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Sample records for nicaragua

  1. Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable

  2. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  3. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  4. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  5. [The health system of Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Muiser, Jorine; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Nicaragua and discusses the characteristics of its national health system including its structure and coverage, its financial sources its physical, material and human resources the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the system and the level of satisfaction of health care users. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the decentralization of the regulation of health facilities and the design and implementation of a new health care model known as Family and Community Health Model.

  6. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  7. Education of the deaf in nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Polich, L

    2001-01-01

    Nicaragua now ranks as the third poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (Interamerican Development Bank [IDB], 1995). Occasionally educational improvement has been a national priority (Arrien & Matus, 1989). Usually, however, education rests at the lower end of a long list of national needs. The history of education in Nicaragua is marked by low teacher salaries, deteriorated physical plants, and scarcities of teaching materials (Arnove, 1994). Deaf education has been no exception. Teachers have been expected to learn empirically what deafness is and how to teach deaf children, to teach pupils who have had little or no language exposure before entering school, and to manage with the barest physical resources, all the while receiving only meager compensation. This article places education of the deaf in Nicaragua in a historical perspective, reports the results of a teacher survey, and discusses national policies that, so far, have had only indirect effects, but are likely to gain importance in the future.

  8. Identification of Aedes albopictus in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Emperatriz Del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Zachariah, Marcus A; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Salgado, Mario J; Pérez, Roselo; Hammond, Samantha N; Harris, Eva

    2005-09-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus, a mosquito known for transmitting dengue virus, were identified in the city of León, Nicaragua, in 2003. Mosquito larvae were collected from a total of 2,225 residences in the 2 largest cities in Nicaragua during the period from June to September of 2003, and larval Ae. albopictus were identified in 4 homes in León. This represents the 1st detection of Ae. albopictus in a major Nicaraguan urban center, and increased control efforts appear to have eliminated the mosquito subsequently from León. The presence of Ae. albopictus in urban Nicaragua highlights the need for surveillance of areas thought to be free of the mosquito so that early detection and control activities can prevent its spread.

  9. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  10. Nicaragua 1980: The Battle of the ABCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a first-hand account of the massive literacy program in Nicaragua. They describe the political rationale and the extensive organizational tasks of the National Literacy Crusade, pointing out that its success depended upon the commitment of the people and the government to literacy and liberation. (Author/SK)

  11. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  12. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  13. Will the Nicaragua Canal connect or divide?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-11-03

    A century after the opening of the Panama Canal, a second inter-oceanic passage is set to be built in Central America, this time in Nicaragua. The ambitious and astronomically expensive project promises to bring economic opportunity to a poor country but it also carries risks to its tropical ecosystems. Will the new waterway ultimately link two oceans or divide a continent? Michael Gross investigates.

  14. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  15. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  16. U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua: Illegal and Unwarranted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Ved P.

    1988-01-01

    Appraises the legality, under international law, of the U.S. intervention in Nicaragua. Describes the concepts of intervention, international resolutions, and declarations on the subject. Points out that international law is violated by many nations. Concludes that U.S. intervention in Nicaragua is impermissible under international law and unwise…

  17. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  18. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.
SETTING—León, Nicaragua.
PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.
CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.


Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  19. [Mental disorders in Nicaragua: family perspective].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-09-01

    In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.

  20. Early childbearing in Nicaragua: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Luis; Carballo Palma, Luis; Wulf, Deirdre; Remez, Lisa; Prada, Elena; Drescher, Joanna

    2006-09-01

    (1) Among Nicaraguan women 20-24 years old, six in 10 had entered a union and almost half had had a child before their 20th birthday. (2) A quarter of all births in Nicaragua--35,000 per year--are to 15-19-year-olds. (3) Rural women, who have less education, on average, than their urban counterparts, are more likely than city dwellers to enter a union and become mothers during adolescence. (4) The proportion of 20-24-year-olds who had a child during adolescence is more than twice as high among the poorest as among those in the highest socioeconomic category. (5) Nearly half--45%--of births to adolescent women are unplanned, a level that varies little by women's urban-rural residence and their educational achievement. (6) Among all sexually active women aged 15-19 (in union and not in union), 86% do not want a child in the next two years, and 36% have an unmet need for effective contraception. Unmet need for family planning is equally high in urban and rural areas. (7) The strong link between low educational attainment and early motherhood suggests that improving educational opportunities for girls is a promising way of reducing high levels of adolescent childbearing in Nicaragua.

  1. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the "so called" Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  2. By and for women. Nicaragua's Si Mujer.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nicaragua, a group of women physicians and health professionals created an alternative health service for women. "Si Mujer" (Yes Woman), which stands for Integrated Services for Women, provides: 1) gynecologic services (comprehensive check-up, early cancer detection, sterility counseling, and AIDS and sexually transmitted disease [STD] prevention); 2) obstetric services (prenatal care, normal and high-risk pregnancy care, and family planning); 3) counseling (for women, couples, and families, and for victims of sexual violence); and 4) sex education and training (in reproductive health, gynecology, and sexuality). The non-profit organization collects fees according to ability to pay (11% pay nothing) and serves approximately 800 clients per month. Special programs provide services to teenagers and to men. While the training program began as a secondary effort, it is now as important as the direct service provision, with training activities reaching more than 1600 people in the first year through courses on such topics as sexuality, gender and power, AIDS and STD prevention, and cancer prevention. Si Mujer is one of more than 52 women's health centers in Nicaragua that have arisen to fill the gap left by the deterioration of public health services and which apply a gender perspective to the manner in which they approach their clients.

  3. Satellite Animation Shows Landfall of Hurricane Otto in Nicaragua

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Nov. 22 to Nov. 25 shows Hurricane Otto moving through the southwestern Caribbean Sea and making landfall in southern Nicaragua on Nov. 24....

  4. A new geothermal anomaly in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram

    1982-03-01

    The information acquired during reconnaissance surface exploration in Nicaragua suggests a large geothermal reservoir in the region of Masaya—Nandaime. The exploration programme included geological, geophysical, geochemical, as well as hydrogeological investigations. Integration of the results from various disciplines permitted postulation of a conceptual model of the reservoir and of the thermal regime within the zone immediately above and around the reservoir. The reservoir with a temperature in excess of 200°C is emplaced at a depth between 2 and 4 km in a predominantly graywacke formation. It is sealed off by a silica cap and camouflaged by the flow of groundwater in a thick phreatic aquifer, that intercepts and redistributes anomalous heat flow from above the reservoir.

  5. Reflections on curative health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Slater, R G

    1989-01-01

    Improved health care in Nicaragua is a major priority of the Sandinista revolution; it has been pursued by major reforms of the national health care system, something few developing countries have attempted. In addition to its internationally recognized advances in public health, considerable progress has been made in health care delivery by expanding curative medical services through training more personnel and building more facilities to fulfill a commitment to free universal health coverage. The very uneven quality of medical care is the leading problem facing curative medicine now. Underlying factors include the difficulty of adequately training the greatly increased number of new physicians. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement continue to be major problems. The curative medical system is not well coordinated with the preventive sector. Recent innovations include initiation of a "medicina integral" residency, similar to family practice. Despite its inadequacies and the handicaps of war and poverty, the Nicaraguan curative medical system has made important progress. PMID:2705603

  6. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  7. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  8. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  9. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  10. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  11. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    PubMed

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly.

  12. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large‐scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far‐reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. PMID:27253906

  13. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  14. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  15. Nicaragua: Political-Economy as Communication and Media Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    The Nicaraguan people, through a successful revolution and subsequent elections, have chosen a communist government. This paper, using an historical-descriptive methodology, examines the status of Nicaragua under the current political-economy that prevails in that nation. Political-economic statements made and published in the press that support…

  16. Education in Nicaragua: What Difference Can a Revolution Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila

    1987-01-01

    To stimulate development in Nicaragua it was necessary for the Sandinistas to raise the education level of its populace. This was accomplished through a national literacy crusade which decreased the illiteracy rate by 37.1 per cent. The crusade showed the importance of incorporating popular organizations into the process of change. (VM)

  17. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  18. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  19. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sapag, Jaime C.; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global

  20. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  1. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project.

  2. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  3. State Approaches Toward Reducing Youth Violence in Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    their inability to meet the overwhelming monetary demands of gangs.49 Within the last 15 years, Honduran youth gangs have also expanded the types of...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATE APPROACHES TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA 5...AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  4. Learning from the Third World: health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kugel, C

    1991-01-01

    In this article, Candace Kugel, a family nurse practitioner in Pennsylvania who visited Nicaragua as part of an exchange program, describes her impressions of the country's health care system. Kugel is a member of the Project Gettysburg/Leon, a sister-city program that promotes cultural exchanges. She arrived in Nicaragua less than 2 weeks after the newly elected UNO government assumed power. In Leon, Kugel visited seven rural and urban clinics, the city's hospital, the health education organization, and the medical, dental, and nursing schools. In all health facilities, she discovered politically energized and committed health care workers. It is this determination that allows then to continue working in spite of perpetual shortages of even the most basic supplies. The hospital was out of insulin, and was having to reuse bulb syringes for newborns. One clinic lacked water supply. Kugel also found nurses to be in short supply. As she explains, the physicians outnumber professional nurse 3-1. Because of low salaries, 1 6-day work schedule, and staffing shortages, few are interested in becoming nurses. Furthermore, the nursing school is severely ill-equipped. Nonetheless, Nicaragua's health care system has accomplished health: immunization, family planning, prenatal care, well-child screening, health education, and treating open water for malaria and dengue-bearing mosquitoes. From 1979-88, infant mortality dropped from 93/1000-62/1000, and life expectancy increased from 56-63.3 years. Additionally, Nicaraguans now consider health care a right, not a privilege. Kugel hopes that with the end of the US embargo and the renewal of US aid, Nicaragua will accomplish even more.

  5. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  6. 76 FR 44648 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Div. F... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Nicaragua and I hereby waive such restriction....

  7. Literacy Crusades and Revolutionary Governments: The Cases of Cuba, 1961, and Nicaragua, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, William

    After the Castro revolution of 1959, the new Cuban revolutionary government began a massive literacy campaign that taught 700,000 persons to read in about a year. Twenty years later, Nicaragua, facing an even more serious literacy problem, conducted a similar literacy campaign. In approximately six months, Nicaragua had reduced illiteracy by 37…

  8. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  9. Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sandiford, P; Pauw, J; Morales, P; Pérez, R M; Alberts, H

    1998-12-01

    Poor hygiene practices are among the risk factors for the transmission of childhood diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Findings are reported from a prospective follow-up study in rural Nicaragua of the effect of a number of hygiene practices upon diarrheal disease in children under age 2 years old. 172 families, of whom half had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhea in their children and the other half a lower rate, participated. Hygiene behavior was observed over 2 mornings and diarrhea incidence was recorded with a calendar over the course of 5 months. Of 46 good practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhea, 5 were unrelated, and a higher risk was observed for 2. The washing of hands, domestic cleanliness, and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect against diarrhea. Mothers with more than 3 years of primary school education and in a comparatively better economic position, including having a radio, exhibited comparatively better general hygiene behavior. Education had a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. However, individual hygiene behavior seems to be highly variable compared to the consistent behavior of the overall community. Appropriate indicators of hygiene behavior were domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child.

  10. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A Key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2007-07-01

    Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, is being investigated as an analog for acid-sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts. Our goal is to better understand the mineral alteration pathways and the astrobiological potential of early Mars.

  11. Acid-Sulfate Weathering of Basalts at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua: An Early Mars Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, E. C.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is a high temperature, low pH, S-rich environment, proposed to explain some acid-sulfate weathering on Mars. Simultaneously, we are analyzing field samples, laboratory experiments, theoretical modeling, and microbial studies.

  12. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  13. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  14. Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    Recent analyses of food sharing in small-scale societies indicate that reciprocal altruism maintains interhousehold food transfers, even among close kin. In this study, matrix-based regression methods are used to test the explanatory power of reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and tolerated scrounging. In a network of 35 households in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, the significant predictors of food sharing include kinship, interhousehold distance, and reciprocity. In particular, resources tend to flow from households with relatively more meat to closely related households with little, as predicted by kin selection. This generalization is especially true of household dyads with mother-offspring relationships, which suggests that studies of food sharing may benefit from distinctions between lineal and collateral kin. Overall, this analysis suggests that exchanges among kin are primarily associated with differences in need, not reciprocity. Finally, although large game is distributed widely, qualitative observations indicate that hunters typically do not relinquish control of the distribution in ways predicted by costly signaling theory.

  15. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  16. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers exported from Nicaragua to the... the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the Pension... exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL, Nicaragua would export to...

  17. Nicaragua: an example of commitments and strengths despite problems of poverty.

    PubMed

    Ross, Carl A

    2007-01-01

    Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Central American isthmus between the countries of Honduras and Costa Rica. It is the largest Central American country and is equivalent in size to the state of Georgia. Nicaragua is cited by Pan American Health Organization as one of the poorest third-world countries. One factor that continues to contribute to Nicaragua's chronic poverty state is the demographics of the country. Nearly half of all Nicaraguans are under 15 years of age, and more than a quarter are between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Only a quarter of the population is over 30 years of age. Beyond the hardship and poverty, there is a country rich in beauty. Nicaragua has a beautiful countryside with lush green mountains, black sand beaches of the Pacific Ocean, and the natural wonder of active volcanoes. It is easy to become engulfed by the tranquility of these surroundings and to steer away from the harsh conditions of the country. It is, however, a temporary escape from reality, for it was the hardships and unfavorable circumstances of this country that are never forgotten and which persist until today. This article focuses on a variety of interventions used to assist Nicaragua with their health care and state of well-being.

  18. May 2011 eruption of Telica Volcano, Nicaragua: Multidisciplinary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. R.; Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Muñoz, A.; Morales, A.; Tenorio, V.; Chavarria, D.; Feineman, M. D.; Furman, T.; Longley, A.

    2011-12-01

    Telica volcano, an andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Nicaragua, erupted in May 2011. The eruption, produced ash but no lava and required the evacuation of over 500 people; no injuries were reported. We present the first detailed report of the eruption, using information from the TElica Seismic ANd Deformation (TESAND) network, that provides real-time data, along with visual observations, ash leachate analysis, and fumarole temperature measurements. Telica is located in the Maribios mountain range. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua and has frequent small explosions and rare large (VEI 4) eruptions, with the most recent sizable eruptions (VEI 2) occurring in 1946 and 1999. The 2011 eruption is the most explosive since 1999. The eruption consisted of a series of ash explosions, with the first observations from May 8, 2011 when local residents reported ash fall NE of the active crater. Popping sounds could be heard coming from the crater on May 10. On May 13, the activity intensified and continued with some explosions every day for about 2 weeks. The well-defined plumes originated from the northern part of the crater. Ash fall was reported 4 km north of the active crater on May 14. The largest explosion at 2:54 pm (local time) on May 21 threw rocks from the crater and generated a column 2 km in height. Fresh ash samples were collected on May 16, 18, and 21 and preliminary inspection shows that the majority of the material is fragmented rock and crystalline material, i.e. not juvenile. Ash leachates (ash:water = 1:25) contain a few ppb As, Se, and Cd; tens of ppb Co and Ni; and up to a few hundred ppb Cu and Zn. Telica typically has hundreds of small seismic events every day, even when the volcano is not erupting. The TESAND network detected an increase in the rate and magnitude of seismic activity, with a maximum magnitude of 3.3. Elevated fumarole temperatures at locations near the active vent were also observed throughout the May 2011

  19. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  20. Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, C.; Folch, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-03-01

    Concepción volcano in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, is a highly active volcano with a rich historical record of explosive eruptions. Tephra fallout from Concepción jeopardizes the surrounding populations, whereas volcanic ash clouds threat aerial navigation at a regional level. The assessment of these hazards is important for territorial planning and adoption of mitigation measures. Here we compute probabilistic hazard maps for Concepción volcano considering three different eruptive scenarios based on past reference events. Previous geological analysis is used to quantify the eruption parameters of the reference events. We account for uncertainties in the definition of the scenarios trough probability density functions. A representative meteorological dataset is created for each scenario by running the WRF-ARW mesoscale meteorological model over a typical meteorological year, defined in terms of wind speed and direction at a given atmospheric height. Tephra transport and deposition under different eruption and wind conditions is modelled using the FALL3D dispersion model. For each scenario, simulations are combined to build probabilistic hazard maps for critical values of tephra load and for threshold values of airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels. Results are useful to identify the expected impacts for each eruption type and aim at improving the assessment and management of risk in the region.

  1. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, P; Gorter, A C; Smith, G D; Pauw, J P

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea.

  2. Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-08-15

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases".

  3. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  4. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies.

  5. MPA in Labor: Securing the Pearl Cays of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Clarence; Jentoft, Svein

    2011-04-01

    Implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has always a step-zero, i.e., an initial phase when the idea is incepted, communicated and negotiated among stakeholders. What happens during this phase is likely to have an impact later on. If not done right, the management of the MPA may encounter problems at later stage that will be difficult to correct. Inspired by this working theory, this article describes the effort to establish the Pearl Cays off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua as a protected area. This case-study illustrates the critical actions to be taken during step-zero, i.e., what needs to be considered and done before an MPA is formally declared. The area investigated consists of a number of small islands (cays) and coral reefs, fishing grounds and marine turtle nesting areas. Throughout history, the cays have played an important role in sustaining livelihoods of nearby communities. Although the idea of an MPA was originally conservation, the communities saw it as an opportunity to regain ownership and control of the cays. By Nicaraguan law, in order to establish protected areas, consultation and approval from local people is required. In the case of the Pearl Cays, this has proved difficult. The article demonstrates how MPA initiatives must sometimes relate to already ongoing complex social processes in the area where they are to be instigated.

  6. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P.; Gorter, A. C.; Smith, G. D.; Pauw, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea. PMID:2737254

  7. Rotavirus Prevalence in the Primary Care Setting in Nicaragua after Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057

  8. Malaria control in Nicaragua: social and political influences on disease transmission and control activities.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R

    1999-07-31

    Throughout Central America, a traditional malaria control strategy (depending on heavy use of organic pesticides) became less effective during the 1970s. In Nicaragua, an alternative strategy, based on frequent local epidemiological assessments and community participation, was developed in the 1980s. Despite war-related social instability, and continuing vector resistance, this approach was highly successful. By the end of the contra war, there finally existed organisational and ecological conditions that favoured improved malaria control. Yet the expected improvements did not occur. In the 1990s, Nicaragua experienced its worst recorded malaria epidemics. This situation was partly caused by the country's macroeconomic structural adjustment programme. Volunteers now take fewer slides and provide less treatment, malaria control workers are less motivated by the spirit of public service, and some malaria control stations charge for diagnosis or treatment. To "roll back malaria", in Nicaragua at least, will require the roll-back of some erroneous aspects of structural adjustment.

  9. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  10. Geology and eruptive mechanisms of Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of detailed geologic field mapping and analysis of eruptive mechanisms at Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua are presented. Eruptions began at least 50,000 and possibly 460,000 y.b.p. The Las Sierras Formation, regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, forms the local basement. A central vent of group or vents in the developing Masaya volcanic complex produced diverse deposits, all of basaltic composition. Eruption of a pyroclastic flow-surge sequence at 2250-6500 y.b.p. culminated in wholesale collapse of a caldera with a volume of 15.3 km/sup 3/. The bulk volume of the ignimbrite is 2.2-3.4 kkm/sup 3/ and the surge deposit is 4.9-5.5 km/sup 3/. Pre-historic lava production rates of 1.9-5.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//year are similar to rates at other volcanoes but 26-76 times greater than the historic rate of production. The average lava effusion rate of 32 m/sup 3//sec during the 1772 eruption is at least an order of magnitude greater than observed effusion rates at other Central American volcanoes, and helps explain the unusual shield-like morphology of the volcano. Pyroclastic eruptions of several types have played an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Fissure-type eruptions, unknown elsewhere in Central America, have created numerous ash and scoria deposits. Two widespread scoria-fall deposits, locally known as the Fontana Lapilli an San Judas Formation, are the first documented plinian airfall deposts of basaltic composition. The Masaya-type caldera is redefined as a caldera associated with voluminous explosive eruptions of much less than 100 km/sup 3/ of mafic magma from a summit vent.

  11. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  12. Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, A M; Christiani, D C; McConnell, R; Eisen, E A; Wilcox, M

    1991-01-01

    This is the first epidemiologic study conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Limited environmental sampling, performed using a vertical elutriator in yarn preparation and weaving areas, indicated that exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after the Monday workshift to measure across-shift change in ventilatory function. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking habit, and work tenure, the exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The association between exposure and across-shift decrement in FEV1 was not significant. Byssinotic workers, however, had greater decrements in FEV1% than those without byssinosis: 5.5% versus 1.8%. A consistent gender effect was observed in which both exposed and unexposed women were found to have greater across-shift decrements in FEV1 than men. The gender difference existed among long-term workers as well as workers who had been employed less than 2 years. Results are related to cotton dust exposure, as has been documented elsewhere. The poorer health status of the women in this study population deserves follow-up.

  13. Using Technology and Mentorship to Improve Teacher Pedagogy and Educational Opportunities in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Anni; Henderson, Kathryn I.; Durán, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to understand factors influencing the implementation of an educational intervention combining short math content videos with teacher trainings and mentorship in high-poverty primary schools in Nicaragua with implications for rural school reform. Educators in rural schools in Latin American face serious…

  14. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  15. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  16. Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R.; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzalez, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-01-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses. PMID:12967502

  17. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Mitch, various hurricanes, tropical depressions, and tropical storms have resulted in loss of life... Nicaragua. Most recently, in October 2011, heavy rains associated with Tropical Depression 12E caused... cause for late re-registration. However, applicants are urged to refile within 45 days of the date...

  18. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  19. Caldera-related gold mineralization of the El Limón mining district, western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Gary B.; Stoiber, Richard E.

    1987-08-01

    The town of El Limón, the center of a small gold mining district, lies 36 km northeast of León, Nicaragua. This paper reports on the sequence of volcanic rocks in the district, the structures in these volcanics and the relationship of the gold veins to them.

  20. Nicaragua: A Look Across Cultures. An Area Study in Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozete, Oscar

    These curricular units are designed to help Spanish students or bilingual students gain a better understanding of the history, geography, and culture of Nicaragua, Wisconsin's "sister state" in Central America. In its entirety, the bulletin can serve as the basis of a cultural mini-course. However, since each section is a self-contained…

  1. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  2. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  3. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  4. Distribution of Thermophilic Acidophiles at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, an Analog for Acid-Sulfate Weathering Environments on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Stephenson, S.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is an excellent terrestrial analog for putative acid-sulfate weathering systems on early Mars. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing acidophiles are found throughout Cerro Negro and can further elucidate the habitability of early Mars.

  5. Nutritional analysis of a programme in eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Horner, M R

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the impact of a World Food Program (WFP) project on the food consumption of preschool Miskito Indian children in eastern Nicaragua. The data were collected during January, March, and May 1977 by the recall method for the random sample of 252 children ranging in age from 6 months-5 years. 24-hour recalls were obtained from mothers or other persons responsible for childfeeding. Homes were visited once per day in the late afternoon. Food intakes for the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview were recorded using food models and marked dishes as aids. The amount of breastmilk consumed was not estimated. In March, homes of selected children were visited 3 days in succession with 24-hour food intakes recorded for each day. To evaluate the contribution of different food sources to the children's diets, the following classification was used: home--food acquired through the family's own agriculture, hunting, fishing, or gathering, or received as a gift; market--food purchased in village stores or a food combination made with purchased ingredients; mixed--food purchased from another family or a food combination made with ingredients from a mixture of home, market, and National Development Institute (INFONAC) sources; and INFONAC--food items from the INFONAC project or a food combination made from a majority of INFONAC ingredients, which consisted of oatmeal, whole wheat, and dried skim milk. Marked changes occurred in food sources over the 5-month period. Data for January and March were relatively similar but, in May, there was a significant increase in the contribution of INFONAC foods to the consumption of almost all nutrients. This shift was due to a decrease in the availabiltiy of "home" foods as well as to increased consumption of INFONAC foods. The percentage contributions of the 4 different food sources to the diets of Miskito Indian children cannot indicate the actual nutrient adequacy of the food consumed. Total food consumption

  6. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  7. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  8. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  9. Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers. PMID:23202822

  10. Gender, inequality and Depo-Provera: Constraints on reproductive choice in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Kristin Elizabeth; Dent, Nicolette Jeannette

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the sociocultural determinants of Nicaraguan women's use of Depo-Provera as a means of contraception. The prevalence of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua is high and increasing compared to other Central American countries. Drawing on data from structured interviews with 87 women and from focus groups with 32 women, we show how women's preference for Depo is shaped by both gendered inequalities and socioeconomic constraints. We employ basic statistical tests to analyse correlations between women's marital status and socioeconomic status (SES) with contraceptive use. Our statistical findings show significant associations between use of Depo and both marital status and SES, such that women who are married or in conjugal unions and women with lower SES are more likely to use Depo. To help explain women's use of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua, we situate our findings within the context of gender, culture, and power, reviewing the contested history of Depo-Provera in the developing world and dynamics of gender inequality, which constrain women's contraceptive choices. We conclude with suggestions for reproductive health programming in Nicaragua and beyond, arguing that gender equity and addressing socioeconomic barriers to family planning remain priorities for the achievement of global reproductive health.

