single-frequency sine wave. When viewed in high-resolution TEM, these nanoparticles exhibit atomic fringes typical of those seen in small metallic clusters with icosahedral or decahedral order. These two seemingly contradictory results are reconciled by calculating the PDFs of models of icosahedra that would be consistent with the fringes seen in TEM. These model PDFs resemble the measured ones when significant atom-position disorder is introduced, drawing together the two diverse fields of metallic nanoparticles and BMGs and supporting the view that BMGs may contain significant icosahedral or decahedral order.

  20. Low reflectance of nano-patterned Pt-Cu-Ni-P bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, Hendra J.; Kahler, Niloofar; Ramos, Nelson Sepúlveda; Kumar, Golden; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2015-07-01

    Materials that exhibit very high absorption and low reflectance at optical frequencies are important in a variety of light harvesting applications. We explore nano-scale topography of bulk metallic glasses to realize metallic surfaces with controllable reflectance. Diffuse reflectance as low as 1.6% in the visible range is achieved with nano-patterned Pt-based model bulk metallic glass without further optimization. Effect of pattern dimensions (size, spacing, and aspect-ratio) on the reflectance of bulk metallic glasses is investigated using a combination of simulation and experiments.

  1. Superior Tensile Ductility in Bulk Metallic Glass with Gradient Amorphous Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Liu, C. T.; Ruan, H. H.; Lu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Over centuries, structural glasses have been deemed as a strong yet inherently ‘brittle’ material due to their lack of tensile ductility. However, here we report bulk metallic glasses exhibiting both a high strength of ~2 GPa and an unprecedented tensile elongation of 2–4% at room temperature. Our experiments have demonstrated that intense structural evolution can be triggered in theses glasses by the carefully controlled surface mechanical attrition treatment, leading to the formation of gradient amorphous microstructures across the sample thickness. As a result, the engineered amorphous microstructures effectively promote multiple shear banding while delay cavitation in the bulk metallic glass, thus resulting in superior tensile ductility. The outcome of our research uncovers an unusual work-hardening mechanism in monolithic bulk metallic glasses and demonstrates a promising yet low-cost strategy suitable for producing large-sized, ultra-strong and stretchable structural glasses. PMID:24755683

  2. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    PubMed Central

    Perim, Eric; Lee, Dongwoo; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W. Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J.; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses attract considerable interest due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting their formation from known alloy parameters remains the major hindrance to the discovery of new systems. Here, we propose a descriptor based on the heuristics that structural and energetic ‘confusion' obstructs crystalline growth, and demonstrate its validity by experiments on two well-known glass-forming alloy systems. We then develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab initio in the AFLOW framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be much more common than currently thought, with more than 17% of binary alloy systems potential glass formers. Our approach pinpoints favourable compositions and demonstrates that smart descriptors, based solely on alloy properties available in online repositories, offer the sought-after key for accelerated discovery of metallic glasses. PMID:27480126

  3. Superior Tensile Ductility in Bulk Metallic Glass with Gradient Amorphous Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Liu, C. T.; Ruan, H. H.; Lu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Over centuries, structural glasses have been deemed as a strong yet inherently `brittle' material due to their lack of tensile ductility. However, here we report bulk metallic glasses exhibiting both a high strength of ~2 GPa and an unprecedented tensile elongation of 2-4% at room temperature. Our experiments have demonstrated that intense structural evolution can be triggered in theses glasses by the carefully controlled surface mechanical attrition treatment, leading to the formation of gradient amorphous microstructures across the sample thickness. As a result, the engineered amorphous microstructures effectively promote multiple shear banding while delay cavitation in the bulk metallic glass, thus resulting in superior tensile ductility. The outcome of our research uncovers an unusual work-hardening mechanism in monolithic bulk metallic glasses and demonstrates a promising yet low-cost strategy suitable for producing large-sized, ultra-strong and stretchable structural glasses.

  4. Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; Wang, B.; Gilbert, E. P.; Shibayama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ohnuma, M.; Wang, X.-L.

    2017-03-01

    An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment.

  5. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials. PMID:28008956

  6. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  7. Promising antimicrobial capability of thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y Y; Lin, Y S; Chang, C M; Liu, J-K; Chen, C H; Huang, J C

    2014-03-01

    Thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) are demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface flatness, high corrosion resistance and satisfactory hydrophobic properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial and biocompatibility abilities of TFMGs are examined and the results are compared with the behavior of pure Ag and 316L stainless steel. Three TFMGs, Al48Ag37Ti15, Zr54Ti35Si11, and Zr59Ti22Ag19, are prepared by sputtering to assess the antimicrobial performance against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are the most common nosocomial infection pathogens. Experimental results show that the antimicrobial effect of the Al- or Ag-containing AlAgTi and ZrTiAg TFMGs is similar to that of the pure Ag coating. The ZrTiSi TFMG with no Ag or Al shows poor antimicrobial capability. The physical properties of highly smooth surface and hydrophobic nature alone are not sufficient to result in promising antimicrobial ability. The chemical metal ion release still plays a major role, which should be born in mind in designing biomedical devices.

  8. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Fracture behaviors under pure shear loading in bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cen; Gao, Meng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-12-23

    Pure shear fracture test, as a special mechanical means, had been carried out extensively to obtain the critical information for traditional metallic crystalline materials and rocks, such as the intrinsic deformation behavior and fracture mechanism. However, for bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the pure shear fracture behaviors have not been investigated systematically due to the lack of a suitable test method. Here, we specially introduce a unique antisymmetrical four-point bend shear test method to realize a uniform pure shear stress field and study the pure shear fracture behaviors of two kinds of BMGs, Zr-based and La-based BMGs. All kinds of fracture behaviors, the pure shear fracture strength, fracture angle and fracture surface morphology, are systematically analyzed and compared with those of the conventional compressive and tensile fracture. Our results indicate that both the Zr-based and La-based BMGs follow the same fracture mechanism under pure shear loading, which is significantly different from the situation of some previous research results. Our results might offer new enlightenment on the intrinsic deformation and fracture mechanism of BMGs and other amorphous materials.

  10. Glass surface metal deposition with high-power femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Deng, Cheng; Bai, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Using femtosecond fiber laser-based additive manufacturing (AM), metal powder is deposited on glass surface for the first time to change its surface reflection and diffuse its transmission beam. The challenge, due to mismatch between metal and glass on melting temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, brittleness, is resolved by controlling AM parameters such as power, scan speed, hatching, and powder thickness. Metal powder such as iron is successfully deposited and demonstrated functions such as diffusion of light and blackening effects.

  11. Electronic hybridisation implications for the damage-tolerance of thin film metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Volker; Jaya, B. Nagamani; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2016-01-01

    A paramount challenge in materials science is to design damage-tolerant glasses. Poisson’s ratio is commonly used as a criterion to gauge the brittle-ductile transition in glasses. However, our data, as well as results in the literature, are in conflict with the concept of Poisson’s ratio serving as a universal parameter for fracture energy. Here, we identify the electronic structure fingerprint associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. Our correlative theoretical and experimental data reveal that the fraction of bonds stemming from hybridised states compared to the overall bonding can be associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. PMID:27819318

  12. Electronic hybridisation implications for the damage-tolerance of thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Volker; Jaya, B. Nagamani; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2016-11-01

    A paramount challenge in materials science is to design damage-tolerant glasses. Poisson’s ratio is commonly used as a criterion to gauge the brittle-ductile transition in glasses. However, our data, as well as results in the literature, are in conflict with the concept of Poisson’s ratio serving as a universal parameter for fracture energy. Here, we identify the electronic structure fingerprint associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. Our correlative theoretical and experimental data reveal that the fraction of bonds stemming from hybridised states compared to the overall bonding can be associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses.

  13. Electronic hybridisation implications for the damage-tolerance of thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Volker; Jaya, B Nagamani; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-11-07

    A paramount challenge in materials science is to design damage-tolerant glasses. Poisson's ratio is commonly used as a criterion to gauge the brittle-ductile transition in glasses. However, our data, as well as results in the literature, are in conflict with the concept of Poisson's ratio serving as a universal parameter for fracture energy. Here, we identify the electronic structure fingerprint associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. Our correlative theoretical and experimental data reveal that the fraction of bonds stemming from hybridised states compared to the overall bonding can be associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses.

  14. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-07-18

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  15. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  16. Thermo-mechanical relaxation of stresses in a glass-metal junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, O. N.; Solonenko, E. P.

    2016-10-01

    This work deals with the evaluation of the stress-strain state in an infinite layered cylindrical junction of glass with steel. Structural changes in the glass behavior are described by the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Mazurin-Moynihan model. The relaxation processes in the glass have been presented by the temperature regime depending of the fictive temperature Tf, the relaxation time τ' or the viscosity η and the thermal expansion coefficient α(1). The calculations of the stress components in the glass have been made by using the viscoelastic model. The presented model allows to find the optimal annealing conditions for the creation of the glass- metal composite material.

  17. On the nature of heat effects and shear modulus softening in metallic glasses: A generalized approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelev, N. P.; Khonik, V. A.; Makarov, A. S.; Afonin, G. V.; Mitrofanov, Yu. P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to the nature of heat effects and shear modulus softening in metallic glasses. The approach is based on the assumption that the glass contains quenched-in "defects"—elastic dipoles. Using the nonlinear elastic representation of the internal energy of glass with quenched-in elastic dipoles, we derive a simple analytical law, which connects the heat flow and temperature derivative of the shear modulus. Specially performed experiments confirmed the validity of this law. The exothermal and endothermal heat processes in glass reveal through the relaxation of the shear modulus confirming it as a key parameter for the understanding the relaxation processes in glasses.

  18. Phase transformations and thermodynamics of aluminum-based metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changhua (Michael)

    This thesis examines the thermodynamics and associated kinetics and phase transformations of the glass forming Al-Ni-Gd and Al-Fe-Gd systems. In order to fully understand the unique glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, the ternary Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems in their Al-rich corners were examined experimentally to assist in a thermodynamic assessment. The solid-state phase equilibria are determined using XRD and TEM-EDS techniques. While this work basically confirms the solid-state equilibria in Al-Fe-Gd reported previously, the ternary phase in Al-Ni-Gd system has been identified to be Al15Ni3Gd2 rather than Al16Ni 3Gd reported in the literature. DTA analysis of 24 alloys in the Al-Fe-Gd system and 42 alloys in the Al-Ni-Gd system have yielded critical temperatures pertaining to the solid-liquid transition. Based on these data and information from the literature, a self-consistent thermodynamic database for these systems has been developed using the CALPHAD technique. Parameters describing the Gibbs free energy for various phases of the Al-Gd, Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems are manually optimized in this study. Once constructed, the database is used to calculate driving forces for nucleation of crystalline phases which can qualitatively explain the phase formation sequence during crystallization at low temperatures. It was also confirmed that alloy compositions with the lowest Gibbs free energy difference between the equilibrium state and undercooled liquid state exhibit better GFA than other chemistries. Based on 250°C isothermal devitrification phase transformations of 17 Al-Ni-Gd alloys, a phase formation sequence map is constructed. Fcc-Al nanocrystals are formed first in most of the alloys studied, but eutectic crystallization of a metastable phase and fcc-Al is also observed. Addition of Al or Ni promotes fcc-Al phase formation, while increasing Gd suppresses it. The continuous heating DSC scans revealed that crystallization in Al

  19. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared.

  20. Flow and Fracture of Bulk Metallic Glass Alloys and their Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, K M; Suh, D; Howell, R; Asoka-Kumar, P; Dauskardt, R H

    2001-06-20

    The fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms of a Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be bulk metallic glass and a composite utilizing a crystalline reinforcement phase are reviewed. The relationship between stress state, free volume and shear band formation are discussed. Positron annihilation techniques were used to confirm the predicted increase in free volume after plastic straining. Strain localization and failure were examined for a wide range of stress states. Finally, methods for toughening metallic glasses are considered. Significant increases in toughness are demonstrated for a composite bulk metallic glass containing a ductile second phase which stabilizes shear band formation and distributes plastic deformation.

  1. Dynamic mechanical properties of a Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinshan Cui, Jing; Bai, Jie; Kou, Hongchao; Wang, Jun; Qiao, Jichao

    2015-04-21

    Dynamic mechanical behavior of a Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} bulk metallic glass composite was investigated using mechanical spectroscopy in both temperature and frequency domains. Storage modulus G′ and loss modulus G″ are determined by temperature, and three distinct regions corresponding to different states in the bulk metallic glass composite are characterized. Physical parameters, such as atomic mobility and correlation factor χ, are introduced to analyze dynamic mechanical behavior of the bulk metallic glass composite in the framework of quasi-point defects (QPD) model. The experimental results are in good agreement with the prediction of QPD model.

  2. On the mechanism of material removal in nanometric cutting of metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pengzhe; Fang, Fengzhou

    2014-08-01

    Metallic glasses find wide applications in nanotechnology and micro electro-mechanical systems because of their unique physical properties due to their amorphous structures. The material removal mechanism in nanometric cutting of Cu50Zr50, a typical metallic glass, is studied using molecular dynamics method. The chip formation, workpiece deformation and scratching forces under various scratching depths, scratching velocities and temperatures are investigated. The effect of void defect on the cutting behaviors of metallic glass is also explored. The results show that the material removal in nanometric cutting process is based on extrusion instead of shearing, achieving a good understanding of material removal at the nanoscale.

  3. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  4. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhaoping; Wu, Xuelian; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Jorg C.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-18

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr56Cu36Al8, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr46Cu46Al8, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  5. Bulk Formation of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Silicon from the Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.

    1985-01-01

    By using metallic glass compositions with a high relative glass transition temperature, such as Pd40Ni40P20, homogeneous nucleation also becomes negligible. Large (5g) masses of this alloys were obtained using a molten B2O3 flux. Presently, bulk glass formation in iron based glasses is being investigated. It is expected that if an undercooling of about 250K can be achieved in a Ge or Si melt, formation of the amorphous semiconductor phase (rather than the crystal) may be kinetically favored. The volumetric behavior of undercooled liquid Ga droplet dispersion is investigated by dilatometry. A theoretical model (both analytical and numerical) was developed for transient nucleation in glass forming melts. The model, originally designed for isothermal conditions, was extended to continuous quenching. It is being applied to glass formation in various metallic and oxide systems. A further refinement will be the inclusion of diffusion controlled interfacial rearrangements governing the growth of the crystal embryos.

  6. Effect of UV exposure on photochromic glasses doped with transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zaiat, S. Y.; Medhat, M.; Omar, Mona F.; Shirif, Marwa A.

    2016-07-01

    Silver halide photochromic glasses doped with one of the transition metal oxides, (Ti O2) , (CoO) ,(Cr2 O3) are prepared using the melt quench technique. Glass samples are exposed to a UV source for 20 min. Spectral reflectance and transmittance at normal incidence of the prepared glasses are recorded before and after UV exposure with a double beam spectrophotometer in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. Dispersion parameters such as: single oscillator energy, dispersion energy and Abbe's number are deduced and compared. Absorption dispersion parameters, like optical energy gap for direct and indirect transitions, Urbach energy and steepness parameter, are deduced for the different glass prepared. Reflection loss, molar refractivity and electronic polarizability are deduced and compared. The effect of UV light exposure of these glasses on transmittance, reflectance, the linear and the predicted nonlinear optical parameters are investigated and discussed for the three transition metals. Nonlinear parameters increase in the three glass samples after UV exposure.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of shear bands in bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A H; Araullo-Peters, V; Gibbons, M; Restrepo, O D; Niezgoda, S R; Windl, W; Flores, K M; Hofmann, D C; Marquis, E A

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of the increase in ductility in bulk metallic glass matrix composites over monolithic bulk metallic glasses is to date little understood, primarily because the interplay between dislocations in the crystalline phase and shear bands in the glass could neither be imaged nor modelled in a validated way. To overcome this roadblock, we show that shear bands can be imaged in three dimensions by atom probe tomography from density variations in the reconstructed atomic density, which density-functional theory suggests being a local-work function effect. Imaging of near-interface shear bands in Ti48 Zr20 V12 Cu5 Be15 bulk metallic glass matrix composite permits measurement of their composition, thickness, branching and interactions with the dendrite interface. These results confirm that shear bands here nucleate from stress concentrations in the glass due to intense, localized plastic deformation in the dendrites rather than intrinsic structural inhomogeneities.

  8. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Sun, B A; Yang, Y; Wang, W H; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures.

  9. APT Characterization of Some Iron-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael K; Liu, Chain T; Wright, J. A.; Tang, W.; Hildal, K.

    2006-01-01

    A microstructural characterization was performed on 3 iron-based bulk metallic glasses. These alloys were an arc cast Fe{sub 61}Y{sub 2}Zr{sub 8}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 1}Mo{sub 7}B{sub 15}A2 alloy, a twin roll cast Fe{sub 68}Y{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}Cr{sub 1.5}V{sub 4.5}B{sub 20} DarpaQ21 alloy and a vacuum induction melted Fe{sub 50.7}Y{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 14.5}Mo{sub 13}C{sub 14.8}B{sub 5.5} Darva101-Y alloy. The alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography in the as-cast condition. Some micrometer and nanometer scale precipitates were observed in all 3 alloys indicating that the alloy compositions are not fully optimized in the as-cast state. The Darva101-Y alloy was also characterized after annealing above the onset of crystallization temperature for 1 h at 610 C. This annealing treatment produced a mixture of crystalline phase: M{sub 6}(BC) and Fe{sub 14}Y{sub 2}B in addition to a high temperature M{sub 23}C{sub 6} phase that is indicated from XRD and previous research.

  10. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, B. A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures. PMID:26893196

  11. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  12. Short range chemical ordering in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sterne, P A; Asoka-Kumar, P; Hartley, J H; Howell, R H; Nieh, T G; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Dauskardt, R H

    2001-01-03

    We provide direct experimental evidence for a non-random distribution of atomic constituents in Zr-based multi-component bulk metallic glasses using positron annihilation spectroscopy. The Ti content around the open-volume regions is significantly enhanced at the expense of Cu and Ni, indicating that Cu and Ni occupy most of the volume bounded by their neighboring atoms while Ti and Zr are less closely packed and more likely to be associated with open-volume regions. Temperature-dependent measurements indicate the presence of at least two different characteristic sizes for the open volume regions. Measurements on hydrogen-charged samples show that the larger open-volume regions can be filled by hydrogen up to a critical density. Beyond this critical density, local atomic-scale open-volume damage is created in the sample to accommodate additional hydrogen. The onset of this local damage in positron annihilation data coincides with the onset of volume expansion in X-ray diffraction data.

  13. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  14. Engineering Cellular Response Using Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanopatterning of biomaterials is rapidly emerging as a tool to engineer cell function. Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of biocompatible materials, are uniquely suited to study nanopattern–cell interactions as they allow for versatile fabrication of nanopatterns through thermoplastic forming. Work presented here employs nanopatterned BMG substrates to explore detection of nanopattern feature sizes by various cell types, including cells that are associated with foreign body response, pathology, and tissue repair. Fibroblasts decreased in cell area as the nanopattern feature size increased, and fibroblasts could detect nanopatterns as small as 55 nm in size. Macrophages failed to detect nanopatterns of 150 nm or smaller in size, but responded to a feature size of 200 nm, resulting in larger and more elongated cell morphology. Endothelial cells responded to nanopatterns of 100 nm or larger in size by a significant decrease in cell size and elongation. On the basis of these observations, nondimensional analysis was employed to correlate cellular morphology and substrate nanotopography. Analysis of the molecular pathways that induce cytoskeletal remodeling, in conjunction with quantifying cell traction forces with nanoscale precision using a unique FIB-SEM technique, enabled the characterization of underlying biomechanical cues. Nanopatterns altered serum protein adsorption and effective substrate stiffness, leading to changes in focal adhesion density and compromised activation of Rho-A GTPase in fibroblasts. As a consequence, cells displayed restricted cell spreading and decreased collagen production. These observations suggest that topography on the nanoscale can be designed to engineer cellular responses to biomaterials. PMID:24724817

  15. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; Wraith, Matthew; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanche depends on experimental tuning-parameters, such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.

  16. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; ...

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanche depends on experimental tuning-parameters,more » such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.« less

  17. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  18. Strengthening and toughening metallic glasses: The elastic perspectives and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2014-04-28

    There exist general conflicts between strength and toughness in crystalline engineering materials, and various strengthening and toughening strategies have been developed from the dislocation motion perspectives. Metallic glasses (MGs) have demonstrated great potentials owing to their unique properties; however, their structural applications are strictly limited. One of the key problems is that the traditional strengthening and toughening strategies and mechanisms are not applicable in MGs due to the absence of dislocations and crystalline microstructures. Here, we show that the strength and toughness, or equivalently the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, are invariably mutually exclusive in MGs. Accordingly, the MGs can be categorized into four groups with different levels of integrated mechanical properties. It is further revealed that the conflicts originate fundamentally from the atomic bonding structures and the levels of strength-toughness combinations are indeed dominated by the bulk modulus. Moreover, we propose novel strategies for optimizing the mechanical properties of MGs from the elastic perspectives. We emphasize the significance of developing high bulk modulus MGs to achieve simultaneously both high strength and good toughness and highlight the elastic opportunities for strengthening and toughening materials.

  19. The Critical Criterion on Runaway Shear Banding in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, B. A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The plastic flow of metallic glasses (MGs) in bulk is mediated by nanoscale shear bands, which is known to proceed in a stick-slip manner until reaching a transition state causing catastrophic failures. Such a slip-to-failure transition controls the plasticity of MGs and resembles many important phenomena in natural science and engineering, such as friction, lubrication and earthquake, therefore has attracted tremendous research interest over past decades. However, despite the fundamental and practical importance, the physical origin of this slip-to-failure transition is still poorly understood. By tracking the behavior of a single shear band, here we discover that the final fracture of various MGs during compression is triggered as the velocity of the dominant shear band rises to a critical value, the magnitude of which is independent of alloy composition, sample size, strain rate and testing frame stiffness. The critical shear band velocity is rationalized with the continuum theory of liquid instability, physically originating from a shear-induced cavitation process inside the shear band. Our current finding sheds a quantitative insight into deformation and fracture in disordered solids and, more importantly, is useful to the design of plastic/tough MG-based materials and structures.