  11. Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in rural Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Julie K.; Tobey, Matthew; Stevens, Lesley A.; Johnson, Sarah; Stringham, Peter; Cohen, Bruce; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mostly anecdotal reports describe a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in northwestern Nicaragua, predominantly among younger men, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. The true prevalence, nature and aetiology of kidney disease in this region remain unknown. Methods. We performed a population-based prevalence study in Quezalguaque, Nicaragua to assess the frequency of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared the prevalence of reduced eGFR in Quezalguaque with the USA using the NHANES 1999–2006 data. We also conducted an embedded case–control study in a subset of participants to assess kidney disease risk factors. Results. From 1882 eligible households, 771 individuals from 300 households participated in the prevalence study, 98 (13%) of whom had reduced eGFR. Reduced eGFR was more common among older participants, men and participants living at lower altitudes. Among 18–29-year-old participants, 2.6% had reduced eGFR, and among 30–41-year-old participants, 7.4% had reduced eGFR; this compares with 0.2% and 0.8%, respectively, in NHANES. No individuals in these age groups were diabetic. Among cases, only 27% had dipstick proteinuria of 1+ or greater, compared with 7% of controls. Haematuria did not significantly differ between cases and controls (24% versus 18%). In age- and sex-adjusted models, hypertension and residence at lower altitude were independently associated with reduced eGFR, while occupational history was not associated with reduced eGFR. Conclusions. Kidney disease appears common in residents of Quezalguaque, Nicaragua, particularly in younger men, with features most consistent with tubulointerstitial disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of kidney disease in this region. PMID:20615905

  13. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  14. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  15. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  16. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  17. Predominance of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Nicaragua after Implementation of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Reyes, Yaoska; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P[8] (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination. PMID:24849288

  18. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  19. Happiness among poor women victims of intimate partner violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes various aspects of overall happiness expressed by 136 women in poverty who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nicaragua, a country with low levels of development. The information was gathered using a structured interview. Results obtained show that despite the hardships they face, one half of the women in poverty who are victims of IPV say they are happy, and the vast majority are optimistic about their future. The main sources of happiness among the interviewees are in areas outside their economic life and are mainly associated with social relations.

  20. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  1. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  2. Child survival revolutions revisited. Lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-03-12

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  4. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  5. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  6. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... meeting the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers exported from Nicaragua to... establishes the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the... meter equivalent of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL,...

  7. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... equivalent to account for the shortfall in meeting the one-to-one commitment for cotton and man-made fiber...-made fiber trousers. Section 1634(c)(2) of the Pension Protection Act authorizes the President to..., Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of exports of cotton and man-made fiber...

  8. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  9. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  10. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  11. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  12. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  13. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  14. Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken - especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport recognises the need for a flexible curriculum that reflects individual local and regional linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics, through the use of mother tongue and second language learning. The contextualisation model applied in the Atlantic coastal region of Nicaragua is therefore based on the use of a languages strategy in preparing textbooks and basic technical materials with an IBE approach, as part of the process of improving the quality of education. Thus intercultural communication is enhanced, and the need to strengthen the systematic teaching of languages, differentiating between mother tongue, second language and foreign language, is recognised. As well as explaining the contextualisation process in detail, this article discusses the conceptual differences between intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE). The paper concludes with several recommendations for the further development of BIE in Latin America.

  15. Evaluating the health impact of a public-private partnership: to reduce rotavirus disease in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Shazia; Cardellino, Anna; Klotz, Diana; Kuter, Barbara J; Feinberg, Mark B; Colatrella, Brenda D; Mast, T Christopher

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the RotaTeq(®) Nicaragua Partnership and the evaluation of the public health impact of the vaccine conducted by the partners, including the creation of a rotavirus surveillance program and a vaccine effectiveness assessment. The three main objectives of the partnership were to demonstrate that a new rotavirus vaccine could (1) be introduced rapidly in a developing country, (2) be successfully integrated into the existing vaccine delivery infrastructure, and (3) have a significant and measurable public health impact at the end of the 3-y program. The vaccine impact assessment required collaboration among partners with different areas of expertise, including the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, Merck, local hospitals, government health clinics, laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Group. Through the partnership, RotaTeq(®) became available in a GAVI-eligible developing country, Nicaragua, in the same year it was approved in the United States. Vaccine coverage rapidly reached over > 90% of eligible Nicaraguan children. The impact assessment evaluated over 10,000 subjects and leveraged and enhanced the existing diarrheal surveillance infrastructure, ultimately providing the scientific community with some of the first real-world rotavirus vaccine effectiveness data from a developing country. The successful public-private partnership (PPP) was internationally recognized as a model for the rapid adoption of a new vaccine in a developing world setting. The model could be adapted to benefit other PPPs interested in demonstrating the impact of their own programs.

  16. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  17. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777

  18. Phenotypic variation within a clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans infecting both tomato and potato in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Díaz, J U; Widmark, A-K; Hannukkala, A; Andersson, B; Högberg, N; Yuen, J E

    2012-03-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a constraint to both potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. The hypothesis that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans is genotypically and phenotypically diverse and potentially subdivided based on host association was tested. A collection of isolates was analyzed using genotypic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA haplotype) and phenotypic markers (mating type, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity). The genotypic analysis revealed no polymorphism in 121 of 132 isolates of P. infestans tested. Only the Ia haplotype and the A2 mating type were detected. Most of the tested isolates were resistant to metalaxyl. The virulence testing showed variation among isolates of P. infestans. No evidence was found of population differentiation among potato and tomato isolates of P. infestans based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. We conclude that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans consists of a single clonal lineage (NI-1) which belongs to the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial DNA haplotype. Moreover, based on the markers used, this population of P. infestans does not resemble the population in countries from which potato seed is imported to Nicaragua or the population in neighboring countries. The data presented here indicate that the NI-1 clonal lineage is the primary pathogen on both potato and tomato, and its success on both host species is unique in a South American context.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Improving Health Care to People with HIV in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Danilo; Moreno, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Background. A 2010 evaluation found generally poor outcomes among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nicaragua. We evaluated an intervention to improve HIV nursing services in hospital outpatient departments to improve patient treatment and retention in care. The intervention included improving patient tracking, extending clinic hours, caring for children of HIV+ mothers, ensuring medication availability, promoting self-help groups and family involvement, and coordinating multidisciplinary care. Methods. This pre/postintervention study examined opportunistic infections and clinical status of HIV patients before and after implementation of changes to the system of nursing care. Hospital expenditure data were collected by auditors and hospital teams tracked intervention expenses. Decision tree analysis determined incremental cost-effectiveness from the implementers' perspective. Results. Opportunistic infections decreased by 24% (95% CI: 14%–34%) and 11.3% of patients improved in CDC clinical stage. Average per-patient costs decreased by $133/patient/year (95% CI: $29–$249). The intervention, compared to business-as-usual strategy, saved money while improving outcomes. Conclusions. Improved efficiency of services can allow more ART-eligible patients to receive therapy. We recommended the intervention be implemented in all HIV service facilities in Nicaragua. PMID:24977038

  20. Building social capital in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Brune, Nancy E; Bossert, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Studies of social capital have focused on the static relationship between social capital and health, governance and economic conditions. This study is a first attempt to evaluate interventions designed to improve the levels of social capital in post-conflict communities in Nicaragua and to relate those increases to health and governance issues. The two-year study involved a baseline household survey of approximately 200 households in three communities in Nicaragua, the implementation of systematic interventions designed to increase social capital in two of the locales (with one control group), and a second household survey administered two years after the baseline survey. We found that systematic interventions promoting management and leadership development were effective in improving some aspects of social capital, in particular the cognitive attitudes of trust in the communities. Interventions were also linked to higher levels of civic participation in governance processes. As in other empirical studies, we also found that higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with some positive health behaviors. The behavioral/structural components of social capital (including participation in groups and social networks) were associated with more desirable individual health behaviors such as the use of modern medicine to treat children's respiratory illnesses. Attitudinal components of social capital were positively linked to community health behaviors such as working on community sanitation campaigns. The findings presented here should be of interest to policy makers interested in health policy and social capital, as well as those working in conflict-ridden communities in the developing world.

  1. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  2. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    A successful landslide hazard and risk assessment requires awareness and good understanding of the potential landslide problems within the geographic area involved. However, this requirement is not always met in developing countries where population, scientific community, and the government may not be aware of the landslide threat. The landslide hazard assessment is often neglected or is based on sparse and not well documented technical information. In Nicaragua (Central America), the basic conditions for landslide hazard and risk assessment were first created after the catastrophic landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. A single landslide took the life of thousands of people at Casita volcano forcing entire communities to be evacuated or relocated and, furthermore, thousands of smaller landslides caused loss of fertile soils and pasture lands, and made serious damages to the infrastructure. Since those events occurred, the public awareness has increased and the country relies now on new local and national governmental laws and policies, on a number of landslide investigations, and on educational and training programs. Dozens of geologists have been capacitated to investigate landslide prone areas, The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), governmental geo-scientific institution, has assumed the responsibility to help land-use planners and public officials to reduce geological hazard losses. They are committed to work cooperatively with national, international, and local agencies, universities and the private sector to provide scientific information and improve public safety through forecasting and warnings. However, in order to provide successful long-term landslide hazard assessment, the institutions must face challenges related to the scarcity and varied quality of available landslide information; collection and access to dispersed data and documents; organization of landslide information in a form that can be easy to

  3. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  4. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

  5. Mid Miocene volcanism in Nicaragua and implications for the formation of the Nicaraguan Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Nicaragua contains Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression consisting of portions of the Coyol Formation to the East and the Tamarindo Formation to the West. The Tamarindo Formation is a narrow band of basaltic to andesitic lavas interlayered with thick ignimbrite deposits and volcaniclastic sediments that parallel Nicaragua’s Pacific coast to the west of the modern volcanic front with ages from 14.7-11.7 Ma. The Coyol represents primarily Miocene volcanism from 25-7 Ma and lies east of the active front. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to speculation that the two coeval units, which are currently separated by almost 100km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data that show the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit. First, the Tamarindo has lower La/Yb values than Coyol, which suggests that the Tamarindo was formed by a higher degree of partial melting, assuming that mantle source compositions are similar for both units. In addition, the Tamarindo has higher Zr/Nb values than Coyol, which are indicative of High Field Strength Element (HFSE) depletion common in arc volcanics. Because the degree of partial melting and HFSE depletion is expected to increase towards the trench, both Tamarindo’s La/Yb and Zr/Nb values are consistent with its being emplaced closer to the trench than Coyol and the presence of these two units of Mid-Miocene age on opposite sides of the Nicaraguan Depression cannot be used as proof of significant extension. In addition, currently available data do not show the significant crustal thinning and large-scale structural surface features that would be expected if the Tamarindo and Coyol were once connected and later separated by extension. Fault displacement along the Nicaraguan Depression is insufficient to accommodate this extension and

  6. Chikungunya Virus Sequences across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  7. Low stress drop earthquakes in the rupture zone of the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Susan L.; Rotman, Holly M. M.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2016-10-01

    Tsunami earthquakes, events that generate larger than expected tsunami and are deficient in high-frequency seismic radiation, are rare but hazardous to coastal populations. One model for these events is shallow rupture through low-strength materials. We calculate seismic moment, corner frequency, and stress drop for 216 earthquakes (2.1 < Mw < 4.7, November 2005 to June 2006) within and external to the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake rupture zone to test the hypothesis that differences in fault zone properties defined the limits of the 1992 tsunami rupture zone and continue to produce spatial variations in earthquake source properties. Mean stress drop of events within the rupture area is 1.2 MPa, and 5.5 MPa for events just outside of the rupture zone, with similar magnitude earthquakes in each group. Our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake.

  8. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  9. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  10. Who cares in Nicaragua? A care regime in an exclusionary social policy context.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Juliana Martínez; Voorend, Koen

    2011-01-01

    In Latin American countries with historically strong social policy regimes (such as those in the Southern Cone), neoliberal policies are usually blamed for the increased burden of female unpaid work. However, studying the Nicaraguan care regime in two clearly defined periods — the Sandinista and the neoliberal eras — suggests that this argument may not hold in the case of countries with highly familialist social policy regimes. Despite major economic, political and policy shifts, the role of female unpaid work, both within the family and in the community, remains persistent and pivotal, and was significant long before the onset of neoliberal policies. Nicaragua's care regime has been highly dependent on the ‘community’ or ‘voluntary’ work of mostly women. This has also been, and continues to be, vital for the viability of many public social programmes.

  11. [Prevalence of mental disorders in adults in Subtiava, León, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Subtiava district of León, Nicaragua. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 219 families (n = 584 persons). The study was carried out in two phases. In the first, probable mental disorder cases were screened using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. In the second, the diagnoses were confirmed through the Present State Examination questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires had been confirmed in a pilot study. The present study was conducted in October and November 1987, when Nicaragua was still immersed in armed conflict. Construction of a family map made it possible to analyze, through the multiple imputation method, the characteristics of persons who were absent at the time of the interviews or who did not respond. The estimated prevalence percentages and their respective 95% confidence intervals were as follows: neurosis, 7.5% (5.2%-9.8%); depression, 6.2% (2.6%-8.1%); reactive crisis, 3.3% (2.6-6.5%); alcoholism, 5.8% (3.9%-8.9%); organic brain syndrome, 3.9% (1.7%-5.2%); psychosis, 0.5% (0.2%-1.6%); and other disorders, 0.7% (0.2%-1.6%). The estimated overall prevalence of mental disorders in the study population was 27.9%. Disorders were more prevalent among men (30.8%) than women (26.3%). It is concluded that these high estimated prevalences are associated with stress caused by the war.

  12. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  13. Population History and Mitochondrial Genetic Substructure of the Rama Amerindians from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Norberto F; Crawford, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history. When considering differences in the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of the mtDNA haplotypes together with historical information on the Rama, a noteworthy pattern emerges. (a) Haplotypes are differentially distributed among a central Rama community (Punta Águila) compared with the other five peripheral communities (analysis of molecular variance: FCT = 0.10, p < 0.001), and their distribution is consistent with the historical relocation of this population after their split from Punta Gorda in the 18th century. (b) Differential genetic signatures found among central and peripheral Rama communities resemble two population histories: one of stability (haplogroup A2) and other of expansion (haplogroup B2), supporting the possibility that these patterns of genetic microdifferentiation between central and peripheral populations resulted from the 18th-century unification in southern Nicaragua of the Rama and a group of Voto migrants from Costa Rica that later split off and moved to the Bay of Bluefields.

  14. Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education

    PubMed Central

    Pena, R.; Liljestrand, J.; Zelaya, E.; Persson, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in fertility and infant mortality rates (IMR) in Leon, Nicaragua, and to examine the effect of women's education on these trends during 1964-1993, a period of rapid social change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, based on random cluster sampling. A retrospective questionnaire on reproductive events was used. SETTING: The municipality of Leon, which is the second largest city in Nicaragua, with a total population of 195,000 inhabitants. SUBJECTS: 10,867 women aged 15-49 years, corresponding to 176,281 person years of reproductive life. Their children contributed 22,899 person years under 12 months of age to the IMR analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fertility rate (number of pregnancies per 1000 person years) for specific age groups and calendar periods, total fertility rate, and IMR. RESULTS: Fertility rates and IMR declined in parallel, especially during the 1980s. However, education specific fertility rates did not decline, but the proportion of educated young women increased from 20% to 46%. This had also an impact on the overall IMR decline, although IMR reduction mainly took place among infants of women without formal education, decreasing from 118 to 69 per 1000 during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: In this demographic transition over three decades, fertility and IMR declined simultaneously. The decreasing trend in fertility was mainly explained by an increase in women's education, while the IMR decline seemed to be the result of health interventions, specially targeted to poorer groups of women and their infants. Thus, social differences in fertility rates remained unchanged, while equity in chances of child survival increased.   PMID:10396488

  15. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

    2000-12-01

    Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established.

  16. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  17. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  18. Application of a CROPWAT Model to Analyze Crop Yields in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, R.; Byrne, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT Changes in climate are likely to influence crop yields due to varying evapotranspiration and precipitation over agricultural regions. In Nicaragua, agriculture is extensive, with new areas of land brought into production as the population increases. Nicaraguan staple food items (maize and beans) are produced mostly by small scale farmers with less than 10 hectares, but they are critical for income generation and food security for rural communities. Given that the majority of these farmers are dependent on rain for crop irrigation, and that maize and beans are sensitive to variations in temperature and rainfall patterns, the present study was undertaken to assess the impact of climate change on these crop yields. Climate data were generated per municipio representing the three major climatic zones of the country: the wet Pacific lowland, the cooler Central highland, and the Caribbean lowland. Historical normal climate data from 1970-2000 (baseline period) were used as input to CROPWAT model to analyze the potential and actual evapotranspiration (ETo and ETa, respectively) that affects crop yields. Further, generated local climatic data of future years (2030-2099) under various scenarios were inputted to the CROPWAT to determine changes in ETo and ETa from the baseline period. Spatial variability maps of both ETo and ETa as well as crop yields were created. Results indicated significant variation in seasonal rainfall depth during the baseline period and predicted decreasing trend in the future years that eventually affects yields. These maps enable us to generate appropriate adaptation measures and best management practices for small scale farmers under future climate change scenarios. KEY WORDS: Climate change, evapotranspiration, CROPWAT, yield, Nicaragua

  19. Corner Frequency Variation in the Southeastern Region of the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, H. M. M.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    At the Nicaragua portion of the Middle America Trench, where the Cocos Plate is subducting at ~85 mm/yr, a tsunami earthquake (mb 5.3, Ms 7.2, Mw 7.6) occurred at 15 km depth on 2 September 1992, causing a tsunami up to 8 m high and >116 deaths. A tsunami earthquake is characterized by deficiency in high frequency radiated energy and large tsunami for its Ms. Tsunami earthquakes are relatively rare, but their occurrence presents a significant hazard to coastal populations, so the potential to identify tsunami earthquake regions has wide-reaching hazard implications. Here we examine the notion that the cause of the dominantly low frequency energy in the 1992 tsunami earthquake may also manifest in small earthquakes in the same area. We examine 241 events within and south of the 1992 rupture limits with hypocenters 8-30 km depth and 1.7 < Mw < 4.6, recorded by land station and ocean bottom seismometers in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica from November 2005 to June 2006. Event source parameters moment, corner frequency, and stress drop are determined using the spectral ratios of S-wave coda. Mean stress drop inside the 1992 rupture area is 3.2 MPa, and immediately south of the 1992 rupture zone mean stress drop is 10.4 MPa. Inside and outside the 1992 rupture zone at similar depths, the increase in stress drop is by a factor of five and occurs abruptly over <50 km. The mean corner frequency of events in the 1992 rupture area is ~45% the mean corner frequency value for events south of the 1992 rupture zone. Therefore, our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake. If this finding can be reproduced at other subduction zones, it may significantly improve subduction zone coastal hazard assessment.

  20. Etiology of Childhood Diarrhea Following Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Prospective, Population-Based Study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Bucardo, Filemon; Vilchez, Samuel; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Liu, Lan; Weber, David J.; Peña, Rodolfo; Barclay, Leslie; Vinjé, Jan; Hudgens, Michael G.; Nordgren, Johan; Svensson, Lennart; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Paniagua, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement routine immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). In this RV5-immunized population, understanding infectious etiologies of childhood diarrhea is necessary to direct diarrhea treatment and prevention efforts. Methods We followed a population-based sample of children less than 5 years in León, Nicaragua for diarrhea episodes through household visits. Information was obtained on RV5 history and sociodemographics. Stool samples collected during diarrhea episodes and among healthy children underwent laboratory analysis for viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens. Detection frequency and incidence of each enteropathogen was calculated. Results The 826 children in the cohort experienced 677 diarrhea episodes during 607.5 child-years of exposure time (1.1 episodes per child-year). At least one enteropathogen was detected among 61.1% of the 337 diarrheal stools collected. The most common enteropathogens among diarrheal stools were: norovirus (20.4%), sapovirus (16.6%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, 11.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (8.3%), Giardia lamblia (8.0%), and enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC, 7.7%), with rotavirus detected among 5.3% of diarrheal stools. EPEC and ETEC were frequently detected among stools from healthy children. Among children with diarrhea, norovirus was more commonly detected among younger children (< 2 years) and G. lamblia was more commonly detected among older children (2-4 years). The mean age of rotavirus detection was 34.6 months. Conclusions In this Central American community following RV5 introduction, rotavirus was not commonly detected among children with diarrhea. Prevention and appropriate management of norovirus and sapovirus should be considered to further reduce the burden of diarrheal disease. PMID:24879131

  1. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub

  2. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance.

  3. Public health surveillance after a volcanic eruption: lessons from Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992.

    PubMed

    Malilay, J; Real, M G; Ramirez Vanegas, A; Noji, E; Sinks, T

    1996-09-01

    The eruption of the Cerro Negro volcano near León, Nicaragua, on 9 April 1992 distributed an estimated 1.7 million tons of ash over a 200 square kilometer area. An assessment was conducted to evaluate the health effects on approximately 300,000 residents, using routine data obtained by the national epidemiologic surveillance system. It was found that rates of visits to health care facilities for acute diarrheal and respiratory illnesses increased in two study communities, one within and one near the disaster zone. Specifically, visits for acute diarrhea were nearly 6 times more numerous than before the eruption in both communities, while visits for acute respiratory diseases were 3.6 times more frequent in Malpaisillo (the community near the disaster zone) and 6.0 times more frequent in Telica (the community within it). Most of the visits were for infants and children less than 5 years old. Increased diarrheal disease morbidity, which commonly occurs after volcanic eruptions, demands detailed investigation of the type and quality of water supplies following heavy ashfall. Ash-related respiratory problems should be further examined to determine the spectrum of such diseases and the timing of illness onsets among infants and other special population subgroups. Data collected on health conditions before and after an eruption by passive surveillance can be used to detect eruption-related morbidity. Systems already in place, such as Nicaragua's national epidemiologic surveillance system, can be modified or extended so as to increase their sensitivity to new cases and hence their ability to provide appropriate notification to medical relief agencies.