  20. Evolution of atomic rearrangements in deformation in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Shang, B S; Li, M Z; Yao, Y G; Lu, Y J; Wang, W H

    2014-10-01

    Atomic rearrangements induced by shear stress are fundamental for understanding deformation mechanisms in metallic glasses (MGs). Using molecular dynamic simulation, the atomic rearrangements characterized by nonaffine displacements (NADs) and their spatial distribution and evolution with tensile stress in Cu50Zr50 MG were investigated. It was found that in the elastic regime the atomic rearrangements with the largest NADs are relatively homogeneous in space, but exhibit strong spatial correlation, become localized and inhomogeneous, and form large clusters as strain increases, which may facilitate the so-called shear transformation zones. Furthermore, initially they prefer to take place around Cu atoms which have more nonicosahedral configurations. As strain increases, the preference decays and disappears in the plastic regime. The atomic rearrangements with the smallest NADs are preferentially located around Cu atoms, too, but with more icosahedral or icosahedral-like atomic configurations. The preference is maintained in the whole deformation process. In contrast, the atomic rearrangements with moderate NADs distribute homogeneously, and do not show explicit preference or spatial correlation, acting as matrix during deformation. Among the atomic rearrangements with different NADs, those with largest and smallest NADs are nearest neighbors initially, but separating with increasing strain, while those with largest and moderate NADs always avoid to each other. The correlations in the fluctuations of the NADs confirm the long-range strain correlation and the scale-free characteristic of NADs in both elastic and plastic deformation, which suggests a universality of the scaling in the plastic flow in MGs.

  1. Development of flame resistant metal and metal-glass blended structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coskren, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the design and fabrication of candidate flame-resistant woven and knitted fabrics, tapes, webbings, and cords as replacements for those items used in the Apollo spacecraft which were previously made of nylon and polyester. Structures made from Chromel R metal fibers (74% Ni, 20% Cr, 2-1/2% Fe, 2-1/2% Al, 1/2% Si, 1/2% Mo), Beta glass fibers and high-temperature organic fibers such as PBI (polybenzimidazole) were developed and evaluated. The feasibility of improving the performance of selected fabrics by using CNR (carboxy nitroso rubber) or other nonflammable coatings were also investigated.

  2. Influence of the Substrate on the Formation of Metallic Glass Coatings by Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, John; Concustell, Amadeu; Dosta, Sergi; Cinca, Núria; Cano, Irene G.; Guilemany, Josep M.

    2016-06-01

    Cold gas spray technology has been used to build up coatings of Fe-base metallic glass onto different metallic substrates. In this work, the effect of the substrate properties on the viscoplastic response of metallic glass particles during their impact has been studied. Thick coatings with high deposition efficiencies have been built-up in conditions of homogeneous flow on substrates such as Mild Steel AISI 1040, Stainless Steel 316L, Inconel 625, Aluminum 7075-T6, and Copper (99.9%). Properties of the substrate have been identified to play an important role in the viscoplastic response of the metallic glass particles at impact. Depending on the process gas conditions, the impact morphologies show not only inhomogeneous deformation but also homogeneous plastic flow despite the high strain rates, 108 to 109 s-1, involved in the technique. Interestingly, homogenous deformation of metallic glass particles is promoted depending on the hardness and the thermal diffusivity of the substrate and it is not exclusively a function of the kinetic energy and the temperature of the particle at impact. Coating formation is discussed in terms of fundamentals of dynamics of undercooled liquids, viscoplastic flow mechanisms of metallic glasses, and substrate properties. The findings presented in this work have been used to build up a detailed scheme of the deposition mechanism of metallic glass coatings by the cold gas spraying technology.

  3. Bulk formation of metallic glasses and amorphous silicon from the melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures and compositions for producing metallic glasses in bulk at slow cooling rates were investigated. An attempt was made to form the amorphous phase of the tetrahedrally coordinated elements (Si or Ge) by undercooling the melt. The crystal nucleation behavior of pure liquids and glass formers were examined.

  4. Release of Implanted Noble Gases from Metallic Glass Vitreloy During Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Vitreloy, a metallic vitreous glass, was examined as a potential target material for the Genesis Mission solar wind collector. Stepped pyrolysis revealed that He and Ne implanted in Vitreloy were efficiently re-trapped during phase transitions.

  5. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  6. Excellent capability in degrading azo dyes by MgZn-based metallic glass powders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Hui; Chen, Ming-Wei; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V; Inoue, Akihisa; Perepezko, John H

    2012-01-01

    The lack of new functional applications for metallic glasses hampers further development of these fascinating materials. In this letter, we report for the first time that the MgZn-based metallic glass powders have excellent functional ability in degrading azo dyes which are typical organic water pollutants. Their azo dye degradation efficiency is about 1000 times higher than that of commercial crystalline Fe powders, and 20 times higher than the Mg-Zn alloy crystalline counterparts. The high Zn content in the amorphous Mg-based alloy enables a greater corrosion resistance in water and higher reaction efficiency with azo dye compared to crystalline Mg. Even under complex environmental conditions, the MgZn-based metallic glass powders retain high reaction efficiency. Our work opens up a new opportunity for functional applications of metallic glasses.

  7. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  8. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-07

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 {mu}{Omega} cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  9. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 μΩ cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  10. Structural origins of the boson peak in metals: From high-entropy alloys to metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Tobias; Koch, Leonie; Albe, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    The boson peak appears in all amorphous solids and is an excess of vibrational states at low frequencies compared to the phonon spectrum of the corresponding crystal. Until recently, the consensus was that it originated from "defects" in the glass. The nature of these defects is still under discussion, but the picture of regions with locally disturbed short-range order and/or decreased elastic constants has gained some traction. Recently, a different theory was proposed: The boson peak was attributed to the first van Hove singularity of crystal lattices which is only smeared out by the disorder. This new viewpoint assumes that the van Hove singularity is simply shifted by the decreased density of the amorphous state and is therefore not a glass-specific anomaly. In order to resolve this issue, we use computer models of a four-component alloy, alternatively with chemical disorder (high-entropy alloy), structural disorder, and reduced density. Comparison to a reference glass of the same composition reveals that the boson peak consists of additional vibrational modes which can be induced solely by structural disorder. While chemical disorder introduces fluctuations of the elastic constants, we find that those do not lead to sufficient local softening to induce these modes. A boson peak due to a reduction of density could be excluded for the present metallic system.

  11. Effect of several surface treatments on the strength of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Salerno, R F; Egleston, E E

    1982-02-10

    Test shells of Inconel 625, Inconel 718, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and Hastelloy, C-276 were plasma and/or chemically cleaned before sealing with a multi-component glass-ceramic-to-metal seal was evaluated using a hydrostatic burst test. The results show that plasma cleaning can be used to increase the hydrostatic burst strength and hermeticity of a glass ceramic-to-metal seal.

  12. A Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction Study of Ca-Mg-Cu Metallic Glasses (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    copper has a total of 6.5 neighbours which are in close contact, but has a total coordination number of about 12-13, when atoms which are almost in...contact are included. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ternary alloy systems, glasses, metallic rapid solidification processing, diffraction 16. SECURITY...online 16 March 2011 Keywords: A. Ternary alloy systems B. Glasses, metallic C. Rapid solidification processing F. Diffraction a b s t r a c t The

  13. Dynamic Pressure Induced Transformation Toughening and Strengthening in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    subject materials to uniaxial-stress loading up to 30 GPa and nano -to-micro-second duration, allowing studies of the influence of stress-states and... zirconium -based bulk metallic glass, MS&T Conference, Pittsburg, October 2009. Mechanical Behavior of bulk metallic glass and tungsten composite over...we are able to subject materials to uniaxial-stress loading up to 30 GPa and nano -to-micro-second duration, allowing studies of the influence of

  14. Correlation of Mechanical Properties in Bulk Metallic Glasses with 27Al NMR Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    properties Magdalena T SANDOR , Laszlo J KECSKES , Qiang HE , Jian XU , Yue WU University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Office of Sponsored...doi: 10.1007/s11434-011-4834-z Correlation of mechanical properties in bulk metallic glasses with 27Al NMR characteristics SANDOR Magdalena T1...bulk metallic glass, nuclear magnetic resonance, knight shift, magnetic susceptibility, mechanical properties Citation: Sandor M T, Kecskes L J

  15. Nanoscale Structure, Dynamics, and Aging Behavior of Metallic Glass Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, J. A. J.; Holt, C. M. B.; Luber, E. J.; Fortin, D. C.; Popowich, G.; Zahiri, B.; Concepcion, P.; Mitlin, D.; Freeman, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy observations resolve the structure and dynamics of metallic glass Cu100−xHfx films and demonstrate scanning tunnelling microscopy control of aging at a metallic glass surface. Surface clusters exhibit heterogeneous hopping dynamics. Low Hf concentration films feature an aged surface of larger, slower clusters. Argon ion-sputtering destroys the aged configuration, yielding a surface in constant fluctuation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy can locally restore the relaxed state, allowing for nanoscale lithographic definition of aged sections. PMID:27498698

  16. Preparation of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses in the Bulk Form.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    34PAILES Raw tateriai- Used to 6 ,-)reoare ZULM.Ai! Glass -iI 2BLAN Gass Melts Pricr 7 to izrjved F’u’rnace Seals fif ZBLAN Glass Melts Dore wit-i ti-te...BEth dry ritrger arnd argor have beer, used as tc- v-, rnac-e aton-sphere, the glass being melti;ecu urcer a gas fl-w or a’orox i matel y 4 LPii...34O-ring") Gas Inlet Push Rod Seal (Ŕ-ring") Push Rod FIGURE 5 Furnace lised to mnelt ZBLAN glass . 1 12 S WAC MoistureAnalyze Pedet rol Panel FIGURE 3

  17. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 and Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the Tg (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (-dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-Tg feature and a rapid rise at T near Tg. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  18. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  19. Measurement of local internal friction in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, M.; Luo, Y.; Samwer, K.; Kumar, A.; Arnold, W.

    2014-04-07

    Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), an advanced scanning probe microscopy technique, has been used to measure local elastic properties with a spatial resolution given by the tip-sample contact radius. AFAM is based on inducing out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen. The vibrations are sensed by the AFM cantilever from by the photodiode signal when its tip is in contact with the material under test. To measure local damping, the inverse quality factor Q{sup −1} of the resonance curve is usually evaluated. Here, from the contact-resonance spectra obtained, we determine the real and imaginary part of the contact stiffness k* and from these two quantities the local damping factor Q{sub loc}{sup −1} is obtained which is proportional to the imaginary part γ of the contact stiffness. The evaluation of the data is based on the cantilever's mass distribution with damped flexural modes and not on an effective point-mass approximation for the cantilever’s motion. The given equation is simple to use and has been employed to study the local Q{sub loc}{sup −1} of amorphous PdCuSi metallic glass and its crystalline counterpart as a function of position of the AFM tip on the surface. The width of the distribution changes dramatically from the amorphous to the crystalline state as expected from the consequences of the potential-energy landscape picture. The center value of the distribution curve for Q{sub loc}{sup −1} coincides very well with published data, based on global ultrasonic or internal friction measurements. This is compared to Q{sub loc}{sup −1} measured in crystalline SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits a narrow distribution, as expected.

  20. On the Stress-Temperature Scaling for Steady-State Flow in Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Pengfei; Chen, Mingwei; Egami, T.

    2010-01-01

    Through computer simulation of steady-state flow in a Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass using a set of realistic potentials we found a simple scaling relationship between temperature and stress as they affect viscosity. The scaling relationship provides new insights for the microscopic mechanism of shear flow in the glassy state, in terms of the elastic energy of the applied stress modifying the local energy landscape. The results suggest that the plastic flow and mechanical failure in metallic glasses are consequences of stress-induced glass transition.

  1. Alternative understanding for the enthalpy vs volume change upon structural relaxation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonik, V. A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the densification observed upon structural relaxation of metallic glasses can be explained not by the "free volume annihilation," as it is custom to consider, but by the annealing of interstitialcy-like "defects" frozen-in upon glass production. A simple expression for the enthalpy release due to relaxation of defect-induced dilatational energy has been proposed. The expression is shown to be in agreement with recent detailed experimental data on the heat release occurring upon structural relaxation of Au-based metallic glass [J. Bünz and G. Wilde, J. Appl. Phys. 114, 223503 (2013)].

  2. Stress-Temperature Scaling for Steady-State Flow in Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Pengfei; Chen, Mingwei; Egami, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    Through computer simulation of steady-state flow in a Zr50Cu40Al10 metallic glass using a set of realistic potentials we find a simple scaling relationship between temperature and stress as they affect viscosity. The scaling relationship provides new insight into the microscopic mechanism of shear flow in the glassy state, in terms of the elastic energy of the applied stress modifying the local energy landscape. The results suggest that the plastic flow and mechanical failure in metallic glasses are consequences of stress-induced glass transition.

  3. High Temperature In Situ Compression of Thermoplastically Formed Nano-scale Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Lefebvre, Joseph; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of nano-scale metallic glasses was investigated by in situ compression tests in a scanning electron microscope. Platinum-based metallic glass nano-pillars were fabricated by thermoplastic forming. The nano-pillars and corresponding bulk substrate were tested in compression over the range of room temperature to glass transition. Stress-strain curves of the nano-pillars were obtained along with in situ observation of their deformation behavior. The bulk substrate as well as nano-pillars showed an increase in elastic modulus with temperature which is explained by diffusive rearrangement of atomic-scale viscoelastic units.

  4. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products.

  5. Spatially Resolved Distribution Function and the Medium-Range Order in Metallic Liquid and Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X. W.; Wang, C. Z.; Hao, S. G.; Kramer, M. J.; Yao, Y. X.; Mendelev, M. I.; Ding, Z. J.; Napolitano, R. E.; Ho, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe ``Bergman triacontahedron'' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  6. Spatially resolved distribution function and the medium-range order in metallic liquid and glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xiaowei; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hao, Shaogang; Kramer, Matthew; Yao, Yongxin; Mendelev, Mikhail; Napolitano, Ralph; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-12-23

    The structural description of disordered systems has been a longstanding challenge in physical science. We propose an atomic cluster alignment method to reveal the development of three-dimensional topological ordering in a metallic liquid as it undercools to form a glass. By analyzing molecular dynamic (MD) simulation trajectories of a Cu{sub 64.5}Zr{sub 35.5} alloy, we show that medium-range order (MRO) develops in the liquid as it approaches the glass transition. Specifically, around Cu sites, we observe 'Bergman triacontahedron' packing (icosahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) that extends out to the fourth shell, forming an interpenetrating backbone network in the glass. The discovery of Bergman-type MRO from our order-mining technique provides unique insights into the topological ordering near the glass transition and the relationship between metallic glasses and quasicrystals.

  7. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytykacova, S.; Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.; Mackova, A.; Miksova, R.; Böttger, R.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that glasses containing silver metal nanoparticles are promising photonics materials for the fabrication of all-optical components. The resulting optical properties of the nanocomposite glasses depend on the composition and structure of the glass, as well as on the type of metal ion implanted and the experimental procedures involved. The main aim of this article was to study the influence of the conditions of the ion implantation and the composition of the glass on the formation of metal nanoparticles in such glasses. Four various types of silicate glasses were implanted with Ag+ ions with different energy (330 keV, 1.2 MeV and 1.7 MeV), with the fluence being kept constant (1 × 1016 ions cm-2). The as-implanted samples were annealed at 600 °C for 1 h. The samples were characterised in terms of: the nucleation of metal nanoparticles (linear optical absorption), the migration of silver through the glass matrix during the implantation and post-implantation annealing (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), and the oxidation state of silver (photoluminescence in the visible region).

  8. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  9. High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, A; Åström, M; Bergbäck, B; Elert, M; Höglund, L O; Kleja, D B

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  10. Intermittent Aging Dynamics in a Metallic Glass Studied by X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, Zach; Ruta, Beatrice; Hechler, Simon; Stolpe, Moritz; Pineda, Eloi; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    Although physical aging is a universal feature of glasses and other non-equilibrium matter, the atomic-level processes involved still remain a puzzling mystery. Here we study the microscopic aging dynamics of a metallic glass using coherent X-rays. Contrary to the common assumption of a steady slowing down of the dynamics usually observed in macroscopic studies, we show that the structural relaxation processes underlying aging in this metallic glass are intermittent and highly heterogeneous at the atomic scale. Moreover, physical aging is triggered by cooperative atomic rearrangements, driven by the relaxation of internal stresses. These results strengthen the similarities between metallic glasses and non-equilibrium soft materials and a suggest a common microscopic origin stemming from from a complex energy landscape.

  11. Communication: Enthalpy relaxation in a metal-organic zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-4) glass-former.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Liu, Yingdan; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min

    2017-03-28

    Amorphization in metal-organic framework materials initiated by the collapsed crystal offers new access to glasses; however, the understanding of such glasses remains to be clarified. Here, we studied the glass transition thermodynamics and kinetics in a zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 utilizing enthalpy relaxation measurements. The calorimetric glass transition profile and relaxation behaviors in ZIF-4 are found to reproduce the basic features and correlations manifested by conventional melt-quenched glasses. A comparison with various melt-quenched glasses suggests that the low fragility of ZIF-4 is ascribed to the low thermal-pressure coefficient due to the directional tetrahedral bond, partly leading to the low vibrational entropy in the melt-crystal entropy difference.

  12. Cooling rate dependence of structural order in Al90Sm10 metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Feng; ...

    2016-07-07

    Here, the atomic structure of Al90Sm10 metallic glass is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. By performing a long sub-Tg annealing, we developed a glass model closer to the experiments than the models prepared by continuous cooling. Using the cluster alignment method, we found that “3661” cluster is the dominating short-range order in the glass samples. The connection and arrangement of “3661” clusters, which define the medium-range order in the system, are enhanced significantly in the sub-Tg annealed sample as compared with the fast cooled glass samples. Unlike some strong binary glass formers such as Cu64.5Zr35.5, the clusters representing the short-rangemore » order do not form an interconnected interpenetrating network in Al90Sm10, which has only marginal glass formability.« less

  13. Computation assisted design of favored composition for ternary Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2015-06-14

    With the aid of ab initio calculations, a realistic interatomic potential was constructed for the Mg-Cu-Y ternary system under the proposed formalism of smoothed and long-range second-moment approximation of tight-binding. Taking the potential as the starting base, an atomistic computation/simulation route was developed for designing favored and optimized compositions for Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass formation. Simulations revealed that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is the collapse of crystalline lattice when solute concentration exceeds a critical value, thus leading to predict a hexagonal region in the Mg-Cu-Y composition triangle, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored. It is proposed that the hexagonal region can be defined as the intrinsic glass formation region, or quantitative glass formation ability of the system. Inside the hexagonal region, the driving force for formation of each specific glassy alloy was further calculated and correlated with its forming ability in practice. Calculations pinpointed the optimized stoichiometry in the Mg-Cu-Y system to be Mg64Cu16Y20, at which the formation driving force reaches its maximum, suggesting that metallic glasses designed to have compositions around Mg64Cu16Y20 are most stable or easiest to obtain. The predictions derived directly from the atomistic simulations are supported by experimental observations reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, Honeycutt-Anderson analysis indicated that pentagonal bipyramids (although not aggregating to form icosahedra) dominate in the local structure of the Mg-Cu-Y metallic glasses. A microscopic picture of the medium-range packing can then be described as an extended network of the pentagonal bipyramids, entangled with the fourfold and sixfold disclination lines, jointly fulfilling the space of the metallic glasses.

  14. Evaluation of the relationship between the effective strain and the springback behavior during the deformation of metallic glass ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M H; Park, E S; Ott, R T; Kim, B S; Eckert, J

    2014-08-11

    We evaluated the role of effective strain on the plasticity of metallic glasses related to springback phenomena in both ductile Zr-based metallic glass and brittle Hf-based metallic glass. Experimental investigations of the deformation behavior and the intrinsic mechanical properties of metallic glass were performed by room temperature L-bending deformation. The modeling analysis clearly shows that an inhomogeneous effective strain for initiating shear band is generated during deformation, with the brittleness of a metallic glass being dependent on the effective strain reaching the critical fracture strain of the glass. The combined experimental and modeling results reveal broad and general criteria that should allow for deformability of a wide-variety of glass-forming alloys by adjusting the effective strain during deformation.

  15. Preparation of high density heavy metal fluoride glasses with extended ultraviolet and infra red ranges, and such high density heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Steven W. (Inventor); Huebsch, Jesse (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) consisting essentially of: (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24)InF.sub.3 or GaF.sub.3.(4-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-22)ZnF.sub.2. In an alternative embodiment, a heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) comprises (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24) of (0-24)InF.sub.3, (0-24)GaF.sub.3 and (0-19)AlF.sub.3.(1-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-26)ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass produced in accordance with the present invention comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.7InF.sub.3.5GaF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3. 16ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass has maximum thickness of most preferably about 3 mm. Another preferred heavy metal fluoride glass comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.12AlF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3.16ZnF.sub.2.

  16. Optical properties of dy doped lead and bismuth borate glasses - effect of glass composition, metal and semiconducting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Hio Giap

    The optical properties of Dy3+ ions in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses are studied as a function of glass composition with PbO content (29.5 to 69.5mol%) and Bi2O3 content (29.5 to 59.5 mol%). We also studied the effect of metal and semiconducting nanoparticles on the absorption and fluorescence emission of Dy3+ ions in both lead and bismuth borate glasses. The absorption coefficient at each wavelength is obtained from the optical absorption spectrum of a glass sample, and the number density of rare-earth (RE) ions is calculated from the measurement of the glass density. These two parameters are then used to calculate the oscillator strength of each transition using Judd-Ofelt theory. Using the oscillator strength for each transition, we obtained the intensity parameters which represent changes in the symmetry of the ligand field at the Dy 3+ site (due to structural group changes and changes in Dy-O covalency). Radiative transition probabilities, the radiative lifetime of the excited states and the branching ratios are then obtained from these intensity parameters. The fluorescence spectra, obtained using 355 nm and 458 nm laser excitation, are analyzed by determining the area ratio of yellow/blue (Y/B) peaks and the wavelength of the hypersensitive transition (HST). The compositional dependence and effect of nanoparticles on the stimulated emission cross-section (sigmap), are then evaluated using radiative transition probability, the refractive index of the host glass, effective fluorescence linewidth, and the position of the band. In all of the glass systems, it was found that the optical properties are strongly influenced by structural changes arising from compositional variation and size of nanoparticles. Dy 3+ transitions exhibit large sigmap suggesting the possible utilization of these materials in laser applications.

  17. Softening caused by profuse shear banding in a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bei, Hongbin; Xie, Sujing; George, Easo P

    2006-01-01

    By controlling the specimen aspect ratio and strain rate, compressive strains as high as 80% were obtined in an otherwise brittle metallic glass. Physical and mechanical properties were measured after deformation, and a systematic strain-induced softening was obseerved which contrasts sharply with the hardening typically observed in crystalline metals.

  18. Fe-based metallic glass catalyst with nanoporous surface for azo dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z; Zhang, X H; Chan, K C; Liu, L; Li, T

    2017-05-01

    In this work, porous structures were introduced to the surface of Fe-based metallic glass ribbons for the first time by chemical treatment in order to increase the catalytic activity in the degradation of azo dyes. The results show that etching treatment in an HF solution with a volume concentration of 20% for 40 min leads to a porous structure on the FeSiBNb metallic glass with a dramatic increase in the specific surface area by 25 times. The much higher specific surface area of the porous ribbons greatly improves the catalytic activity in the degradation of Direct Blue 15 when compared with as-spun metallic ribbons.

  19. Micro mold filling kinetics of metallic glasses in supercooled liquid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Huo, L. S.; Zhao, D. Q.; Wang, W. H.

    2013-03-01

    The unique thermoplastic forming ability of metallic glasses in their supercooled liquid state makes them the ideal embossing materials for miniature fabrication. However, the understanding and controlling of micro filling process that is crucial for miniature fabrication and their applications remain fundamental, yet presently unresolved issues. Here, the mold filling kinetics of a model Pd-based metallic glass in supercooled liquid state is studied using different Si micro molds with different channels. A universal kinetic equation, which can describe the filling kinetics of viscous metallic supercooled liquid in micro molds with irregular shapes, is obtained.

  20. Electrofluidics fabricated by space-selective metallization in glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Dong; Hanada, Yasutaka; Chen, Chi; Wu, Sizhu; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-12-07

    Space-selective metallization of the inside of glass microfluidic structures using femtosecond laser direct-write ablation followed by electroless plating is demonstrated. Femtosecond laser direct writing followed by thermal treatment and successive chemical etching allows us to fabricate three-dimensional microfluidic structures inside photosensitive glass. Then, femtosecond laser ablation followed by electroless metal plating enables flexible deposition of patterned metal films on desired locations of not only the top and bottom walls but also the sidewalls of fabricated microfluidic structures. A volume writing scheme for femtosecond laser irradiation inducing homogeneous ablation on the sidewalls of microfluidic structures is proposed for sidewall metallization. The developed technique is used to fabricate electrofluidics in which microelectric components are integrated into glass microchannels. The fabricated electrofluidics are applied to control the temperature of liquid samples in the microchannels for the enhancement of chemical reactions and to manipulate the movement of biological samples in the microscale space.

  1. Thermal properties of metal-metal bonded Pd(I) complexes supported onto porous Vycor glass.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Iara F; Alves, Oswaldo L

    2008-06-01

    Thermal behavior of the complexes Pd2(dppm)2Cl2, Pd2(dppm)2(SnCl3)Cl and Pd2(dppm)2(SnCl3)2 (dppm=bis[diphenylphosphino(methane)], ((C6H5)2PCH2P(C6H5)2) in the solid state and immobilized onto porous Vycor glass was studied. Similar decomposition mechanisms were observed for the solid and immobilized complexes, with a small thermal stabilization upon immobilization. The decomposition products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Raman and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of a mixture of metallic palladium and oxidized species such as PdO,condensed phosphates, SnO2 and SnP2O7. According to X-ray diffractometry, the decomposition products of the immobilized complexes presented higher amounts of PdO than the solid-state residues, probably as an effect of interactions with silanol groups present in the glass surface.

  2. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant. PMID:26658671

  3. A connection between the structural α-relaxation and the β-relaxation found in bulk metallic glass-formers.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K L; Wang, Z; Gao, X Q; Yu, H B; Wang, W H

    2013-07-07

    New metallic glasses containing La or Ce have been introduced having dynamic properties bordering on two extremes of conventional metallic glasses. This provides opportunity to test if the trends or correlations established before in molecular and polymeric glass-formers also exist in the broader family of metallic glasses. Due to the drastically different chemical and physical structures of metallic glass-formers than soft matter, there is no guarantee that any correlation found in the latter will hold in the former. If the trends and correlations are found, the result brings metallic glasses closer to the much wider classes of glass-formers in the similarity of properties. In non-metallic glass-formers, a general and fundamental connection has been established between the non-exponentiality parameter of the structural α-relaxation and the separation between its relaxation time τα and the β-relaxation time τβ. In this paper, we explore the experimental data of metallic glass-formers and show the correlation applies. An explanation of this correlation is given by the Coupling Model. The establishment of the correlation may facilitate the understanding of the roles played by the β-relaxation in macroscopic properties of metallic glasses including the relations to shear transformation zone, ductile-brittle transition in deformation, crystallization, and diffusion.

  4. Compressive behavior of bulk metallic glass under different conditions --- Coupled effect of temperature and strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Weihua

    Metallic glass was first reported in 1960 by rapid quenching of Au-Si alloys. But, due to the size limitation, this material did not attract remarkable interest until the development of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with specimen sizes in excess of 1 mm. BMGs are considered to be promising engineering materials because of their ultrahigh strength, high elastic limit and wear resistance. However, they usually suer from a strong tendency for localized plastic deformation with catastrophic failure. Many basic questions, such as the origin of shear softening and the strain rate eect remain unclear. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the Zr55Al 10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass and a metallic glass composite is investigated. The stress-strain relationship for Zr55Al10Ni 5Cu30 over a wide range of strain rate (5x10 --5 to 2x103 s--1) was investigated in uniaxial compression loading using both MTS servo-hydraulic system (quasi-static) and compression Kolsky bar system (dynamic). The effect of the strain rate on the fracture stress at room temperature was discussed. Based on the experimental results, the strain rate sensitivity of the bulk metallic glass changes from a positive value to a negative value at high strain rate, which is a consequence of the significant adiabatic temperature rise during the dynamic testing. In order to characterize the temperature eect on the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass, a synchronically assembled heating unit was designed to be attached onto the Kolsky bar system to perform high temperature and high strain rate mechanical testing. A transition from inhomogeneous deformation to homogeneous deformation has been observed during the quasi-static compressive experiments at testing temperatures close to the glass transition temperature. However, no transition has been observed at high strain rates at all the testing temperatures. A free volume based model is applied to analyze the stress-strain behavior of the homogeneous

  5. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-04-12

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  7. H+-induced irradiation damage resistance in Fe- and Ni-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongran; Mei, Xianxiu; Zhang, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaona; Wang, Yingmin; Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Younian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, use of 40-keV H+ ion for irradiating metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and Ni62Ta38 as well as metallic tungsten (W) at fluences of 1 × 1018 and 3 × 1018 ions/cm2, respectively, was investigated. At the fluence of 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, a crystalline layer appeared in metallic glass Fe80Si7.43B12.57, with α-Fe as the major crystalline phase, coupled with a little Fe2B, Fe3B, and metastable β-Mn-type phase. Fe80Si7.43B12.57 exhibited good soft magnetic properties after irradiation. At the fluence of 3 × 1018 ions/cm2, Ni62Ta38 was found to be amorphous-based, with a little μ-NiTa and Ni3Ta phases. No significant irradiation damage phenomenon appeared in metallic glasses Fe80Si7.43B12.57 and Ni62Ta38. Blistering, flaking, and other damage occurred on the surface of metallic W, and the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness increased with the increase of fluence. Metallic glass Ni62Ta38 exhibited better resistance to H+ irradiation than Fe80Si7.43B12.57, both of which were superior to the metallic W.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  9. Design, fabrication, and application of a directional thermal processing system for controlled devitrification of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Megan Anne Lamb

    The potential of using metallic glass as a pathway to obtaining novel morphologies and metastable phases has been garnering attention since their discovery. Several rapid solidification techniques; such as gas atomization, melt spinning, laser melting, and splat quenching produce amorphous alloys. A directional thermal processing system (DTPS) was designed, fabricated and characterized for the use of zone processing or gradient-zone processing of materials. Melt-spun CuZr metallic glass alloy was subjected to the DTPS and the relaxation and crystallization responses of the metallic glass were characterized. A range of processing parameters were developed and analyzed that would allow for devitrification to occur. The relaxation and crystallization responses were compared with traditional heat treatment methods of metallic glasses. The new processing method accessed equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases of the alloy and the structures were found to be controllable and sensitive to processing conditions. Crystallized fraction, crystallization onset temperature, and structural relaxation were controlled through adjusting the processing conditions, such as the hot zone temperature and sample velocity. Reaction rates computed from isothermal (TTT) transformation data were not found to be reliable, suggesting that the reaction kinetics are not additive. This new processing method allows for future studying of the thermal history effects of metallic glasses.

  10. Shear avalanches in metallic glasses under nanoindentation: Deformation units and rate dependent strain burst cut-off

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, X. L.; Wang, G.; Gao, Y. L.; Zhai, Q. J.; Chan, K. C.; Ren, J. L.

    2013-09-02

    Indented metallic glasses at the nanoscale deform via strain bursts. Conventional continuum descriptions are not appropriate for such highly stochastic, intermittent deformations. In this study, after a statistical analysis of strain bursts in five metallic glasses, the dependence of the cut-off of the strain burst size on deformation units and loading rate is established. For soft metallic glasses with smaller deformation units, cut-off of the strain burst size truncates the scale-free behavior at larger strain burst sizes. For hard metallic glasses, scale-free behavior occurs in a wide range of strain burst sizes.

  11. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.

    2014-12-14

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the T{sub g} (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (−dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-T{sub g} feature and a rapid rise at T near T{sub g}. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  12. Structural relaxation driven increase in elastic modulus for a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Harpreet Singh; Aditya, Ayyagari V.; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2015-01-07

    The change in elastic modulus as a function of temperature was investigated for a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. High temperature nano-indentation was done over a wide temperature range from room temperature to the glass-transition. At higher temperature, there was a transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous deformation, with a decrease in serrated flow and an increase in creep displacement. Hardness was found to decrease, whereas elastic modulus was found to increase with temperature. The increase in elastic modulus for metallic glass at higher temperature was explained by diffusive rearrangement of atoms resulting in free volume annihilation. This is in contrast to elastic modulus increase with temperature for silicate glasses due to compaction of its open three dimensional coordinated structure without any atomic diffusion.

  13. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  14. Origin of Shear Stability and Compressive Ductility Enhancement of Metallic Glasses by Metal Coating

    PubMed Central

    Sun, B. A.; Chen, S. H.; Lu, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. L.; Yang, Y.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are notorious for the poor macroscopic ductility and to overcome the weakness various intrinsic and extrinsic strategies have been proposed in past decades. Among them, the metal coating is regarded as a flexible and facile approach, yet the physical origin is poorly understood due to the complex nature of shear banding process. Here, we studied the origin of ductile enhancement in the Cu-coating both experimentally and theoretically. By examining serrated shear events and their stability of MGs, we revealed that the thin coating layer plays a key role in stopping the final catastrophic failure of MGs by slowing down shear band dynamics and thus retarding its attainment to a critical instable state. The mechanical analysis on interplay between the coating layer and shear banding process showed the enhanced shear stability mainly comes from the lateral tension of coating layer induced by the surface shear step and the bonding between the coating layer and MGs rather than the layer thickness is found to play a key role in contributing to the shear stability. PMID:27271435

  15. Origin of Shear Stability and Compressive Ductility Enhancement of Metallic Glasses by Metal Coating.

    PubMed

    Sun, B A; Chen, S H; Lu, Y M; Zhu, Z G; Zhao, Y L; Yang, Y; Chan, K C; Liu, C T

    2016-06-08

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are notorious for the poor macroscopic ductility and to overcome the weakness various intrinsic and extrinsic strategies have been proposed in past decades. Among them, the metal coating is regarded as a flexible and facile approach, yet the physical origin is poorly understood due to the complex nature of shear banding process. Here, we studied the origin of ductile enhancement in the Cu-coating both experimentally and theoretically. By examining serrated shear events and their stability of MGs, we revealed that the thin coating layer plays a key role in stopping the final catastrophic failure of MGs by slowing down shear band dynamics and thus retarding its attainment to a critical instable state. The mechanical analysis on interplay between the coating layer and shear banding process showed the enhanced shear stability mainly comes from the lateral tension of coating layer induced by the surface shear step and the bonding between the coating layer and MGs rather than the layer thickness is found to play a key role in contributing to the shear stability.

  16. Origin of Shear Stability and Compressive Ductility Enhancement of Metallic Glasses by Metal Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, B. A.; Chen, S. H.; Lu, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. L.; Yang, Y.; Chan, K. C.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are notorious for the poor macroscopic ductility and to overcome the weakness various intrinsic and extrinsic strategies have been proposed in past decades. Among them, the metal coating is regarded as a flexible and facile approach, yet the physical origin is poorly understood due to the complex nature of shear banding process. Here, we studied the origin of ductile enhancement in the Cu-coating both experimentally and theoretically. By examining serrated shear events and their stability of MGs, we revealed that the thin coating layer plays a key role in stopping the final catastrophic failure of MGs by slowing down shear band dynamics and thus retarding its attainment to a critical instable state. The mechanical analysis on interplay between the coating layer and shear banding process showed the enhanced shear stability mainly comes from the lateral tension of coating layer induced by the surface shear step and the bonding between the coating layer and MGs rather than the layer thickness is found to play a key role in contributing to the shear stability.

  17. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weihua

    2011-09-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density {rho}{sub E} is determined to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs.

  18. Metallic Halide Optical Glasses: Synthesis and Characterization of IR Transmitting Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    impurities. For plasses mel ted under react ive atmosphere s and peaks at 2.9 T- were found LO bc due almost rentirely to surface -OH. t was; generally...I at 1400 cm , ln(To/T) at 3400 cm and Appearance of 62ZrF -33BaF 2-5LaF Glasses Prepared Under Various Processing Conditions. 104 -! Table XXI...Values of Thickness, T , a at 1400 cm , In(T^/T) at40-0 3400 cm and Appearance of 62HfF4 -33BaF 2 -5LaF Glasses Prepared Under Various ProcessL-ig

  19. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  20. Structural evolution in Ti-Cu-Ni metallic glasses during heating

    SciTech Connect

    Gargarella, P.; Pauly, S.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Vaughan, G.; Afonso, C. R. M.; Eckert, J.

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolution of Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 43}Ni{sub 7} and Ti{sub 55}Cu{sub 35}Ni{sub 10} metallic glasses during heating was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width of the most intense diffraction maximum of the glassy phase decreases slightly during relaxation below the glass transition temperature. Significant structural changes only occur above the glass transition manifesting in a change in the respective peak positions. At even higher temperatures, nanocrystals of the shape memory B2-Ti(Cu,Ni) phase precipitate, and their small size hampers the occurrence of a martensitic transformation.

  1. Towards understanding of heat effects in metallic glasses on the basis of macroscopic shear elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mitrofanov, Y. P.; Wang, D. P.; Makarov, A. S.; Wang, W. H.; Khonik, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that all heat effects taking place upon annealing of a metallic glass within the glassy and supercooled liquid states, i.e. heat release below the glass transition temperature and heat absorption above it, as well as crystallization-induced heat release, are related to the macroscopic shear elasticity. The underlying physical reason can be understood as relaxation in the system of interstitialcy-type ”defects” (elastic dipoles) frozen-in from the melt upon glass production. PMID:26975587

  2. Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Lan, S; Ren, Y; Wei, X Y; Wang, B; Gilbert, E P; Shibayama, T; Watanabe, S; Ohnuma, M; Wang, X-L

    2017-03-17

    An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment.

  3. Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; Wang, B.; Gilbert, E. P.; Shibayama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ohnuma, M.; Wang, X. -L.

    2017-01-01

    An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment. PMID:28303882

  4. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn; Du, J. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  5. Tensile behavior of laser treated Fe-Si-B metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Sameehan S.; Samimi, Peyman; Ghamarian, Iman; Katakam, Shravana; Collins, Peter C.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2015-10-28

    Fe-Si-B metallic glass foils were treated with a linear laser track using a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser and its effect on the overall tensile behavior was investigated. Microstructure and phase evolutions were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. Crystallization fraction was estimated via the differential scanning calorimetry technique. Metallic glass foils treated with the lower laser fluences (<0.49 J/mm{sup 2}) experienced structural relaxation, whereas higher laser fluences led to crystallization within the laser treated region. The overall tensile behavior was least impacted by structural relaxation, whereas crystallization severely reduced the ultimate tensile strength of the laser treated metallic glass foils.

  6. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shuai E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Stolpe, Moritz E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf; Evenson, Zach; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  7. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A.; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  8. Magnetic behavior of nanostructured glass covered metallic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, H.; Óvári, T. A.; Pop, Gh.; Barariu, Firuta

    1997-04-01

    We present a study of the evolution of the magnetic properties and behavior of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 glass covered wires and wires after glass removal with the annealing temperature up to 600 °C starting from the amorphous state. The changes induced in the magnetic properties of these wires are determined by the stress relief process occurring at temperatures below 550 °C, and by the appearance of the nanosized α-FeSi crystalline grains after annealing for 1 h at 550 °C. The nanocrystalline phase formation leads to an improvement of the soft magnetic properties of these wires—increase of permeability and decrease of the coercive force—but also determines the disappearance of the large Barkhausen effect presented by these wires in the amorphous state. Annealing at temperatures over 550 °C determines a depreciation of the soft magnetic properties of both glass covered wires and wires after glass removal. The magnetic behavior of such wires can be fully explained by taking into account the relaxation of the internal stresses with increasing the annealing temperature as well as the changes in the magnetostriction constant due to the appearance of the nanocrystalline grains.

  9. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~105 K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the “crystallization nose” were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a “critical heating rate” for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 100–104 Pa·s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

  10. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2014-10-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~10(5) K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the "crystallization nose" were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a "critical heating rate" for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 10(0)-10(4) Pa · s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated.

  11. Some developments on ceramic-to-metal and glass-ceramics-to-metal seals and related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothiyal, G. P.; Goswami, M.; Shrikhande, V. K.

    2008-05-01

    Seals and coatings based on ceramics and glass-ceramics find numerous applications in different disciplines of science and technology including space, accelerators, nuclear energy, chemical industry. Ceramic-to-metal (CM) seals based on conventional design (using brazing alloys) and glass-ceramics have been prepared. While Ag-Cu brazing alloy has been used in conventional CM seal, we have employed lithium zinc silicate (LZS) and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics for glass-ceramics-to-metal (GCM) seals. LZS glass-ceramics based on two different compositions; (a) LZSL composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 12.65, ZnO: 1.85, SiO2: 74.4, Al2O3: 3.8, K2O: 2.95, P2O5: 3.15, and B2O3: 1.2 (low ZnO) and (b) LZSH composition (wt.%)- Li2O: 8.9, ZnO: 24.03, SiO2: 53.7, Na2O: 5.42, P2O5: 2.95, and B2O3: 5.0 (high ZnO) were prepared with desired sealing characteristics for matched type seals. In addition, (wt.%) 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 (LAS-GC) was investigated for compressive type of seal. LZS glass-ceramics-to-Cu as well as SS-321 seals were found to withstand a vacuum of 10-6 Torr with leak rate 10-9 Torr. 1/s and LAS GC-to-SS304 seal showed high pressure endurance of 12000psi. In order to understand the mechanism of sealing, glass-ceramics-to-metal interface study has also been carried out.

  12. Coupling of caged molecule dynamics to Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ngai, K. L.; Wang, W. H.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-01-01

    Three recently published papers have discovered a general property of the fast caged dynamics observed in the glassy states of polyalcohols (S. Capaccioli et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 8800 (2015)), amorphous polymers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12502 (2015)), and van der Waals molecular glass-formers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12519 (2015)). The fast caged dynamics are manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in dielectric and mechanical susceptibility. Shown before in these papers is the intensity of the caged dynamics change temperature dependence at a temperature THF nearly coincident with the secondary glass transition temperature Tgβ, at which the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation time τJG reaches ˜103 s. Evidently this finding indicates the coupling of the caged dynamics to the secondary glass transition. The glass-formers considered so far are all soft matters. However, the generality of the phenomenon and its explanation implies that the relation, THF ≈ Tgβ, should be observed in other classes of glass-formers. In this paper, we extend the consideration of the phenomenon and explanation to metallic glasses, which are not soft matter. The experimental data presented show the same phenomenon, supporting its generality and fundamental importance in the physics of glass and glass transition.

  13. Two-zone heterogeneous structure within shear bands of a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yang; Yao, Kefu; Liu, Xue; Li, Mo

    2013-10-21

    Shear bands, the main plastic strain carrier in metallic glasses, are severely deformed regions often considered as disordered and featureless. Here we report the observations of a sandwich-like heterogeneous structure inside shear bands in Pd{sub 40.5}Ni{sub 40.5}P{sub 19} metallic glass sample after plastic deformation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results suggest a two-step plastic deformation mechanism with corresponding microstructure evolution at atomic scale, which may intimately connected to the stability of the shear band propagation and the overall plastic deformability.

  14. Consistency of the free-volume approach to the homogeneous deformation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blétry, Marc; Thai, Minh Thanh; Champion, Yannick; Perrière, Loïc; Ochin, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    One of the most widely used approaches to model metallic-glasses high-temperature homogeneous deformation is the free-volume theory, developed by Cohen and Turnbull and extended by Spaepen. A simple elastoviscoplastic formulation has been proposed that allows one to determine various parameters of such a model. This approach is applied here to the results obtained by de Hey et al. on a Pd-based metallic glass. In their study, de Hey et al. were able to determine some of the parameters used in the elastoviscoplastic formulation through DSC modeling coupled with mechanical tests, and the consistency of the two viewpoints was assessed.

  15. Superhydrophobic Zr-based metallic glass surface with high adhesive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xia, Ting; Heng, Liping; Liu, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Micro/nano hierarchical structures were constructed on Zr35Ti30Be26.75Cu8.25 metallic glass surface by silicon moulding and subsequently chemical etching. The as-formed surface exhibited both superhydrophobicity and high adhesive force towards water. The superhydrophobicity is rationalized based on the modified Cassie-Baxter model [A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546 (1944)]. The origin of the robust adhesion is described in terms of intermolecular capillary forces. The present results not only provide a method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic glasses surface but also explore an important industrial application as dry adhesives and transport of liquid microdroplets.

  16. Size effect on beta relaxation in a La-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wu, Jili; Zhang, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This work studied the effect of the size of specimens on the β relaxation. Taking La70Ni15Al15 bulk metallic glass as a model material, via dynamic mechanical analysis, we found that the thickness of specimens can affect the intensity of β relaxation. Specifically, increasing the thickness of specimens can enhance intensity of β relaxation. For this enhancement, we proposed that the involvedly total free volume facilitates the β relaxed process. This finding gives a new insight on the structural relaxation of bulk metallic glasses, especially for understanding of origin of β relaxation.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure evolutions of Cu-Zr metallic glasses under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Lin; Tian, Zean; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng; Hu, Wangyu

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structural evolution of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glasses under irradiation. The largest standard cluster analysis (LSCA) method was used to quantify the microstructure within the collision cascade regions. It is found that the majority of clusters within the collision cascade regions are full and defective icosahedrons. Not only the smaller structures (common neighbor subcluster) but also primary clusters greatly changed during the collision cascades; while most of these radiation damages self-recover quickly in the following quench states. These findings indicate the Cu-Zr metallic glasses have excellent irradiation-resistance properties.

  18. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  19. Propensity of bond exchange as a window into the mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, W.; Wang, X. L. Lan, S.; Pan, S. P.; Lu, Z. P.

    2015-02-09

    We investigated the mechanical properties of Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glasses, by compression experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. From the simulation, we found that the large, solvent atom, Zr, has high propensity of bond exchange compared to those of the smaller solute atoms. The difference in bond exchange is consistent with the observed disparity in mechanical behaviors: Zr-rich metallic glass exhibits low elastic modulus and large plastic strain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that the increased propensity in bond exchange is related to the softening of Zr bonds with increasing Zr content.