  4. Nicaragua revisited: evidence of lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a high-altitude, coffee-growing village

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; Barreto Ruiz, Gerardo M.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKD’s prevalence in regions at higher altitudes. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values >1.2 mg/dL for men and >0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/dL), hypertension and body mass index. Results Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the physical exam (82.4% overall). Of the sample, 45% were men. Prevalence rate of estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 0 for men (0%) and 2 for women (1.4%). The prevalence of at least microalbuminuria was significantly higher among men compared with women (27.5% vs. 21.4%, respectively; p=0.02). Conclusions The CKD prevalence in this village is comparable to a previously studied Nicaraguan coffee-farming region and much lower than previously screened portions of northwestern Nicaragua. There is heterogeneity in CKD prevalence across Nicaragua. At this time, screenings should target individuals living in previously identified, higher risk regions. More work is needed to understand determinants of CKD in this resource-poor nation. PMID:21956767

  5. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  6. Genetic Diversity of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Nicaragua as Estimated by Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Mulatu; Herrera, Isabel; Monzón, Arnulfo; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Coffea arabica L. (arabica coffee), the only tetraploid species in the genus Coffea, represents the majority of the world's coffee production and has a significant contribution to Nicaragua's economy. The present paper was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of arabica coffee in Nicaragua for its conservation and breeding values. Twenty-six populations that represent eight varieties in Nicaragua were investigated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 24 alleles were obtained from the 12 loci investigated across 260 individual plants. The total Nei's gene diversity (HT) and the within-population gene diversity (HS) were 0.35 and 0.29, respectively, which is comparable with that previously reported from other countries and regions. Among the varieties, the highest diversity was recorded in the variety Catimor. Analysis of variance (AMOVA) revealed that about 87% of the total genetic variation was found within populations and the remaining 13% differentiate the populations (FST = 0.13; P < 0.001). The variation among the varieties was also significant. The genetic variation in Nicaraguan coffee is significant enough to be used in the breeding programs, and most of this variation can be conserved through ex situ conservation of a low number of populations from each variety. PMID:22701376

  7. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (<35 km) thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models predict that the megathrust seismogenic zone width decreases from ~100 km below Costa Rica to just a few kilometers below Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that

  8. The 10 April 2014 Earthquake in Central Nicaragua: Evidence of Complex Crustal Deformation in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Muñoz, A.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Farraz, I.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-12-01

    On 10 April 2014 a magnitude Mw 6.1 struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan seismic network. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt but caused relatively little damage to the city of Managua and to the surrounding cities and towns. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that in 1972, the earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a southeast trending fault. The reported source mechanism suggests right-lateral strike slip motion on a plane with the same azimuth as the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of seismic activity occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated, beneath Apoyeque volcano. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Seismic scaling relations between magnitude and the fault length predict a length of approximately 10 km for an earthquake of this magnitude. This is in agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. The northeast - southwest trending Tiscapa and Ciudad Jardín faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. This set of conjugate faults confirms that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic style of deformation. The forearc sliver between the trench and the volcanic arc moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate. This deformation, however, does not take place on a single set of faults. The motion is apparently accommodated by a system of conjugate faults: right lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc and another set of faults trending northeast

  9. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sistla, Seeta A.; Roddy, Adam B.; Williams, Nicholas E.; Kramer, Daniel B.; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region’s first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  10. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level

  11. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  12. Dynamics of diffuse CO2 emission and eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Diaz, M.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Ibarra, M.; Strauch, W.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is the youngest of a group of cinder cones NW of Las Pilas at 25 km from León (Nicaragua) with 685 meters above sea level and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. It has erupted 21 times since its birth in 1850, with an eruptive cycle about 7-8 years. Since the last eruption, occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a research collaboration program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro. Since then, ten CO2 surface efflux surveys have been undertaken covering an area of 0,6 km2, in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation with the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed always by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1869 t d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the 2002 and 2003 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 84 t d-1, respectively. However, during the 2004 a slightly increase on the total diffuse CO2 emission was observed, reaching up to 256 t d-1. The observed relatively increase was addressed to the occurrence of a seismic swarm at Cerro Negro during the survey. The yearly surveys performed at Cerro Negro from 2005 until present, have always shown background levels of CO2 emission, with 68, 38, 45, 10 and 12 t d-1, respectively. The temporal evolution of the diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro will allow us to determine the typical range of seasonal or other transient departures from its normal or “baseline” behaviour and its relation with the eruptive cycle.

  13. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  14. Globalization, shifting livelihoods, and their effects on natural resources on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of local peoples' livelihoods is important in understanding the use of, access to, and regulation of natural resources. Drivers of global change, including climate change and globalization, often result in shifts in local peoples' livelihood portfolios. Here, we use longitudinal data to examine how increasing market access, migration, and technology adoption have affected livelihood portfolios in a dozen communities along Nicaragua's Atlantic coast and the effects of livelihood change on terrestrial and marine wildlife. Our study communities are located in varying proximity to the terminus of the first trans-isthmian highway in this region, completed in 2008. Our results indicate that changes in livelihood portfolios, such as shifts between agriculture, fishing, and tourism, can be explained by a combination of household and community characteristics. Moreover, globalization's effects on specific livelihoods are distinct while varying both spatially and temporally. Trends in fisheries abundance, deforestation, and the management of endangered species and protected areas are better understood in the context of these shifting livelihood patterns. Moreover, this study provides new insights as to how natural resource dependent communities might decrease their vulnerability to the forces of global change.

  15. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  16. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    PubMed

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).

  17. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  18. Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children's rights.

    PubMed

    Corriols, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    Since 1995, Nicaragua has adopted several legal instruments to comply with children's rights, including international conventions and a minimum working age of 14 years. However, records from the Ministry of Health's Pesticide Program show continuing occupational acute pesticide poisonings (APP) among children five to 14-years-old from 1995 to 2006. We reviewed and described all reported APPs and estimated the yearly incidence and underreporting rates. Of 2069 APP cases, 432 were occupational. Annual incidence rates (range: 1-4.7/100,000) have been decreasing since 1997. Six fatal and most non-fatal cases were related to work in tobacco and basic grain crops. Based on underreporting data, we estimate actual incidence during the period studied to be 18,516 (95% CI, 3840-33,204) cases among five- to fourteen-year-olds. With regard to child labor and pesticide exposure, children's rights violations still exist and must be abolished in both formal employment and in the informal economy, including in family-based agricultural activities.

  19. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  20. The scaling relationship between self-potential and fluid flow on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Conner, C.

    2003-11-11

    The concurrent measurement of self-potential (SP) and soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub s}{sup CO2}) in volcanic systems may be an important tool to monitor intrusive activity and understand interaction between magmatic and groundwater systems. However, quantitative relationships between these parameters must be established to apply them toward understanding processes operating at depth. Power-law scaling exponents calculated for SP and F{sub s}{sup CO2} measured along a fault on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua indicate a nonlinear relationship between these parameters. Scaling exponents suggest that there is a declining increase in SP with a given increase in F{sub s}{sup CO2}, until a threshold (log F{sub s}{sup CO2} {approx} 2.5 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) above which SP remains constant with increasing F{sub s}{sup CO2}. Implications for subsurface processes that may influence SP at Masaya are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae) production sites in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree L; Lugo, Emperatriz del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Kuan, Guillermina M; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Harris, Eva

    2007-09-01

    To characterize the production patterns of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culcidae), pupal surveys were conducted in selected neighborhoods of two major cities in Nicaragua. In León, 833 houses were visited in July and September 2003, corresponding to the beginning and middle of the dengue season; in Managua, 1,365 homes were visited in July 2003. In total, 7,607 containers were characterized, of which 11% were positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and 4% for pupae. In addition to barrels, potted plants and superficial water on tarps and in puddles were identified as highly productive sites. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed frequency of container use, use of a lid, and rainwater filling as key variables affecting pupal positivity. Importantly, this survey demonstrated the risk associated with the presence of lids, the limited temporal efficacy of temephos, and the lack of association of water availability with risky water storage practices. Finally, we introduce the concept of an efficiency value and an accompanying graphical display system that can facilitate development of targeted pupal control strategies. These data underscore the importance of entomological surveillance of pupal productivity to gather information from which to derive streamlined, efficient, and effective vector control measures to reduce the density of Aedes mosquito larvae and pupae and thus the risk for dengue.

  2. Social security health insurance for the informal sector in Nicaragua: a randomized evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rebecca L; Hatt, Laurel E; Field, Erica M; Islam, Mursaleena; Diaz, Freddy Solís; González, Martha Azucena

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results from an experimental evaluation of a voluntary health insurance program for informal sector workers in Nicaragua. Costs of the premiums as well as enrollment location were randomly allocated. Overall, take-up of the program was low, with only 20% enrollment. Program costs and streamlined bureaucratic procedures were important determinants of enrollment. Participation of local microfinance institutions had a slight negative effect on enrollment. One year later, those who received insurance substituted toward services at covered facilities and total out-of-pocket expenditures fell. However, total expenditures fell by less than the insurance premiums. We find no evidence of an increase in health-care utilization among the newly insured. We also find very low retention rates after the expiration of the subsidy, with less than 10% of enrollees still enrolled after one year. To shed light on the findings from the experimental results, we present qualitative evidence of institutional and contextual factors that limited the success of this program.

  3. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16–24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services. PMID:28030599

  4. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  5. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-06-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  6. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period. PMID:23817336

  7. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  8. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  9. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment.

  10. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  11. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  12. A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the southern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu

    2012-11-01

    Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern Caribbean and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.

  13. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Edward I.; López, Sergio R.; Aguilar, María Nela; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Pérez, Magaly; Sánchez, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale. PMID:22518174

  14. Suicide attempts and stressful life events among female victims of intimate partner violence living in poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Ana Isabel; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther; Vázquez, José Juan

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a study of 136 female intimate partner violence victims living in poverty in Nicaragua. The paper aimed to analyze the relationship between experiencing stressful life events (SLE) and perceived social support with suicide attempts, and to evaluate the differences in the SLE experienced by female suicide attempters versus non-attempters. The results showed the existence of a high level of SLE among the interviewees, and that women who have attempted suicide have experienced substantially more of these events. Experiences of violence and less social support were especially related to suicide attempts among the interviewees.

  15. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women.

  16. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P A; Mora, F

    1987-01-01

    Under the rubrics of preventive and social medicine, public health, and family and community medicine, medical educators in Latin America have developed programs to train physicians for community-oriented health care (COPC). The historical background for such programs in Latin America is reviewed. Three relevant examples of programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are highlighted, drawing on the author's direct experience with and in these faculties. The paper addresses the relation between these programs and national and regional trends in education and services. PMID:3826469

  17. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  18. Spatial density analysis of volcanic vents in the Concepción volcanic complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saballos, J. A.; Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have applied a bivariate Gaussian kernel function to estimate spatial density of volcanic vents associated to the Concepción Volcanic Complex, CVC. Our dataset consists of 36 known vents distributed on an area 11.0 km (N-S) by 11.3 km (E-W), and whose age of formation is unknown. There are 3 known vents on the western side of the CVC, 21 in the central area, and 12 in the eastern side. All these three regions describe preferentially N-S elongate zones. Concepción is the most active composite volcano in Nicaragua and forms the northwestern side of the Ometepe Island with a total population estimated to be ~33,000, and with the vast majority living very near the volcano. Thus there is an immediate need for estimating the probabilistic hazard associated with areas more prone to the formation of new volcanic vents and how they compare to the location of population centers. We computed the spatial density using the sum of the asymptotic mean squared error (SAMSE), and the least-square cross validation (LSCV) algorithms, both available in the freely-distributed R statistical software library. Both algorithms produce grossly similar spatial density, but with significantly different emphasis on the three elongate vent zones. The SAMSE algorithm yields a spatial vent density of 3x10-2 - 4x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and an elliptical bandwidth of 2.6 km in the N-S direction and 2.2 km in the E-W. The LSCV algorithm produces a spatial vent density of 5x10-2 - 5x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and a highly eccentric bandwidth with axis of 2.8 km in the N-S direction and 0.8 km in the E-W. The vent spatial density map produced by the SAMSE algorithm embraces all the vents below the 95th percentile with a spatial density > 2x10-3 event/km2, and the shape of the map is quite homogeneous and not particularly sensitive to local geology or tectonic setting. The spatial density produced by the LSCV algorithm shows three parallel

  19. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. Methods From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Results Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Conclusions Our data identified associates of adolescents’ sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua. Chinese Abstract 摘要 背景与目的 尼加瓜拉是拉丁美洲青少年妊娠率最高的国家。本研究旨在深入了解其性行为相关因素。 方法 2011年7月至8月,研究者在马那瓜贫困地区随机抽样,通过入户访视对青少年进行调查。统计方法采用Logistic回归,分析与性发生及避孕相关的影响因素。 结果 研究分析了2 803名青少年的数据。在475名与299名有性活动的男孩与女孩中,分别有43%与54%采取了避孕措施。研究表明,性发生与年龄增长、男性性别、酒精摄入及脱离父母独

  20. The science and politics of forest management in Northern Nicaragua after hurricane Felix (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Idarraga, Esteban

    This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf

  1. Characterising water balance dynamics and different runoff components in a poorly gauged tropical catchment, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The water balance dynamics, groundwater flow systems and the runoff components of a tropical forested small catchment (46 km2) is the southwestern Pacific coast of Nicaragua were studied by a combination of hydrometry (observation of rainfall, runoff, evaporation and groundwater levels), geological characterisation (hydrogeological mapping, flow systems, characterization and Piper diagrams) and hydrochemical and isotopic tracers (chemograph analysis, 2- and 3-component hydrograph separation, discharge-hydrochemical hysteresis effects, and MWL). Although some methods can be considered standard in runoff generation research in temperate climate regions; to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few studies that used the combination of these techniques in a tropical catchment of Central America. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, finding that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by geology, catchment size, and dominant landscape elements. Two major groundwater flow systems were identified with different chemical and isotopic characteristics. Indication of moisture recycling in the upper catchment area was found based on d-excess analysis. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, demonstrating that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by dominant landscape elements and precipitation distribution. Evidence of strong river-aquifer interactions in the lower part of the catchment was found. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the surface and groundwater contributions to stream flow and its temporal and spatial distribution, which indicate the importance of runoff generation areas upstream in the catchment and also the vulnerability of the alluvial aquifer to contamination. This provides the basis to develop realistic, evidence-based water management plans for this developing region.

  2. Effectiveness of vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua as determined using the screening method.

    PubMed

    Cardellino, Anna; Khawaja, Shazia; Sánchez Cruz, Edmundo; Mast, T Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The screening method is a surveillance tool to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) using coverage data on cases and available administrative estimates of vaccine coverage in the population. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the utility and limitations of using the screening methodology to estimate VE, particularly in a developing world country with a high coverage rate, and to compare it with the VE estimates from 2 case-control studies. Using data from 2008, the screening method employed in this study estimated that VE for 3 doses of RV5 among children<12 mo of age to prevent wild-type severe disease, resulting in hospitalization or emergency department visits, was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78-100%). Additional sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the point estimates of VE against severe disease ranged from 72% (95% CI: 62-83%) to 92% (95% CI: 78-100%); this range of VE estimates, although wide, is relatively consistent with results reported from 2 case-control studies in Nicaragua for the same time period. When the infrastructure is in place to collect reasonably robust case data, the use of the screening method to estimate VE is possible in the developing world setting. Cases of severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis were obtained through an observational, hospital-based, prospective, surveillance program to assess rotavirus acute gastroenteritis. The proportion of cases vaccinated was estimated using the child's vaccination card or health record. The proportion of the population vaccinated was estimated using administrative population-based vaccination coverage estimates provided by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  3. Geochemical differences between along-arc and across-arc volcanics in west-central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Freundt, Armin; Wörner, Gerhard; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The La Paz Centro - Malpaisillo Lineament (LPML) in west-central Nicaragua is a north-south striking, 20 km long chain of maars and cinder cones, which intersects the northwest-southeast striking main volcanic front. A tectonic control of LPML volcanism is likely but only evident for the Malpaisillo fissure at the northern end of the LPML. Previous work demonstrated geochemical variations implying changes in mantle-source composition (i.e., added slab components) along the Central American Volcanic Arc at spatial scales of some 10's of kilometers. Our study of the LPML shows that minor but systematic changes also occur across the arc within 20 km distance. Variations in trace element ratios such as Zr/Nb, Ba/Th, Ba/La, Th/Zr, U/La and La/Yb along the LPML, i.e. across the volcanic front indicate little change in the degree of partial melting but an increase particularly in the hemipelagic sediment component in the mantle source from the fore arc towards the arc front, followed by a decrease behind the arc. Interestingly, the slab component is most prominent just in front of the arc. About 60 km southeast of the LPML, the Nejapa-Miraflores volcanic and tectonic lineament, which marks a 20 km north-south offset in the arc, differs substantially from the LPML. There is a wide scatter in incompatible trace element ratios indicating a heterogeneous mantle source at small spatial scales (c. 1 km). This mantle heterogeneity may represent vertical rather than across-arc variations and is probably related to the arc offset, because in the absence of such offset at the LPML mantle source conditions vary much less but more systematically.

  4. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  5. Integrated geophysical and hydrothermal models of flank degassing and fluid flow at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.

  6. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatisticalestimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2004-04-27

    We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.

  8. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners.

  9. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured (FCO2) using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured (FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m-2 day-1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ??5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ??22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8-19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, we argue that this change is due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. In order to estimate the mean and associated CO2 emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial FCO2 distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: Arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO2 emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by ??4.4%, the FCO2 maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of FCO2, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO2 emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  10. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  11. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  12. Geochemically distinct sources for interstratified lavas from the Nejapa cinder cone alignment, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenson, M.D.; Carr, J.J.; Walker, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Nejapa cinder cone alignment, near Managua, Nicaragua, produces mafic subalkaline basalts that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Nejapa basalts can be divided into high- and low-titanium suites that are interstratified. Although major element compositions are similar to MORB, concentrations of Ba and Sr in the Nejapa basalts are higher, ranging from 2 x MORB in the high-titanium suite to 10 X MORB for the low-titanium lavas. Recently determined Nd and Sr isotopic and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for Nejapa basalts show that the high and low titanium suites have distinct sources and cannot be related by simple crystallization trends. For example, although the high-Ti lavas are light REE depleted and have overall MORB-like REE concentrations, they are systematically lower in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and higher in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Low-Ti lavas, on the other hand, are LREE-enriched but have Nd isotopes identical to MORB (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is distinctly higher). The contradictory geochemical characteristics displayed by the Nejapa lavas can be explained in a general sense by a mixing model that involves upper mantle peridotite and a fluid derived from hydrothermally-altered subducted oceanic crust. This fluid may enrich overlying mantle in Ba, Sr, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, and may supply enough water to stabilize an accessory phase such as rutile at high pressure. Melts generated from this source will be low in Ti, but high in Ba, Sr, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd. Subjacent peridotite melting with less of the hydrous flux will generate lavas with higher Ti, lower Sr and Ba, and isotopic ratios of the peridotite.

  13. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  14. Reactive plume chemistry and links to mercury deposition at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Donohoue, Deanna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Witt, Melanie; Mather, Tamsin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes are known to emit significant quantities of gases and trace metals including mercury. Some of these gases are involved in very fast reaction cycles in the atmosphere. This is especially true for chlorine and bromine which destroy ozone catalytically and also oxidise elemental gaseous mercury. Oxidised mercury is soluble and can be taken up by particles which can potentially increase the deposition of toxic mercury near the volcano. In order to quantify these processes we conducted a field campaign at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua in March/April 2011. We measured gaseous S, F, Cl, Br, I, total gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and particle size distributions near the crater rim and at a site ~ 2.5 km downwind fumigated by the plume. We also measured BrO and SO2 near the crater rim and at two distances downwind by U.V. spectroscopy. The BrO/SO2 ratio was clearly elevated downwind compared to near-crater showing that reaction cycles to produce BrO are efficient on timescales of less than 10min. Changes in the mercury speciation (i.e., increased proportions of particulate Hg) were also observed at the downwind site, consistent with the links between reactive halogens and mercury discussed above. A one-dimensional model was used to simulate the evolution of the volcanic emissions in the atmosphere, the comparison with the field data showed good model skill at reproducing the chemical processes. Details of the field data and the model results will be discussed.

  15. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Richard E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Connor, Charles B.; Sandberg, Stewart K.; Diez, Mikel

    2007-10-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60 m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.

  16. Magma-tectonic interactions in Nicaragua: the 1999 seismic swarm and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Femina, Peter C.; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Brittain E.; Strauch, Wilfried; Saballos, J. Armando

    2004-09-01

    A low-energy (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 1), small-volume (0.001 km 3 Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three earthquakes (each ˜ Mw 5.2) with strike-slip and oblique-slip focal mechanisms, the first of which occurred approximately 11 h before eruptive activity and within 1 km of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures formed during these events extend up to 4 km from Cerro Negro, but concentrate ˜1 km south of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures did not occur within 300 m of the cone, however, three new vents formed on the south flank and base of Cerro Negro and on trend with the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro volcanic alignment. Earthquake swarms were located northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro and seismicity was elevated for up to 11 days after the initial event. The temporal and spatial patterns of earthquake swarms, surface ruptures, and the eruption location can be explained using the Hill [J. Geophys. Res. 82 (1977) 1347] model for earthquake swarms in volcanic regions, where an eruption is triggered by tectonically induced changes in the regional stress field. In this model, tectonic strain, rather than magmatic overpressure causes dilation of the conduit for magma ascent. Numerical simulations for the 1999 eruption illustrate that the observed velocities (up to 75 m s -1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little excess magmatic pressure, in response to changes in Coulomb stress along the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro alignment. These observations and models show that 1999 Cerro Negro activity was a tectonically induced small-volume eruption in an arc setting, with the accommodation of extensional strain by dike injection.

  17. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, R.E.; Sanford, W.E.; Connor, C.B.; Sandberg, S.K.; Diez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60??m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity. ?? 2007.

  18. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  19. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An alien is eligible to apply for...

  20. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adjudicated in accordance with section 1505(a) of the LIFE Act and its amendments. An alien present in the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjudicated in accordance with section 1505(a) of the LIFE Act and its amendments. An alien present in the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and...

  2. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  3. Well water quality in rural Nicaragua using a low-cost bacterial test and microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Patricia; Aw, Tiong Gim; Urquhart, Gerald R; Galeano, Miguel Ruiz; Rose, Joan B

    2016-04-01

    Water-related diseases, particularly diarrhea, are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Monitoring water quality on a global scale is crucial to making progress in terms of population health. Traditional analytical methods are difficult to use in many regions of the world in low-resource settings that face severe water quality issues due to the inaccessibility of laboratories. This study aimed to evaluate a new low-cost method (the compartment bag test (CBT)) in rural Nicaragua. The CBT was used to quantify the presence of Escherichia coli in drinking water wells and aimed to determine the source(s) of any microbial contamination. Results indicate that the CBT is a viable method for use in remote rural regions. The overall quality of well water in Pueblo Nuevo, Nicaragua was deemed unsafe, and results led to the conclusion that animal fecal wastes may be one of the leading causes of well contamination. Elevation and depth of wells were not found to impact overall water quality. However rope-pump wells had a 64.1% reduction in contamination when compared with simple wells.

  4. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  5. Cruise ships and bush medicine: Globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Design Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Sample Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18–45. Measurements After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. Results In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Conclusions Findings on the relationships between culture, disease and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help healthcare providers and public health policy makers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:24766610

  6. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Velasquez, E.; Belmar, R.; Coye, M.; Drucker, E.; Landrigan, P.J.; Michaels, D.; Sidel, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime.

  7. Primary healthcare providers’ views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Ossio, Freddy Cordova; Vega, Bernardo; Auquilla, Nancy; Medina, Joel; Gorter, Anna C.; Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Temmerman, Marleen; Edmonds, Alexander B.; Valius, Leonas; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicaragua) took part in this qualitative study. During a series of moderated discussions, they provided written opinions about the accessibility and appropriateness of ASRH services and suggestions for its improvement. The data were analyzed by employing a content analysis methodology. Results Study participants emphasized managerial issues such as the prioritization of adolescents as a patient group and increased healthcare providers’ awareness about adolescent-friendly approaches. They noted that such an approach needs to be extended beyond primary healthcare centers. Schools, parents, and the community in general should be encouraged to integrate issues related to ASRH in the everyday life of adolescents and become ‘gate-openers’ to ASRH services. To ensure the success of such measures, action at the policy level would be required. For example, decision-makers could call for developing clinical guidelines for this population group and coordinate multisectoral efforts. Conclusions To improve ASRH services within primary healthcare institutions in three Latin American countries, primary healthcare providers call for focusing on improving the youth-friendliness of health settings. To facilitate this, they suggested engaging with key stakeholders, such as parents, schools, and decision-makers at the policy level. PMID:23680267

  8. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  9. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. METHODS: A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. RESULTS: IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality. PMID:10630139

  10. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from <0 to 5. Adjacent to some fumaroles, silica is being precipitated from condensing steam on the crater walls and endolithic photosynthetic mats are found at 1-2 cm depth within these silica deposits. We have analyzed one of these mats, Monkey Cheek (T=65°C, pH ~4.5), for both Archaeal and Bacterial diversity. Cloning of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes reveals a diverse community of Bacteria, with eight phyla represented. The most common bacterial sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted

  11. Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an increased use of contraceptive methods by women, unintended pregnancies represent one of the most evident violations of women’s sexual and reproductive rights around the world. This study aims to measure the association between individual and community exposure to different forms of violence against women (physical/sexual violence by the partner, sexual abuse by any person, or controlling behavior by the partner) and unintended pregnancies. Methods Data from the 2006/2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey were used. For the current study, 5347 women who reported a live birth in the five years prior to the survey and who were married or cohabitating at the time of the data collection were selected. Women’s exposure to controlling behaviors by their partners was measured using six questions from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Area-level variables were constructed by aggregating the individual level exposures to violence into an exposure measurement of the municipality as a whole (n = 142); which is the basic political division in Nicaragua. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results In total, 37.1% of the pregnancies were reported as unintended. After adjusting for all variables included in the model, individual exposure to controlling behavior by a partner (AOR = 1.28, 95% CrI = 1.13–1.44), ever exposure to sexual abuse (AOR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.62), and ever exposure to physical/sexual intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.44, 95% CrI = 1.24–1.66) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancies. Women who lived in municipalities in the highest tertile of controlling behavior by a partner had 1.25 times higher odds of reporting an unintended pregnancy than women living in municipalities in the lowest tertile (AOR = 1.25, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.48). Conclusions Nicaraguan women often experience unintended pregnancies, and the occurrence of

  12. Geochemistry and genesis of behind-arc basaltic lavas from eastern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoušek, V.; Erban, V.; Holub, F. V.; Magna, T.; Bellon, H.; Mlčoch, B.; Wiechert, U.; Rapprich, V.

    2010-05-01

    The petrology and chemistry of the Behind the Volcanic Front (BVF) lavas from eastern mainland Nicaragua and the adjacent Great Corn Island in the Caribbean Sea illustrate the complex nature of sources and processes operating in such a tectonic setting. The older, Early Miocene (˜ 17 Ma) group of low-Ti (< 1 wt.%) basalts-andesites is characterized by a strong LILE/HFSE depletion. The low-Ti lavas from El Rama and El Bluff areas are interpreted as relics of Early Miocene volcanic arc, largely analogous to the nowadays extinct Coyol arc further west. However, these rocks differ in some parameters from the modern volcanic front lavas, most notably in having lower δ7Li values, Ba/Yb ratios and lower U contents. The younger high-Ti (Ti > 1.5%) lavas, rich in other HFSE as well, are represented both by alkaline (Quaternary trachybasalts: Volcán Azul and Kukra Hill) and subalkaline (basalts-basaltic andesites: Late Miocene, ˜ 11 Ma Great Corn Island and Quaternary, Pearl Lagoon) volcanic rocks. The Late Miocene and Quaternary high-Ti BVF lavas probably represent small-volume decompression melts of a source similar to that of the OIB-like magmas, most likely upwelling asthenosphere having a strong Galápagos mantle imprint. The positive Sr-Nd isotopic correlation indicates an interaction between this OIB component and a depleted lithospheric mantle modified by a subduction-related influx of Sr and, to a lesser extent, other hydrous fluid-mobile elements. However, the rocks show no recognizable influence of the modern subduction. The feeble trace-element (e.g., slightly elevated Ba, K, and Sr at some localities) and a more pronounced Sr-Li isotopic subduction-related signal stems most likely from the Miocene convergence episode. Subduction of the Galápagos hot-spot tracks in Costa Rica produces magmas that can be readily recognized by their elevated Sr isotopic ratios due to seafloor alteration; the Nd isotopic signature remains unaffected. Such a component with

  13. Gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, E; Marín, F M; García, J; Berglund, S; Liljestrand, J; Persson, L A

    1997-07-01

    This study sought to uncover gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua through an investigation of age at first coitus and first pregnancy. Data were gathered through a 1993 cross-sectional, community-based survey of a representative sample of 7789 households in the municipality of Leon. Interviews were held with 10,867 women aged 15-49, and more detailed information was elicited from a random subsample of 388 men and 413 women. It was found that median age at first coitus was 17.8 for women and 16.2 for men, with 25% of the population engaging in coitus before age 15. Women delivered their first child at a median age of 19.6 years, whereas men became fathers at 21.2 years. Lack of formal education increased risk of earlier pregnancy for women by 2.5 times, but no increased risk occurred for rural versus urban residence. Earlier pregnancy occurred in women who did not live with their biological fathers during childhood and adolescence (living with a stepfather increased risk of early coitus and delivery even more). Men without a formal education became fathers at an earlier age in both urban and rural areas. The period between first coitus and delivery for women was 21.5 months (20 months for women with primary education or less and 27 months for those who completed ninth-grader or higher). Age groups comparisons (15-20, 21-27, 28-35, and 36-49) showed that the current adolescents were experiencing first coitus and first pregnancy significantly later than the older groups but that the 28-35 age group showed significantly earlier onset of each event. These results point to the need to improve gender equity and women's status and to develop a health care policy that responds to the special needs of adolescents (counseling, access to contraceptives, and availability of safe abortion). Sex education programs must begin at the primary levels in schools because of high drop-out rates.

  14. Ending Intimate Partner Violence after pregnancy: Findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Valladares, Eliette; Öhman, Ann; Högberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV. Methods A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied. Results Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a

  15. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfate-rich bedrock has been discovered in many locations on Mars and has been studied by both orbiting spacecraft and landers. It appears that in most cases these minerals are produced by acid-sulfate weathering of igneous rocks, which may have been a widespread process for the first billion years of Mars' history. The origin of life on Earth may have occurred in iron-sulfur hydrothermal settings and it is conceivable that early Mars had similar environmental conditions. An excellent terrestrial analog for acid- sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts exists at Cerro Negro (CN), Nicaragua, where sulfur-bearing gases interact with recently erupted basaltic ash in numerous fumaroles. To date, we have made two expeditions to CN to assess the chemical, mineralogical, and biological conditions. At the fumaroles pH ranges from <1 to 5 and temperatures range from 40 to 400° C. Basalts with a chemical composition very similar to those on Mars are being chemically altered in the solfatara setting. In a few years, freshly erupted basalt can be converted into predominately Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-sulfates, Fe-hydroxides (including jarosite), clays, and free silica. Altered rocks have up to 30 wt% SO3 equivalent, which is similar to the Meridiani Planum bedrocks and inferred in other sulfate-bearing bedrock on Mars. Moreover, heavily weathered rocks have silica contents up to 80 wt%, similar to silica-rich soils at Gusev Crater that possibly formed in hydrothermal environments. Samples were collected for biological analysis including enrichment and isolation of novel thermophiles as well as molecular characterization of thermophile diversity. The low water and nutrient levels found in solfatara environments lead to less biomass when compared to hot springs with similar geochemical conditions. Nonetheless, microbes are thriving in these hot, acidic vent environments. At Cerro Negro solfatara, we are characterizing the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of resident microbial

  16. Shape evolution of arc volcanoes, a case study of Concepción and Maderas (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Mathieu, L.; Cecchi, E.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanoes change shape as they grow due to the interplay of several processes such as eruption style, intrusion, vent migration, erosion, and through the effects of tectonic and gravitational deformation. Their shapes can thus hold clues as to their volcano-tectonic state and their structural evolution. We have recently carried out a study on volcano shape evolution by the morphometric analyses of 115 volcanoes from Central America and the southern Central Andes using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) (Grosse et al., 2009, Geology). The study allowed us to obtain a classification of volcanic edifices (cones, sub-cones, and massifs) and to recognize several evolutionary trends, which seem to be mainly related to magma flux, edifice strength and structural / tectonic conditions. In order to test some of the hypotheses on specific cases, we here explore the morphometric evolution of the two volcanoes that make up the island of Ometepe (Nicaragua), Concepción and Maderas. From basic geological mapping we have a detailed knowledge of the stratigraphy, lithology and architecture of these two volcanoes. Both volcanoes have experienced or are experiencing gravitational spreading, but they differ in that Concepción is a rapidly growing active cone, whereas Maderas is a squat and dormant sub-cone. In addition to the SRTM DEM, we use a higher resolution 30-meter DEM from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and combine the morphometric analysis with our field data. We find clear differences in the morphology of the two volcanoes and more subtle variations within discrete sectors of each volcano that are associated with local lava/tephra ratios, the prevailing winds, eruption and erosion rates, and gravitational spreading. The effects of gravitational spreading on the morphometry of the volcanoes are further investigated by comparing with 3-D analogue experiments. This specific case study shows how detailed

  17. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  18. Normal block faulting in the Airport Graben, Managua pull-apart rift, Nicaragua: gravity and magnetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Zambrana Arias, X.; Keppie, D.; Ramón Márquez, V.

    2012-12-01

    Regional scale models have been proposed for the Nicaraguan depression: 1) parallel rifting of the depression (and volcanic front) due to roll back of the underlying subducted Cocos plate; 2) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and locally offset by pull-apart basins; 3) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and offset by left-lateral transverse or bookshelf faults. At an intermediate scale, Funk et al. (2011) interpret the depression as half graben type structures. The E-W Airport graben lies in the southeastern part of the Managua graben (Nicaragua), across which the active Central American volcanic arc is dextrally offset, possibly the result of a subducted transform fault where the subduction angle changes. The Managua graben lies within the late Quaternary Nicaragua depression produced by backarc rifting during roll back of the Middle American Trench. The Managua graben formed as a pull-apart rift associated with dextral bookshelf faulting during dextral shear between the forearc and arc and is the locus of two historical, large earthquakes that destroyed the city of Managua. In order to asses future earthquake risk, four E-W gravity and magnetic profiles were undertaken to determine its structure across the Airport graben, which is bounded by the Cofradia and Airport fault zones, to the east and west, respectively. These data indicated the presence of a series of normal faults bounding down-thrown and up-thrown fault blocks and a listric normal fault, Sabana Grande Fault. The models imply that this area has been subjected to tectonic extension. These faults appear to be part of the bookshelf suite and will probably be the locus of future earthquakes, which could destroy the airport and surrounding part of Managua. Three regional SW-NE gravity profiles running from the Pacific Ocean up to the Caribbean See indicate a change in crustal structure: from north to south the crust thins. According to these regional

  19. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  20. Evidence for static stress changes triggering the 1999 eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua and regional aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez, M.; La Femina, P. C.; Connor, C. B.; Strauch, W.; Tenorio, V.

    2005-02-01

    Remarkable evidence of coupling between tectonic and magmatic events emerges from investigation of three tectonic earthquakes, aftershock sequences and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua in 1999. Here, we explain this coupling through static stress changes following three Mw 5.2 earthquakes. We use focal mechanism solutions to estimate fault system geometry and magnitude of slip from these events, which are then used to calculate the change in minimum horizontal principal stress (σ3) for the region and the change in Coulomb failure stress on optimally oriented fault planes. Results of these simulations indicate that σ3 was reduced by ~0.08 MPa and that Coulomb failure stress was raised by 0.001 to 0.2 MPa in the region. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates spatial correlation of Coulomb failure stress changes and triggered seismicity and volcanism, and suggests that these small changes in static stress can trigger subsequent geophysical events under appropriate circumstances.

  1. The 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: Investigation of the role of hydrothermal smectite in promoting slope instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Delmelle, P.; Boivin, P.; Delvaux, B.

    2006-08-01

    Buildup of excess pore water pressure within highly fractured rocks is held responsible for the initiation of the disastrous 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua. Here, we postulate that the presence of smectite clay (up to 50 wt.%) in the hydrothermally-altered bedrock contributed to slope instability. Over decades or more, the clayey material probably (i) acted as an efficient barrier to water infiltration, (ii) progressively decreased shear-strength, and (iii) gradually destabilized the overlying rock mass. These effects are explained by the shrink-swell behavior of the clay-rich bedrock. During intense rainfall, formation of incipient weak failure surfaces in the superficial rock mass could have been favoured due to rapid alteration in the mechanical properties of smectite-containing clays deposited in fracture, joint and gouge interfaces.

  2. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2014

    PubMed Central

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need

  3. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.

  4. Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: a case-referent study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Peña, Rodolfo; Ellsberg, Mary Carroll; Persson, Lars Ake

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of violence against mothers on mortality risks for their offspring before 5 years of age in Nicaragua. METHODS: From a demographic database covering a random sample of urban and rural households in Le n, Nicaragua, we identified all live births among women aged 15-49 years. Cases were defined as those who had died before the age of 5 years, between January 1993 and June 1996. For each case, two referents, matched for sex and age at death, were selected from the database. A total of 110 mothers of the cases and 203 mothers of the referents were interviewed using a standard questionnaire covering mothers' experience of physical and sexual violence. The data were analysed for the risk associated with maternal experience of violence of infant and under-5 mortality. FINDINGS: A total of 61% of mothers of cases had a lifetime experience of physical and/or sexual violence compared with 37% of mothers of referents, with a significant association being found between such experiences and mortality among their offspring. Other factors associated with higher infant and under-5 mortality were mother's education (no formal education), age (older), and parity (multiparity). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an association between physical and sexual violence against mothers, either before or during pregnancy, and an increased risk of under-5 mortality of their offspring. The type and severity of violence was probably more relevant to the risk than the timing, and violence may impact child health through maternal stress or care-giving behaviours rather than through direct trauma itself. PMID:12640470

  5. Mutated G4P[8] Rotavirus Associated with a Nationwide Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in 2005▿

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemon; Karlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Paniagua, Margarita; González, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Espinoza, Felix; Svensson, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    During February and March 2005, one of the largest national recorded outbreaks of severe acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nicaragua, affecting ≥64,000 individuals and causing ≥56 deaths, predominantly in children under 5 years of age. Through a nationwide laboratory-based study, stool samples were collected and investigated for rotavirus. Of 108 stool samples examined, 72 (67%) were positive for rotavirus. While 69% (50/72) of the positive samples were found in children less than 2 years of age, 50% (6/12) of the adult samples were positive. A mutated G4P[8] strain was the most commonly recognized strain (85%), followed by mixed G strains (8%) and G9P[8] (7%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that the G4 strains belonged to the emerging lineage Ic and was distantly related to the ST3 and VA70 G4 strains. Secondary structure predictions of the VP7 G4 protein revealed an insert of an asparagine residue in position 76, which, combined with additional mutations, surprisingly modified two downstream β-sheets at amino acid positions 80 to 85 and 115 to 119. The 2005 G4P[8] strain compared to a G4P[8] strain from 2002 had a substitution of an asparagine residue for threonine (Asn→Thr) at position 96 within antigenic region A, thus eliminating a potential glycosylation site. The mutated G4 virus was introduced in Nicaragua after 2002 and probably emerged from Brazil, Argentina, or Uruguay. PMID:17229854

  6. [Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Somoto, Nicaragua, using indirect ELISA and IFI on blood samples on filter paper].

    PubMed

    Palacios, X; Belli, A; Espino, A M

    2000-12-01

    We standardized a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in asymptomatic persons who live in an area of Nicaragua endemic for Chagas' disease. The test was standardized to analyze filter-paper blood samples, which are easy to transport. In the first phase of our investigation, ELISA was used to study 18 samples of total serum and 18 eluates of blood from patients with chronic Chagas' disease; 30 samples of serum and 30 eluates of blood from healthy people, used as negative controls; and 14 samples of serum and 14 eluates of blood from patients with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, which were used to study cross-reactions. Both with the total-serum and the blood-eluate samples, the ELISA test provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Cross-reactions in the patient samples were observed only with visceral leishmaniasis. The second phase of our investigation was a population study that included eight rural communities in the area of Somoto, Nicaragua. Through random sampling, filter-paper blood samples were collected from 2,434 people (1,335 men and 1,099 women) from the communities of Aguas Calientes, El Brocal, La Manzana, Las Playas, Los Canales, Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Teresa. Studied by ELISA and by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the samples included 260 found seropositive by ELISA (10.7%), of which 207 were positive according to IIF (8.5%). With both techniques, the majority of seropositives were among women, but the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. There was a high level of agreement between the results obtained with the two techniques. There was an upward trend with age, with 5.4% of those found seropositive by ELISA being persons 10 years of age or younger and 42.7% of those found seropositive being older than 50. The vast majority of the individuals analyzed were asymptomatic.

  7. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  8. δ13C Degassing Dynamics of a Young Volcanic Center, Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, G.; Stix, J.; Wing, B. A.; Muñoz, A.; Ibarra, M.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of gas-phase δ13C values above active volcanic centers has the potential for monitoring magma dynamics associated with degassing and recharge events above subduction zones. The strong isotopic partitioning between C in the gas and melt, and C isotopic differences among magmas enables degassed CO2 to give insight into processes happening deep underground. Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua is an ideal center for detecting such magma interactions due to its rich history of volcanic activity and unusual eruption style. It is a subduction-driven, basaltic cinder cone that erupts on average once every 20 years with light to moderate intensity explosive eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index: 1-3) commonly accompanied by lava flows. Amid these eruptions are periods of extreme quiescence with very little seismic activity and gas emissions, suggesting rapid magmatic changes beneath the volcano. The brief lag time (on average 30 min). separating precursors and eruption supports this interpretation. In this study, we compare the isotopic composition of gas samples collected from fumaroles, fractures and other thermal areas on the volcano over a period of nearly 2 decades (1992-2011) in order to constrain the magmatic evolution beneath Cerro Negro. While the general systematics of the entire dataset are broadly consistent with degassing models for the natural evolution of CO2 and δ13C values, recent sampling campaigns suggest that new magma may be entering the system. Gases collected in January 2011 after 12 years of quiescence reveal CO2 concentrations ranging from 1-100%, with δ13C values varying from -1.5% to -10.4% with a mean of -3.3±0.28 % for 32 samples. Only limited spatial variability is present in this dataset: inner crater mean δ13C = -4.0±0.12 %, outer crater (-2.4±0.46 %), flanks (-4.4±0.26 %), and thermal areas to the N (-3.5±0.24 %) and SE (-2.5±0.25 %). Based on previous work, a lack of substantial spatial variation in δ values is

  9. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America. PMID:21143865

  10. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] < 80; Fo< 80) glass inclusions from Holocene tephra layers contain moderate amounts of H2O (0.1-3.3 wt%) and S and Cl up to 2500 μg/g, and define the mafic (basaltic) endmember component. Historic-present scoriae and tephra layers exhibit more-evolved olivines (Fo69-72) that contain distinctly lower volatile contents (0.1-2.2 wt% H2O, 760-1675 μg/g S, and 1021-1970 μg/g Cl), and represent a more-evolved basaltic-andesitic magma. All glass inclusions are relatively poor in CO2, with contents reaching 527 μg/g (as measured by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry), suggesting pre- to postentrapment CO2 loss to a magmatic vapor. We use results of Raman spectroscopy obtained in a population of small (< 50 μm) inclusions with CO2-bearing shrinkage bubbles (3-12 μm) to correct for postentrapment CO2 loss to bubbles, and to estimate the original minimum CO2 content in San Cristóbal parental melts at 1889 μg/g, which is consistent with the less-CO2-degassed melt inclusions (MI) (> 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma

  11. Seismic imaging of the physical and chemical properties of the mantle: The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath eastern North America and the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychert, Catherine A.

    2007-12-01

    We image the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath eastern North America using P-to-S and S-to-P converted phases. Modeling the properties of the associated velocity gradient indicates that the boundary is strong, and sharp, a 5-10% velocity drop that occurs over 11 km or less at 85-105 km depth. Therefore, a mechanism besides thermal gradients, such as a boundary in depletion combined with a boundary in dehydration and/or a change in anisotropy, or melting in the asthenosphere is required. We also present attenuation tomography results from the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua that illuminate strong along-arc variations between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The mantle wedge beneath Nicaragua is characterized by larger zones of more intense attenuation than that beneath Costa Rica. These results indicate that the Nicaraguan wedge is more hydrated and/or hotter. Either of these mechanisms are consistent with greater degrees of melting over larger areas beneath Nicaragua. These results are consistent with geochemical indicators in the region, which suggest that melting in Nicaragua is more hydrated, with greater degrees of melting, and perhaps greater depths of melting.

  12. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  13. Free-living Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. amebae in water sources of León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Byron; Clasdotter, Emma; Linder, Ewert; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga

    2008-06-01

    Free-living amebae (FLA) are known to occur worldwide in water-related biotopes, but only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Nicaragua. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp. in different water sources to which the population of Le6n municipality is exposed. Since pathogenic amebae are thermotolerant, we were especially interested in the occurrence of FLA in geothermal areas. Water samples were collected from Le6n area in Nicaragua: 88 samples were from rivers and springs, 111 from wells, 74 from water taps and 21 from water tanks in urban and suburban Le6n and from three nearby geothermal areas of San Jacinto, Posoltega and Tipitapa. Amebae were identified using morphological and physiological criteria, immunohistochemical staining procedures and molecular methods. Indirect immunofluorescent test was performed on cysts and trophozoites fixed on microscopical slides and incubated for 30 min at room temperature in separate experiments with the following antibodies: rabbit-anti N fowleri/N lovanensis (Nf-Pab), mouse monoclonal antibody anti N. fowleri (Nf-5D12u), rabbit antibodies against Acanthamoeba spp. And fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using 18S rRNA-targeted fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Probes: GSP for the detection of Acanthamoeba and NAEG1088 for the detection of Naegleria. Free-living amebae were recovered from approximately 43 % of the samples. Acanthamoeba spp was found in 21% of samples from León municipality and in 2% of samples from geothermal areas. Amoeboflagellates were found in 10 % of samples from Le6n and in 19% in geothermal areas. Fifty three percent of tested wells in the geothermal area contained thermotolerant amoeboflagellates. Naegleria spp. was identified in 24 out of 39 (61.5 %) of isolated amoeboflagellates. Twelve of them were

  14. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying against Triatoma dimidiata

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space–time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. PMID:26416118

  15. An assessment of health sector guidelines and services for treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Billings, Deborah L; Paredes-Gaitan, Yolanda; Padilla Zuniga, Karen

    2012-12-01

    In Central America, approximately 12% of women report ever having been forced to have sex by an intimate male partner, and sexual violence by others is also a frequent experience. All Central American countries are signatories to human rights agreements that oblige States to ensure access to comprehensive health services for victims of sexual violence, but there is limited information as to whether these agreements have been translated into policy and practice. This article critically examines health sector guidelines for the treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and reports on an assessment of services in 34 private- and public-sector facilities in the four countries. Overall, policies were consistent with international agreements and included guidance on detection and documentation of violence, forensic examination, treatment, referral and follow-up care. However, only a small proportion of women who experience sexual violence actually seek care. The challenge facing all four countries is to turn policy into practice. Screening practices were inconsistent, and policies needed to indicate more clearly the roles and responsibilities of health care providers and forensic specialists. Finally, women's right to privacy and confidentiality in reports of cases to legal authorities needed further consideration, as well as the importance of providing all services at a single location.

  16. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  17. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  18. Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: Findings from a health and demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Methods Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Results Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Conclusions Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third. PMID:22894144

  19. First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Chikeka, Ijeuru; Miles, Jeremy J.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed. Conclusions/Significance We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither rickettsial infections nor Q fever were considered or treated. Further study is warranted to define the burden of these infections in Central America. PMID:28036394

  20. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  1. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from different aquatic environmental sources in León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Amaya, E; Reyes, D; Paniagua, M; Calderón, S; Rashid, M-U; Colque, P; Kühn, I; Möllby, R; Weintraub, A; Nord, C E

    2012-09-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial use in humans and animals. Water plays an important role in dissemination of these organisms among humans, animals and the environment. We studied the antibiotic resistance patterns among 493 Escherichia coli isolates from different aquatic environmental sources collected from October 2008 to May 2009 in León, Nicaragua. High levels of antibiotic resistance were found in E. coli isolates in hospital sewage water and in eight of 87 well-water samples. Among the resistant isolates from the hospital sewage, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was the most common multi-resistance profile. Among the resistant isolates from the wells, 19% were resistant to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. E. coli producing ESBL and harbouring bla(CTX-M) genes were detected in one of the hospital sewage samples and in 26% of the resistant isolates from the well-water samples. The bla(CTX-M-9) group was more prevalent in E. coli isolates from the hospital sewage samples and the bla(CTX-M-1) group was more prevalent in the well-water samples.