  20. Metal thin film growth on multimetallic surfaces: From quaternary metallic glass to binary crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Dapeng

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on the nucleation and growth of metal thin films on multimetallic surfaces. First, we have investigated the Ag film growth on a bulk metallic glass surface. Next, we have examined the coarsening and decay of bilayer Ag islands on NiAl(110) surface. Third, we have investigated the Ag film growth on NiAl(110) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). At last, we have reported our investigation on the epitaxial growth of Ni on NiAl(110) surface. Some general conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, Ag, a bulk-crystalline material, initially forms a disordered wetting layer up to 4-5 monolayers on Zr-Ni-Cu-Al metallic glass. Above this coverage, crystalline 3D clusters grow, in parallel with the flatter regions. The cluster density increases with decreasing temperature, indicating that the conditions of island nucleation are far-from-equilibrium. Within a simple model where clusters nucleate whenever two mobile Ag adatoms meet, the temperature-dependence of cluster density yields a (reasonable) upper limit for the value of the Ag diffusion barrier on top of the Ag wetting layer of 0.32 eV. Overall, this prototypical study suggests that it is possible to grow films of a bulk-crystalline metal that adopt the amorphous character of a glassy metal substrate, if film thickness is sufficiently low. Next, the first study of coarsening and decay of bilayer islands has been presented. The system was Ag on NiAl(110) in the temperature range from 185 K to 250 K. The coarsening behavior, has some similarities to that seen in the Ag(110) homoepitaxial system studied by Morgenstern and co-workers. At 185 K and 205 K, coarsening of Ag islands follows a Smoluchowski ripening pathway. At 205 K and 250 K, the terrace diffusion limited Ostwald ripening dominants. The experimental observed temperature for the transition from SR to OR is 205 K. The SR exhibits anisotropic island diffusion and the OR exhibits 1D decay of island

  1. Exploring Mg-Zn-Ca-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications Based on Thermodynamic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Sarwat, Syed Ghazi; Udhayabanu, V.; Raj, Baldev; Ravi, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based metallic glasses are considered as possible candidates in orthopedic implant applications. This paper aims to theoretically predict the glass-forming ability (GFA) in Mg-Zn-Ca alloy using a newly proposed thermodynamic model ( P HHS), and the consistency of this model is verified through experimental analysis. P HHS is based on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of chemical mixing, elastic enthalpy, and configurational entropy, thus incorporating the pivotal effects, i.e., electron transfer effects, effect of atomic size mismatch, and effect of randomness, which aid to high GFA. In essence, P HHS can be visualized as the energy barrier that exists between the transformations of random atomic structure of glass to ordered crystalline structure. When the P HHS value is more negative, the energy barrier will be high, supporting easy glass formation. Various Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass compositions displayed almost an expected and supporting trend, where the critical diameter of the metallic glass rod increased with a more negative P HHS value. Among the predicted Mg-Zn-Ca systems, the Mg60Zn35Ca5 composition shows deviation from the expected trend. This discrepancy has been clearly elucidated using a eutectic phase diagram. In addition to the consistency of the P HHS parameter to verifying the GFA of various compositions, the unique ability of this model is to predict unexplored Mg-Zn-Ca glass-forming compositions using contour development. Thus, proving P HHS parameter to be used as an efficient tool in predicting new glass-forming compositions.

  2. Power-law scaling and fractal nature of medium-range order in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Ma, D; Stoica, A D; Wang, X-L

    2009-01-01

    The atomic structure of metallic glasses has been a long-standing scientific problem. Unlike crystalline metals, where long-range ordering is established by periodic stacking of fundamental building blocks known as unit cells, a metallic glass has no long-range translational or orientational order, although some degrees of short- and medium-range order do exist. Previous studies have identified solute- (minority atom)-centred clusters as the fundamental building blocks or short-range order in metallic glasses. Idealized cluster packing schemes, such as efficient cluster packing on a cubic lattice and icosahedral packing as in a quasicrystal, have been proposed and provided first insights on the medium-range order in metallic glasses. However, these packing schemes break down beyond a length scale of a few clusters. Here, on the basis of neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments, we propose a new packing scheme-self-similar packing of atomic clusters. We show that the medium-range order has the characteristics of a fractal network with a dimension of 2.31, and is described by a power-law correlation function over the medium-range length scale. Our finding provides a new perspective of order in disordered materials and has broad implications for understanding their structure-property relationship, particularly those involving a change in length scales.

  3. High Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum- Cu50Zr50Metallic Glass Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Yedla, N.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine interface strength between aluminum (metal) and Cu50Zr50 (metallic glass) at temperature of 500 K and at strain rate of 108 s-1. Simulation box of size 100 Å (x) × 110 Å (y) × 50 Å (z) is used for the above studies. At first Al-Cu50Zr50 crystalline interface model is built with the base layer-Al of 50 A and the top layer-Cu50Zr50 of 55 Å along y-direction. Later Cu50Zr50 metallic glass is obtained by quenching at a cooling rate of 4 x 1012 Ks-1. NPT ensemble is used in metallic glass preparation simulation. The interface model is then equilibrated at 300 K for 500 ps to relieve the internal stresses. EAM (Embedded Atom Method) potential is used for modelling the interaction between Al-Cu-Zr atoms. The interface strength of Al-Cu50Zr50 model interface is determined by applying load in the directions normal (mode-I) and parallel (mode-II) to the interface. NVT ensemble is used for the deformation studies. In mode-I for perfect and cracked interface, the interface fractures in the Al-region via necking. Sticking of the Al-atoms to the metallic glass is observed in both the loading conditions. Also, multiple voids are nucleated at the interface.

  4. Reformation Capability of Short-Range Order and Their Medium-Range Connections Regulates Deformability of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Congling; Wei, Yujie; Shi, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) typically have high yield strength while low ductility, and the latter is commonly considered as the Achilles’ heel of MGs. Elucidate the mechanism for such low ductility becomes the research focus of this field. With molecular level simulations, we show the degree of short-range order (SRO) of atomic structure for brittle Fe-based glass decreases dramatically during the stretch, while mild change occurs in ductile Zr-based glass. The reformation capability for SRO and their medium-range connections is found to be the primary characteristics to differentiate the deformability between the two metallic glasses. We suspect that, in addition to the strength of networks formed by SRO structure, the reformation capability to reform SRO networks also plays the key role in regulating the ductility in metallic glasses. Our study provides important insights into the understanding about the mechanisms accounting for ductility or brittleness of bulk metallic glasses. PMID:26178316

  5. Optical properties of borotellurite glasses containing metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Nirmal; Khanna, Atul; Krishna, P. S. R.; González, Fernando

    2015-06-24

    Glass samples of the system: 5M{sub x}O{sub y}-20B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-75TeO{sub 2} : M{sub x}O{sub y} = WO{sub 3}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, PbO, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Glass transition temperature was maximum in borotellurite glass containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Refractive index, atomic polarizability and basicity increased in the following order of ions: Y{sup 3+} < Eu{sup 3+} < Pb{sup 2+} < Nd{sup 3+} < Nb{sup 3+} < W{sup 6+}. FTIR studies showed that PbO is outstanding in enhancing the concentration of tetrahedral borons in the borotellurite network.

  6. Single-particle dynamics near the glass transition of a metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y. J.; Wang, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    The single-particle dynamics of the glass-forming C u50Z r50 alloy, from the supercooled liquid well above the glass-transition temperature, Tg to the glassy state, is studied by using the molecular dynamics simulations. When the liquid is cooled below 1.2 Tg , the dynamics heterogeneity characterized by the cage-jump motion becomes increasingly pronounced. The analyses based on the continuous time random walk method indicate that the liquid falls out of equilibrium in the present simulation time scale when it is cooled into the regime below 1.02 Tg . However, we find that the jump length and the jump rate do not display the non-equilibrium behaviors even in the glassy state below Tg, which allows us to study the intrinsic dynamic characteristics through Tg. The mean waiting time between two successive jumps has a rapid growth following the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law as the non-equilibrium regime is approached, in analogy with the temperature behaviors of transport properties for fragile supercooled liquids. In contrast, the jump rate maintains the Arrhenius decay and the jump length has even a weaker temperature dependence when the liquid is cooled into glassy state. We find that a pronounced enhancement of the spatial correlation of jumps occurs accompanied by the glass transition: the string-like cooperative jumps dominate the fast motion instead of the uncorrelated and individual jumps. Our work offers an insight into the equilibrium effect of the single-particle dynamics in glass transition.

  7. The glass-forming ability of model metal-metalloid alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O’Hern, Corey S.

    2015-03-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys with desirable mechanical properties and processing capabilities. To date, the design of new BMGs has largely employed empirical rules and trial-and-error experimental approaches. Ab initio computational methods are currently prohibitively slow to be practically used in searching the vast space of possible atomic combinations for bulk glass formers. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained, anisotropic potential, which mimics interatomic covalent bonding, to measure the critical cooling rates for metal-metalloid alloys as a function of the atomic size ratio σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and number fraction x{sub S} of the metalloid species. We show that the regime in the space of σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and x{sub S} where well-mixed, optimal glass formers occur for patchy and LJ particle mixtures, coincides with that for experimentally observed metal-metalloid glass formers. Thus, our simple computational model provides the capability to perform combinatorial searches to identify novel glass-forming alloys.

  8. Wetting of bulk metallic glass forming liquids on metals and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shiyan; Kong, Jian; Schroers, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Contact wetting angle of Pd43Ni10Cu27P20, Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5, Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3, and Zr57Nb5Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10 bulk metallic glass forming alloys have been determined on materials that are used in micro and nano fabrication. Employing the sessile drop technique at a temperature above the corresponding melting temperatures, three kinds of wetting behaviors are observed, spanning from θ ≈ 140°, over neutral wetting, θ ≈ 80°, to almost complete wetting, θ < 5°. The origin for complete wetting is the formation of an interface phase promoting wetting. Estimations of the contact wetting angles are presented for temperatures in the supercooled liquid region where micro and nano fabrication is typically carried out. Consequences of the observed wetting behaviors for nanoforming are discussed.

  9. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  10. Hermetic Glass-To-Metal Seal For Instrumentation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed mounting scheme for optical element of instrumentation window in pressure vessel ensures truly hermetic seal while minimizing transmission of stress to optical element. Brazed metal seal superior to conventional gaskets of elastomer, carbon, asbestos, or other material compressed between optical element and wall of vessel. Concentric brazed joints in proposed seal bond metal ring to wall of vessel and to optical element. U-shaped cross section allows ring to flex under pressure.

  11. Relationship between structure, dynamics, and mechanical properties in metallic glass-forming alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Q.; Sheng, H. W.; Ma, E.

    2008-07-01

    Using Cu-Zr models, we demonstrate icosahedral ordering as a microscopic origin of the non-Arrhenius dynamical slowing down in metallic supercooled liquids. This correlation between the structural and dynamical heterogeneities underlies the evolution of the energy barrier for relaxation upon undercooling, as well as the eventual glass transition that leads to the formation of bulk metallic glasses (MGs). Our analysis of the energy barrier to plastic relaxation in MGs relates their macroscopic strength and plasticity to the local structures developed in the MGs. The structure-dynamics perspective explains not only the composition-dependent mechanical properties but also the known correlation between the strength of MGs and the glass transition temperature.

  12. Designing heavy metal oxide glasses with threshold properties from network rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Shibalik; Boolchand, P.; Malki, M.; Micoulaut, M.

    2014-01-07

    Here, we show that a new class of glasses composed of heavy metal oxides involving transition metals (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TeO{sub 2}) can surprisingly be designed from very basic tools using topology and rigidity of their underlying molecular networks. When investigated as a function of composition, such glasses display abrupt changes in network packing and enthalpy of relaxation at T{sub g}, underscoring presence of flexible to rigid elastic phase transitions. We find that these elastic phases are fully consistent with polaronic nature of electronic conductivity at high V{sub 2}O{sub 5} content. Such observations have new implications for designing electronic glasses which differ from the traditional amorphous electrolytes having only mobile ions as charge carriers.

  13. Rapid Relaxation and Embrittlement of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses by Electropulsing

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, P; Chen, Y. C.; Chu, J. P.; Chang, S Y; Bei, Hongbin; Jang, J. S.C.; Hsueh, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical relaxation and embrittlement of Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glasses were achieved rapidly by the direct current electropulsing treatment. The temperature profile was recorded by an infrared camera and it was found to be non-uniform in the treated specimen. Specifically, temperatures below the glass transition temperature, near and above the crystallization temperature could be ach- ieved, respectively, at different locations in the same treated specimen. Two sets of nanoindentation were conducted. While the first set investigated the mechanical properties of three individually elec- tropulsed specimens with different conditions, the second set indented a single treated specimen along its temperature gradient. Both sets of indentation revealed that by Joule heating to different tempera- tures, relaxation, embrittlement, and crystallization were significantly accelerated by electrical pulses. Results suggest that electropulsing provides an opportunity to simultaneously achieve plastic forming and mechanical property control of metallic glasses.

  14. Research of structure, mechanical and operation properties of glass-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, O. N.; Lyubimov, E. V.; Solonenko, E. P.; Morkovin, A. V.; Dryuk, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The technological bases for the creation of the new structural material—glass-metal composite—are explored in this paper. Properties of the new material: structure and properties of the contact zone of glass and steel, tensile strength under static and dynamic loading, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance under abrasive wear in the corrosive environment are theoretically and experimentally studied. The limit of thermal stability for experimental composite specimens equals 440°C. Corrosion tests show that the corrosion acceleration is the same for all composite specimens and does not depend on the solution concentration and the initial specimen weight. Steel specimens show significant changes in geometrical characteristics in comparison with composite specimens. Its prospect and ability to compete with steel is proved. The practical application is proposed for glass-metal composite rods.

  15. Structural origins of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in a metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Fujita, T.; Aji, D. P. B.; Matsuura, M.; Chen, M. W.

    2014-02-01

    Johari-Goldstein or β relaxation, persisting down to glassy state from a supercooled liquid, is a universal phenomenon of glassy dynamics. Nevertheless, the underlying micromechanisms leading to the relaxation are still in debate despite great efforts devoted to this problem for decades. Here we report experimental evidence on the structural origins of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in an ultra-quenched metallic glass. The measured activation energy of the relaxation (~26 times of the product of gas constant and glass transition temperature) is consistent with the dynamic characteristics of Johari-Goldstein relaxation. Synchrotron X-ray investigations demonstrate that the relaxation originates from short-range collective rearrangements of large solvent atoms, which can be realized by local cooperative bonding switch. Our observations provide experimental insights into the atomic mechanisms of Johari-Goldstein relaxation and will be helpful in understanding the low-temperature dynamics and properties of metallic glasses.

  16. Structural origins of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in a metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Fujita, T; Aji, D P B; Matsuura, M; Chen, M W

    2014-01-01

    Johari-Goldstein or β relaxation, persisting down to glassy state from a supercooled liquid, is a universal phenomenon of glassy dynamics. Nevertheless, the underlying micromechanisms leading to the relaxation are still in debate despite great efforts devoted to this problem for decades. Here we report experimental evidence on the structural origins of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in an ultra-quenched metallic glass. The measured activation energy of the relaxation (~26 times of the product of gas constant and glass transition temperature) is consistent with the dynamic characteristics of Johari-Goldstein relaxation. Synchrotron X-ray investigations demonstrate that the relaxation originates from short-range collective rearrangements of large solvent atoms, which can be realized by local cooperative bonding switch. Our observations provide experimental insights into the atomic mechanisms of Johari-Goldstein relaxation and will be helpful in understanding the low-temperature dynamics and properties of metallic glasses.

  17. Unique properties of CuZrAl bulk metallic glasses induced by microalloying

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-12-15

    We studied the glass forming abilities (GFA), mechanical, and physical properties of (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}X{sub 0.5} (X = La, Sm, Ce, Gd, Ho, Y, and Co) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). We find that the GFA, mechanical, and physical properties can be markedly changed and modulated by the minor rare earth addition. The Kondo screening effect is found to exist in (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}Ce{sub 0.5} BMG at low temperatures and the Schottky effect exists in all the rare earth element doped BMGs. Our results indicate that the minor addition is an effective way for modulating and getting desirable properties of the BMGs. The mechanisms of the effects of the addition are discussed. The results have implications for the exploration of metallic glasses and for improving the mechanical and low temperature physical properties of BMGs.

  18. Thermomechanical processing of metallic glasses: extending the range of the glassy state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yonghao; Concustell, Amadeu; Greer, A. Lindsay

    2016-09-01

    For crystalline metals, the science, technology and application of thermomechanical processing are established, but this is not true for glasses. Metallic glasses — because they can be plastically deformed — offer a unique opportunity to study the effects of thermomechanical treatments on the structure and properties of glasses. Depending on the rate of cooling, various glassy states can form from a liquid. Slower cooling gives states of lower enthalpy and smaller volume; such states might also be reached by annealing, which induces structural ‘relaxation’. A reduction in the degree of relaxation, or ‘rejuvenation’, is achievable through processes such as irradiation and mechanical deformation. In this Review, we explore the extent of relaxation and rejuvenation induced by thermomechanical processing (that is, elastic and plastic deformation, including cold and hot working, and cyclic loading). The issues that remain to be investigated and the prospects for further progress are discussed.

  19. Interactions at glass-ceramic to metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.; Loehman, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced pyrotechnic components can be fabricated from Ni-based superalloys with hermetic seals to high expansion lithium-silicate glass ceramics (LSGC). Prior studies have characterized the interfacial reactions in these systems necessary for good chemical bonding. Similar reactions occur when LSGCs are bonded to 300-series stainless steel except that these seals debond on cooling to room temperature. Cr-depletion (from {approximately}18 wt % to {approximately}5 wt %) from the steel interface cases an fcc-to-bcc phase transition that expands the interfacial grains and decreases their thermal expansion coefficient, putting the LSGC into tension, causing the seal to fail. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An Assessment of Binary Metallic Glasses: Correlations Between Structure, Glass Forming Ability and Stability (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    metals, lanthanides and actinide elements . Other metal elements include Al, Ga, Sn and Pb. Nearly all of the metalloids, including B, Si, Ge, As, Sb...PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel B. Miracle (AFRL/RXLMD) Dmitri...melting weight of the elements measured compositions are rarely reported. Measured weight loss is sometimes given, and this data supports reporting

  1. An Assessment of Binary Metallic Glasses: Correlations Between Structure, Glass Forming Ability and Stability (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    elements (Figure 2). Solutes or solvents are taken from alkaline earth metals, early and late transition metals, lanthanides and actinide elements ...CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) D.B. Miracle (AFRL/RXLM) Dmitri Louzguine-Luzgin...compositions given by the pre-melting weight of the elements − measured compositions are rarely reported. Measured weight loss is sometimes given, and

  2. A Highly Efficient and Self-Stabilizing Metallic-Glass Catalyst for Electrochemical Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan Chao; Wang, Yi Zhi; Su, Rui; Cao, Cheng Rong; Li, Fan; Sun, Chun Wen; Yang, Yong; Guan, Peng Fei; Ding, Da Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Wang, Wei Hua

    2016-12-01

    A multicomponent metallic glass (MG) with highly efficient and anomalous durability for catalyzing water splitting is reported. The outstanding performance of the MG catalyst contributed by self-optimized active sites originates from the intrinsic chemical heterogeneity and selective dealloying on the disordered surface; thus, a new mechanism for improving the durability of catalysts is uncovered.

  3. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  4. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-23

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294-328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  5. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kinser, Emily; Liu, Yanhui; Tong, Xiao; Osuji, Chinedum; Schroers, Jan; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Taylor, Andre D.

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  6. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294–328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  7. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature.

  8. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294–328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:26902824

  9. Icositetrahedral and icosahedral atomic configurations observed in the Nb-Ag metallic glasses synthesized by ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, K. P.; Gao, N.; Dai, X. D.; Li, J. H.; Lai, W. S.; Liu, B. X.

    2006-08-28

    Metallic glasses are obtained in an immiscible Nb-Ag system by ion beam mixing and an atomic configuration in the amorphous structure is discovered, i.e., an icositetrahedral ordering, which, together with an icosahedral ordering also observed in the Nb-Ag metallic glasses and in some previously reported systems, helps in formulating a structural spectrum of the amorphous solids. The experimental characterization and atomistic modeling with an ab initio derived Nb-Ag potential demonstrate the significance of structural heredity, i.e., the crystalline structures of the constituent metals play a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the metallic glasses in the system.

  10. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Sathish, K; Thirumaran, S

    2015-08-05

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V₂O₅-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) VBS glass system and (x%MnO₂-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x=3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V₂O₅ doped glass system,(VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO₂ doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V₂O₅ with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO₂. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO₃ or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na₂CO₃, V₂O₅ and MnO₂ contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs.

  11. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, K.; Thirumaran, S.

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V2O5-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) VBS glass system and (x% MnO2-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V2O5 doped glass system, (VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO2 doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V2O5 with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO2. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO3 or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na2CO3, V2O5 and MnO2 contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs.

  12. Effect of mixed transition metal ions on DC conductivity in lithium bismuth borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S.; Yadav, Arti Dahiya, M. S.; Seema,; Ashima; Agarwal, A.

    2015-06-24

    The DC conductivities of glasses having composition x(2NiO·V{sub 2}O{sub 5})·(30-x)Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (with x=0, 2, 5, 7 and 10, i.e. NVLBB glasses) and glass samples having composition 7NiO·23 Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 7V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·23Li{sub 2}O·20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NLBB and VLBB respectively) are investigated as a function of temperature. Conductivity for glasses containing higher percentage of lithium ions is predominantly ionic and in glasses containing higher percentage of transition metal (TM) ions is predominantly electronic. The observed increase in conductivity with x and peak-like behavior at x=7 in NVLBB glasses due to competitive transport of small polaron contributing to a significant structural change in NVLBB glasses. Variation of molar volume and density was also observed with x. In NVLBB glasses, as x increases density increases except a slight decrease at x=7. Also density increases in NLBB whereas in case of VLBB it decreases in comparison to NVLBB1 glass composition. Mott’s small polaron hopping (SPH) model has been applied to analyze the high temperature conductivity data and activation energy.

  13. Short-pulse laser formation of monatomic metallic glass in tantalum nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Sun, Zheng; Shen, Yaogen

    2017-01-01

    The short-pulse laser heating of a tantalum nanowire is simulated by a hybrid method coupling the two-temperature model into the molecular dynamics. It is shown that the monatomic metallic glasses can be formed by short-pulse lasers. The critical cooling rate for vitrifying the pure metallic liquids in tantalum nanowire is estimated to be on the order of 1013 K s-1. Further simulations with different laser parameters and heated spot size are performed, demonstrating that the short-pulse laser quenching is a robust and promising alternative to the vitrification of monatomic metallic liquids into glassy state.