  2. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  3. Urine biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in Nicaragua, a region affected by an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Amador, Juan José; Kaufman, James S.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Khan, Usman; McClean, Michael D.; Laws, Rebecca L.; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Friedman, David J.; Kupferman, Joseph; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional aetiology has been recently recognized by health authorities as a public health priority in Central America. Previous studies have identified strenuous manual work, agricultural activities and residence at low altitude as potential risk factors; however, the aetiology remains unknown. Because individuals are frequently diagnosed with CKD in early adulthood, we measured biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in different regions of Nicaragua to assess whether kidney damage might be initiated during childhood. Methods Participants include 200 adolescents aged 12–18 years with no prior work history from four different schools in Nicaragua. The location of the school served as a proxy for environmental exposures and geographic locations were selected to represent a range of factors that have been associated with CKD in adults (e.g. altitude, primary industry and CKD mortality rates). Questionnaires, urine dipsticks and kidney injury biomarkers [interleukin-18, N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and albumin–creatinine ratio] were assessed. Biomarker concentrations were compared by school using linear regression models. Results Protein (3.5%) and glucose (1%) in urine measured by dipstick were rare and did not differ by school. Urine biomarkers of tubular kidney damage, particularly NGAL and NAG, showed higher concentrations in those schools and regions within Nicaragua that were defined a priori as having increased CKD risk. Painful urination was a frequent self-reported symptom. Conclusions Although interpretation of these urine biomarkers is limited because of the lack of population reference values, results suggest the possibility of early kidney damage prior to occupational exposures in these adolescents. PMID:26311057

  4. The Political Context Behind Successful Revolutionary Movements, Three Case Studies: Vietnam (1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    1955-63), Algeria (1945-62), and Nicaragua (1967-79) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Strategic Studies Institute,122...Forbes Avenue,Carlisle,PA,17013-5244 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  5. HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Individuals in the Largest Public Hospital in Nicaragua, 2011-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Hernández-Álvarez, Bismarck F.; Moreira-López, Sumaya E.; Quant-Durán, Carlos J.; Porras-Cortés, Guillermo; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. Methods HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015. HIV pol sequences were obtained at a WHO-accredited laboratory in Mexico by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). PDR was assessed using the WHO surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list and the Stanford HIVdb tool. Results 283 individuals were enrolled in the study. The overall PDR prevalence based on the list of SDRMs was 13.4%. Using the Stanford HIVdb tool, overall PDR reached 19.4%; with both nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI and NNRTI) PDR levels independently reaching moderate levels (6.7% and 11.3% respectively). Protease inhibitor PDR was low (2.8%). Using NGS with 2% threshold to detect SDRMs, PDR increased to 25.3%. K103N and M41L were the most frequent SDRMs and were present mostly in proportions >20% in each individual. A significant temporal increase in NNRTI PDR was observed (p = 0.0422), with no apparent trends for other drug classes. Importantly, PDR to zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz and tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz, the most widely used first-line regimens in Nicaragua, reached 14.6% and 10.4% respectively in 2015. Of note, a higher proportion of females was observed among individuals with PDR compared to individuals without PDR (OR 14.2; 95% CI: 7.1–28.4; p<0.0001). Conclusions Overall PDR in the Nicaraguan cohort was high (19.4%), with a clear increasing temporal trend in NNRTI PDR. Current HIVDR to the most frequently used first-line ART regimens in Nicaragua reached levels >10%. These observations are worrisome

  6. Evidence based community mobilization for dengue prevention in Nicaragua and Mexico (Camino Verde, the Green Way): cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Arosteguí, Jorge; Morales-Perez, Arcadio; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Hernandez-Alvarez, Carlos; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Balmaseda, Angel; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio Juan; Serrano de los Santos, René; Coloma, Josefina; Ledogar, Robert J; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether community mobilization adds effectiveness to conventional dengue control. Design Pragmatic open label parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Those assessing the outcomes and analyzing the data were blinded to group assignment. Centralized computerized randomization after the baseline study allocated half the sites to intervention, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9, and vector indices. Setting Random sample of communities in Managua, capital of Nicaragua, and three coastal regions in Guerrero State in the south of Mexico. Participants Residents in a random sample of census enumeration areas across both countries: 75 intervention and 75 control clusters (about 140 households each) were randomized and analyzed (60 clusters in Nicaragua and 90 in Mexico), including 85 182 residents in 18 838 households. Interventions A community mobilization protocol began with community discussion of baseline results. Each intervention cluster adapted the basic intervention—chemical-free prevention of mosquito reproduction—to its own circumstances. All clusters continued the government run dengue control program. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes per protocol were self reported cases of dengue, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection, and conventional entomological indices (house index: households with larvae or pupae/households examined; container index: containers with larvae or pupae/containers examined; Breteau index: containers with larvae or pupae/households examined; and pupae per person: pupae found/number of residents). Per protocol secondary analysis examined the effect of Camino Verde in the context of temephos use. Results With cluster as the unit of analysis, serological evidence from intervention sites showed a lower risk of infection with dengue virus in children (relative risk reduction 29.5%, 95% confidence interval 3.8% to 55.3%), fewer reports of

  7. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Relationship to the seismogenic zone of the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Meléndez, Adrià; Prada, Manuel; Ranero, César R.; McIntosh, Kirk; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2013-09-01

    We present 2-D seismic velocity models and coincident multichannel seismic reflection images of the overriding plate and the inter-plate boundary of the Nicaragua convergent margin along two wide-angle seismic profiles parallel and normal to the trench acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The trench-perpendicular profile runs over a seamount subducting under the margin slope, at the location where seismological observations predict large coseismic slip. Along this profile, the igneous basement shows increasing velocity both with depth and away from the trench, reflecting a progressive decrease in upper-plate rock degree of fracturing. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at ˜10 km depth beneath the fore-arc Sandino basin, indicating a shallow mantle wedge. A mismatch of the inter-plate reflector in the velocity models and along coincident multichannel seismic profiles under the slope is best explained by ˜15% velocity anisotropy, probably caused by subvertical open fractures that may be related to fluid paths feeding known seafloor seepage sites. The presence of a shallow, partially serpentinized mantle wedge, and the fracture-related anisotropy are supported by gravity analysis of velocity-derived density models. The downdip limit of inter-plate seismicity occurs near the tip of the inferred mantle wedge, suggesting that seismicity could be controlled by the presence of serpentinite group minerals at the fault gouge. Near the trench, the inferred local increase of normal stress produced by the subducting seamount in the plate boundary may have made this fault segment unstable during earthquake rupture, which could explain its tsunamigenic character.

  8. Smallholder Food and Water Security in the Face of Climatic Stress and the Coffee Leaf Rust: Lessons from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. T.; Bacon, C. M.; Sundstrom, W.

    2015-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in Nicaragua and throughout much of Central America preserve forest biodiversity and contribute to the sustainable production of coffee and other crops while, paradoxically, they themselves must cope with recurring periods of seasonal hunger. Smallholder food and water security in the region is affected by hurricanes, periodic drought events, climatic changes, an on-going outbreak of the coffee leaf rust, and fluctuations in food prices. Using regression analysis, our research examines what factors strengthened resilience to these hazards at the household level over the 1981 - 2014 time period. To this end, we integrate qualitative research on coping responses and local institutions, a participatory survey of 368 households, and an analysis of hydro-climatic data. Our results indicate that coping responses to the coffee leaf rust outbreak and the 2014 drought are comparable in severity to those used to endure Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a severe 2009 drought. Higher smallholder resilience to stresses affecting food and water security is associated with larger farms, off-farm employment, more on-farm food production, higher numbers of fruit trees, and greater coffee harvests. Households that reported more severe coping responses to hazards earlier in the study period tended to be more strongly impacted by later hazards and reported generally greater seasonal hunger. Affiliation with local farmer-to-farmer institutions prioritizing either subsistence-oriented production or sales to international fair-trade markets did not correlate strongly with coping responses; however, subsistence-oriented institutions promote several resilience-enhancing practices. Lessons learned by adapting to past hazards may be used to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies for smallholders under continued climate variability and change.

  9. Upper Paleogene shallow-water events in the Sandino Forearc Basin, Nicaragua-Costa Rica - response to tectonic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjic, Goran; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Neogene Sandino Forearc Basin is exposed in the southeastern Nicaraguan Isthmus and in the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. It consists of an elongated, slightly folded belt (160 km long/30 km wide). During Campanian to Oligocene, the predominantly deep-water pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sequences were successively replaced by shelf siliciclastics and carbonates at different steps of the basin evolution. We have made an inventory of Tertiary shallow-water limestones in several areas of Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. They always appear as isolated rock bodies, generally having an unconformable stratigraphic contact with the underlying detrital sequences. The presence of these short-lived carbonate shoals can be attributed to local or regional tectonic uplift in the forearc area. The best-preserved exposure of such a carbonate buildup is located on the small Isla Juanilla (0.15 km2, Junquillal Bay, NW Costa Rica). The whole island is made of reef carbonates, displaying corals in growth position, associated with coralline red algae (Juanilla Formation). Beds rich in Larger Benthic Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina undosa -favosa group permit to date this reef as late Oligocene. A first uplift event affected the Nicaraguan Isthmus, that rose from deep-water to shelfal settings in the latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Formation formed on an anticline that developed during the early Oligocene, contemporaneously with other folds observed in the offshore Sandino Forearc Basin. During the early Oligocene, a period of global sea-level fall, the folded tectonic high underwent deep erosion. During the late Oligocene, a time of overall stable eustatic sea level, tectonic uplift gave way to moderate subsidence, creating accommodation space for reef growth. A 4th or 5th order (Milankovic-type) glacio-eustatic sea level rise, could also have triggered reef growth, but its preservation implies at least moderate

  10. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours.

  11. Meteorological influence on the seasonal and diurnal variability of the dispersion of volcanic emissions in Nicaragua: A numerical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Baerbel; Hort, Matthias; Hansteen, Thor

    2009-05-01

    Nicaragua comprises seven historically active volcanoes (Cosigüina, San Cristobal, Telica, Cerro Negro, Momotombo, Masaya, and Concepcion), five of which are in a state of continuous degassing. Published measurements of the atmospheric dispersion of continuous emissions from Nicaraguan volcanoes, the chemical and aerosol microphysical modifications of the released gases and aerosols, and related acid deposition and impacts on the environment cover only short periods of time. We applied a three-dimensional atmosphere-chemistry/aerosol numerical model over Central America focussing on Nicaraguan volcanic emissions for month long simulation periods during the dry and wet seasons of 2003. The model is able to reproduce observed monthly precipitation and wind speed throughout the year 2003. Model results for near surface SO 2 concentrations and SO 2 dry deposition fluxes around Masaya volcano are in very good agreement with field measurements. During the dry season, oxidation of SO 2 to sulphate plays only a minor role downwind of the Nicaraguan volcanoes and over the Pacific Ocean, whereas SO 2 released from Arenal and Poas in Costa Rica is oxidised to sulphate much faster and closer to the volcanoes due to higher humidity and cloud water availability. During the wet season, more variable wind conditions lead to reduced dispersion of SO 2 over the Pacific Ocean and increased dispersion inland. The availability of liquid water in the atmosphere favours sulphate formation close to the Nicaraguan volcanoes via aqueous phase oxidation and represents another limitation for the dispersion of SO 2. Strong precipitation removes sulphate quickly from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations and in particular dry deposition close to the volcanoes show a pronounced diurnal cycle.

  12. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  13. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Christopher A.; Schank, Cody J.; Urquhart, Gerald R.; Dans, Armando J.

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird’s tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species. PMID:27007122

  14. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Christopher A; Schank, Cody J; Urquhart, Gerald R; Dans, Armando J

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species.

  15. Use of Peptide-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay followed by Immunofluorescence Assay To Document Ehrlichia chaffeensis as a Cause of Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Matute, Armando J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Mayorga, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States. Limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including Central and South America but not Nicaragua to date. Diagnosis of E. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but IFA is impractical, variably reproducible, and cumbersome for large epidemiologic studies and for clinical diagnosis in resource-poor regions. We evaluated a high-throughput, objective peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use alone or in combination with IFA. We found that it performed best as a screening test (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84%) to reduce the proportion of serum samples that were required by the more cumbersome and subjective IFA testing to <20%. Using a two-step diagnostic approach (IFA is performed if the ELISA is positive), we identified E. chaffeensis or a serologically and antigenically similar organism as a heretofore unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in humans in Nicaragua and demonstrated the utility of the peptide ELISA as a screening tool for large-scale clinical studies. PMID:27053675

  16. Late Pleistocene/Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction and eruptive history of Central American volcanoes from lake bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, S.; Dull, R. A.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Gardner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    A shallow coring program in Lake Nicaragua was completed in May/June 2006 by the University of Texas (UT Department of Geography and UT Institute for Geophysics). A total of 35 sediment cores with lengths ranging between 12 cm and 100 cm along with five longer cores were extracted from the lake using a gravity corer and a modified manual square rod piston corer, respectively. Analyses of lake sediments have the following objectives: 1) to correlate the geophysical results with the core data to provide a stratigraphic framework for the shallow lake sediments; 2) to constrain past climate variability in this rather poorly investigated area; and 3) to establish a time series of explosive volcanic activity based on the identification and dating of tephra layers in the cores. Initial measurements of magnetic susceptibility, dry density, loss on ignition and XRF scanning indicated a dominance of fine-grained homogeneous diatomaceous sediments cover most of the lake floor. Increasing values in magnetic susceptibility in the upper part of several short cores most likely reflect increased erosion caused by land-use changes during the Spanish colonial period (1522-1822). Results on the two longest cores from the northeastern (355 cm) and southwestern (478 cm) parts of the lake reveal complete Holocene paleoclimate records in both areas that are comparable to other terrestrial and marine records in the Central and South- American tropics (i.e. Cariaco Basin). A lithologic change from homogeneous gyttia (diatomaceous mud) to blue- grayish waxy clay at the bottom of these records marks the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition as indicated by a radiocarbon dating on plant remains. The latter dense clay forms a distinctive stratigraphic marker in the lake basin. Tephra layers to date were detected in most gravity cores recovered west of Ometepe Island (Volcan Concepcion), and in long records in the northeastern basin (San Antonio Tephra, Masaya volcano, ca. 7,400 interpolated cal

  17. GPR investigation of tephra fallout, Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua: a method for constraining parameters used in tephra sedimentation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtland, L. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C. B.; Connor, L. J.; Savov, I. P.; Martin, K. T.

    2012-08-01

    Most tephra fallout models rely on the advection-diffusion equation to forecast sedimentation and hence volcanic hazards. Here, we test the application of the advection-diffusion equation to tephra sedimentation using data collected on the proximal (350 to ~1,200 m from the vent) to medial (greater than ~1,200 m from the vent) tephra blanket of a basaltic cinder cone, Cerro Negro volcano, located in Nicaragua. Our understanding of tephra depositional processes at this volcano is significantly improved by combination of sample pit data in the medial zone and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected in the near vent and proximal zones. If the advection-diffusion equation applies, then the thickness of individual tephra deposits should have Gaussian crosswind profiles and exponential decay with distance away from the vent. At Cerro Negro, steady trade winds coupled with brief eruptions of relatively low energy (VEI 2-3) create relatively simple deposits. GPR data were collected along three crosswind profiles at distances of 700-1,600 m from the vent; sample pits were used to estimate thickness of the 1992 tephra deposit up to 13 km from the vent. Horizons identified in proximal GPR profiles exhibit Gaussian distributions with a high degree of statistical confidence, with diffusion coefficients of ~500 m2 s-1 estimated for the deposits, confirming that the advection-diffusion equation is capable of modeling sedimentation in the proximal zone. The thinning trend downwind of the vent decreases exponentially from the cone base (350 m) to ~1,200 m from the vent. Beyond this distance, deposit overthickening occurs, identified in both GPR and sample pit datasets. The combined data reveal three depositional regimes: (1) a near-vent region on the cone itself, where fallout remobilizes in granular flows upon deposition; (2) a proximal zone in which particles fall from a height of less than ~2 km; and (3) a medial zone, in which particles fall from ~4 to 7

  18. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  19. A new species of Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, with a key to the lower Mesoamerican species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; Gracian-Negrete, Jatziry Marlene

    2013-10-30

    A new species of Brycon is described from the Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Brycon costaricensis n. sp. differs from all other Central American Brycon species by the following combination of characters: 49 to 54 scales in the lateral line; 5 or 6 rows of scales between lateral line and pectoral fin base; 9 to 11 rows of scales between lateral line and dorsal fin base; 5 to 7 rows of scales between lateral line and anal fin base; anal fin notably longer than head, with 33 to 37 total rays; and a elongated and shallow caudal peduncle, whose length is 1.78 to 2.35 times its depth. A key to lower Mesoamerican species of the genus is also presented.

  20. Conditional cash transfers to improve education and health: an ex ante evaluation of Red de Protección Social, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ranjeeta

    2012-10-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized experiment, this article extends and tests in the context of health, the feasibility of a recently proposed reduced form approach to ex ante evaluations of social programs with an application to a conditional cash transfer program in Nicaragua. It uses a behavioural model to estimate the impact on preventive care utilization outcomes for children younger than 3 years. It validates the model with the results of the experiment and then simulates two alternate policy scenarios. The model performs well in predicting the health related outcomes and shows different results for the two sets of policy scenarios. In addition, simulations are also carried out for the school component of the cash transfer program.

  1. Achieving self-sufficiency of red blood cells based on universal voluntary blood donation in Latin America. The case of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Berrios, René; Gonzalez, Alcides; Cruz, José Ramiro

    2013-12-01

    In 2007, the blood collection rate in Nicaragua was 106.6 units per 10,000 inhabitants. Voluntary donation was 39%. The health authorities decided to pursue self sufficiency of blood by eliminating replacement donation and consolidating blood processing in two centers. Replacement donation was terminated in 2009, voluntary donation reached 100% in 2010, and the blood collection rate increased to 125.9 in 2011. The rate of red blood cell transfusion improved from 96.0 to 119.1 units per 10,000 during the 4-year period. The political will of the government, pertinent technical leadership, and a country-wide approach were essential for attaining those goals.

  2. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2–14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  3. Parsing parallel evolution: ecological divergence and differential gene expression in the adaptive radiations of thick-lipped Midas cichlid fishes from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Tereza; Hull, Pincelli M; Kusche, Henrik; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Franchini, Paolo; Harrod, Chris; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-02-01

    The study of parallel evolution facilitates the discovery of common rules of diversification. Here, we examine the repeated evolution of thick lips in Midas cichlid fishes (the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex)-from two Great Lakes and two crater lakes in Nicaragua-to assess whether similar changes in ecology, phenotypic trophic traits and gene expression accompany parallel trait evolution. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterize transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in the lips of wild-caught sympatric thick- and thin-lipped cichlids from all four instances of repeated thick-lip evolution. Six genes (apolipoprotein D, myelin-associated glycoprotein precursor, four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2, calpain-9, GTPase IMAP family member 8-like and one hypothetical protein) are significantly underexpressed in the thick-lipped morph across all four lakes. However, other aspects of lips' gene expression in sympatric morphs differ in a lake-specific pattern, including the magnitude of differentially expressed genes (97-510). Generally, fewer genes are differentially expressed among morphs in the younger crater lakes than in those from the older Great Lakes. Body shape, lower pharyngeal jaw size and shape, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differ between all sympatric morphs, with the greatest differentiation in the Great Lake Nicaragua. Some ecological traits evolve in parallel (those related to foraging ecology; e.g. lip size, body and head shape) but others, somewhat surprisingly, do not (those related to diet and food processing; e.g. jaw size and shape, stable isotopes). Taken together, this case of parallelism among thick- and thin-lipped cichlids shows a mosaic pattern of parallel and nonparallel evolution.

  4. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.

  5. Low Prevalence of Rotavirus and High Prevalence of Norovirus in Hospital and Community Wastewater after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05), and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July–September), and the majority of all RV detected (6/9) belonged to subgroup (SG) I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity) to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%). Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21) were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction. PMID:22016794

  6. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  7. Cost analysis of centralized viral load testing for antiretroviral therapy monitoring in Nicaragua, a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV viral load testing as a component of antiretroviral therapy monitoring is costly. Understanding the full costs and the major sources of inefficiency associated with viral load testing is critical for optimizing the systems and technologies that support the testing process. The objective of our study was to estimate the costs associated with viral load testing performed for antiretroviral therapy monitoring to both patients and the public healthcare system in a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource country. Methods A detailed cost analysis was performed to understand the costs involved in each step of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua, from initial specimen collection to communication of the test results to each patient's healthcare provider. Data were compiled and cross referenced from multiple information sources: laboratory records, regional surveillance centre records, and scheduled interviews with the key healthcare providers responsible for HIV patient care in five regions of the country. Results The total average cost of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua varied by region, ranging from US$99.01 to US$124.58, the majority of which was at the laboratory level: $88.73 to $97.15 per specimen, depending on batch size. The average cost to clinics at which specimens were collected ranged from $3.31 to $20.92, depending on the region. The average cost per patient for transportation, food, lodging and lost income ranged from $3.70 to $14.93. Conclusions The quantitative viral load test remains the single most expensive component of the process. For the patient, the distance of his or her residence from the specimen collection site is a large determinant of cost. Importantly, the efficiency of results reporting has a large impact on the cost per result delivered to the clinician and utility of the result for patient monitoring. Detailed cost analysis can identify opportunities for removing barriers to effective antiretroviral therapy monitoring

  8. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings. PMID:24428933

  9. Is treatment in groups a useful alternative for psychiatry in low-income countries? An evaluation of a psychiatric outpatient unit in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Caldera, T; Kullgren, G; Penayo, U; Jacobsson, L

    1995-11-01

    Centro de Atención Psicosocial in León, Nicaragua is a psychiatric outpatient unit that has developed a group-oriented model of working, in which 80% of all visits are in groups: first-admission groups, insight-oriented group psychotherapy, psycho-educative, family groups and relatives groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze patient characteristics and make a preliminary study of improvement, compliance and patient satisfaction in a 1-year perspective. One hundred consecutive visits were assessed, 44 of them first admissions. They were assessed according to all axes of DSM-III-R plus the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-III Disorders. A 1-year follow up was conducted on 39 of 41 selected patients within the major diagnostic groups. One of 4 patients had a psychotic disorder where schizophrenia dominated. Among nonpsychotics major depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were most frequent. Personality disorders were common (80%) among nonpsychotic patients, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and masochistic personality disorders dominating. The illiteracy rate was 10%, but 50% had high school or university background. Severity of mental disorders and functional level did not differ between educational levels. There was a strong male dominance in all diagnostic, socioeconomic and educational level strata and few old patients. Improvement in functional level was clinically and statistically significant in all groups, and more than two thirds were very satisfied with the group treatment offered.

  10. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Methods and Findings Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country’s pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family’s level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18

  11. Increased Replicative Fitness of a Dengue Virus 2 Clade in Native Mosquitoes: Potential Contribution to a Clade Replacement Event in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern

  12. Quantification of forest carbon degradation in Nicaragua using RapidEye remote sensing data: El Cuá and Wiwili case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoty, F. N.; Cifuentes, M.; Imbach, P. A.; Vilchez, S.; Casanoves, F.; Ibrahim, M.; Vierling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Forest degradation and deforestation affect ecosystem function and climate regulation services such as carbon storage. Historically, Central America has been a deforestation and forest degradation hotspot. Wiwili and El Cuá municipalities in northern Nicaragua are no exception, where subsistence agriculture and cattle ranch expansion have driven deforestation and other wood extraction activities, leading to various levels of forest degradation. Reduction of Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) projects are proposed as a tool to slow the degradation and loss of carbon stocks by restoring carbon to its natural levels in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions that cause global warming. REDD projects require baseline estimations of current carbon stocks and forest degradation status. We estimated carbon stocks across a forest degradation gradient based on common biophysical variables and commercially available (RapidEye) remote sensing data. We measured 80 temporary forest plots (50x20m) for aboveground biomass to sample a gradient of forest degradation at two municipalities (El Cuá and Wiwili) in northern Nicaragua. We measured biomass in trees (≥10 cm DBH), saplings (5-9.9 cm DBH), other growth forms (ferns, palms and woody vines), and large detritus (snags and downed wood). Biomass was estimated by a range of allometric models and a constant conversion factor (0.47) was applied to calculate aboveground carbon stocks. Remote sensing data from a RapidEye scene for 02/2010 provided data for 5 spectral bands and 19 vegetation indexes at 6 m spatial resolution. Precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, canopy cover, and aspect were also used as input variables for carbon modeling. We tested linear mixed models, generalized additive mixed models and regression tree approaches to explain carbon stocks based on vegetation indexes and biophysical variables. Additionally, we grouped plots into low (17-168 Mg C ha-1), medium (168-302 Mg C ha-1

  13. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  14. How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  15. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  16. The 12.4 ka Upper Apoyeque Tephra, Nicaragua: stratigraphy, dispersal, composition, magma reservoir conditions and trigger of the plinian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Freundt, Armin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Highly-explosive plinian eruptions belong to the most devastating phenomena of volcanic activity. Upper Apoyeque Tephra (UAq), erupted in close vicinity of the Managua city region in west-central Nicaragua with two million inhabitants, was formed by a rhyodacitic plinian eruption at 12.4 ka BP. The fallout tephra was dispersed from a progressively rising plinian eruption column that became exposed to different wind speeds and directions at different heights in the stratosphere, leading to an asymmetric tephra fan with different facies in the western and southern sector. Tephra dispersal data integrated with geochemical compositions of lava flows in the area facilitate to delimit the source vent to the south of Chiltepe Peninsula. UAq, Lower Apoyeque Tephra, Apoyeque Ignimbrite, and two lithic clasts in San Isidro Tephra together form a trend distinct from that of the younger tephras and lavas at Chiltepe Volcanic Complex in a TiO2 versus K2O diagram, compositionally precluding a genetic relationship of UAq with the present-day Apoyeque Volcano. Apoyeque Volcano in its present shape did not exist at the time of the UAq eruption. The surface expression of the UAq vent is now obscured by younger eruption products and lake water. Pressure-temperature constraints based on mineral-melt equilibria indicate at least two magma storage levels. Clinopyroxenes crystallised in a deep crustal reservoir at ˜24 km depth as inferred from clinopyroxene-melt inclusion pairs. Chemical disequilibrium between clinopyroxenes and matrix glasses indicate rapid magma ascent to the shallower reservoir at ˜5.4 km depth, where magnesiohornblendes and plagioclase fractionated at a temperature of ˜830°C. Water concentrations ranged at ˜5.5 wt. % as derived from congruent results of amphibole and plagioclase-melt hygrometry. The eruption was triggered through injection of a hotter, more primitive melt into a water-supersaturated reservoir.