  14. Platinum group metal particles aggregation in nuclear glass melts under the effect of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanotin, Caroline; Puig, Jean; Neyret, Muriel; Marchal, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The viscosity of simulated high level radioactive waste glasses containing platinum group metal particles is studied over a wide range of shear stress, as a function of the particles content and the temperature, thanks to a stress imposed rheometer, coupled to a high-temperature furnace. The system shows a very shear thinning behavior. At high shear rate, the system behaves as a suspension of small clusters and individual particles and is entirely controlled by the viscosity of the glass matrix as classical suspensions. At low shear rate, above a certain fraction in platinum group metal particles, the apparition of macroscopic aggregates made up of chains of RuO2 particles separated by thin layers of glass matrix strongly influences the viscosity of the nuclear glass and leads, in particular, to the apparition of yield stress and thixotropic effects. The maximum size of these clusters as well as their effective volume fraction have been estimated by a balance between Van der Waals attractive forces and hydrodynamic forces due to shear flow. We showed experimentally and theoretically that this aggregation phenomenon is favored by an increase of the temperature, owing to the viscosity decrease of the glass matrix, leading to an unusual increase of the suspension viscosity.

  15. Properties of high-density, well-ordered, and high-energy metallic glass phase designed by pressurized quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Narumasa; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Wakeda, Masato; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2016-08-01

    We applied gigapascal-level compressive hydrostatic pressure to the melt-quenching process of metallic glass to obtain a unique high-pressure glass state with high density that is well-ordered yet has high energy. This state contradicts the common understanding that high-density, well-ordered metallic glass states have low energy. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the high-pressure glass state of the metallic glass Zr50Cu40Al10 has a rich anti-free volume and that its relaxation is dominated by the annihilation of full icosahedra and the rich anti-free volume. The aging rate of the high-pressure metallic glass state (energy reduction rate) is almost the same as that of typical high-energy metallic glass, suggesting that it has a lifetime similar to that of a typical high-energy metallic glass that has been experimentally realized and reported previously [Wakeda et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 10545 (2015)]. Thus, the high-pressure phase can be realized even under the experimental cooling rate, suggesting its suitability for practical applications.

  16. Conversion of ion-exchange resins, catalysts and sludges to glass with optional noble metal recovery using the GMODS process

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Chemical processing and cleanup of waste streams (air and water) typically result in products, clean air, clean water, and concentrated hazardous residues (ion exchange resins, catalysts, sludges, etc.). Typically, these streams contain significant quantities of complex organics. For disposal, it is desirable to destroy the organics and immobilize any heavy metals or radioactive components into stable waste forms. If there are noble metals in the residues, it is desirable to recover these for reuse. The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) is a new process that directly converts radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes to borosilicate glass. GMODS oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; converts halides (eg chlorides) to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium halide stream; and recovers noble metals. GMODS has been demonstrated on a small laboratory scale (hundreds of grams), and the equipment needed for larger masses has been identified.

  17. Revealing the connection between the slow β relaxation and sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Yue, Yuanzheng; Hu, Lina

    2016-12-01

    We report a new approach, i.e., the hyperquenching-calorimetric approach, by which the activation energy of slow β relaxation (Eβ) in metallic glasses can be determined. This method is based on the correlations among the kinetic liquid fragility index (m), the glass transition temperature (Tg), the characteristic fictive temperature (Tf,c), and the activation energy for sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation. Tf,c is the temperature at which Eβ is equal to the activation energy of the onset of the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation of metallic glasses. The linear Tf,c/Tg ˜ m relation is attributed to the link between the contribution of the slow β relaxation to the entire relaxation process and the liquid fragility for metallic glasses. This relation is explained in terms of the potential energy landscape. The new approach reveals the inherent relation between the slow β relaxation and sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in metallic glasses.

  18. Onset of Cooperative Dynamics in an Equilibrium Glass-Forming Metallic Liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; O’Keeffe, Stephanie; Mills, Rebecca; ...

    2016-01-22

    Onset of cooperative dynamics has been observed in many molecular liquids, colloids, and granular materials in the metastable regime on approaching their respective glass or jamming transition points, and is considered to play a significant role in the emergence of the slow dynamics. However, the nature of such dynamical cooperativity remains elusive in multicomponent metallic liquids characterized by complex many-body interactions and high mixing entropy. Herein, we report evidence of onset of cooperative dynamics in an equilibrium glass-forming metallic liquid (LM601: Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9). This is revealed by deviation of the mean effective diffusion coefficient from its high-temperature Arrhenius behavior below TAmore » ≈ 1300 K, i.e., a crossover from uncorrelated dynamics above TA to landscape-influenced correlated dynamics below TA. Moreover, the onset/ crossover temperature TA in such a multicomponent bulk metallic glass-forming liquid is observed at approximately twice of its calorimetric glass transition temperature (Tg ≈ 697 K) and in its stable liquid phase, unlike many molecular liquids.« less

  19. Environmental impact of metal and metalloid leaching from highway marking glass beads.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nimrat K; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Coolahan, Kelsey

    2013-05-07

    Recently, metals and metalloids have been observed at elevated concentrations in glass beads imported to the US. Average total concentrations in imported batches ranged from 103 to 683 mg kg(-1) for As, 62 to 187 mg kg(-1) for Sb, and 23 to 179 mg kg(-1) for Pb. The labile fraction associated with the glass beads resulted in leached concentrations as great as 538 μg L(-1) for As, 1092 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 160 μg L(-1) for Sb. Sequential extraction was conducted as well to better understand the form of metals and metalloids associated with the glass beads. Only 0.23% of As, 3.40% of Pb, 2.37% of Ba, and 1.92% of Mn were extracted in the exchangeable (As, Mn, and Ba) and the oxidizable forms (Pb), whereas greater than 97% of metals and metalloids present were associated with the glass matrix. Nonparametric statistics were applied to test total concentrations that resulted in exceedances in the groundwater quality criteria. Results demonstrated that the As, Pb, and Sb limits were exceeded for 98%, 58%, and 15% of the samples tested respectively suggesting a potential environmental impact to groundwater used as a drinking water source.

  20. Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Cid Bartolomeu; Silvério da Silva, Diego; Alves de Assumpção, Thiago Alexandre; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Mariano da Silva, Davinson

    2013-01-01

    Germanium- and tellurium-based glasses have been largely studied due to their recognized potential for photonics. In this paper, we review our recent studies that include the investigation of the Stokes and anti-Stokes photoluminescence (PL) in different glass systems containing metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). In the case of the samples with metallic NPs, the enhanced PL was attributed to the increased local field on the rare-earth ions located in the proximity of the NPs and/or the energy transfer from the metallic NPs to the rare-earth ions. For the glasses containing silicon NPs, the PL enhancement was mainly due to the energy transfer from the NPs to the Er(3+) ions. The nonlinear (NL) optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold NPs were also investigated. The experiments in the pico- and subpicosecond regimes revealed enhanced values of the NL refractive indices and large NL absorption coefficients in comparison with the films without gold NPs. The reported experiments demonstrate that germanate and tellurite glasses, having appropriate rare-earth ions doping and NPs concentration, are strong candidates for PL-based devices, all-optical switches, and optical limiting.

  1. Onset of Cooperative Dynamics in an Equilibrium Glass-Forming Metallic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; O’Keeffe, Stephanie; Mills, Rebecca; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; Stevick, Joseph; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-22

    Onset of cooperative dynamics has been observed in many molecular liquids, colloids, and granular materials in the metastable regime on approaching their respective glass or jamming transition points, and is considered to play a significant role in the emergence of the slow dynamics. However, the nature of such dynamical cooperativity remains elusive in multicomponent metallic liquids characterized by complex many-body interactions and high mixing entropy. Herein, we report evidence of onset of cooperative dynamics in an equilibrium glass-forming metallic liquid (LM601: Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9). This is revealed by deviation of the mean effective diffusion coefficient from its high-temperature Arrhenius behavior below TA ≈ 1300 K, i.e., a crossover from uncorrelated dynamics above TA to landscape-influenced correlated dynamics below TA. Moreover, the onset/ crossover temperature TA in such a multicomponent bulk metallic glass-forming liquid is observed at approximately twice of its calorimetric glass transition temperature (Tg ≈ 697 K) and in its stable liquid phase, unlike many molecular liquids.

  2. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Yong -Wei; Mao, Wendy L.; Greer, Julia R.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.

  3. Deformation in metallic glasses studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, Wojciech; Egami, Takeshi; Tong, Yang

    2016-01-11

    In this study, high mechanical strength is one of the superior properties of metallic glasses which render them promising as a structural material. However, understanding the process of mechanical deformation in strongly disordered matter, such as metallic glass, is exceedingly difficult because even an effort to describe the structure qualitatively is hampered by the absence of crystalline periodicity. In spite of such challenges, we demonstrate that high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement under stress, using a two-dimensional detector coupled with the anisotropic pair-density function (PDF) analysis, has greatly facilitated the effort of unraveling complex atomic rearrangements involved in the elastic, anelastic, and plastic deformation of metallic glasses. Even though PDF only provides information on the correlation between two atoms and not on many-body correlations, which are often necessary in elucidating various properties, by using stress as means of exciting the system we can garner rich information on the nature of the atomic structure and local atomic rearrangements during deformation in glasses.

  4. Deformation in metallic glasses studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Dmowski, Wojciech; Egami, Takeshi; Tong, Yang

    2016-01-11

    In this study, high mechanical strength is one of the superior properties of metallic glasses which render them promising as a structural material. However, understanding the process of mechanical deformation in strongly disordered matter, such as metallic glass, is exceedingly difficult because even an effort to describe the structure qualitatively is hampered by the absence of crystalline periodicity. In spite of such challenges, we demonstrate that high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement under stress, using a two-dimensional detector coupled with the anisotropic pair-density function (PDF) analysis, has greatly facilitated the effort of unraveling complex atomic rearrangements involved in the elastic, anelastic,more » and plastic deformation of metallic glasses. Even though PDF only provides information on the correlation between two atoms and not on many-body correlations, which are often necessary in elucidating various properties, by using stress as means of exciting the system we can garner rich information on the nature of the atomic structure and local atomic rearrangements during deformation in glasses.« less

  5. Effect of temperature and magnetic field on magnetomechanical damping of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrens-Serra, J.; Solivelles, F.; Corró, M. L.; Stoica, M.; Kustov, S.

    2016-12-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetomechanical damping (MMD) of two ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with different Curie temperatures, T C, have been studied over a broad temperature interval from the para-ferromagnetic transition down to 15 K. The damping has been scanned under periodic magnetic field at certain preselected temperatures in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. The selection of bulk metallic glasses for investigations allowed us to eliminate all dislocation-related anelastic effects and facilitated separation of the MMD components. Under zero field, the non-linear MMD emerges at T C and first increases linearly with (T C  -  T), then levels off until a maximum is formed at around 36 K. At lower temperatures, the magnetic domain wall related non-linear MMD component is partially or completely supressed, depending on the alloy composition. Qualitatively similar anomaly is found in the temperature dependence of the linear macroeddy current damping. These anomalies in the temperature spectra are concomitant with the emergence of a notable hysteresis in MMD versus periodic field dependences and of a maximum of non-linear MMD close to the position of the macroeddy damping peak. The uncovered phenomena are attributed to abrupt change of magnetic properties of ferromagnetic bulk metallic glasses at low temperatures, presumably due to the re-entrant spin glass transition.

  6. Volcanic Coatings on Picritic Apollo 17 Glasses; Submicrometer-Deposits of Fe-CR-Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, K.; Clementt, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of our ongoing investigations of Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange and black volcanic glasses are threefold: first, to increase our understanding of the volcanic origin of the glasses; second, to determine the nature of the coating materials deposited on the glasses during their cooling in the volcanic environment; and, third, to help determine the nature of the gases involved in the volcanic fire-fountaining that occurred at approximately 3.5 Ga on the moon. We are continuing studies of coatings on volcanic glasses using analytical techniques not available when these glasses were originally studied; these include high-resolution FE-TEM and X-ray mapping, along with other highly detailed methods including TEM electron diffraction analysis. Initial studies of Apollo 15 green volcanic glasses using the techniques described above revealed for the first time the presence of areas containing distinct layering of volcanic surface deposits. S was associated with some of the inner layer of metallic Fe but was absent from the outer layer. Zn was associated with S in some places in the inner layer. An example of a typical spherule used for this study is shown in Fig. 1. It is a black (quench-crystallized) bead from near the bottom of the 74001/2 double drive tube; black beads such as this one are essentially identical in composition to the orange (uncrystallized) beads of the 74001/2 core.

  7. Hybrid glasses from strong and fragile metal-organic framework liquids

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Thomas D.; Tan, Jin-Chong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Baxter, Emma; Ducati, Caterina; Terrill, Nick J.; Yeung, Hamish H. -M.; Zhou, Zhongfu; Chen, Wenlin; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Greaves, G. Neville

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship between amorphization and melting has so far not been investigated. Here we show how heating MOFs of zeolitic topology first results in a low density ‘perfect' glass, similar to those formed in ice, silicon and disaccharides. This order–order transition leads to a super-strong liquid of low fragility that dynamically controls collapse, before a subsequent order–disorder transition, which creates a more fragile high-density liquid. After crystallization to a dense phase, which can be remelted, subsequent quenching results in a bulk glass, virtually identical to the high-density phase. We provide evidence that the wide-ranging melting temperatures of zeolitic MOFs are related to their network topologies and opens up the possibility of ‘melt-casting' MOF glasses. PMID:26314784

  8. Direct measurement of the kinetics of volume and enthalpy relaxation of an Au-based bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bünz, J.; Wilde, G.

    2013-12-14

    Structural relaxation of glasses below their glass transition is a well-studied phenomenon that still poses several open issues. With the advent of bulk metallic glasses with exceptionally low glass transition temperatures, new options are available that are based on the experimental assessment of the time dependence of several different thermodynamic quantities by direct measurements with high accuracy. In this contribution the first direct measurement of the isothermal relaxation of the volume and the enthalpy of an Au-based bulk metallic glassformer are reported and discussed with respect of the characteristics describing the underlying processes.

  9. Local Atomic Structure of Ca-Mg-Zn Metallic Glasses (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-16

    cluster packing ECP model of amor - phous structure,20 the Ca-Mg-Zn ternary glasses are repre- sented as 10,9 efficient cluster packing structures...diffraction data as the basis on which to model the amor - phous structure of a series of ternary Ca60MgXZn40−X X =10,15,20,25 at. % metallic glasses using...Reverse Monte Carlo RMC methods. The effect of alloy composition on the structure and GFA is examined and the average amor - phous structure identified

  10. Deformation behavior of bulk and nanostructured metallic glasses studied via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şopu, D.; Ritter, Y.; Gleiter, H.; Albe, K.

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we characterize the mechanical properties of Cu64Zr36 nanoglasses under tensile load by means of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and compare the deformation behavior to the case of a homogeneous bulk glass. The simulations reveal that interfaces act as precursors for the formation of multiple shear bands. In contrast, a bulk metallic glass under uniaxial tension shows inhomogeneous plastic flow confined in one dominant shear band. The results suggest that controlling the microstructure of a nanoglass can pave the way for tuning the mechanical properties of glassy materials.

  11. Macroscopic thermoplastic model applied to the high pressure torsion of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hobor, Sandor; Revesz, Adam; Kovacs, Zsolt

    2009-07-15

    Shear deformation generated temperature rise in metallic glasses is estimated in a macroscopic three-dimensional axial symmetric thermoplastic model. Numerical solution of heat-conduction equation provides the time evolution and spatial distribution of temperature for high pressure torsion in the present paper. We have shown that small sample thickness and/or high deformation rate enables the temperature to exceed the glass transition in the entire sample, yielding a transition of the deformation mode from inhomogeneous to homogeneous viscous flow. However, in other cases only a small temperature increase is predicted in line with literature data.

  12. Characterization & Modeling of Materials in Glass-To-Metal Seals: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M.; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.

    2014-01-01

    To support higher fidelity modeling of residual stresses in glass-to-metal (GTM) seals and to demonstrate the accuracy of finite element analysis predictions, characterization and validation data have been collected for Sandia’s commonly used compression seal materials. The temperature dependence of the storage moduli, the shear relaxation modulus master curve and structural relaxation of the Schott 8061 glass were measured and stress-strain curves were generated for SS304L VAR in small strain regimes typical of GTM seal applications spanning temperatures from 20 to 500 C. Material models were calibrated and finite element predictions are being compared to measured data to assess the accuracy of predictions.

  13. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    PubMed Central

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites. PMID:26348691

  14. Impact of ion irradiation on the thermal, structural, and mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, S.G.

    2005-04-01

    The impact of ion-beam irradiation on the thermal, structural, and mechanical properties of metallic glasses is investigated using the model glass, CuTi, in molecular dynamics computer simulations. It is found that ion-beam bombardment successively modifies the compositional and structural order toward a universal steady state, which proves to be independent of the initial relaxation state and thermal history of the unirradiated sample. This is reflected by key materials properties, including enthalpy, structural and compositional short-range order, as well as Young's modulus and fracture behavior. The results are interpreted within the framework of competing dynamics, where radiation-induced plastic relaxation counteracts ion-beam disordering.

  15. Fracture Morphology and Local Deformation Characteristics in the Metallic Glass Matrix Composite Under Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Sun, X. H.; Hao, G. J.; Guo, Z. X.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, J. P.; Sui, M. L.; Qiao, J. W.

    2017-04-01

    Fracture and deformation characteristics of the Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite have been studied by the tensile test and the in situ TEM tension test. Typically, the composite exhibits the high strength and considerable plasticity. Microscopically, it was found that shear deformation zone formed at the crack tip in glass phase, which can bring about quick propagation of shear bands. However, the plastic deformation zone nearby the crack tip in dendrites will postpone or retard the crack extension by dislocations. The attributions of micro-deformations to mechanical properties of composites were discussed.

  16. In-situ atomic force microscopy observation revealing gel-like plasticity on a metallic glass surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. M.; Zeng, J. F.; Huang, J. C.; Kuan, S. Y.; Nieh, T. G.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2017-03-01

    It has been decade-long and enduring efforts to decipher the structural mechanism of plasticity in metallic glasses; however, it still remains a challenge to directly reveal the structural change, if any, that precedes; and dominant plastics flow in them. Here, by using the dynamic atomic force microscope as an "imaging" as well as a "forcing" tool, we unfold a real-time sequence of structural evolution occurring on the surface of an Au-Si thin film metallic glass. In sharp contrast to the common notion that plasticity comes along with mechanical softening in bulk metallic glasses, our experimental results directly reveal three types of nano-sized surface regions, which undergo plasticity but exhibit different characters of structural evolution following the local plasticity events, including stochastic structural rearrangement, unusual local relaxation and rejuvenation. As such, yielding on the metallic-glass surface manifests as a dynamic equilibrium between local relaxation and rejuvenation as opposed to shear instability in bulk metallic-glasses. Our finding demonstrates that plasticity on the metallic glass surface of Au-Si metallic glass bears much resemblance to that of the colloidal gels, of which nonlinear rheology rather than shear instability governs the constitutive behavior of plasticity.

  17. Compositional landscape for glass formation in metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Na, Jong Hyun; Demetriou, Marios D; Floyd, Michael; Hoff, Andrew; Garrett, Glenn R; Johnson, William L

    2014-06-24

    A high-resolution compositional map of glass-forming ability (GFA) in the Ni-Cr-Nb-P-B system is experimentally determined along various compositional planes. GFA is shown to be a piecewise continuous function formed by intersecting compositional subsurfaces, each associated with a nucleation pathway for a specific crystalline phase. Within each subsurface, GFA varies exponentially with composition, wheres exponential cusps in GFA are observed when crossing from one crystallization pathway to another. The overall GFA is shown to peak at multiple exponential hypercusps that are interconnected by ridges. At these compositions, quenching from the high-temperature melt yields glassy rods with diameters exceeding 1 cm, whereas for compositions far from these cusps the critical rod diameter drops precipitously and levels off to 1 to 2 mm. The compositional landscape of GFA is shown to arise primarily from an interplay between the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal nucleation, or more precisely, from a competition between driving force for crystallization and liquid fragility.

  18. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  19. Commercial production of heavy metal fluoride glass fiber in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  20. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass and metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed composites, which have good oxidation-resistance and self-lubricating characteritics to 900 C, were developed. The composites are a nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication; they are applied to bearing surfaces by plasma spraying layers about 0.050 centimeters thick which are then machined to 0.025 centimeters. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 3.5 x 10 to the 7th power N/sq M (5000 psi) and a thrust load of 1960N (440 lbs). Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated, bearing temperatures cycles between 25 and 900 C.

  1. Formation and atomic configuration of binary metallic glasses studied by ion beam mixing and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, K. P.; Gao, N.; Dai, X. D.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2007-06-15

    Metallic glasses are obtained in an immiscible Ag-Nb system with overall composition ranging from 25 to 90 at. % of Nb by ion beam mixing. Interestingly, the diffraction analysis shows that the formed Nb-rich metallic glass features are two distinct atomic configurations. In atomistic modeling, an n-body Ag-Nb potential is derived, under the assistance of ab initio calculation, and then applied in molecular dynamics simulations. An atomic configuration is discovered, i.e., an icositetrahedral ordering, and as well as an icosahedral ordering observed in the Ag-Nb metallic glasses and in some previously reported systems. Simulations confirm that the two dominate local atomic packing units are formed through a structural phase transition from the Nb-based bcc and fcc solid solutions, respectively, suggesting a concept of structural heredity that the crystalline structure of the constituent metals play a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the resultant metallic glasses.

  2. Microscale Mechanical Deformation Behaviors and Mechanisms in Bulk Metallic Glasses Investigated with Micropillar Compression Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jianchao

    2011-12-01

    Over the past years of my PhD study, the focused-ion-beam (FIB) based microcompression experiment has been thoroughly investigated with respect to the small-scale deformation in metallic glasses. It was then utilized to explore the elastic and plastic deformation mechanisms in metallic glasses. To this end, micropillars with varying sample sizes and aspect ratios were fabricated by the FIB technique and subsequently compressed on a modified nanoindentation system. An improved formula for the measurement of the Young's modulus was derived by adding a geometrical prefactor to the Sneddon's solution. Through the formula, geometry-independent Young's moduli were extracted from microcompression experiments, which are consistent with nanoindentation results. Furthermore, cyclic microcompression was developed, which revealed reversible inelastic deformation in the apparent elastic regime through high-frequency cyclic loading. The reversible inelastic deformation manifests as hysteric loops in cyclic microcompression and can be captured by the Kelvin-type viscoelastic model. The experimental results indicate that the free-volume zones behave essentially like supercooled liquids with an effective viscosity on the order of 1 x 108 Pas. The microscopic yield strengths were first extracted with a formula derived based on the Mohr-Coulomb law to account for the geometrical effects from the tapered micropillar and the results showed a weak size effect on the yield strengths of a variety of metallic-glass alloys, which can be attributed to Weibull statistics. The nature of the yielding phenomenon was explored with the cyclic micro-compression approach. Through cyclic microcompression of a Zr-based metallic glass, it can be demonstrated that its yielding stress increases at higher applied stress rate but its yielding strain is kept at a constant of ~ 2%. The room-temperature post-yielding deformation behavior of metallic glasses is characterized by flow serrations, which were

  3. Thermal and fragility aspects of microwave synthesized glasses containing transition metal ions and heavy metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka, C.; Viswanatha, R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-08-01

    A simple, clean and energy efficient microwave heating route is used to prepare glasses in the systems xMnO-33(0.09PbCl2:0.91PbO)-(67-x) NaPO3 and xPbCl2-33PbO-(67-x) NaPO3 where 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 4 (mol%). Thermal data extracted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms are used to study the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg), heat capacity, thermal stability and fragility. The decrease in glass transition temperature with modifier oxide (Na2O + MnO) content can be ascribed to network degradation and the volume increasing effect caused by PbCl2. The change in heat capacity of MnPb glass being greater than that of PbNP glass, suggests that MnPb glasses are more covalent than PbNP glasses. DSC thermograms taken at different heating rates (φ) reveal the dependence of Tg on φ, and the thermal stability of the glass increases due to MnO addition. Fragility aspects have also been studied by calculating the fragility functions ( Δ{C}_{p}/C_{pl} and [ NBO ]/V_{m}3 T_{g}. Results obtained from both the fragility functions compare well and reveal the dependence of fragility functions on modifier content and PbCl2 mol%. Further, the decrease in Tg and Hv are suggested to be due to the increase in the number of non-bridging oxygens, which results in the lowering of stiffness and rigidity of the glass network. Analysis of the infrared spectra confirms that the glassy matrix is composed of P-O-P, P-O-Pb, P=O and P-O- bonding.

  4. Thermal and fragility aspects of microwave synthesized glasses containing transition metal ions and heavy metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka, C.; Viswanatha, R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2017-02-01

    A simple, clean and energy efficient microwave heating route is used to prepare glasses in the systems xMnO-33(0.09PbCl2:0.91PbO)-(67-x) NaPO3 and xPbCl2-33PbO-(67-x) NaPO3 where 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 4 (mol%). Thermal data extracted from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms are used to study the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg), heat capacity, thermal stability and fragility. The decrease in glass transition temperature with modifier oxide (Na2O + MnO) content can be ascribed to network degradation and the volume increasing effect caused by PbCl2. The change in heat capacity of MnPb glass being greater than that of PbNP glass, suggests that MnPb glasses are more covalent than PbNP glasses. DSC thermograms taken at different heating rates (φ) reveal the dependence of Tg on φ, and the thermal stability of the glass increases due to MnO addition. Fragility aspects have also been studied by calculating the fragility functions ( {{Δ {{C}}_{{p}} }/{{{C}_{{pl}} }}{{and}}{[ {{NBO}} ]}/{{{V}_{{m}}3 {{T}}_{{g}} }}} ). Results obtained from both the fragility functions compare well and reveal the dependence of fragility functions on modifier content and PbCl2 mol%. Further, the decrease in Tg and Hv are suggested to be due to the increase in the number of non-bridging oxygens, which results in the lowering of stiffness and rigidity of the glass network. Analysis of the infrared spectra confirms that the glassy matrix is composed of P-O-P, P-O-Pb, P=O and P-O- bonding.

  5. Pressure effects on structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Guan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yong; Bai, Hai-Yang; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Although the structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquids have been extensively investigated, studies of the pressure effects are rare. In the present study, the structural and dynamical properties of a ternary metallic liquid are systematically studied via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly show that, like isobaric cooling, isothermal compression could also slow down the dynamics of metallic liquid, leading to glass formation. However, the temperature- and pressure-induced glass transitions differ in the formation of local coordination structures and the variation of fragility. The increase of the kinetic fragility with increasing pressure is also accompanied by a monotonic structural fragility change. These findings may suggest a link between dynamics and structure. In addition, with increasing pressure, the dynamics becomes more heterogeneous, as revealed by the non-Gaussian parameter and dynamic correlation length. Here the length scales of both slow and fast domains are examined and discussed by analyzing the four-point dynamic structure factor associated with spatial correlations of atomic mobility. These correlation lengths coexist in the metallic liquids and grow comparatively in the considered temperature and pressure ranges. Finally, the scaling relation between the relaxation times and correlation lengths is discussed, which is found to be consistent with the spirit of Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories.

  6. Pressure effects on structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Chao; Guan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yong; Bai, Hai-Yang; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2017-01-14

    Although the structure and dynamics of metallic glass-forming liquids have been extensively investigated, studies of the pressure effects are rare. In the present study, the structural and dynamical properties of a ternary metallic liquid are systematically studied via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly show that, like isobaric cooling, isothermal compression could also slow down the dynamics of metallic liquid, leading to glass formation. However, the temperature- and pressure-induced glass transitions differ in the formation of local coordination structures and the variation of fragility. The increase of the kinetic fragility with increasing pressure is also accompanied by a monotonic structural fragility change. These findings may suggest a link between dynamics and structure. In addition, with increasing pressure, the dynamics becomes more heterogeneous, as revealed by the non-Gaussian parameter and dynamic correlation length. Here the length scales of both slow and fast domains are examined and discussed by analyzing the four-point dynamic structure factor associated with spatial correlations of atomic mobility. These correlation lengths coexist in the metallic liquids and grow comparatively in the considered temperature and pressure ranges. Finally, the scaling relation between the relaxation times and correlation lengths is discussed, which is found to be consistent with the spirit of Adam-Gibbs and random first-order transition theories.

  7. Glass formation and cluster evolution in the rapidly solidified monatomic metallic liquid Ta under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Wen, Dadong; Tian, Zean; Liu, Rangsu

    2016-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to examine the glass formation and cluster evolution during the rapid solidification of monatomic metallic liquid Ta under high pressure. The atomic structures in the systems are characterized by the radical distribution function (RDF), Honeycutt-Anderson (H-A) bond-type index method and cluster-type index method (CTIM). It is observed that the defective icosahedra play the critical role in the formation of Ta monatomic metallic glasses (MGs) rather than (12 0 12 0) perfect icosahedra, which have been identified as the basic local atomic units in many multi-component MGs. With the increase of pressure P, the fraction of icosahedral type clusters decreases remarkably in Ta MGs, while the fraction of bcc type clusters rises evidently. The evolution of vitrification degree (DSRO or DMRO) of the rapidly cooled metal Ta system further reveals that a higher pressure P is disadvantageous to the formation of Ta monatomic MGs. The weaker glass forming ability (GFA) of liquid metal Ta obtained under higher pressure P can be contributed to the decrease of DSRO or DMRO which is induced by increasing high pressure P to some extent.

  8. Relationships between Electronic Structure and Stability of Metallic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    the experimental reflectance and transmittance values) for three consecutive values of the frequency LJi-l, o~i, LOi +I . If we assui.e that the A and...12. T. MATSUDA and U. MIZUTANI, in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Rapidly Quenched Metals (Sendai, 1981) p. 1315. 13. J.J. HAUSER and J. TAUC , Phys. Rev. B...N.SAKAI, H. SEKIZAWA and T. MIZOGUCHI, J. Phys. ’ Soc. Japan 50, 828 (1981). 27. E. HAUSER, R.J. ZIRCKE, J. TAUC , J.J. HAUSER and S.R. NAGEL, Phys. Rev

  9. Predicting the Glass-Forming-Ability of Alloys by Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A Working Example of Ti-Co Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Su-Wen; Yang, Ke-Chin; Wang, Shuo-Hong; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Pee-Yew; Huang, Rong-Tan; Chin, Tsung-Shune

    2009-06-01

    Predicting the glass-forming-ability (GFA) of alloys before experimental trials has long been a pursuit in the exploration of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Researchers can determine GFA criteria, such as reduced glass-transition temperature (Trg) and gamma factor concluded only from experimental data in prepared amorphous metals, but not beforehand. This study predicts the GFA of binary TixCo100-x system, where x = 60, 70, 77 and 84 (hyper-eutectic, eutectic to hypo-eutectic compositions) by calculating their Trg using molecular dynamics simulation with modified tight-binding potentials. The same compositions were also melted and injection-cast into 1 mm rods. Experiment tests confirm that the compositions Ti60Co40 and Ti70Co30, having calculated Trg> 0.5, were able to produce BMGs. Both calculation and differential thermal analysis indicate that Ti-Co BMGs have exceptionally high glass-transition temperatures.

  10. Sharp semiconductor-to-metal transition of VO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Jie; Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Wenrui; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-12-28

    Outstanding phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on amorphous glass were achieved and compared with the ones grown on c-cut sapphire and Si (111) substrates, all by pulsed laser deposition. The films on glass substrate exhibit a sharp semiconductor-to-metal transition (∼4.3 °C) at a near bulk transition temperature of ∼68.4 °C with an electrical resistance change as high as 3.2 × 10{sup 3} times. The excellent phase transition properties of the films on glass substrate are correlated with the large grain size and low defects density achieved. The phase transition properties of VO{sub 2} films on c-cut sapphire and Si (111) substrates were found to be limited by the high defect density.

  11. A structural model for surface-enhanced stabilization in some metallic glass formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Elena V.; Evteev, Alexander V.; Yavari, Alain R.; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Belova, Irina V.; Murch, Graeme E.

    2013-01-01

    A structural model for surface-enhanced stabilization in some metallic glass formers is proposed. In this model, the alloy surface structure is represented by five-layer Kagomé-net-based lateral ordering. Such surface structure has intrinsic abilities to stabilize icosahedral-like short-range order in the bulk, acting as 'a cloak of liquidity'. In particular, recent experimental observations of surface-induced lateral ordering and a very high glass forming ability of the liquid alloy Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 can be united using this structural model. This model may be useful for the interpretation of surface structure of other liquid alloys with a high glass forming ability. In addition, it suggests the possibility of guiding the design of the surface coating of solid containers for the stabilization of undercooled liquids.

  12. The Effects of Gravity on the Crystallization Behavior of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses are used in such applications as fiber lasers and laser amplifiers. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) is one of the more commonly used heavy metal fluoride glasses. ZBLAN is an infrared transmitter and has a theoretical attenuation coefficient of 0.002 db/km. However, due to impurities and small crystallites this attenuation coefficient has not been achieved to date. ZBLAN is a fragile glass which can lead to rapid crystallization, if the glass is not cooled rapidly to below the glass transition temperature or if the glass is reheated near the crystallization temperature for any period of time. Studies carried on at Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville since 1993 have shown that heating ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity results in a suppression of crystallization when compared to ZBLAN processed in unit gravity. These studies utilized NASA's KC-135 aircraft and the Conquest sounding rocket. In the first series of experiments, short lengths of ZBLAN fiber were heated to the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity on board the KC- 135 and the Conquest sounding rocket and compared with fibers heated in unit gravity. The fibers processed in reduced gravity showed no evidence of crystallization when studied with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. However, the fibers processed in unit gravity were completely crystallized. Subsequent experiments included heating small pieces of ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature while viewing with a video camera to follow the crystallization phenomenon. In this experiment crystallization was observed in reduced gravity, however, it was suppressed when compared to heating in unit gravity. In the most recent experiment on board the KC-135, rapid thermal analysis of ZBLAN was performed. A mechanism to explain the observations has been proposed. This mechanism is based on shear thinning whereby, the glass

  13. Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites for Optical and Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms are used widely in engineering applications due to their ability to translate force and movement. They are found in kinematic pairs, gears, cams, linkages, and in flexure mechanisms (also known as compliant mechanisms). Mechanisms and flexures are used widely in spacecraft design, especially in the area of optics, where precise positioning of telescope mirrors requires elastic flexing of elements. A compliant mechanism is generally defined as a flexible mechanism that uses an elastic body deformation to cause a displacement (such as positing a mirror). The mechanisms are usually constructed as a single monolithic piece of material, and contain thin struts to allow for large elastic bending with low input force. This creates the largest problem with developing precise mechanisms; they must be fabricated from a single piece of metal, but are required to have strict accuracy on their dimensions. They are generally required to have high strength, elasticity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion.

  14. Orbital glass state of the nearly metallic spinel cobalt vanadate

    DOE PAGES

    Koborinai, R.; Dissanayake, Sachith E.; Reehuis, M.; ...

    2016-01-19

    Strain, magnetization, dielectric relaxation, and unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction measurements were performed to study the magnetic and structural properties of spinel Co1–xV2+xO4. The strain measurement indicates that, upon cooling, ΔL/L in the order of ~10–4 starts increasing below TC, becomes maximum at Tmax, and then decreases and changes its sign at T*. Neutron measurements indicate that a collinear ferrimagnetic order develops below TC and upon further cooling noncollinear ferrimagnetic ordering occurs below Tmax. At low temperatures, the dielectric constant exhibits a frequency dependence, indicating slow dynamics. Lastly, these results indicate the existence of an orbital glassy state at lowmore » temperatures in this nearly metallic frustrated magnet.« less

  15. Orbital glass state of the nearly metallic spinel cobalt vanadate

    SciTech Connect

    Koborinai, R.; Dissanayake, Sachith E.; Reehuis, M.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Kajita, T.; Kuwahara, H.; Lee, Seung -Hun; Katsufuji, T.

    2016-01-19

    Strain, magnetization, dielectric relaxation, and unpolarized and polarized neutron diffraction measurements were performed to study the magnetic and structural properties of spinel Co1–xV2+xO4. The strain measurement indicates that, upon cooling, ΔL/L in the order of ~10–4 starts increasing below TC, becomes maximum at Tmax, and then decreases and changes its sign at T*. Neutron measurements indicate that a collinear ferrimagnetic order develops below TC and upon further cooling noncollinear ferrimagnetic ordering occurs below Tmax. At low temperatures, the dielectric constant exhibits a frequency dependence, indicating slow dynamics. Lastly, these results indicate the existence of an orbital glassy state at low temperatures in this nearly metallic frustrated magnet.

  16. Microstructural Analysis of a Laser-Processed Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Flores, K. M.

    2010-07-01

    Laser processing is a precision manufacturing technique capable of producing materials with highly nonequilibrium microstructures. Due to the localized heat input and high cooling rate inherent to the process, this technology is attractive for the production of metallic glasses. In the present work, we use a laser deposition process to deposit a Zr-based metallic glass forming powder on both amorphous and crystalline substrates of the same nominal composition. Amorphous melt zones are observed surrounded by distinct crystalline heat-affected zones (HAZs). Detailed examination of the HAZ in the glassy substrates reveals the formation of microscale spherulites, in contrast to the nanocrystalline phases observed following crystallization by isothermal annealing of the glass at the crystallization temperature as well as in the HAZ of the crystalline substrates. The spherulites have a different crystal morphology and structure from the nanocrystalline phases, indicating that the more stable nanocrystalline phases are completely bypassed when the glass is devitrified at the higher heating rate. Reducing the heat input during laser processing results in the near elimination of the crystalline HAZ in the amorphous substrates, suggesting that a critical heating rate range is required to avoid devitrification.

  17. Search for the microscopic origin of defects and shear localization in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mo

    2001-11-10

    This proposed research addresses one of the long outstanding fundamental problems in materials science, the mechanisms of deformation in amorphous metals. Due to the lack of long-range translational order, details of structural defects and their behaviors in metallic glasses have not been accessible in experiments. In addition, the small dimensions of the amorphous alloys made early by rapid quenching impose severe limit on many standard mechanical and microscopy testing. As a result, the microscopic mechanism of deformation in the amorphous materials has not been established. The recent success in synthesis of bulk metallic glass overcomes the difficulty in standard testing; but the barrier for understanding the defect process and microscopic mechanisms of deformation still remains. Amorphous metals deform in a unique way by shear banding. As a result, there is no work hardening, little macroscopic plasticity, and catastrophic failure. To retain and improve the inherent high strength, large elastic strain, and high toughness in amorphous metals, a variety of synthesis activities are currently underway including making metallic glass matrix composites. These new explorations call for a quantitative understanding of deformation mechanisms in both the monolithic metallic glasses as well as their composites. The knowledge is expected to give insight and guide to design, processing and applications of this new generation of engineering materials. This DOE funded research takes the approach of computer simulation and modeling to tackle this problem. It is expected that with the increasing power of computers, the numerical modeling could provide the answers that are difficult or impossible to get from experiments. Three parallel research tasks were planned in this work. One is on search of atomic structural defects and other microscopic mechanisms underlying the deformation process. The second is the formulate a general model to describe shear localization, shear band

  18. Fracture-resistant thin-film metallic glass: Ultra-high plasticity at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Lee, C. M.; Chu, Jinn P.; Greene, J. E.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-11-01

    We report the first example of room-temperature rubber-like deformation in thin-film metallic glasses (TFMGs), 260-nm-thick Zr60Cu24Al11Ni5 layers, under ultra-high shear strain. The TFMGs were deposited, with no external heating, on Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and Si(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in a 3 mTorr Ar plasma. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analyses and nanoindentation results reveal that the TFMGs undergo an incredibly large shear strain, estimated to be ˜4000%, during fatigue tests, and thickness reductions of up to 61.5%, with no shear-banding or cracking, during extreme nanoindentation experiments extending through the film and into the substrate. TFMG/BMG samples also exhibit film/substrate diffusion bonding during deformation as shown by high-resolution XTEM.

  19. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulk metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.

  20. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W.; Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  1. Explosive boiling of a metallic glass superheated by nanosecond pulse laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M. Q. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn; Wei, Y. P.; Wilde, G.; Dai, L. H. E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2015-01-12

    We report an explosive boiling in a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1) bulk metallic glass irradiated by a nanosecond pulse laser with a single shot. This critical phenomenon is accompanied by the ejection of high-temperature matter from the target and the formation of a liquid-gas spinodal pattern on the irradiated area. An analytical model reveals that the glassy target experiences the normal heating (melting) and significant superheating, eventually culminating in explosive boiling near the spinodal limit. Furthermore, the time lag of nucleation and the critical radius of vapor bubbles are theoretically predicted, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. This study provides the investigation on the instability of a metallic glass liquid near the thermodynamic critical temperature.

  2. Metallic Glass Wire Based Localization of Kinesin/Microtubule Bio-molecular Motility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Yaginuma, S.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    We report electrophoretic accumulation of microtubules along metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) wires free-standing in solution. Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments. Kinesin is a cytoskeletal motor protein. Functions of these bio-molecules are central to various dynamic cellular processes. Functional artificial organization of bio-molecules is a prerequisite for transferring their native functions into device applications. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level reveals microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electrophoretic migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective for releasing trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate gliding motion of microtubules on kinesin-treated metallic glass wires. The reversible manner in the local adsorption of microtubules, the flexibility of wire electrodes, and the compatibility between the wire electrode and the bio-molecules are beneficial for spatio-temporal manipulation of the motility machinery in 3 dimensions.

  3. A quantitative link between microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behaviors in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Chen, G. L.; Hui, X. D.; Liu, C. T.; Lin, Y.; Shang, X. C.; Lu, Z. P.

    2009-10-01

    Based on mechanical instability of individual shear transformation zones (STZs), a quantitative link between the microplastic instability and macroscopic deformation behavior of metallic glasses was proposed. Our analysis confirms that macroscopic metallic glasses comprise a statistical distribution of STZ embryos with distributed values of activation energy, and the microplastic instability of all the individual STZs dictates the macroscopic deformation behavior of amorphous solids. The statistical model presented in this paper can successfully reproduce the macroscopic stress-strain curves determined experimentally and readily be used to predict strain-rate effects on the macroscopic responses with the availability of the material parameters at a certain strain rate, which offer new insights into understanding the actual deformation mechanism in amorphous solids.

  4. On the nature of low temperature internal friction peaks in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khonik, V.A.; Spivak, L.V.

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature (30 < T < 300 K) internal friction in a metallic glass Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} subjected to preliminary inhomogeneous deformation by cold rolling, homogeneous tensile deformation or electrolytic charging with hydrogen is investigated. Cold rolling or hydrogenation result in appearance of similar internal friction peaks and hysteresis damping. Homogeneous deformation has no influence on low temperature internal friction. The phenomenon of microplastic deformation during hydrogenation of weakly stressed samples is revealed. It is argued that microplastic deformation of metallic glasses during hydrogenation without external stress takes place too. Plastic flow both on cold rolling and hydrogenation occurs via formation and motion of dislocation-like defects which are the reason of the observed anelastic anomalies. It is concluded that low temperature internal friction peaks described in the literature for as-cast, cold deformed and hydrogenated samples have common dislocation-like origin.

  5. 24 electron cluster formulas as the 'molecular' units of ideal metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L. J.; Chen, H.; Wang, Y. M.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Häussler, P.

    2014-08-01

    It is known that ideal metallic glasses fully complying with the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism can be expressed by a universal cluster formula of the form [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. In the present work, it is shown, after a re-examination of the cluster-resonance model, that the number of electrons per unit cluster formula, e/u, is universally 24. The cluster formulas are then the atomic as well as the electronic structural units, mimicking the 'molecular' formulas for chemical substances. The origin of different electron number per atom ratios e/a is related to the total number of atoms Z in unit cluster formula, e/a = 24/Z. The 24 electron formulas are well confirmed in typical binary and ternary bulk metallic glasses.

  6. Structural evolution and strength change of a metallic glass at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Tong, X.; Wang, G.; Stachurski, Z. H.; Bednarčík, J.; Mattern, N.; Zhai, Q. J.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    The structural evolution of a Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 metallic glass is investigated in-situ by high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation upon heating up to crystallization. The structural rearrangements on the atomic scale during the heating process are analysed as a function of temperature, focusing on shift of the peaks of the structure factor in reciprocal space and the pair distribution function and radial distribution function in real space which are correlated with atomic rearrangements and progressing nanocrystallization. Thermal expansion and contraction of the coordination shells is measured and correlated with the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion. The characteristics of the microstructure and the yield strength of the metallic glass at high temperature are discussed aiming to elucidate the correlation between the atomic arrangement and the mechanical properties. PMID:27484873

  7. In vivo evaluation of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass alloy bar.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Ryo; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Ichinose, Shizuko; Itoh, Soichiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ti-based bulk metallic glasses are reported with high strength, low Young modulus and high corrosion resistance, suggesting their potentials in biomedical applications. However a thorough in vivo evaluation of its biocompatibilities has not been conducted yet. In this study, we implanted bars of Ti-based bulk metallic glass in the femoral bone of rats, followed up local tissue reaction as well as its component ions' diffusion in local area and whole body. The Ti-based BMG (Ti40Zr10Cu34Pd14Sn2) alloy exhibited favorable features of both high strength and high elasticity. In vivo implant evaluation showed that it has a good tissue compatibility, equivalent bone integration and bonding ability with Ti sample. No component ion diffusion was detected up to 3 months post implantation. The possibility and efficacy of its use for bone implant is confirmed. Thus further long term implant study is recommended.