  17. The 12.4 ka Upper Apoyeque Tephra, Nicaragua: stratigraphy, dispersal, composition, magma reservoir conditions and trigger of the plinian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Freundt, Armin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Upper Apoyeque Tephra (UAq) was formed by a rhyodacitic plinian eruption in west-central Nicaragua at 12.4 ka BP. The fallout tephra was dispersed from a progressively rising plinian eruption column that became exposed to different wind speeds and directions at different heights in the stratosphere, leading to an asymmetric tephra fan with different facies in the western and southern sector. Tephra dispersal data integrated with geochemical compositions of lava flows in the area facilitate delimitation of the source vent to the south of Chiltepe Peninsula. UAq, Lower Apoyeque Tephra, Apoyeque Ignimbrite, and two lava lithic clasts in San Isidro Tephra together form a differentiation trend distinct from that of the younger tephras and lavas at Chiltepe Volcanic Complex in a TiO2 versus K2O diagram, compositionally precluding a genetic relationship of UAq with the present-day Apoyeque stratovolcano. Apoyeque Volcano in its present shape did not exist at the time of the UAq eruption. The surface expression of the UAq vent is now obscured by younger eruption products and lake water. Pressure-temperature constraints based on mineral-melt equilibria and fluid inclusions in plagioclase indicate at least two magma storage levels. Clinopyroxenes crystallised in a deep crustal reservoir at ˜24 km depth as inferred from clinopyroxene-melt inclusion pairs. Chemical disequilibrium between clinopyroxenes and matrix glasses indicates rapid magma ascent to the shallower reservoir at ˜5.4 km depth, where magnesiohornblendes and plagioclase fractionated at a temperature of ˜830 °C. Water concentrations were ˜5.5 wt.% as derived from congruent results of amphibole and plagioclase-melt hygrometry. The eruption was triggered by injection of a hotter, more primitive melt into a water-supersaturated reservoir.

  18. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    DOE PAGES

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes ofmore » fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence properties.« less

  19. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; Chaotham, Chatchai; Graham, David Y.; Paszat, Lawrence; Rabeneck, Linda; Lundin, Samuel B.; Nookaew, Intawat; Sjoling, Asa

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes of fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence

  20. Models of Metabolic Community Structure in Martian Habitable Environments: Constraints from a Terrestrial Analog Acid-Sulfate Fumarole Environment, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial habitability in extreme environments on Earth is described by microscale geochemical conditions that constrain metabolic niches in concert with long-term habitat stability that is governed by dynamic geologic processes. Using terrestrial analogs to identify habitable martian environments requires correlating microscale geochemical constraints with reconstructions of past martian environments that are based on global-scale observations. While past martian environments can be characterized by primary parameters (e.g. pH, redox, mineralogy, thermal history), microbial habitability on Earth is a complex function of both primary and derived parameters (e.g. metabolic reaction energetics, chemical & thermal gradients, flow dynamics). In recent years we have been investigating acid-sulfate fumaroles at the Mars analog site, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where habitability is constrained by steep thermal gradients, spatially- and temporally-variable vent dynamics, and limited water and nutrient availability. The most common niche identified thus far is found in fumaroles that host mixed photosynthetic and chemosynthetic endolithic microbial communities. One such endolith is dominated by acidic red algae (Cyanidiales), aerobic bacterial heterotrophs (Ktedonobacteria), and archaeal thermoacidophiles (Hyperthermus, Caldisphaera, and Thermofilum). An analysis of the metabolic structure suggests that primary production by the red algae supports the growth of heterotrophic thermoacidophiles. Diversification among the chemoheterotrophs with respect to temperature and oxygen tolerance suggests community adaptation to environmental gradients or variable venting dynamics. Furthermore, individual cells within the endolith are silica-encrusted, providing the possibility for biosignature formation and preservation. Putative hydrothermal environments on early Mars with similar conditions could have supported endolithic communities with comparable metabolic strategies. Even

  1. Assessment of environmental controls on acid-sulfate alteration at active volcanoes in Nicaragua: Applications to relic hydrothermal systems on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Brian M.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Marcucci, Emma C.; Brugman, Kara; Rogers, Karyn L.

    2013-10-01

    A variety of secondary mineralogies has been detected on Mars from both orbiters and landers, indicating widespread aqueous alteration of the crust. Many of these locales exhibit sulfates, which in some cases imply acidic fluids. At present, there are few constraints on the paleoenvironmental conditions that existed during formation of the widespread and diverse classes of secondary minerals on Mars. We investigated hydrothermal systems at three active acidic volcanic systems in Nicaragua, including Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica. The recently erupted materials are similar in composition to the Martian crust and are undergoing extensive acid-sulfate alteration predominately in gas-dominated settings (fumaroles). We characterized the secondary mineralogy and local variables, including temperature, pH, rock and gas composition, and fluid-rock ratio. We find that these environmental parameters exhibit strong controls on the alteration mineralogy. The environments studied include pH that ranged from -1 to 6, temperatures from ambient to hundreds of degrees Celsius, and fumaroles to hot springs. The hottest and most acidic systems contained sulfur, silica, and minor gypsum, while moderately acidic and cooler fumaroles included abundant silica, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates, and phyllosilicates. A setting with a higher fluid-rock ratio but similar temperature and acidity was dominated by phyllosilicates and, to a lesser degree, sulfates. The characterization of aqueous alteration of basalts under a variety of environmental conditions provides a conceptual framework for interpretation of similar relic environments on Mars. Finally, while identification of phyllosilicates on Mars is generally thought to require neutral to alkaline fluids, we documented significant formation of these minerals in the acidic volcanic systems.

  2. Cocos Plate Seamounts offshore NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua: Implications for large-scale distribution of Galápagos plume material in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrich, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard; Hauff, Folkmar; Bogaard, Paul v. d.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The origin of intraplate volcanism not directly part of a hotspot track, such as diffuse seamount provinces, and the extent of mantle plume influence on the upper mantle remain enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar age data and geochemical (major and trace-element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic) data from seamounts on the Cocos Plate presently located offshore of NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua. The seamounts (~ 7-24 Ma) require mixing of an enriched ocean island basalt composition, similar to that of the Northern Galápagos Domain, with two depleted components. One of the depleted components is similar to East Pacific Rise normal mid-ocean ridge basalt and the other has more depleted incompatible elements, either reflecting secondary melting of MORB or a depleted Galápagos plume component. Seamounts with ages significantly younger than the ocean crust formed in an intraplate setting and can be explained by northward transport of Galápagos plume material along the base of the Cocos Plate up to 900 km away from the hotspot and 250-500 km north of the Galápagos hotspot track. We propose that melting occurs due to decompression as the mantle upwells to shallower depth as it flows northwards, either due to changes in lithospheric thickness or as a result of upwelling at the edge of a viscous plug of accumulated plume material at the base of the lithosphere. The tholeiitic to alkaline basalt compositions of the Cocos Plate Seamounts compared to the more silica under-saturated compositions of Hawaiian rejuvenated and arch (alkali basalts to nephelinites) lavas are likely to reflect the significant difference in age (< 25 vs ~ 90 Ma) and thus thickness of the lithosphere on which the lavas were erupted.

  3. The A.D. 1835 eruption of Volcán Cosigüina, Nicaragua: A guide for assessing local volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Devoli, Graziella; Alvarez, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The January 1835 eruption of Volcán Cosigüina in northwestern Nicaragua was one of the largest and most explosive in Central America since Spanish colonization. We report on the results of reconnaissance stratigraphic studies and laboratory work aimed at better defining the distribution and character of deposits emplaced by the eruption as a means of developing a preliminary hazards assessment for future eruptions. On the lower flanks of the volcano, a basal tephra-fall deposit comprises either ash and fine lithic lapilli or, locally, dacitic pumice. An overlying tephra-fall deposit forms an extensive blanket of brown to gray andesitic scoria that is 35–60 cm thick at 5–10 km from the summit-caldera rim, except southwest of the volcano, where it is considerably thinner. The scoria fall produced the most voluminous deposit of the eruption and underlies pyroclastic-surge and -flow deposits that chiefly comprise gray andesitic scoria. In northern and southeastern sectors of the volcano, these flowage deposits form broad fans and valley fills that locally reach the Gulf of Fonseca. An arcuate ridge 2 km west of the caldera rim and a low ridge east of the caldera deflected pyroclastic flows northward and southeastward. Pyroclastic flows did not reach the lower west and southwest flanks, which instead received thick, fine-grained, accretionary-lapilli–rich ashfall deposits that probably derived chiefly from ash clouds elutriated from pyroclastic flows. We estimate the total bulk volume of erupted deposits to be ∼6 km3. Following the eruption, lahars inundated large portions of the lower flanks, and erosion of deposits and creation of new channels triggered rapid alluviation. Pre-1835 eruptions are poorly dated; however, scoria-fall, pyroclastic-flow, and lahar deposits record a penultimate eruption of smaller magnitude than that of 1835. It occurred a few centuries earlier—perhaps in the fifteenth century. An undated sequence of thick tephra-fall deposits on

  4. Water saturation of hydrothermal smectite-rich clay might have promoted slope instability prior to the 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Opfergelt, S.; Boivin, P.; Delvaux, B.

    2006-12-01

    In October 1998, a relatively small collapse (1 600 000 cubic meters) of a pre-existing scarp occurred on the southern flank of the dormant Casita volcano, Nicaragua. It resulted in a debris avalanche, which quickly transformed into a disastrous debris flow that destroyed two towns and killed more than 2500 people. The failure was shown to be triggered by an excess pore water pressure within highly fractured rocks, following prolonged seasonal rains and precipitations from Hurricane Mitch. This pressure was linked to the water saturation of a hydrothermally-altered clay bedrock impeding in-depth infiltration. Yet, the nature and amounts of the clay material involved in the slope failure were still unknown. Here we report on physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations aimed at quantifying the clay content, and identifying the layer silicates of the hydrothermally-altered clays uncovered by the 1998 debris avalanche. The fine clay material was exceptionally rich in smectite (up to 50 wt. percent), which swells upon wetting and shrinks during dry conditions (Opfergelt et al., 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (15), L15305). The smectite belonged to the beidellite-montmorillonite series. The pervasive presence of water-saturated smectitic clay strongly reduced the permeability in depth, and also altered the rheological and mechanical properties of both the pre-failure rock mass and flow materials. The shrink-swell behavior progressively decreased the rock's shear strength, and gradually destabilized the overlying rock mass in the decades and centuries before the landslide, thereby contributing to slope instability. Prolonged intense rainfall led to the formation of incipient weak failure surfaces in the superficial rock mass. As provoked by water saturation, this process was likely favored by the rapid change of the mechanical properties of smectite-rich clays deposited in fracture, joint and gouge interfaces. We suggest that hazard assessments associated with

  5. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  6. Payment schemes for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument for the sustainable management of natural resources and poverty reduction - a case study from Belén, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, J.

    2010-08-01

    The importance of intact ecosystems for human-wellbeing as well as the dependence on functions and services they provide is undoubted. But still neither the costs of ecosystem degradation nor the benefits from ecosystem functions and services appear on socio-economic balance sheets when development takes place. Consequently overuse of natural resources is socio-economically promoted by conventional resource management policies and external effects (externalities), equally positives and negatives, remain unregarded. In this context the potential of payments for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument to foster sustainable natural resource use, and rural development shall be investigated. This paper introduces the principle concept of such payments, presents a case study from Nicaragua and highlights preliminary effects of the application of this instrument on natural resource use and development.

  7. Walking through volcanic mud: the 2,100 year-old Acahualinca footprints (Nicaragua) II: the Acahualinca people, environmental conditions and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Rausch, Juanita; Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed bare human footprints in Holocene tuff preserved in two pits in the Acahualinca barrio in the northern outskirts of Managua (Nicaragua). Lithology, volcanology, and age of the deposits are discussed in a companion paper (Schmincke et al. Bull Volcanol doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0235-9 , 2008). The footprint layer occurs within a series of rapidly accumulated basaltic-andesitic tephra that is regionally correlated to the Masaya Triple Layer Tephra. The people were probably trying to escape from a powerful volcanic eruption at Masaya Caldera 20 km farther south that occurred at 2.1 ka BP. We subdivided the swath of footprints, up to 5.6 m wide, in the northern pit (Pit I) into (1) a central group of footprints made by about six individuals, the total number being difficult to determine because people walked in each other’s footsteps one behind the other and (2) two marginal groups on either side of the central group with more widely spaced tracks. The western band comprises tracks of three adjacent individuals and an isolated single footprint farther out. The eastern marginal area comprises an inner band of deep footprints made by three individuals and, farther out, three clearly separated individuals. We estimate the total number of people as 15-16. In the southern narrow and smaller pit (Pit II), we recognize tracks of ca. 12 individuals, no doubt made by the same group. The group represented in both pits probably comprised male and female adults, teenagers and children based on differences in length of footprints and of strides and depth of footprints made in the soft wet ash. The smallest footprints (probably made by children) occur in the central group, where protection was most effective. The footprint layer is composed of a lower 5-15-cm thick, coarse-grained vesicle tuff capped by a medium to fine-grained tuff up to 3 cm thick. The

  8. Eruptive history and magmatic evolution of the 1.9 kyr Plinian dacitic Chiltepe Tephra from Apoyeque volcano in west-central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin; Burkert, Cosima

    2011-09-01

    The youngest dacitic Plinian eruption in west-central Nicaragua, forming the 18 km3 Chiltepe Tephra (CT), occurred about nineteen hundred years ago at Apoyeque stratovolcano, which dominates the Chiltepe volcanic complex 15 km north of the capital Managua, where the CT is 2 m thick. We have traced the CT from its proximal facies at the crater rim, through the medial facies in the lowlands around Apoyeque, and to the distal facies up to 550 km offshore in the Pacific. While medial and distal facies consist of widespread Plinian fall deposits, the proximal facies reveals the complexity of this eruption, which we divide into four phases (I-IV). Interaction of rising magma with a pre-existing crater lake generated the phreatomagmatic opening phase I of the eruption, which produced ash fall with accretionary lapilli. Phase II marked a rapid change to persistent magmatic activity that yielded several large Plinian eruptions, declining through a period of unstable eruption conditions, followed by a short hiatus. Phase III began with unstable conditions, probably as a result of eastward migration and widening of the vent, leading to a second period of Plinian eruptions with three major events reaching magma discharge rates five times larger than those of phase II. Phase III again declined through unstable eruption conditions before magmatic activity terminated. Numerous explosions in the shallow hydrothermal system during the final phase IV resulted in the formation of a phreatic tuff ring on the rim of Apoyeque crater. The white, highly-vesicular, dacitic CT pumice contains plagioclase (An45-68), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and minor hornblende, apatite and titanomagnetite phenocrysts. A very subordinate fraction of gray pumice has the highest crystal content, the least evolved bulk-rock, but the most evolved matrix-glass composition. The CT dacite has two unusual compositional features: (1) all white dacite has the same melt (matrix-glass) composition such that

  9. Repeating LP events and increases in high-frequency seismic energy preceding the December 1999 eruption of the quiescently active Telica Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Roman, D. C.; Geirsson, H.; Lafemina, P.; Muñoz, A.; Guzman, C.; Tenorio, V.

    2010-12-01

    Telica volcano, Nicaragua, is a ‘quiescently active’ basaltic andesite stratovolcano located in the Central American volcanic front. A high rate of long-period (LP) seismicity has been recorded at Telica since the installation of a single vertical-component 1 Hz seismic sensor (TELN) near its summit in 1993 by the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). Due to the continuously high rate of LPs at Telica, traditional methods of forecasting volcanic activity may not be applicable; therefore an understanding of the nature of precursory changes in Telica’s seismicity is necessary to accurately forecast future volcanic activity. A VEI 2 eruption of Telica occurred on the 29th December 1999, preceded by a series of small explosions between the 3rd-15th October 1999. Here we analyse an eight-month period of seismicity bracketing this activity, in an attempt to identify precursory changes with respect to background seismicity. Between August 1999 and March 2000 over 18,000 seismic events were recorded on TELN. We first calculated the dominant frequencies (i.e. frequency with dominant spectral energy) for all events recorded during this period. A time series of the dominant event frequencies between August 1999 and March 2000 shows a significant increase in the number of high frequency (> 5 Hz) events and, in LP events, a shift in the two dominant spectral energy peaks from 2 Hz and 4 Hz to 2 Hz and 3 Hz in the month before the October 1999 explosions. Next, we selected six representative eight-day periods, three from before the explosions and three from after, for multiplet analysis using waveform cross-correlation. Multiplet analysis of the six selected time periods reveal significant changes in behaviour. In period 1 (more than one month before the explosions) events are poorly correlated. In periods 2 and 3 (less than one month before the explosions) we identified several unique families of LP events, each having high cross-correlation values

  10. Playing to Win in Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    Miranda served as Chief of Staff to Humberto Ortega, the Sandinistan Defense Minister. Miranda has reinforced the charge that the Sandinistas agreed... Lucia Annunziata, "Democrats and the Arias Plan," The Nation, Vol. 197, 18 April 1987, pp. 503-505. 11. Elliott Abrams, "Central America: What Are

  11. US Strategic Options in Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    arrested in the fall of 1986. The men were sent to "EI Modelo " prison on the eastern outskirts of Managua, while the women were detained in the security...Santa Monica, Calif. 4. Julia Preston, ~’Gringos Defeated in War Games," The Washington Post, 21 December 1986, pp . I, 33. 5. Richard’Halloran...February 1987), p. 1. 11. Joanne Omang, HThe Contra Commitment," The Washington Post, 1 January 1987, pp . I, 24. 12. Penn Kemble and Arturo Cruz, Jr

  12. Thermal Models of the Costa Rica - Nicaragua Subduction Zone: the Effect of a Three-Dimensional Oceanic Plate Structure and Hydrothermal Circulation in the Temperature Distribution and Mantle Wedge Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, J. C.; Currie, C. A.; He, J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last years several 2D thermo-mechanical models of the Costa Rica - Nicaragua Subduction Zone (CNSZ) have studied the thermal distribution of sections of the fault. Such investigations allow us to understand temperature-related aspects of subduction zones, like volcanism and megathrust earthquake locations. However, certain features of the CNSZ limit the range of applicability of 2D models. In the CNSZ, geochemical trends and seismic anisotropy studies reveal a 3D mantle wedge flow that departs from the 2D corner flow. The origin of this flow are dip variations (20o to 25o between Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and the presence of a slab window in Panama that allows material to flow into the mantle wedge. Also, the Central America trench has abrupt variations in surface heat flux that contrasts with steady changes in plate age and convergence rate. These variations have been attributed to hydrothermal circulation (HC), which effectively removes heat from the oceanic crust.In this project we analyze the thermal structure of the CNSZ. The objective is to study dehydration and metamorphic reactions, as well as the length of the megathrust seismogenic zone. We created 3D finite-element models that employ a dislocation creep rheology for the mantle wedge. Two aspects make our models different from previous studies: an up-to-date 3D slab geometry, and an implementation of HC by introducing a conductive proxy in the subducting aquifer, allowing us to model convective heat transport without the complex, high-Rayleigh number calculations. A 3D oceanic boundary condition that resembles the along-strike changes in surface heat flux is also employed. Results show a maximum mantle wedge flow rate of 4.69 cm/yr in the along-strike direction, representing more than 50% of the slab convergence rate. With respect to 2D models, analysis shows this flow changes temperatures by ~100 C in the mantle wedge near areas of strong slab curvature. Along the subducting interface, there is

  13. Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in León, Nicaragua-A Shared Pool of blaCTX-M Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Badrul; Laurell, Karl; Rakib, Mufti Mahmud; Ahlstedt, Erik; Hernandez, Jorge; Caceres, Mercedes; Järhult, Josef D

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing β-lactamases such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of León, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n = 100), poultry (n = 100) and wild birds (n = 100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-22, and blaCTX-M-3 genotypes. The blaCTX-M-15 constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of blaCTX-M genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  14. Guerrilla Warfare in Nicaragua, 1975-1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    ruthless caudillo, Jose Santos Zelaya 4 seized power and established a despotic regime which endured for more than a decade and a half until 1909. The end...Group. The second founding member, Tomgs Borge Martinez, also was born in Matagalpa and studied law at the university in Le6n before joining a...In 1978, however, Borge appeared amng the prisoners released by Somoza following the FSLN assault on the Nicaraguan National Palace. The final

  15. Education in Nicaragua. Bulletin, 1947, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1947-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  16. First Investigations on the Pantasma Structure (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Beck, P.; Debaille, V.; Devouard, B.; Moustard, F.; Nomade, S.; Cornec, J.

    2016-08-01

    The 13 km diameter structure of Pantasma occurs in subhorizontal volcanics. Morphology, structure and deformation are compatible with a Quaternary impact. Recovered glass pebbles appear to be impact generated.

  17. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  18. Violent Crime: A Comparative Study of Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Poverty and Inequality,” Revista Envío (May 2008): 322, www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /3779 (accessed September 13, 2008). 131 Ibid. 132 UNESCO, “Education...Commissioner. Valladares uncovered information that implicated the Directorate of National Investigations (Dirección Nacional de Investigaciones or...264 José Miguel Cruz, “Central America: Why do so Many Civilians have Firearms?” Revista Envío, December 2005, no. 293, www.envio.org.ni/ articulo

  19. Resistance Begins with the First Foreign Footstep: China and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    shelling of coastal towns, as was naval custom. The conflict also revealed a dichotomy between the Department of State and the local Navy commanders...Ibid., 203. 33 Ibid., 221-227. 34 Ibid., 222. 35 Ibid., 6. 36 Ibid., 222-223. 37 Ibid., 241-242. 38 Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars: United...States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898- 1934 (Lexington, KY: University Press), 55. 39 Bruce Gudmundsson, “The First of the Banana Wars: US

  20. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.

    1996-12-31

    The Momotombo geothermal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} plotted on the Na-K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to reservoir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2, Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than some of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred from a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  1. Post-civil war adaptation and need in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Frederick L; Noble, John H

    2004-07-01

    Within seven years after the end of the Nicaraguan civil war in 1990, forced migrants, whose lives had been most disrupted by the conflict, were self-settled in a squatter community in the capital city of Managua and lived in extreme poverty with minimal health, education, security and social service supports. Compared with voluntary migrant neighbours, whose lives had been less affected by the conflict, forced migrants exhibited equal clinically significant symptoms of physical and mental health and psychosocial maladaptation. These findings run counter to generally held theory and assumptions about the negative long-lasting effects of the trauma and stress of war, forced migration and resettlement. Explanations are offered to explain the discrepancies between theory and the study findings as well as the dominance of poverty and socioeconomic status. Implications are also drawn for increasing social support and other durable forms of assistance that emerge from the study as important to meeting the needs of equally poor and unhealthy forced and voluntary migrants in proliferating squatter communities throughout the Third World.

  2. Teachers and Teaching: Conceptualizing Quality Education in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Policy discourses reflected in the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) (Inter-Agency Commission, 1990) and the subsequent Dakar Framework for Action and EFA: The Quality Imperative (UNESCO, 2001, 2004), have called for the improvement of the quality of basic education. These discourses emphasize student-centered pedagogical approaches in…

  3. Experimental Evidence from an Early Childhood Parenting Intervention in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macours, Karen; Premand, Patrick; Schady, Norbert; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Despite the strong argument for investing in young children and the many types of interventions and delivery mechanisms that have been developed, knowledge on Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs' effectiveness in low-income settings remains thin. Yet a growing number of programs in developing countries contain interventions seeking to…

  4. The Impact of Child Labor on Schooling Outcomes in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo

    2011-01-01

    Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…

  5. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  6. Television exposure predicts body size ideals in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Jucker, Jean-Luc; Thornborrow, Tracey; Jamieson, Mark A; Burt, D Michael; Barton, Robert A; Evans, Elizabeth H; Tovee, Martin J

    2016-11-01

    Internalization of a thin ideal has been posited as a key risk factor in the development of pathological eating attitudes. Cross-culturally, studies have found a preference for heavier bodies in populations with reduced access to visual media compared to Western populations. As yet, however, there has been little attempt to control for confounding variables in order to isolate the effects of media exposure from other cultural and ecological factors. Here, we examined preferences for female body size in relation to television consumption in Nicaraguan men and women, while controlling for the potential confounding effects of other aspects of Westernization and hunger. We included an urban sample, a sample from a village with established television access, and a sample from a nearby village with very limited television access. The highest BMI preferences were found in the village with least media access, while the lowest BMI preferences were found in the urban sample. Data from the rural sample with established television access were intermediate between the two. Amongst rural women in particular, greater television consumption was a stronger predictor of body weight preferences than acculturation, education, hunger, or income. We also found some evidence for television consumption increasing the likelihood of women seeking to lose weight, possibly via body shape preferences. Overall, these results strongly implicate television access in establishing risk factors for body image disturbances in populations newly gaining access to Western media.