  8. Bonding characters of Al-containing bulk metallic glasses studied by 27Al NMR.

    PubMed

    Xi, X K; Sandor, M T; Wang, H J; Wang, J Q; Wang, W H; Wu, Y

    2011-03-23

    We report very small (27)Al metallic shifts in a series of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses. This observation and the Korringa type of spin-lattice relaxation behavior suggest that s-character wavefunctions weakly participate in bonding and opens the possibility of enhanced covalency (pd hybridization) with increasing Al concentration, in good agreement with elastic constants and hardness measurements. Moreover, ab initio calculations show that this bonding character originates from the strong Al 3p band and Zr 4d band hybridization since their atomic energy levels are closer to each other while the Al 3s band is localized far below the Fermi level. This study might provide a chemical view for understanding flow and fracture mechanisms of these bulk glass-forming alloys.

  9. Structural evolution and strength change of a metallic glass at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Wang, G.; Stachurski, Z. H.; Bednarčík, J.; Mattern, N.; Zhai, Q. J.; Eckert, J.

    2016-08-01

    The structural evolution of a Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 metallic glass is investigated in-situ by high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation upon heating up to crystallization. The structural rearrangements on the atomic scale during the heating process are analysed as a function of temperature, focusing on shift of the peaks of the structure factor in reciprocal space and the pair distribution function and radial distribution function in real space which are correlated with atomic rearrangements and progressing nanocrystallization. Thermal expansion and contraction of the coordination shells is measured and correlated with the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion. The characteristics of the microstructure and the yield strength of the metallic glass at high temperature are discussed aiming to elucidate the correlation between the atomic arrangement and the mechanical properties.

  10. Energy transfer mechanisms in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with lanthanide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, glasses based on bismuth, germanium, gallium and sodium oxides have been synthesized in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1) and high thermal stability (ΔT = 127°C). Synthesis process have been optimized using low vacuum conditions (approx. 60 mBar) to improve the transmittance in the mid-infrared region and decrease the content of hydroxide groups in the material structure. Glass doped with erbium ions has been pumped with high power diode (λexc = 980 nm) to obtain luminescence in the band of 2.7 μm as a result of Er3+: 4I11/2 -> 4I13/2 radiative transition. For analysis of emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms, glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+, Er3+/Pr3+, Er3+/Nd3+ ions have been synthesized. Obtained results indicated energy transfer phenomenon between lanthanide ions and elements forming the glass matrix. This demonstrates that developed heavy metal oxide glass doped with optimal rare earth elements system is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.

  11. High-throughput Exploration of Glass Formation via Laser Deposition and the Study of Heterogeneous Microstructure in a Bulk Metallic Glass Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Peter T.

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively novel class of engineering alloys characterized by a "disordered" atomic structure devoid of long-range translational symmetry. Compared to crystalline alloys, the confluence of metallic bonding and amorphous structure imbues bulk metallic glasses with a unique set of properties that makes them particularly attractive for a wide variety of structural applications. Such properties include exceptional yield strengths, high elastic resilience, resistance to corrosion, and in particular, the unparalleled ability among metals to be thermoplastically formed across a wide range of length scales when heated above the glass transition temperature. Formation of metallic glass from a molten liquid depends on whether cooling is sufficiently rapid to bypass crystallization and vitrify into an amorphous solid; for a given alloy composition, the ease with which full vitrification can occur upon cooling from the liquid state is termed the alloy's "glass forming ability". Unfortunately, relatively few excellent glass formers have been reported in the vast, multicomponent composition space in which they reside. The apparent slowness of progress may be attributed largely to the inefficiency of the one-at-a-time experimental approach to discovery and design. In this thesis work, a high-throughput combinatorial methodology was developed to expedite the discovery process of new bulk metallic glasses. Laser deposition was used to fabricate continuously-graded composition libraries of Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Ti alloys. By processing the libraries with a range of laser heat input, the best glass formers in each alloy system could be efficiently and systematically deduced. Furthermore, instrumented nanoindentation performed on the libraries enabled rapid evaluation of mechanical property trends. Despite boasting high strengths, monolithic bulk metallic glasses generally suffer from an intrinsic lack of damage tolerance compared to other high performance alloys

  12. Atomic Structure of Ca40+xMg25Cu35-x Metallic Glasses (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-21

    believed to depend on the type of short range order (SRO) and medium range order ( MRO ) of alloying elements in the amorphous structure. It is... MRO . III. RESULTS A. Neutron diffraction analysis The experimental SSFs, S(Q), for the four samples are shown in Figure 1(a) and the RDFs, G(r), are...presence of MRO , in metallic glasses can produce structures that have only a small energetic disadvantage relative to the equilibrium crystalline

  13. Barkhausen Effect and Acoustic Emission in a Metallic Glass - Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Sanchez, R.; Piotrkowski, R.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2004-02-26

    Magneto Acoustic Emission, which is Barkhausen Noise (BN) and Acoustic Emission (AE), depends on microstructure and existing residual stresses in magnetic materials. Preliminary results obtained by magnetization along two perpendicular directions on a metal glass foil are presented. Signals were analyzed with Statistic, Fast Fourier and Wavelet methods. Results are part of a Joint Research Project of the Faculty of Science, Cantabria University, Spain, and the Elastic Waves Group of the National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina.

  14. Correlating local structure with inhomogeneous elastic deformation in a metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Ma, E.

    2012-09-01

    The elastic response of metallic glasses (MGs) is inhomogeneous, due to the wide variation of local structural arrangements. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations on a one-million-atoms sample of a Cu64Zr36 model MG, correlating the atomic strain and non-affine displacement with short-range order. Cu atoms in full icosahedra experience less atomic relaxation and behave stiffer, while the rest of Cu atoms contribute more to anelasticity on the timescale of simulation.

  15. Fractal nature of multiple shear bands in severely deformed metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, B. A.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-05-16

    We present an analysis of fractal geometry of extensive and complex shear band patterns in a severely deformed metallic glass. We show that the shear band patterns have fractal characteristics, and the fractal dimensions are determined by the stress noise induced by the interaction between shear bands. A theoretical model of the spatial evolution of multiple shear bands is proposed in which the collective shear bands slide is considered as a stochastic process far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  16. Understanding the changes in ductility and Poisson's ratio of metallic glasses during annealing from microscopic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ngai, K. L.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-07-01

    In the paper K. L. Ngai et al., [J. Chem. 140, 044511 (2014)], the empirical correlation of ductility with the Poisson's ratio, νPoisson, found in metallic glasses was theoretically explained by microscopic dynamic processes which link on the one hand ductility, and on the other hand the Poisson's ratio. Specifically, the dynamic processes are the primitive relaxation in the Coupling Model which is the precursor of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation, and the caged atoms dynamics characterized by the effective Debye-Waller factor f0 or equivalently the nearly constant loss (NCL) in susceptibility. All these processes and the parameters characterizing them are accessible experimentally except f0 or the NCL of caged atoms; thus, so far, the experimental verification of the explanation of the correlation between ductility and Poisson's ratio is incomplete. In the experimental part of this paper, we report dynamic mechanical measurement of the NCL of the metallic glass La60Ni15Al25 as-cast, and the changes by annealing at temperature below Tg. The observed monotonic decrease of the NCL with aging time, reflecting the corresponding increase of f0, correlates with the decrease of νPoisson. This is important observation because such measurements, not made before, provide the missing link in confirming by experiment the explanation of the correlation of ductility with νPoisson. On aging the metallic glass, also observed in the isochronal loss spectra is the shift of the β-relaxation to higher temperatures and reduction of the relaxation strength. These concomitant changes of the β-relaxation and NCL are the root cause of embrittlement by aging the metallic glass. The NCL of caged atoms is terminated by the onset of the primitive relaxation in the Coupling Model, which is generally supported by experiments. From this relation, the monotonic decrease of the NCL with aging time is caused by the slowing down of the primitive relaxation and β-relaxation on annealing, and

  17. Elastic moduli inheritance and the weakest link in bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Ma, D; Stoica, A D; Wang, X-L; Lu, Z P; Clausen, B; Brown, D W

    2012-02-24

    We show that a variety of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) inherit their Young's modulus and shear modulus from the solvent components. This is attributed to preferential straining of locally solvent-rich configurations among tightly bonded atomic clusters, which constitute the weakest link in an amorphous structure. This aspect of inhomogeneous deformation, also revealed by our in situ neutron diffraction studies of an elastically deformed BMG, suggests a rubberlike viscoelastic behavior due to a hierarchy of atomic bonds in BMGs.

  18. Magnetic Properties and Hyperfine Interactions in Iron Containing Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Karl Marlin

    Amorphous samples of Fe(,x)B(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90), Fe(,x)Ag(,100-x) (40 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 50), and Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93) have been prepared, and their magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions studied by ('57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy. Each system is representative of either Fe-metalloid (Fe-B), Fe-noble metal (Fe-Ag), or Fe-early transition metal (Fe -Zr) amorphous alloys. Therefore, by studying these three amorphous solids an overview is obtained, not only of the properties of the individual alloys, but also of the wider class of alloys of which they are representative. The amorphous Fe-B and Fe-Zr systems have been successfully fabricated over very wide ranges in composition, allowing the evolution of the magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions to be systematically studied. As a result it has been possible to determine the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)). It has been shown that the loss of magnetic order below x(,c) is the result of the reduction and eventual disappearance of the Fe moment. The isomer shifts (IS) and quadrupole splittings (QS) have also been determined over wide composition ranges. This has led to the observation of a maximum in IS with decreasing Fe concentration in amorphous alloys of Fe and B. On the other hand, IS in the amorphous Fe-Zr alloys has been found to decrease monotonically over the same concentration range. In the paramagnetic region all the samples display quadrupole split doublets characteristic of site symmetries lower than cubic. It has been found that the observed asymmetry in the quadrupole spectra can be correlated with the relative changes in IS and QS as a function of composition. Amorphous alloys of Fe and Ag have been prepared for the first time and have been found to be stable at room temperature. The somewhat unusual magnetic properties of these alloys suggests that they may be simpler magnetically than previously studied magnetic

  19. Coating thickness control in continuously fabricating metallic glass-coated composite wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao-yu; Chen, Xiao-hua; Lu, Zhao-ping; Hui, Xi-dong

    2013-05-01

    A continuous production process was developed for coating bulk metallic glasses on the metallic wire surface. The effects of processing parameters, including the drawing velocity and coating temperature, on the coating thickness were investigated. It is found that the coating thickness increases with the increase in drawing velocity but decreases with the increase in coating temperature. A fluid mechanical model was developed to quantify the coating thickness under various processing conditions. By using this theoretical model, the coating thickness was calculated, and the calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Tribological characteristics of metallic glass in sliding contact: Experimental investigations and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xi-Yong

    The unlubricated sliding characteristics of zirconium-based bulk metallic glass disks have been examined in vacuum and in air using sliders made from the same material or from a hard bearing steel (52100). The pin-on-disk test system allowed collection of debris, monitoring of the friction force and, using a Kelvin probe, in situ detection of changes in the structure and chemical composition of the disk surface. Friction coefficient and wear rate of metallic glass were found to vary with normal load, sliding velocity and test environment. Post-test characterization included microhardness testing, X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDS. Examination of worn surfaces, cross-sections and debris confirmed the importance of plastic deformation, material transfer and environmental interactions. When devitrified material was tested, sliding processes caused the near-surface material to re-amorphize. Results from sliding of bulk metallic glass specimens were compared with those from related experiments involving crystalline metals and alloys. Although bulk metallic glasses are reported to have only limited ductility in tensile tests, the friction coefficients and worn surfaces of these materials are typical of ductile materials. Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations were used to simulate the sliding of a 2D 2-component amorphous system interacting via Lennard-Jones potentials. The friction coefficient showed a transient before reaching an average steady state value. The steady state friction coefficient was observed to decrease with an increasing sliding velocity. Mixing was observed at the sliding interface. The mixed layer grew at a rate that scaled with the square root of time. A density decrease was recorded in the region adjacent to the sliding interface. This spatially corresponded to the softer layer detected experimentally near the worn surface in a Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni 10.0Be22.5 bulk metallic glass alloy after sliding. Subsurface displacement profiles produced in these

  1. Effects of minor Sn addition on the glass formation and properties of Fe-metalloid metallic glasses with high magnetization and high glass forming ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Minjie; Liu, Zengqian; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Effects of minor Sn addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) as well as thermal, magnetic, and mechanical properties of Fe-P-C-B-Si bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with compositions of Fe80-xSnxP9C8B2Si1 (x=0, 1, 2 and 3 at%) were investigated. The minor Sn substitution for Fe effectively enhances the GFA. The fully glassy rods can be produced up to 3 and 3.5 mm in diameter for the alloys with 1 and 2 at% Sn addition, respectively. Moreover, these Sn-containing BMGs exhibit good soft magnetic properties including high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.46-1.51 T, low coercivity (Hc) of 3.8-5.0 A/m and good mechanical properties, i.e., high fracture strength (σf) above 3.2 GPa and limited plastic strain (εp) above 0.4%. The combination of large GFA, good soft magnetic and mechanical properties as well as low cost makes the Fe-Sn-P-C-B-Si BMGs promising as soft magnetic materials for industrial applications.

  2. Microstructural characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glass and nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Rafał; Nowosielski, Ryszard; Pawlyta, Mirosława; Fitch, Andy; Burian, Andrzej

    2015-04-15

    New magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses Mg{sub 60}Cu{sub 30}Y{sub 10} have been prepared by pressure casting. Glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite containing 200 nm crystallites in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure of bulk glassy alloy and nanocomposite obtained during heat treatment was examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy. Metallic glass has been also studied to explain the structural characteristics by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling based on the diffraction data. The HRTEM images allow to indicate some medium-range order (MRO) regions about 2–3 nm in size and formation of local atomic clusters. The RMC modeling results confirmed some kinds of short range order (SRO) structures. It was found that the structure of bulk metallic glass formed by the pressure casting is homogeneous. The composite material contained very small particles in the amorphous matrix. Homogeneous glassy alloy had better corrosion resistance than a composite containing nanocrystalline particles in a glassy matrix. - Highlights: • RMC modeling demonstrates some kinds of SRO structures in Mg-based BMGs. • HRTEM indicated MRO regions about 2–3 nm and SRO regions about 0.5 nm in size. • Mg-based glassy alloys were successfully annealed to become nanocomposite material. • Crystalline particles have spherical morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm. • Glassy alloy had higher corrosion resistance than a nanocomposite sample.

  3. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter - linking frictional weakening with inertial effects.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Dmitry V; Lőrincz, Kinga A; Wright, Wendelin J; Hufnagel, Todd C; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A; Schall, Peter

    2017-03-06

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics.

  4. Fracto-emission in lanthanum-based metallic glass microwires under quasi-static tensile loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Jiang, Chenchen; Lohiya, Lokesh; Yang, Yong; Lu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Plastic deformation in metallic glasses is highly localized and often associated with shear banding, which may cause momentary release of heat upon fracture. Here, we report an explosive fracture phenomenon associated with momentary (˜10 ms) light emission (flash) in Lanthanum-based (LaAlNi) metallic glass microwires (dia. ˜50 μm) under quasi-static tensile loading. The load-displacement data as well as the visual information of the tensile deformation process were acquired through an in situ measurement set-up, which clearly showed nonlinear stress (σ)-strain ( ɛ) curves prior to yielding and also captured the occurrence of the flash at high fracture stresses (˜1 GPa). Through the postmortem fractographic analysis, it can be revealed that the fracto-emission upon quasi-static loading could be mainly attributed to the localized adiabatic work accumulated at a very large elastic strain confined within the microscale sample volume, followed by a localized high temperature rise up to ˜1000 K at the fracture surface through localized energy dissipation. Our findings suggest that the La-based metallic glass microwires could be useful for energetic microchips, micro-ignition devices, and other functional applications.

  5. Computer simulations of nanoindentation in Mg-Cu and Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păduraru, A.; Andersen, U. G.; Thyssen, A.; Bailey, N. P.; Jacobsen, K. W.; Schiøtz, J.

    2010-07-01

    The formation of shear bands during plastic deformation of Cu0.50Zr0.50 and Mg0.85Cu0.15 metallic glasses is studied using atomic-scale computer simulations. The atomic interactions are described using realistic many-body potentials within the effective medium theory, and are compared with similar simulations using a Lennard-Jones description of the material. The metallic glasses are deformed both in simple shear and in a simulated nanoindentation experiment. Plastic shear localizes into shear bands with a width of approximately 5 nm in CuZr and 8 nm in MgCu. In simple shear, the shear band formation is very clear, whereas only incipient shear bands are seen in nanoindentation. The shear band formation during nanoindentation is sensitive to the indentation velocity, indenter radius and the cooling rate during the formation of the metallic glass. For comparison, a similar nanoindentation simulation was made with a nanocrystalline sample, showing how the presence of a polycrystalline structure leads to a different and more spatially distributed deformation pattern, where dislocation avalanches play an important role.

  6. Structural evolution of nanoscale metallic glasses during high-pressure torsion: A molecular dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S. D.; Jiao, W.; Jing, Q.; Qi, L.; Pan, S. P.; Li, G.; Ma, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Structural evolution in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses during high-pressure torsion is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that the strong cooperation of shear transformations can be realized by high-pressure torsion in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses at room temperature. It is further shown that high-pressure torsion could prompt atoms to possess lower five-fold symmetries and higher potential energies, making them more likely to participate in shear transformations. Meanwhile, a higher torsion period leads to a greater degree of forced cooperative flow. And the pronounced forced cooperative flow at room temperature under high-pressure torsion permits the study of the shear transformation, its activation and characteristics, and its relationship to the deformations behaviors. This research not only provides an important platform for probing the atomic-level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of high-pressure torsion in metallic glasses, but also leads to higher stresses and homogeneous flow near lower temperatures which is impossible previously.

  7. Effect of Residual Stresses on the Hardness of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Bei, Hongbin; Gao, Y. F.; Lu, Zhao Ping; Nieh, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoindentation experiments were conducted on Zr-based metallic glass samples, which were elastically and plastically bent in order to investigate the effect of residual stresses on hardness. It was found that tensile residual stress reduced the hardness significantly, while compressive residual stress produced only a small effect on the hardness. These observations are consistent with three-dimensional continuum-plasticity-based finite-element simulations. The hardness was also found to vary more significantly with residual stresses, in particular in tension, than that caused by shear-banding-induced softening, suggesting hardness measurement is a practical method for the evaluation of tensile residual stresses in a metallic glass. Hardness variation in the bent sample was correlated with the residual-stress induced volume dilatation through a free-volume-based model. In this paper, we also present a detailed stress analysis based on yield asymmetry under tension and compression to describe the distribution of residual stresses in bent metallic glass specimens. The calculations agree well with the hardness variations measured experimentally.

  8. Solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combination of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage, and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here, we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semisolid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second-phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of ≈2 μm, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude, making these “designed” composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems. PMID:19289820

  9. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter – linking frictional weakening with inertial effects

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Dmitry V.; Lőrincz, Kinga A.; Wright, Wendelin J.; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics. PMID:28262791

  10. Universal slip dynamics in metallic glasses and granular matter – linking frictional weakening with inertial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Dmitry V.; Lőrincz, Kinga A.; Wright, Wendelin J.; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Nawano, Aya; Gu, Xiaojun; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Schall, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Slowly strained solids deform via intermittent slips that exhibit a material-independent critical size distribution. Here, by comparing two disparate systems - granular materials and bulk metallic glasses - we show evidence that not only the statistics of slips but also their dynamics are remarkably similar, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the material. By resolving and comparing the full time evolution of avalanches in bulk metallic glasses and granular materials, we uncover a regime of universal deformation dynamics. We experimentally verify the predicted universal scaling functions for the dynamics of individual avalanches in both systems, and show that both the slip statistics and dynamics are independent of the scale and details of the material structure and interactions, thus settling a long-standing debate as to whether or not the claim of universality includes only the slip statistics or also the slip dynamics. The results imply that the frictional weakening in granular materials and the interplay of damping, weakening and inertial effects in bulk metallic glasses have strikingly similar effects on the slip dynamics. These results are important for transferring experimental results across scales and material structures in a single theory of deformation dynamics.

  11. Structural evolution of nanoscale metallic glasses during high-pressure torsion: A molecular dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, S. D.; Jiao, W.; Jing, Q.; Qi, L.; Pan, S. P.; Li, G.; Ma, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses during high-pressure torsion is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that the strong cooperation of shear transformations can be realized by high-pressure torsion in nanoscale Cu50Zr50 metallic glasses at room temperature. It is further shown that high-pressure torsion could prompt atoms to possess lower five-fold symmetries and higher potential energies, making them more likely to participate in shear transformations. Meanwhile, a higher torsion period leads to a greater degree of forced cooperative flow. And the pronounced forced cooperative flow at room temperature under high-pressure torsion permits the study of the shear transformation, its activation and characteristics, and its relationship to the deformations behaviors. This research not only provides an important platform for probing the atomic-level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of high-pressure torsion in metallic glasses, but also leads to higher stresses and homogeneous flow near lower temperatures which is impossible previously. PMID:27819352

  12. Stress and temperature dependence of the avalanche dynamics during creep deformation of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Gómez, Carlos; Samwer, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the mesoscopic origin of plasticity in metallic glasses remains still an open issue. At the microscopic level, Shear Transformation Zones (STZ), composed by dozens of atoms, have been identified as the basic unit of the deformation process. Macroscopically, metallic glasses perform either homogeneous or inhomogeneous flow depending on the experimental conditions. However, the emergence of macroscopic behavior resulting from STZ interactions is still an open issue and is of great interest. In the current work we present an approach to analyze the different interaction mechanisms of STZ’s by studying the statistics of the avalanches produced by a metallic glass during tensile creep deformation. We identified a crossover between different regimes of avalanches, and we analyzed the dependence of such crossover on the experimental conditions, namely stress and temperature. We interpret such crossover as a transition from 3D random STZ activity to localized 2D nano-shear bands. The experimental time at which the crossover takes place seems to depend on the overall strain and strain rate in the sample PMID:27654069

  13. On a solution to the problem of the poor cyclic fatigue resistance of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-01-09

    The recent development of metallic glass-matrix composites represents a particular milestone in engineering materials for structural applications owing to their remarkable combinations of strength and toughness. However, metallic glasses are highly susceptible to cyclic fatigue damage and previous attempts to solve this problem have been largely disappointing. Here we propose and demonstrate a microstructural design strategy to overcome this limitation by matching the microstructural length scales (of the second phase) to mechanical crack-length scales. Specifically, semi-solid processing is used to optimize the volume fraction, morphology, and size of second phase dendrites to confine any initial deformation (shear banding) to the glassy regions separating dendrite arms having length scales of {approx} 2 {micro}m, i.e., to less than the critical crack size for failure. Confinement of the damage to such interdendritic regions results in enhancement of fatigue lifetimes and increases the fatigue limit by an order of magnitude making these 'designed' composites as resistant to fatigue damage as high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. These design strategies can be universally applied to any other metallic glass systems.

  14. Removal resistance of glass-fiber and metallic cast posts with different lengths.

    PubMed

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated the strength required to remove glass-fiber and metallic cast posts with different lengths. Sixty endodontically treated canines were included and their roots were embedded in acrylic resin after discarding the crowns. Samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the post length (n = 20): I- 6 mm, II - 8 mm and III- 10 mm. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups based on the post material (n = 10): A- glass fiber or B- metallic cast. Post-space was prepared with Fibrekor Post Kit attached to a parallelometer. In subgroup A, prefabricated glass fiber posts from Fibrekor Post Kit were utilized. In metallic post group (subgroup B), an impression of post space was obtained, followed by casting. All posts were luted with Panavia F cement. A universal testing machine determined the force required to dislodge each post. ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.01) among post length. Tukey test showed that posts with 10 mm-length showed higher resistance on removal than posts with 6 mm-length. Posts with 8 mm-length did not exhibit difference when compared to 6 and 10 mm posts. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the tested post materials. It was concluded that the type of post did not influence the removal resistance and that posts with 10 mm-length required greater force to be dislodged.

  15. Stress and temperature dependence of the avalanche dynamics during creep deformation of metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Gómez, Carlos; Samwer, Konrad

    2016-09-22

    The understanding of the mesoscopic origin of plasticity in metallic glasses remains still an open issue. At the microscopic level, Shear Transformation Zones (STZ), composed by dozens of atoms, have been identified as the basic unit of the deformation process. Macroscopically, metallic glasses perform either homogeneous or inhomogeneous flow depending on the experimental conditions. However, the emergence of macroscopic behavior resulting from STZ interactions is still an open issue and is of great interest. In the current work we present an approach to analyze the different interaction mechanisms of STZ's by studying the statistics of the avalanches produced by a metallic glass during tensile creep deformation. We identified a crossover between different regimes of avalanches, and we analyzed the dependence of such crossover on the experimental conditions, namely stress and temperature. We interpret such crossover as a transition from 3D random STZ activity to localized 2D nano-shear bands. The experimental time at which the crossover takes place seems to depend on the overall strain and strain rate in the sample.

  16. Dealloying of Cu-Based Metallic Glasses in Acidic Solutions: Products and Energy Storage Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Qin, Chunling; Yu, Hui; Xia, Xingchuan; Wang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yanshan; Hu, Qingfeng; Zhao, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Dealloying, a famous ancient etching technique, was used to produce nanoporous metals decades ago. With the development of dealloying techniques and theories, various interesting dealloying products including nanoporous metals/alloys, metal oxides and composites, which exhibit excellent catalytic, optical and sensing performance, have been developed in recent years. As a result, the research on dealloying products is of great importance for developing new materials with superior physical and chemical properties. In this paper, typical dealloying products from Cu-based metallic glasses after dealloying in hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions are summarized. Several potential application fields of these dealloying products are discussed. A promising application of nanoporous Cu (NPC) and NPC-contained composites related to the energy storage field is introduced. It is expected that more promising dealloying products could be developed for practical energy storage applications. PMID:28347030

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Development of spin-on-glass process for triple metal interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Wenbin, Zhao; Guozhang, Wang; Zongguang, Yu

    2010-12-01

    Spin-on-glass (SOG), an interlayer dielectric material applied in liquid form to fill narrow gaps in the sub-dielectric surface and thus conducive to planarization, is an alternative to silicon dioxide (SiO2) deposited using PECVD processes. However, its inability to adhere to metal and problems such as cracking prevent the easy application of SOG technology to provide an interlayer dielectric in multilevel metal interconnect circuits, particularly in university processing labs. This paper will show that a thin layer of CVD SiO2 and a curing temperature below the sintering temperature of the metal interconnect layer will promote adhesion, reduce gaps, and prevent cracking. Electron scanning microscope analysis has been used to demonstrate the success of the improved technique. This optimized process has been used in batches of double-poly, triple-metal CMOS wafer fabrication to date.

  18. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  19. Local structure and structural signature underlying properties in metallic glasses and supercooled liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jun

    Metallic glasses (MGs), discovered five decades ago as a newcomer in the family of glasses, are of current interest because of their unique structures and properties. There are also many fundamental materials science issues that remain unresolved for metallic glasses, as well as their predecessor above glass transition temperature, the supercooled liquids. In particular, it is a major challenge to characterize the local structure and unveil the structure-property relationship for these amorphous materials. This thesis presents a systematic study of the local structure of metallic glasses as well as supercooled liquids via classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Three typical MG models are chosen as representative candidate, Cu64 Zr36, Pd82Si18 and Mg65Cu 25Y10 systems, while the former is dominant with full icosahedra short-range order and the prism-type short-range order dominate for latter two. Furthermore, we move to unravel the underlying structural signature among several properties in metallic glasses. Firstly, the temperature dependence of specific heat and liquid fragility between Cu-Zr and Mg-Cu-Y (also Pd-Si) in supercooled liquids are quite distinct: gradual versus fast evolution of specific heat and viscosity/relaxation time with undercooling. Their local structural ordering are found to relate with the temperature dependence of specific heat and relaxation time. Then elastic heterogeneity has been studied to correlate with local structure in Cu-Zr MGs. Specifically, this part covers how the degree of elastic deformation correlates with the internal structure at the atomic level, how to quantitatively evaluate the local solidity/liquidity in MGs and how the network of interpenetrating connection of icosahedra determine the corresponding shear modulus. Finally, we have illustrated the structure signature of quasi-localized low-frequency vibrational normal modes, which resides the intriguing vibrational properties in MGs. Specifically, the

  20. Bulk metallic glasses and their composites: Composition optimization, thermal stability, and microstructural tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Hesham Ezzat

    A design protocol utilizing common elements for bulk metallic glass formation has been employed to develop novel, low cost Fe-, and Ti- based bulk metallic glasses. A critical obstacle that was successfully overcome in this work is the omission of beryllium in these alloys. Beryllium is of vital importance in many bulk metallic glass forming systems, but it is expensive and poses considerable health risks. Bulk metallic glasses in these novel Fe-, and Ti-based systems exhibit extremely high mechanical strength and excellent thermal stability. Devitrification and cooling rate experiments were used to identify crystalline phase formation and assess activation energy for crystallization, as well as to explore and develop ductile BMG composites. To better control microstructure in these BMG composites, a novel processing technique, called semi-solid forging was developed, wherein the alloy melt is heated to above the melt temperature of the glass, but below the melt temperature of the ductile crystalline phase. Such an approach permits the maintenance of a glassy, or nanocrystalline matrix phase, while simultaneously coarsening and homogenizing the ductile, secondary phase. This processing approach leads to enhanced ductility in the alloys, which, to this point, has not been observed using conventional casting methods. The combination of novel, low-cost, alloy compositions with semi-solid forging has been successfully utilized to develop new high strength structural materials with enhanced ductility and toughness. Microstrutural and mechanical properties of these novel, toughened, BMG composites are presented. A comprehensive analysis of the relationship between deformation mechanisms and microstructure reveals that enhanced ductility is predicated on matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales in a Ti-Ni-Si-Mo BMG composite. Under optimized microstructural conditions, a maximum compressive strength exceeding 2400 MPa with ˜ 30% total strain to

  1. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gears and Strain Wave Gear Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a strain wave gear includes: a wave generator; a flexspline that itself includes a first set of gear teeth; and a circular spline that itself includes a second set of gear teeth; where at least one of the wave generator, the flexspline, and the circular spline, includes a bulk metallic glass-based material.

  2. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  3. Enhanced fatigue endurance of metallic glasses through a staircase-like fracture mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Demetriou, Marios D; Floyd, Michael; Hohenwarter, Anton; Johnson, William L; Ritchie, Robert O

    2013-11-12

    Bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) are now candidate materials for structural applications due to their exceptional strength and toughness. However, their fatigue resistance can be poor and inconsistent, severely limiting their potential as reliable structural materials. As fatigue limits are invariably governed by the local arrest of microscopically small cracks at microstructural features, the lack of microstructure in monolithic glasses, often coupled with other factors, such as the ease of crack formation in shear bands or a high susceptibility to corrosion, can lead to low fatigue limits (some ~1/20 of their tensile strengths) and highly variable fatigue lives. BMG-matrix composites can provide a solution here as their duplex microstructures can arrest shear bands at a second phase to prevent cracks from exceeding critical size; under these conditions, fatigue limits become comparable with those of crystalline alloys. Here, we report on a Pd-based glass that similarly has high fatigue resistance but without a second phase. This monolithic glass displays high intrinsic toughness from extensive shear-band proliferation with cavitation and cracking effectively obstructed. We find that this property can further promote fatigue resistance through extrinsic crack-tip shielding, a mechanism well known in crystalline metals but not previously reported in BMGs, whereby cyclically loaded cracks propagate in a highly "zig-zag" manner, creating a rough "staircase-like" profile. The resulting crack-surface contact (roughness-induced crack closure) elevates fatigue properties to those comparable to crystalline alloys, and the accompanying plasticity helps to reduce flaw sensitivity in the glass, thereby promoting structural reliability.

  4. Enhanced fatigue endurance of metallic glasses through a staircase-like fracture mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Demetriou, Marios D.; Floyd, Michael; Hohenwarter, Anton; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs) are now candidate materials for structural applications due to their exceptional strength and toughness. However, their fatigue resistance can be poor and inconsistent, severely limiting their potential as reliable structural materials. As fatigue limits are invariably governed by the local arrest of microscopically small cracks at microstructural features, the lack of microstructure in monolithic glasses, often coupled with other factors, such as the ease of crack formation in shear bands or a high susceptibility to corrosion, can lead to low fatigue limits (some ∼1/20 of their tensile strengths) and highly variable fatigue lives. BMG-matrix composites can provide a solution here as their duplex microstructures can arrest shear bands at a second phase to prevent cracks from exceeding critical size; under these conditions, fatigue limits become comparable with those of crystalline alloys. Here, we report on a Pd-based glass that similarly has high fatigue resistance but without a second phase. This monolithic glass displays high intrinsic toughness from extensive shear-band proliferation with cavitation and cracking effectively obstructed. We find that this property can further promote fatigue resistance through extrinsic crack-tip shielding, a mechanism well known in crystalline metals but not previously reported in BMGs, whereby cyclically loaded cracks propagate in a highly “zig-zag” manner, creating a rough “staircase-like” profile. The resulting crack-surface contact (roughness-induced crack closure) elevates fatigue properties to those comparable to crystalline alloys, and the accompanying plasticity helps to reduce flaw sensitivity in the glass, thereby promoting structural reliability. PMID:24167284

  5. Non-collinear ferrimagnetism in a Fe64Er19B17 metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowlam, N.; Wildes, A. R.; Hanwell, M. D.; Dearing, N.; Jenner, A. G. I.

    2010-07-01

    Polarized neutron beam measurements on a Fe64Er19B17 metallic glass have shown directly that it has a non-collinear magnetic structure. It can be described using a model in which the magnetic moments on the iron atoms point in a random cone that is ferrimagnetically coupled to a random cone of erbium moments, in the manner suggested from bulk measurements. The spin-flip cross-sections were successfully calculated using an optimized choice of the values of the magnetic moments μFe, μEr and the random cone angles θFe, θEr. The non-spin-flip cross-sections have an unusual variation with the scattering vector Q, which has not been observed before with transition metal-metalloid glasses. At 1.5 and 60 K the \\dsty \\frac {\\partial \\sigma^{++}}{\\partial \\Omega } cross-section contains a pre-peak at a smaller value of Q (1.3 Å - 1) than the pre-peaks which have been observed in the structure factors of some transition metal glasses. At 180 K the form of these cross-sections remains the same but the two channels have interchanged, so \\dsty \\frac {\\partial \\sigma^{--}}{\\partial \\Omega } contains the pre-peak. This interchange shows that a complete inversion of the magnetic structure occurs between 60 and 180 K—presumably at the compensation temperature Tcomp≈120 K. Attempts to simulate these cross-sections using the methods applied to (Fe,Tb)B glasses were unsuccessful because none of the known partial structure factors contains a pre-peak which can imitate the observed one. The possible origins of the pre-peak are discussed.

  6. Non-collinear ferrimagnetism in a Fe64Er19B17 metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Cowlam, N; Wildes, A R; Hanwell, M D; Dearing, N; Jenner, A G I

    2010-07-28

    Polarized neutron beam measurements on a Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) metallic glass have shown directly that it has a non-collinear magnetic structure. It can be described using a model in which the magnetic moments on the iron atoms point in a random cone that is ferrimagnetically coupled to a random cone of erbium moments, in the manner suggested from bulk measurements. The spin-flip cross-sections were successfully calculated using an optimized choice of the values of the magnetic moments μ(Fe), μ(Er) and the random cone angles θ(Fe), θ(Er). The non-spin-flip cross-sections have an unusual variation with the scattering vector Q, which has not been observed before with transition metal-metalloid glasses. At 1.5 and 60 K the [Formula: see text] cross-section contains a pre-peak at a smaller value of Q (1.3 Å(-1)) than the pre-peaks which have been observed in the structure factors of some transition metal glasses. At 180 K the form of these cross-sections remains the same but the two channels have interchanged, so [Formula: see text] contains the pre-peak. This interchange shows that a complete inversion of the magnetic structure occurs between 60 and 180 K-presumably at the compensation temperature T(comp)≈120 K. Attempts to simulate these cross-sections using the methods applied to (Fe,Tb)B glasses were unsuccessful because none of the known partial structure factors contains a pre-peak which can imitate the observed one. The possible origins of the pre-peak are discussed.

  7. Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses subjected to nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Weizhong, Liang; Zhiliang, Ning; Zhenqian, Dang; Linzhi, Wu

    2013-12-15

    Plastic deformation behaviors of Ni{sub 42}Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 21.5}Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}Si{sub 3.5} and Zr{sub 51}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 9} bulk metallic glasses at room temperature were studied by nanoindentation testing and atomic force microscopy under equivalent indentation experimental conditions. The different chemical composition of these two bulk metallic glasses produced variant tendencies for displacement serrated flow to occur during the loading process. The nanoindentation strain rate was calculated as a function of indentation displacement in order to verify the occurrence of displacement serrated flow at different loading rates. Atomic force microscopy revealed decreasing numbers of discrete shear bands around the indentation sites as loading rates increased from 0.025 to 2.5 mNs{sup −1}. Variations in plastic deformation behaviors between Ni and Zr-based glasses materials can be explained by the different metastable microstructures and thermal stabilities of the two materials. The mechanism governing plastic deformation of these metallic glasses was analyzed in terms of an established model of the shear transformation zone. - Highlights: • Plastic deformation of Ni- and Zr-based BMG is studied under identical conditions • Zr-based BMG undergoes a greater extent of plastic deformation than Ni-based BMG • Nanoindentation strain rate is studied to clarify variation in plastic deformation • Metastable microstructure, thermal stability affect BMG plastic deformation.

  8. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; ...

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions.more » Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.« less

  9. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2016-07-26

    Recently, non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs) made from thermoplastic resins such as polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, and polypropylene have been used as removable partial dentures (RPDs). However, the use of such RPDs can seriously affect various tissues because of their low rigidity. In this study, we fabricated high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) for use in RPDs, and examined their physical properties such as apparent density, dynamic hardness, and flexural properties. GFRTPs made from E-glass fibers and polypropylene were fabricated using an injection-molding. The effects of the fiber content on the GFRTP properties were examined using glass-fiber contents of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. Commercially available denture base materials and NMCD materials were used as controls. The experimental densities of GFRTPs with various fiber contents agreed with the theoretical densities. Dynamic micro-indentation tests confirmed that the fiber content does not affect the GFRTP surface properties such as dynamic hardness and elastic modulus, because most of the reinforcing glass fibers are embedded in the polypropylene. The flexural strength increased from 55.8 to 217.6 MPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%. The flexural modulus increased from 1.75 to 7.42 GPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%, that is, the flexural strength and modulus of GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 3.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unreinforced polypropylene. These results suggest that fiber reinforcement has beneficial effects, and GFRTPs can be used in NMCDs because their physical properties are better than those of controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  10. Study of structural and spectroscopic behavior of Sm3+ ions in lead-zinc borate glasses containing alkali metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasi Kumar, M. V.; Babu, S.; Rajeswara Reddy, B.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-02-01

    High luminescence behavior of rare earth inorganic glasses have a variety of uses in the industry. In the past few decades, rare earth ions with characteristic photonics applications are being hosted by heavy metal oxide glasses. Among the rare earth ions Sm3+ ion has features which make it apt for high density optical storage. The authors of the paper have experimented to synthesize Sm3+ doped glasses. In this regard a new series of borate glasses doped with 1 mol% Sm3+ ion are developed by using melt-quenching technique. XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, luminescence techniques are used to study the various characteristics of Sm3+ ion in the present glass matrices. The XRD spectra confirms the amorphous nature of glasses. Further, the researchers have used differential thermal analysis to study the glass transition temperature. The structural groups in the prepared glasses are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra. From the measurement of its optical absorption, three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been computed. Based on these Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative properties such as radiative probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative life time (τR) are calculated. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ doped lithium heavy metal borate glass matrix is recorded under the emission wavelength of 600 nm. The emission spectra are recorded under 404 nm excitation wavelength. From various emission transitions, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 bands could be of interest for various applications. The decay profiles of 4G5/2 level exhibit single exponential nature in all the prepared glass matrices. The potassium glass matrix exhibits higher quantum efficiency than the other glass matrices. Finally, by going through these several spectroscopic characterizations, it is concluded that the prepared Sm3+ doped lead-zinc borate glasses might be useful for visible light applications.

  11. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-07-01

    The study of relaxational behavior of multicomponent metallic liquids still holds the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Herein, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM 601 Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9 ) in the kinetic regime (Q : 1.5 -4.0 Å-1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of the collective relaxation time of this metallic liquid around 950 ∘C , beyond the melting point of the material. Specific heat capacity measurement also reveals the presence of a peak around the same temperature. The coincidence is rationalized using Adams-Gibbs theory, and motivates more careful experimental and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.

  12. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; ...

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimentalmore » and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.« less

  13. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-07-21

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimental and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.

  14. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. J.; Chathoth, S. M.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-09-28

    Extensive efforts have been made to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. In this work, we have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  15. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, C. J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; ...

    2015-09-28

    We've made extensive efforts to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. We have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Finally, our results indicate that atomic caging is themore » primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.« less

  16. Microscopic insight into the origin of enhanced glass-forming ability of metallic melts on micro-alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Mamontov, E.; Wang, W. H.; Chathoth, S. M.

    2015-09-28

    We've made extensive efforts to develop metallic-glasses with large casting diameter. Such efforts were hindered by the poor understanding of glass formation mechanisms and the origin of the glass-forming ability (GFA) in metallic glass-forming systems. We have investigated relaxation dynamics of a model bulk glass-forming alloy system that shows the enhanced at first and then diminished GFA on increasing the percentage of micro-alloying. The micro-alloying did not have any significant impact on the thermodynamic properties. The GFA increasing on micro-alloying in this system cannot be explained by the present theoretical knowledge. Finally, our results indicate that atomic caging is the primary factor that influences the GFA. The composition dependence of the atomic caging time or residence time is found to be well correlated with GFA of the system.

  17. Dimensional accuracy and stability of polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with metal wire or with continuous glass fiber.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dimensional accuracy and stability of denture base polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which was reinforced in various ways. Autopolymerizing PMMA and heat-cured PMMA were reinforced either with semicircular steel wire or with a prefabricated experimental reinforcement made of continuous E-glass fiber. Control specimens had no reinforcement. The width of each U-shaped test specimen was measured with a digital micrometer under a light microscope immediately after the test specimen was cured and when stored in water for 1, 2, 7, and 14 days. The results revealed that both the type of PMMA and the type of reinforcement affected the dimensional accuracy of the test specimens, especially after 7 and 14 days in water storage (p < 0.001). The greatest dimensional accuracy was found with the unreinforced test specimen made from autopolymerizing PMMA and with test specimens reinforced with the metal wire made from heat-cured PMMA. In terms of the width of the test specimens, the lowest dimensional accuracy was found in unreinforced and glass fiber reinforced specimens made from heat-cured PMMA. Storage in water did not affect the stability of the width (p > 0.1). The results suggest that the polymerization shrinkage of PMMA causes lower dimensional accuracy of the test specimens reinforced with glass fiber. This should be considered when glass-fiber reinforcement is used clinically.

  18. Cooling rate dependence of simulated Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryltsev, R. E.; Klumov, B. A.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom model potential, we study structural evolution of Cu64.5Zr35.5 alloy during the cooling in a wide range of cooling rates γ ∈ (1.5 ṡ 109, 1013) K/s. Investigating short- and medium-range orders, we show that the structure of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass essentially depends on cooling rate. In particular, a decrease of the cooling rate leads to an increase of abundances of both the icosahedral-like clusters and Frank-Kasper Z16 polyhedra. The amounts of these clusters in the glassy state drastically increase at the γmin = 1.5 ṡ 109 K/s. Analysing the structure of the glass at γmin, we observe the formation of nano-sized crystalline grain of Cu2Zr intermetallic compound with the structure of Cu2Mg Laves phase. The structure of this compound is isomorphous with that for Cu5Zr intermetallic compound. Both crystal lattices consist of two types of clusters: Cu-centered 13-atom icosahedral-like cluster and Zr-centered 17-atom Frank-Kasper polyhedron Z16. That suggests the same structural motifs for the metallic glass and intermetallic compounds of Cu-Zr system and explains the drastic increase of the abundances of these clusters observed at γmin.

  19. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F.; Arnold, G.W.; Battaglin, G.; Bertoncello, R.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  20. Effect of physical aging on Johari-Goldstein relaxation in La-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jichao; Casalini, Riccardo; Pelletier, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    The influence of physical aging on the β relaxation in La60Ni15Al25 bulk metallic glass has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. The amplitude of the β relaxation (ΔG″) decreases while its relaxation time (τβ) increases during aging. We find that, as in organic glasses, the changes of ln (τβ) and ln (ΔGmax ) are linearly correlated with ln (τβ) = b - a ln (G_max^''). This behavior is discussed in term of the asymmetric double-well potential (ADWP) model, with U and Δ the energies characterizing the ADWP. It is suggested that during aging the ratio U/Δ remains approximately constant, with a value close to the coefficient describing the linear correlation between ln (τβ) and ln (G_max^'')(U/Δ ˜ a). Moreover, the evolution versus aging time of ΔGmax can be described by a simple stretched exponential equation giving values of τaging consistent with tan(δ) measurements during aging. The very similar behavior of the β relaxation during aging in metallic glasses and organic material strongly suggests a common nature for this relaxation.