  7. Analyzing IT Service Delivery in an ISP from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Johnny; Rusu, Lazar; Johanneson, Paul

    This paper presents a method for analyzing IT service delivery and its application in an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The method proposed is based on ITIL-processes and case study technique; it includes questionnaires for gathering information, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and documents as sources of information for recognition of factual information. The method application allows to the ISP determines its practices and limitations of the IT Service Delivery.

  8. Sex Trafficking, Violence Victimization, and Condom Non-Use Among Prostituted Women in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Mack, Katelyn P.; Barrows, Jeffery J.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Prostituted women report disempowerment-related barriers to condom use, extensive violence victimization and trafficking experiences; findings indicate that disempowerment must be addressed within STI/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:19577234

  9. Heterogeneity of hunting ability and nutritional status among domestic dogs in lowland Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy M; Tankersley, Kenneth B

    2012-02-21

    In past and modern human societies, dogs have played an important role as hunting companions. Given considerable ethnographic evidence that dogs vary in their hunting abilities, this paper addresses the effects of key demographic variables, namely age and sex, on the amount of harvested game that dogs contribute in an indigenous Nicaraguan community. Controlling for variation in the time spent potentially hunting, male dogs and older dogs are significantly associated with greater harvests. These results may account for documented preferences for males in both archaeological and ethnographic contexts. Among societies in which dogs are used both as hunting companions and sources of food, the age-related delay in peak hunting ability also suggests a tradeoff that might explain the consumption of dogs shortly after they have reached adult size. Informant rankings of two cohorts of dogs indicate that residents of the community exhibit high agreement about the relative abilities of the dogs, and the rankings indicate that dogs from the same household exhibit comparable skill. There is little evidence that talented, highly-ranked dogs are provided a more nutritious diet, as measured by nitrogen-based and carbon-based isotopic analysis of hair samples. Overall, although dogs can be quite advantageous as hunting companions, this research suggests that the heterogeneity of hunting ability combines with the high mortality of dogs to impose risks on households that depend on dogs as a source of harvested meat.

  10. Scientists raise alarms about fast tracking of transoceanic canal through Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L; Rittmann, Bruce E; Clayton, Anthony; Acosta, Maria L; Bicudo, Carlos E M; K Arroyo, Mary T; Brett, Michael T; Campos, Victor M; Chaimovich, Hernan; Jimenez-Cisneros, Blanca; Covich, Alan; Lacerda, Luiz D; Maes, Jean-Michel; Miranda, Julio C; Montenegro-Guillén, Salvador; Ortega-Hegg, Manuel; Urquhart, Gerald R; Vammen, Katherine; Zambrano, Luis

    2015-04-07

    Seeking economic growth and job creation to tackle the nation's extreme poverty, the Nicaraguan government awarded a concession to build an interoceanic canal and associated projects to a recently formed Hong Kong based company with no track record or related expertise. This concession was awarded without a bidding process and in advance of any feasibility, socio-economic or environmental impact assessments; construction has begun without this information. The 278 km long interoceanic canal project may result in significant environmental and social impairments. Of particular concern are damage to Lake Cocibolca, a unique freshwater tropical lake and Central America's main freshwater reservoir; damage to regional biodiversity and ecosystems; and socio-economic impacts. Concerned about the possibly irreparable damage to the environment and to native communities, conservationists and the scientific community at large are urging the Nicaraguan government to devise and reveal an action plan to address and mitigate the possible negative repercussions of this interoceanic canal and associated projects. Critical research needs for preparation of a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis for this megaproject are presented.

  11. Constraining porosity of the shallow forearc and plate interface offshore Nicaragua with marine electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naif, S.; Key, K.; Constable, S.; Evans, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    We imaged the electrical resistivity structure of the incoming plate and outer forearc across the Middle America Trench with 2-D inversion of marine controlled-source electromagnetic data. The inverted data reveal a high conductivity channel that is congruent with the geometry of the plate interface, which we infer to be subducted sediments. We used the resistivity model to estimate the porosity of the upper plate and underthrust sediments. The sediment porosity decays exponentially as it is subducted along the plate interface, in good agreement with existing constraints from compaction studies. The plate interface is overlain by an upper plate that is one to two orders of magnitude more resistive, requiring low porosities (<15%) that are consistent with a non-accreting margin composed of crystalline basement or lithified sediments.At 18 to 23 km landward of the trench, the conductive channel diverges from the plate interface and extends 1-2 km into the overlying plate below a cluster of active seafloor seeps. The location of the anomaly at depth is synonymous with a rapid steepening of the seafloor slope. The steepened slope occurs at 15 to 25 km landward of the trench and is extensive, persisting for more than 100 km along the margin. This correlation leads us to conclude that the cause of the conductive feature is sediment underplating. The implications for the 1992 tsunami earthquake will be discussed.

  12. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-10-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  13. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.

  14. Can the Grass Roots Speak? The Literacy Campaign in English on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the Literacy Campaign in English, one of three native language extensions of the Nicaraguan Sandinistas' National Literacy Crusade, explaining how it highlights how state policy and grassroots initiatives interact in indigenous/ethnic language maintenance in Latin America. Analyzes literacy materials designed for the English-speaking…

  15. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    rights abuses and to purge the army of its most serious human rights violators.”154 The peace agreement “stipulated that all Salvadoran armed forces...repressive measures that violate individual rights . Despite reports of extrajudicial killings, it is not uncommon for citizens to ignore these...leading human rights violation in both Honduras and Guatemala.”30 El Salvador is not immune to this problem and “there have been reports of a

  16. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Nicaragua from 1927 to 1933

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    tactical and operational level. I initially approached this topic by investigating the measure of effectiveness assigned to the occupation, the free and... effective without any organized. resistance.14 The Eleventh Regiment established its headquarters in Ocotal and immediately began ·active patrolling...Nacional. The solution to this lack ofleadership came in the form. of political appointments. The United States attempted to s~lect an equal number of field

  17. Non-Formal Basic Education as a Development Priority: Evidence from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Pineda, Heiling; Esquivel, Yannete; Lopez, Blancadilia; Gurdian, Nidia Veronica; Regalia, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Almost 900m adolescents and adults are illiterate in the developing world, yet most policy discussions focus on the educational circumstances of primary aged children. As a result non-formal educational programs for adolescents and adults are given very little support, and this group is virtually ignored in international agreements such as the…

  18. Attitudinal and relational factors predicting the use of solar water disinfection: a field study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several factors and the intention to use SODIS in the future and actual use were tested. The results showed that intention to use and actual use are mainly related to an overall positive attitude, intention to use is related to the use of SODIS by neighbors, and actual use is related to knowledge about SODIS; SODIS users reported a significantly lower incidence in diarrhea than SODIS nonusers. These results suggest that promotion activities should aim at creating a positive attitude, for example, by choosing a promoter that is able to inspire confidence in the new technology.

  19. Education and Gender in Revolutionary Societies: Insights from Vietnam, Nicaragua, and Eritrea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tanja R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the work of Bourdieu, this paper analyses how far formal education within a revolutionary setting can act as a "strategy-generating" institution in terms of enabling women to aspire to and achieve goals they would not even have envisaged pre-revolution. In making its case, it draws on the examples of three revolutionary…

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Diffuse Carbon Dioxide Emission From Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Melián, G.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Cerro Negro is a basaltic cinder cone that has erupted 22 times since its birth in 1850. It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Cerro Negro's most recent activity was on 5 August 1999 when erupted ash clouds at heights of about 7 km. In December 1999, three months after the eruption, a surface flux survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 to 35,000 gm-2d-1 and the total diffuse CO2 output was estimated about 2,800 td-1. Soil temperature reached values above 300°C on the NE flank of the volcano (Salazar et al., 2001). The goal of this study is to evaluate how diffuse CO2 degassing rate at Cerro Negro changes through its eruptive cycle and improve its volcano monitoring program. From Febraury 26 to March 11, 2002, a new diffuse CO2 degassing survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Sampling distribution was similar to the 1999 survey covering an area of (0.6 Km2). Diffuse CO2 emission rates for the 2002 survey showed a wide range of values from 0.3 to 26,500 gm-2d-1. Most of the study area showed soil CO2 efflux values above 110 gm-2d-1, and the highest CO2 efflux rate was observed in the Northeastern sector of the crater. Soil temperature was also recorded during the survey, and the highest value was observed in the NE flank reaching temperatures up to 450°C. The total diffuse CO2 output for the 2002 survey was estimated about 280 td-1, which is one order of magnitude lower than the estimated for the 1999 survey. This significant temporal variation on diffuse CO2 emission rate seems to be clearly related to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. If we consider that the statistically eruptive cycle for Cerro Negro is less than a decade, it is obvious that the December 1999 survey was performed within its post-eruptive period, while the recent 2002 survey was carried out two years and a half after the most recent eruption of Cerro Negro, within its inter-eruptive period. These results suggest that diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring at Cerro Negro could be a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance.

  1. 76 FR 68493 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... and/or biometrics fee waivers by completing a Request for Fee Waiver (Form I-912) or submitting a... biometric services are also described in 8 CFR 103.7(b). Biometric Services Fee Biometrics (such as... biometric services fee. As previously stated, if you are unable to pay, you may apply for a biometrics...

  2. 75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... together. You may apply for application and/or biometrics fee waivers if you are unable to pay and you can... Services Fee Biometrics (such as fingerprints) are required for all applicants 14 years of age or...

  3. After the war in Nicaragua: a psychosocial study of war wounded ex-combatants.

    PubMed

    Hume, F; Summerfield, D

    1994-01-01

    Despite 150 wars in the Third World since 1945, there have been virtually no psychosocial studies of war wounded ex-combatants. This community study of 72 such men, on average 4.9 years post-injury, had both quantitative (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ] and clinical interview) and qualitative (personal narrative) components. Most men were coping adaptively. However their overall GHQ scores were significantly higher than an ex-combatant control group, suggesting relative psychological vulnerability (P = 0.001). 13 (18 per cent) had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) though in only three was this clinically significant, two of whom were aggressive alcoholics. Social dysfunction was a better indicator of the minority who needed psychological help than a diagnosis of PTSD. The one in three with a severe physical disability were not at greater risk than the rest of the group. Personal narratives illuminated the ways subjects had registered and responded to their war experiences. Identification with the social ideals being defended by the war effort had been psychologically bolstering. Ten severely disabled ex-Contra guerrillas, who had fought on the other side, were also interviewed. The availability of appropriate training/work, and thus the economic fortunes of the whole society, are likely to be major determinants of long-term psychosocial outcomes. Six illustrative personal histories are appended.

  4. Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several…

  5. The Usage of "Usted" in Three Societies: Colombia, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Compares previous findings on the social correlates of the "Usted,""Tu," and "Vos" variation in three Latin American countries. All the countries have a non-solidarity function in the party (toward strangers) and the workplace (toward subordinates and superiors) domains. It is difficult to assess the effects of age…

  6. The Development of an Undergraduate Study Abroad Program: Nicaragua and the Psychology of Social Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shupe, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…

  7. U.S. - Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-08

    Ecuador, Venezuela and Mexico borrowed heavily in order to expand their economies in the belief that oil prices would continue to rise. 15 The banks...paying old debt with new debt became common. Things kept going on with an apparent air of business as usual until October 1982 when Mexico was not...in the continent. Positive long term instruments of policy such as economic cooperation, military alliances, educacion and transfer of technology

  8. Beyond the clinic walls: empowering young people through Youth Peer Provider programmes in Ecuador and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tebbets, Claire; Redwine, Dee

    2013-05-01

    Youth in Latin America experience high rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, but traditional health services are not meeting their health care needs. Youth require access to tailored health care and information to make informed, healthy decisions. To break down barriers to these vital sexual and reproductive health services, Planned Parenthood Global, a division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, developed a Youth Peer Provider model which has been implemented in Latin America since the early 1990s. The model goes beyond peer education to train Youth Peer Providers under age 20 to provide condoms, oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraception, injectable contraceptives, and sexual and reproductive health information to their peers. Peers with needs beyond Youth Peer Providers' capacity are referred to health professionals offering youth-friendly services. Survey results reveal high levels of contraceptive use among those served by the Youth Peer Providers: 98% of sexually active survey respondents wishing to avoid pregnancy report contraceptive use at least five years after joining the programme. Results of qualitative programme evaluations highlight higher self-esteem, stronger communication and decision-making skills, close relationships with friends and family, more interest in school, understanding of responsibility in relationships, and other positive outcomes among programme participants.

  9. Bandaid Diplomacy: An Historical Perspective of U.S. Policy Towards Nicaragua.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    recovering financial losses caused by the depression of the 1890’s. Many felt that the lack of foreign markets for U.S. manufactured goods...foreign markets . 4 By tbl oeginning of the 20th century, the U.S.’s policy of isola- 3 tionisu appeared to be dying. It was dying because our $roving...attitude of the U.S. Government. His brand of pure Conservatism no longer appealed to U.S. policymakers. Further, his desire to take over the

  10. Catastrophic precipitation-triggered lahar at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: Occurrence, bulking and transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, K.M.; Vallance, J.W.; Kerle, N.; Macias, J.L.; Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2005-01-01

    A catastrophic lahar began on 30 October 1998, as hurricane precipitation triggered a small flank collapse of Casita volcano, a complex and probably dormant stratovolcano. The initial rockslide-debris avalanche evolved on the flank to yield a watery debris flood with a sediment concentration less than 60 per cent by volume at the base of the volcano. Within 2-5 km, however, the watery flow entrained (bulked) enough sediment to transform entirely to a debris flow. The debris flow, 6 km downstream and 1??2 km wide and 3 to 6 m deep, killed 2500 people, nearly the entire populations of the communities of El Porvenir and Rolando Rodriguez. These 'new towns' were developed in a prehistoric lahar pathway: at least three flows of similar size since 8330 14C years BP are documented by stratigraphy in the same 30-degree sector. Travel time between perception of the flow and destruction of the towns was only 2??5-3??0 minutes. The evolution of the flow wave occurred with hydraulic continuity and without pause or any extraordinary addition of water. The precipitation trigger of the Casita lahar emphasizes the nee d, in volcano hazard assessments, for including the potential for non-eruption-related collapse lahars with the more predictable potential of their syneruption analogues. The flow behaviour emphasizes that volcano collapses can yield not only volcanic debris avalanches with restricted runouts, but also mobile lahars that enlarge by bulking as they flow. Volumes and hence inundation areas of collapse-runout lahars can increase greatly beyond their sources: the volume of the Casita lahar bulked to at least 2??6 times the contributing volume of the flank collapse and 4??2 times that of the debris flood. At least 78 per cent of the debris flow matrix (sediment < -1??0??; 2 mm) was entrained during flow. Copyright c 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Vaccine-Derived NSP2 Segment in Rotaviruses from Vaccinated Children with Gastroenteritis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Rippinger, Christine M.; Svensson, Lennart; Patton, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) vaccination programs have been established in several countries using the human-attenuated G1P[8] monovalent vaccine Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline) and/or the human-bovine reassortant G1, G2, G3, G4, P[8] pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq™ (Merck). The efficacy of both vaccines is high (~90%) in developed countries, but can be remarkably lower in developing countries. For example, a vaccine efficacy against severe diarrhea of only 58% was observed in a 2007–2009 Nicaraguan study using RotaTeq. To gain insight into the significant level of vaccine failure in this country, we sequenced the genomes of RVs recovered from vaccinated Nicaraguan children with gastroenteritis. The results revealed that all had genotype specificities typical for human RVs (11 G1P[8], 1 G3P[8]) and that the sequences and antigenic epitopes of the outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) of these viruses were similar to those reported for RVs isolated elsewhere in the world. As expected, nine of the G1P[8] viruses and the single G3P[8] virus had genome constellations typical of human G1P[8] and G3P[8] RVs: G1/3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. However, two of the G1P[8] viruses had atypical constellations, G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N2-T1-E1-H1, due to the presence of a genotype-2 NSP2 (N2) gene. The sequence of the N2 NSP2 gene was identical to the bovine N2 NSP2 gene of RotaTeq, indicating that the two atypical viruses originated via reassortment of human G1P[8] RVs with RotaTeq viruses. Together, our data suggest that the high level of vaccine failure in Nicaraguan is probably not due to antigenic drift of commonly circulating virus strains nor the emergence of new antigenetically distinct virus strains. Furthermore, our data suggests that the widespread use of the RotaTeq vaccine has led to the introduction of vaccine genes into circulating human RVs. PMID:22487061

  12. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  13. A School Finds Its Community. Earthquakes Can Build as Well as Destroy Managua, Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Howard; Burton, Gary

    1974-01-01

    The American-Nicaraguan School in Managua has placed a new emphasis on serving the community through recreational programs, adult education, community projects, work study programs within the community, and cultural presentations for the general public. (Author/DN)

  14. 1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

    2013-04-01

    7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

  15. The Organic Chemistry of Volcanoes: Case Studies at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua and Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, A. J.; Seward, T. M.; Gize, A. P.; Hall, T.

    2005-12-01

    Though it has long been known that volcanoes emit organic compounds within their fumarolic gases, it is only in recent years that a concerted attempt has been made to catalogue and quantify the species and fluxes. Two general lines of interest dominate this study. Firstly, volcanic gases represent some of the most likely environments in which the precursor molecules necessary for the origin of life were synthesised. The existence of an active, abiotic, organic chemistry in such settings today is fundamental to our understanding of the early Earth. Secondly, the presence of halogenated organic compounds is of interest to the atmospheric sciences, particularly with respect to their ozone depleting potential. It is clear that natural sources of halocarbons must exist, and though current natural fluxes are low with respect to the anthropogenic signature, volcanogenic halocarbons may have proved to be significant during the eruption of supervolcanoes and continental flood basalts. In this study, gases were collected from fumaroles in the craters of two, very different, active volcanoes. Cerro Negro, a young basaltic cinder cone belonging to the Central American Volcanic Belt, could be defined as a typical subduction zone volcano. Gases were collected from Cerro Negro during March 2003 and 2004 from a single fumarole discharging close to the crater floor. In contrast, Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano and represents the most extreme case of alkali volcanism in the East African Rift system. Fieldwork was conducted in the northern summit crater of Lengai over 8 days in October 2003. In this period, the volcano was in near continuous eruption and gases were sampled from two fumaroles situated within 20m of the eruptive centre, though measured gas temperatures were low at around 195°C. Organic compounds were collected using a variety of activated carbon, molecular sieve type adsorbents, packed into glass cartridges. The water and acid matrix of the gas was first removed using a pair of condensation flasks cooled in ice/water slush. The gas was then passed through the adsorbent cartridges using a low flow battery powered pump. The gases were analysed using GCMS techniques. At Oldoinyo Lengai a wide variety of simple biomolecules such as acetic acid, pyrole and ethanol is noted. However, the low gas temperatures imply that these compounds are the result of bacterial activity within the system rather than abiotic synthesis. At Cerro Negro a rich organic chemistry was found. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatics are present in significant concentrations up to C12. Additionally, halogenated compounds such as trichlorofluoromethane (CFC11), chlorobenzene and tetrachloroethene were discovered in concentrations of up to 10ppbv, permitting revised estimates of the global volcanogenic flux of such halocarbons.

  16. The degassing character of a young volcanic center: Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Muñoz, Angélica; Carcache, Martha Ibarra

    2014-09-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is a young basaltic cinder cone which is part of the Nicaraguan volcanic arc. Eruptive activity at Cerro Negro is characterized by explosive strombolian to subplinian eruptions driven by volatile-rich basaltic magma ascending rapidly from various crustal depths (>15 to 6 km) resulting in the onset of precursory activity only ˜30 min before an eruption. In this paper, we present a comprehensive degassing characterization of the volcano over a 4-year period aimed at improving our understanding of the magmatic plumbing network and its relationship with regional tectonics. A total of 124 individual soil gas samples were collected between 2010 and 2013 and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) from CO2. High temperature fumaroles were sampled for δ18O, δD, and 3He/4He isotope analysis, and major degassing zones were mapped using soil CO2 flux measurements. Gases at Cerro Negro are characterized by a strong 3He/4He mantle signature (6.3 to 7.3 RA), magmatic δ13C ratios (-2.3 to -3.0 ‰), meteoric δ18O and δD ratios, and stable CO2 fluxes (31 t d-1). The lack of δ13C fractionation and an increase in the relative mantle component from 2002 to 2012 suggest that the volatile flux at Cerro Negro originates from the mantle and ascends to the surface via a series of crustal fractures that act as permeable conduits. Despite the lack of new eruptions, the hydrothermal system of Cerro Negro continues to evolve due to seasonal inputs of meteoric water, slope failures that expose and bury sites of active degassing, and bursts of regional seismicity that have the potential to open up new conduits for gas release as well as magma. Continuing geophysical and geochemical monitoring of the main edifice and the recently formed south zone is essential, as the volcano remains overdue to erupt.

  17. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  18. The Discourse of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Daniel Ortega: Peace in Nicaragua without Concession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Pat

    Seeking to understand American and Nicaraguan perspectives of the Nicaraguan revolution, a study examined the rhetorical strategies used by Presidents Reagan and Ortega in their speeches. Ten public addresses made by each president in 1985-1986, pertaining to funding for Nicaraguan counterrevolutionary forces, were charted and examined for…

  19. America - Las Americas. Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    These publications were written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight individual differences between the countries that make up the Americas by providing historical, geographical, and cultural information about them on a quarterly basis. The three issues presented here focus on nations of Central America with…

  20. Lahar Hazards at Casita and San Cristóbal Volcanoes, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Reid, M.E.; Howell, M.M.; Brien, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Casita and San Cristóbal volcanoes are part of a volcano complex situated at the eastern end of the Cordillera de los Maribios. Other centers of volcanism in the complex include El Chonco, Cerro Moyotepe, and La Pelona. At 1745 m, San Cristóbal is the highest and only historically active volcano of the complex. The volcano’s crater is 500 to 600 m across and elongate east to west; its western rim is more than 100 m higher than its eastern rim. The conical volcano is both steep and symmetrical. El Chonco, which lies west of San Cristóbal, is crudely conical but has been deeply dissected by streams. Cerro Moyotepe to the northeast of San Cristóbal is even more deeply incised by erosion than El Chonco, and its crater is breached by erosion. Casita volcano, about 5 km east of San Cristóbal volcano, comprises a broad ridge like form, elongate along an eastwest axis, that is deeply dissected. Nested along the ridge are two craters. The younger one, La Ollada crater, truncates an older smaller crater to the east near Casita’s summit (1430 m). La Ollada crater is about 1 km across and 100 m deep. Numerous small fumarole fields occur near the summit of Casita and on nearby slopes outside of the craters. Casita volcano overlaps the 3-km-wide crater of La Pelona to the east. Stream erosion has deeply incised the slopes of La Pelona, and it is likely the oldest center of the Casita-San Cristóbal volcano complex. In late October and early November 1998, torrential rains of Hurricane Mitch caused numerous slope failures in Central America. The most catastrophic occurred at Casita volcano, on October 30, 1998. At Casita, five days of heavy rain triggered a 1.6-million-cubic-meter rock and debris avalanche that generated an 2- to 4- million-cubic-meter debris flow that swept down the steep slopes of the volcano. The debris flow spread out across the volcano’s apron, destroyed two towns, and killed more than 2500 people. In prehistoric time, Casita erupted explosively to form ash-fall deposits (tephra), debris avalanches, lava flows, and hot flowing mixtures of ash and rock (called pyroclastic flows). The chronology of activity at Casita is rather poorly known. Its last documented eruption occurred 8300 years ago, and included a pyroclastic flow. Tephra deposits exposed in the east crater suggest the possibility of subsequent eruptions. Work prior to Hurricane Mitch suggested that a part of the volcano’s apron that included the area inundated during the 1998 event south of Casita was a lahar pathway. Erosion during Hurricane Mitch revealed that at least three large lahars descended this pathway to distances of up to 10 km. This report describes the hazards of landslides and lahars in general, and discusses potential hazards from future landslides and lahars at San Cristóbal and Casita volcanoes in particular. The report also shows, in the accompanying lahar hazard-zonation maps, which areas are likely to be at risk from future landslides and lahars at Casita and San Cristóbal.

  1. Searching for Stability: The U.S. Development of Constabulary Forces in Latin America and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    de la historia , Vol. I (Leon, Nicaragua: Instituto Technico La Salle de Leon, 1973), 25–32. 39. Smith et al., 123–134. 40. Millett, Guardians, 126...Pax Americana en Nicaragua, 1910–1932 (Managua, Nicaragua: Academia de Geografia y Historia de Nicaragua, 2004), 277–278. 50. Hanna to White, 28...Nicaragua, 1910–1932. Managua, Nicaragua: Academia de Geografia y Historia de Nicaragua, 2004. Balch, Emily G., ed. Occupied Haiti: Being the Report

  2. 75 FR 2879 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... for the first time Croatia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Ireland, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway..., Mexico, Moldova, The Netherlands, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland,...

  3. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  4. The United States on Trial: An Analysis of the Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-06

    surrounded the revelation of two publications, Operactones Sicologicas en Guerra de Guerrillas (Psychological Operations in Guerilla Warfare) and the...constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. (2) The wounded and sick shall be...of the State’s sovereignty; the Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation334 and the Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea335 declare these principles

  5. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Pineda, N; Kyvsgaard, N C; Luna, L A; Rimbaud, E; Oliveira, J B; Kwok, O C H; Qi, Y; Su, C

    2006-11-30

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 84 (85.7%) of 98 chickens with titers of 1:5 in 10, 1:10 in eight, 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in 11, 1:160 in one, 1:200 in 27, 1:400 in six, 1:800 four, and 1:3200 in one bird. Hearts and brains of 32 chickens with titers of 1:10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24 chickens with titers of 1:5 or less did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 47 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from six isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 41 of 170 (24.1%) mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci. Four isolates had mixed infections. Two isolates have a unique allele at SAG1 locus and combination of I and III alleles at other loci. The rest 27 isolates contained the combination of Type I and III alleles and were divided into four genotypes. More than one genotypes were often isolated in chickens from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed infection in intermediate hosts such as chickens may facilitate genetic exchange between different parasite lineages in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America.

  6. A toxaphene-degrading bacterium related to Enterobacter cloacae, strain D1 isolated from aged contaminated soil in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lacayo-Romero, Martha; Quillaguamán, Jorge; van Bavel, Bert; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-09-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain D1 is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from toxaphene-contaminated soil. This organism was identified and characterized through phylogenetic and taxonomic studies. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, the strain D1 was clustered closely with the species Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens (LMG 2683) and E. cloacae (ATCC 13047T). Strain D1 resembled these E. cloacae strains with respect to various biochemical and nutritional characteristics, but also exhibited differences. Moreover, strain D1 is able to grow and survive with toxaphene supplied in the medium in the range 3-96 mg/L. Amongst the chemical components of toxaphene, octachlorocamphenes, nonachlorobornanes and decachlorobornanes were seen to be rapidly metabolized, although levels of hexachlorocamphenes and heptachlorobornanes were found to be slowly degraded, and subsequently accumulated during the last stage of the cultivation.

  7. The Ingredients of a Public-Private Partnership in Education: The Global Development Alliance Model School Expansion Project in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galisson, Kirsten; Brady, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    In May 2001, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell announced the establishment of the Global Development Alliance (GDA) as a key part of a new business model for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The GDA initiative aims to launch best practices in public-private partnerships around the world. The model is designed to…

  8. A Historical Study of the Effectiveness of U.S. Security Assistance to Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    the site of many major cities. San Jose , the capital of Costa Rica since 1823, is located in the Meseta Central. San Jose has about 200,000 people...high temperatures, and is more comfortable than the eastern basin. But, this eastern basin has an important dairy industry. The western San Jose area...ruling governor of Panama, Marshal Murgeon, and Colonel Jose de Fabrega declared independence from Spain. Panama then joined the Republic of Colombia

  9. [Spatial distribution of sharks captures in the Pacific of Nicaragua and its relationship with several oceanographic variables].

    PubMed

    Brenes, C L; Hernández, A; Campos, J

    2000-01-01

    Between August 1995 and August 1997 long line fishing techniques and a bathythermograph were used to correlate some physical variables with the spatial distribution of four shark species in 26 fishing cruises off the Nicaraguan Pacific Coast. They were the thresher (Alopias vulpinus), blue (Prionace glaucea), gray (Carcharhinus falciformis) and hammer (Sphyra lewini). All species concentrated in the southeastern Nicaraguan Pacific, at the seasonal upwelling area of Papagayo Gulf. The range of sea surface temperatures in which the sharks were captured was 25-28 degrees C. We could clearly associate this physical parameter with shark availability. The vertical distribution of the captured sharks suggests that they occupy termocline levels above the 15 degrees C isotherm. Although these species are oceanic, the blue shark was captured in ocean waters over the 1800 m isobar, while the grey and thresher sharks where close to the continental shelf. Body length in decreasing order are: thresher (210-290 cm, SN = 21), blue (60-240 cm, SN = 13) and gray (80-200 cm, SN = 17).

  10. El Salvador and Nicaragua in Four Elite U.S. Newspapers: Multiple Images and the Journalist's Reporting Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James D.

    To provide a better understanding of the depictions of countries by the news media, it is necessary to determine whether similar portraits are presented in all types of reporting or whether there are different, or even contradictory, portrayals of foreign countries within individual newspapers considered nationally influential. A study examined…

  11. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Meuwissen, Liesbeth E; Gorter, Anna C; Kester, Arnold DM; Knottnerus, J Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH) health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefulness of the simulated patient (SP) method for such evaluation. Methods 28,711 vouchers were distributed to adolescents in disadvantaged areas of Managua that gave free-of-charge access to SRH care in 4 public, 10 non-governmental and 5 private clinics. Providers received training and guidelines, treatment protocols, and financial incentives for each adolescent attended. All clinics were visited by female adolescent SPs requesting contraception. SPs were sent one week before, during (with voucher) and one month after the intervention. After each consultation they were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-one criteria were scored and grouped into four categories. Clinics' scores were compared using non-parametric statistical methods (paired design: before-during and before-after). Also the influence of doctors' characteristics was tested using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Some aspects of service quality improved during the voucher program. Before the program started 8 of the 16 SPs returned 'empty handed', although all were eligible contraceptive users. During the program 16/17 left with a contraceptive method (p = 0.01). Furthermore, more SPs were involved in the contraceptive method choice (13/17 vs.5/16, p = 0.02). Shared decision-making on contraceptive method as well as condom promotion had significantly increased after the program ended. Female doctors had best scores before- during and after the intervention. The improvements were more pronounced among male doctors and doctors older than 40, though these improvements did not sustain after the program ended. Conclusion This study illustrates provider-related obstacles adolescents often face when requesting contraception. The care provided during the voucher program improved for some important outcomes. The improvements were more pronounced among providers with the weakest initial performance. Shared decision-making and condom promotion were improvements that sustained after the program ended. The SP method is suitable and relatively easy to apply in monitoring clinics' performance, yielding important and relevant information. Objective assessment of change through the SP method is much more complex and expensive. PMID:16893463

  12. Spontaneous Potential Anomalies on Active Volcanoes: New Time and Spatial Series from Masaya, Telica, and Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, H.; Pearson, S.; Connor, C.; Sanford, W.; Saballos, A.

    2006-12-01

    Considerable effort worldwide has gone into monitoring heat and mass transfer at active volcanoes because such information may provide clues about changes in volcanic activity and impending eruptions. Here we present new time and spatial series of spontaneous potential (SP) anomalies from Masaya and Telica volcanoes, and spatial series collected at Cerro Negro volcano. Our primary purpose is to investigate correlations between more easily and cheaply monitored SP and CO2 gas flux, measured by an infrared CO2 analysis system. SP data were collected using nonpolarizing Pb-PbCL2 electrodes that we constructed following the approach of Petiau. Mapping at both Masaya, and Cerro Negro reveals broad correlations between SP anomalies and CO2 flux through soils. In addition, we monitored temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall at one minute intervals from May-August, 2006 at Masaya and Telica volcanoes. During this period it is clear that SP responds to changes in volcanic activity, with transient anomalies of 75 mV as well as atmospheric forcing due to rainfall, producing anomalies of 56 mV and related phenomena. Preliminary lab experiments provide further details of the electrokinetic origin of these SP anomalies. Our preliminary work supports the idea that large and inexpensive networks of electrodes might track changes in SP anomalies associated with changes in mass flow at active volcanoes.

  13. The Role of microRNAs in the Repeated Parallel Diversification of Lineages of Midas Cichlid Fish from Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Paolo; Xiong, Peiwen; Fruciano, Carmelo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an ideal model system for studying biological diversification because they provide textbook examples of rapid speciation. To date, there has been little focus on the role of gene regulation during cichlid speciation. However, in recent years, gene regulation has been recognized as a powerful force linking diversification in gene function to speciation. Here, we investigated the potential role of miRNA regulation in the diversification of six cichlid species of the Midas cichlid lineage (Amphilophus spp.) inhabiting the Nicaraguan crater lakes. Using several genomic resources, we inferred 236 Midas miRNA genes that were used to predict the miRNA target sites on 8,232 Midas 3′-UTRs. Using population genomic calculations of SNP diversity, we found the miRNA genes to be more conserved than protein coding genes. In contrast to what has been observed in other cichlid fish, but similar to what has been typically found in other groups, we observed genomic signatures of purifying selection on the miRNA targets by comparing these sites with the less conserved nontarget portion of the 3′-UTRs. However, in one species pair that has putatively speciated sympatrically in crater Lake Apoyo, we recovered a different pattern of relaxed purifying selection and high genetic divergence at miRNA targets. Our results suggest that sequence evolution at miRNA binding sites could be a critical genomic mechanism contributing to the rapid phenotypic evolution of Midas cichlids. PMID:27189980

  14. A Household-Based Distribution-Sensitive Human Development Index: An Empirical Application to Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In measuring human development, one of the main concerns relates to the inclusion of a measure that penalizes inequalities in the distribution of achievements across the population. Using indicators from nationally representative household surveys and census data, this paper proposes a straightforward methodology to estimate a household-based…

  15. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main source for chocolate with an annual production of four million tons worldwide. This Neotropical tree crop was domesticated in Mesoamerica as far back as 3,000 years ago. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure in farmer varieties of cacao in the...

  16. Building Armies for Democracy: U.S. Attempts to Reform the Armed Forces of Cuba (1906-1909) and Nicaragua (1927-1933).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST Combined Arms Research Library U.S. Army Command and General Staff college Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027 Defense Techinical ...an incomplete understanding of the relationship between military and political institutional change. This research points to the possibility that...diplomatic academic counsel was also invaluable. The staffs of the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, as well as the archivists at

  17. [Health education and people's participation in health in Nicaragua: research on the profile, role and function of the "brigadistas populares" in health].

    PubMed

    Leonardi, L; Mori, M

    1989-01-01

    The Nicaraguan democratic government has been building, since the defeat of somozism in 1979, a very extensive and uniform health system in the whole country, giving special attention to the problems of prevention and health education, promoting and utilizing a wide participation of the population. The most emblematic representative of the Nicaraguan model of participation is the Brigadista Popular en Salud, a voluntary figure in urban and rural areas, working along side the Sole National Health System. The work and role of the Brigadista is integrated in a health education action defined "Educaciòn Popular en Salud", intended as a dialogue through which the educator and educated, beginning with the specific political and economical social reality, accomplish work of observation, analysis and syntesis of the different phenomena that deal with health-sickness. The Brigadista is a member of the community that works voluntarily for the community to carry out health actions, in coordination with the "Puesto de Salud" of the community. The authors refer to a research study done in the field in 1987, geared to study the profile, role and activities of the Brigadista. The research was done in the "Las Segovias" Region, in the Northern part of the country, in two Health Areas, involving three urban centers and six rural communities: 73 Brigadistas were interviewed, of which 50 (predetermined) of urban centers and 23 (total population) in rural communities. The article represents in a comparative manner the operative Brigadista respectively, in urban areas on the one hand and in rural areas on the other. The article examines: sex; age; schooling; work activity; social-cultural background; collective systems background; participation in Literacy Campaigns; motivation; length and continuity of activities; relationship with the territory; activities done. The Brigadista that works in rural areas seems actually to be more attached, even to the formal image of his role, that the urban Brigadista. This is shown by the reduced turn-over, the wider span of functions, the closer relationship with collective systems that represent categories, a more intense relationship with colleagues of the health system as well as with other Brigadistas, the operative reference to specificity defined territories, more continuity in the functions of the Brigadista Popular en Salud.

  18. Education for the Alleviation of Poverty: A Comparative Study of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs to Improve Educational Outcomes in Nicaragua and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stackhouse, Shannon Alexis

    2009-01-01

    The importance of education for individual well-being, social cohesion and economic growth is widely accepted by researchers and policymakers alike. Yet there exist vast numbers of people around the world, largely poor, who continue to lag behind wealthier people, often within their own nations. Conditional cash transfer programs were created to…

  19. Heat stress, hydration and uric acid: a cross-sectional study in workers of three occupations in a hotspot of Mesoamerican nephropathy in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Aurora; González, Marvin; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; Rivard, Christopher J; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) and its risk factors in three hot occupations. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Chinandega and León municipalities, a MeN hotspot on the Nicaraguan Pacific coast, January–February 2013. Participants 194 male workers aged 17–39 years: 86 sugarcane cutters, 56 construction workers, 52 small-scale farmers. Outcome measures (1) Differences between the three occupational groups in prevalences/levels of socioeconomic, occupational, lifestyle and health risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in biomarkers of kidney function and hydration; (2) differences in prevalences/levels of CKD risk factors between workers with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI <80 mL/min/1.73 m2) and workers with normal kidney function (eGFRCKD-EPI ≥80 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results Sugarcane cutters were more exposed to heat and consumed more fluid on workdays and had less obesity, lower blood sugar, lower blood pressure and a better lipid profile. Reduced eGFR occurred in 16%, 9% and 2% of sugarcane cutters, construction workers and farmers, respectively (trend cane > construction > farming, p=0.003). Significant trends (cane > construction > farming) were also observed for high serum urea nitrogen (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) >20 mg/dL), high serum creatinine (SCr >1.2 mg/dL), low urinary pH (≤5.5) and high BUN/SCr ratio (>20) but not for high urinary specific gravity (≥1.030). Sugarcane cutters also more often had proteinuria and blood and leucocytes in the urine. Workers with eGFR <80 mL/min/1.73 m2 reported a higher intake of water and lower intake of sugary beverages. Serum uric acid levels related strongly and inversely to eGFR levels (adj β −10.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI −12.2 to −8.5, p<0.001). No associations were observed for other metabolic risk factors, pesticides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol. Among cane cutters, consumption of electrolyte hydration solution appeared preventive (adj β 8.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, p=0.09). Conclusions Heat stress, dehydration and kidney dysfunction were most common among sugarcane cutters. Kidney dysfunction also occurred to a lesser extent among construction workers, but hardly at all among small-scale farmers. High serum uric acid was associated with reduced kidney function. PMID:27932336

  20. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Court, or with the Board of Immigration Appeals if the appeal is pending before the Board. (d) General... requirements of §§ 3.11 and 3.31 of this chapter. (2) Proceedings pending before the Board of Immigration... motion to reconsider filed with the Board on or before May 21, 1998, or an appeal, is pending, the...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Court, or with the Board of Immigration Appeals if the appeal is pending before the Board. (d) General... requirements of §§ 3.11 and 3.31 of this chapter. (2) Proceedings pending before the Board of Immigration... motion to reconsider filed with the Board on or before May 21, 1998, or an appeal, is pending, the...

  2. Invoking health and human rights to ensure access to legal abortion: the case of a nine-year-old girl from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Hord, Charlotte E; Mitchell, Ellen M H; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2006-01-01

    Human rights and public health advocates working to compel states to guarantee access to legal abortion services face obstacles. We describe the challenges faced by "Rosa", a nine-year old Nicaraguan girl, whose pregnancy following rape sparked international controversy. The health and human rights arguments utilized either to support or undermine her family's petition for access to legal abortion are explored. Rosa's case highlights how laws that narrowly restrict abortion and make access contingent upon health care providers' approval undermine human rights principles. The article analyzes the strengths, limitations, and complementarity of health and human rights approaches for achieving access to safe, legal services in restrictive contexts. The importance of strategic alliances and implications for future cases are considered.

  3. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... result of section 1505(a)(1) of the Legal Immigration Family Equity Act of 2000 (LIFE) and the LIFE amendments, Public Law 106-553 and Public Law 106-554, respectively. As provided by § 1505(a)(2) of the LIFE...) beneficiary under section 202 of Public Law 105-100 who is not the applicant's biological mother, copies...

  4. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Immigration Family Equity Act of 2000 (LIFE) and the LIFE amendments, Public Law 106-553 and Public Law 106-554, respectively. As provided by § 1505(a)(2) of the LIFE Act and its amendments, such a motion to... under section 202 of Public Law 105-100 who is not the applicant's biological mother, copies of...

  5. Burden of Influenza and Influenza-associated Pneumonia in the First Year of Life in a Prospective Cohort Study in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gresh, Lionel; Kuan, Guillermina; Sanchez, Nery; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Lopez, Roger; Martin, Emily T.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major public health problem worldwide; however, relatively little is known about influenza in tropical regions, especially for infants. Additional information is required to inform public health policy making, in particular vaccination guidelines. Methods: Between September 2011 and July 2013, we enrolled newborns into the Nicaraguan Birth Cohort Study. Infants were provided primary medical care and actively followed for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction–confirmed influenza virus infection when presenting with influenza-like illness or undifferentiated fever. This report presents data pertaining to the first year of life. Results: Of the 518 children enrolled in the study, 441 participated throughout their first year of life, 71 were withdrawn, and 6 died. Overall, 13% of the participants experienced at least 1 laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection. The overall incidence of influenza was 15.5 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.2–19.5]. Infants aged 6–11 months experienced significantly higher rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza than infants aged 0–5 months (incidence rate ratio: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3–3.4). The overall incidence of pneumonia was 52.6 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 46.3–59.6). Three percent of the pneumonia cases were influenza associated, and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia and hospitalization was 1.7 (95% CI: 0.9–3.5) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03–1.55) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. Conclusions: We found a significant burden of influenza and influenza-associated severe respiratory outcomes in infants. Our results support the need to explore the potential value of vaccinating pregnant women and infants aged >6 months, as recommended by the World Health Organization in 2012. PMID:26421805

  6. Diabetes Prevention and Management among Minority Ethnic Groups in Nicaragua: Findings from Phase 2 of a Community-Based Participatory Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Mitchell, Emma McKim; Mclean, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) describe barriers to diabetes prevention and self-management, (2) explore how religious beliefs inform diabetes prevention and self-management and (3) describe community action strategies to address the problem of diabetes locally. Design: Qualitative, descriptive design. Setting: Three Moravian Churches located, respectively,…

  7. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  8. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  9. Avoiding the Perils and Fulfilling the Promises of Microfinance: A Closer Examination of the Educational Outcomes of Clients' Children in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Tracey; Wang, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Many microfinance advocates claim that micro-credit has a positive effect on the educational outcomes of the children of micro-credit borrowers, and that these educational improvements provide us with evidence that micro-credit institutions are serving the social function for which they have been designed. This paper draws attention to this area…

  10. The Inter-American Defense Board: A Study in Alliance Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Rica, Nicaragua , El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Haiti, and...OAS members not also belonging to the IADB--Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Cuba. Nicaragua is still a member of both organizations; only...rash of such regional conflicts in the 1950’s, such as a second one between Costa Rica and Nicaragua in 1055 and one between Honduras and Nicaragua

  11. 75 FR 64654 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Certain Categories of Archaeological Material From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...-Hispanic Cultures of the Republic of Nicaragua AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... categories of archaeological material from the Pre-Hispanic cultures of the Republic of Nicaragua. The... cultures of Nicaragua to which the restrictions apply. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2010. FOR...

  12. Evaluating the Phonology of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Preprimer and Primer Dolch Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30-years linguists have been witnessing the birth and evolution of a language, Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua (ISN), in Nicaragua, and have initiated and documented the syntax and grammar of this new language. Research is only beginning to emerge on the implications of ISN on the education of deaf/hard of hearing children in Nicaragua.…

  13. The United States and Brazil: A Naval Partnership for the Twenty-First Century?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    between the United States and Panama between 1987 and 1989. The failure of these efforts led to U.S. military intervention in 1989. Further evidence of...1984), p. 250. 2 6 Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela formed the Contadora group in 1983. The group proposed to serve as a mediator in seeking...1955-1956 Costa Rica/Nicaragua 1957 Honduras/Nicaragua 1959 Panama /Cuba 1959 Nicaragua/Costa Rica/Honduras 1960-1962 Venezuela/Dominican Republic 1962

  14. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ..., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda... education and training funds) may be made available for assistance to the central government of...

  15. Understanding and Assessing Risk of Intrastate Conflict: Human Development Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    45 Ecuador , Nicaragua and Costa Rica ............................................................................47 PRACTICAL... Ecuador ........................................................................................................................68 Raw Data...67 Table 13 Raw Data, Ecuador 1997-2000..........................................................................68 Table 14 Unweighted

  16. 77 FR 13618 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, (also known as CAFTA-DR.) The Agreement... Salvador (3/1/06), Honduras (4/1/ 06), Nicaragua (4/1/04), Guatemala (7/1/06), Dominican Republic (3/1/...

  17. The Fatal Five? Five Factors That Enhance Effectiveness of Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Lebanon, the Sinai, Grenada , Honduras, and Nicaragua.34 Historical accounts related to the effectiveness of stability operations in Panama reveal flaws...Lebanon and Grenada in 1983, Nicaragua in 1984, Bolivia and Libya in 1986, Honduras in 1988, and the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1989. In addition to these

  18. Student Engagement in Social Justice at the "Universidad Centroamericana"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maita, Gianna

    2015-01-01

    Civic engagement of young people has evolved in Nicaragua as its political environment has changed. There is a marked difference between youth involvement in Nicaragua during the Sandinista Revolution from 1979 through the early 1980s, when it was a cultural norm for young people to serve in solidarity with the poor, and today, when universities…

  19. Building a Capabilities Network to Improve Disaster Preparation Efforts in the Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) Area of Responsibility (AOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-14

    Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador , Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Lucia (American Red Cross, n.d.c) 3...Dominican Republic, El Salvador , Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent...previously involved in SOUTHCOM: Antigua, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador , Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica

  20. The Transforming Self: Service Narratives and Identity Change in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Keith; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a service trip to Nicaragua affected college students' narrative understanding of themselves and their commitment to volunteer service. College students who went on a spring break service trip to work with poor citizens of Nicaragua wrote narrative accounts of three important experiences on the trip shortly…

  1. 76 FR 48202 - Trade Policy Staff Committee; Public Comments on the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica ceased to be designated as..., 2006; for Honduras on April 1, 2006; for Nicaragua on April 1, 2006; for Guatemala on July 1, 2006; for... forced or compulsory labor; (IV) A minimum age for the employment of children; and (V)...

  2. Lessons Learnt in the Use of "Contract" Teachers. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthilleul, Yael

    2005-01-01

    This report sheds light on the use of contract teachers with a particular focus on Cambodia, Nicaragua and India--countries that have all relied on contract teachers at some point. The report documents the use of contract teachers in Cambodia, Nicaragua and India and outlines the experience of contract teachers in West Africa. It also discusses…

  3. Proceedings of the Air Power Symposium on the Role of Airpower in Low Intensity Conflict (9th) Held at Maxwell AFB, Alabama on 11-13 March 1985,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    the United States had air superiority in Viet-Nam and Viet-Nam was lost; Samoza had air superiority in Nicaragua and lost Nicaragua ; and, the Soviet...provided to Mali. And then this paragraph: "In 1968, the Wing sent UC-123 spray aircraft to Nicaragua and Panama to support the indigenous Air Forces...posture free from conventional mind sets, but there must be political resolve and national will -ithin the nod/ po! tLc that is enduring and persistent in

  4. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  5. From Baptist to Catholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrook, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the small Ave Maria College of the Americas in Nicaragua, which turned from Baptist to Roman Catholic after receiving $3 million from the founder of Domino's, has had a difficult transition. (EV)

  6. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they: ■ Have lived in rural areas of Mexico, Central America or South America, in countries such ... El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ ...

  7. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Mongolia Mozambique Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe... expanded international military education and training funds) may be made available for assistance to...

  8. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    .... Mozambique 36. Nepal 37. Nicaragua 38. Niger 39. Nigeria 40. Pakistan 41. Papua New Guinea 42. Philippines 43... than expanded international military education and training funds) may be made available for...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru..., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran,...

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi: Biological characterization of a isolate from an endemic area and its susceptibility to conventional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Noelia L.; Bua, Jacqueline; Perrone, Alina E.; Gonzalez, Mariela N.; Bustos, Patricia L.; Postan, Miriam; Fichera, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe some biological and molecular characteristics of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate derived from a Triatomine captured in Nicaragua. PCR based typification showed that this isolate, named Nicaragua, belonged to the lineage Tc I. Nicaragua infected culture cells were treated with allopurinol, showing different behaviour according to the cellular compartment, being cardiomyocyte primary cultures more resistant to this drug. The course of the infection in a mice experimental model and its susceptibility to benznidazole and allopurinol was analysed. In benznidazole treatment, mice reverted the high lethal effect of parasites during the acute infection, however, a few parasites were detected in the heart of 88 % of mice one year post-infection. Since Trypanosoma cruzi is a heterogeneous species population it is important to study and characterize different parasites actually circulating in humans in endemic areas. In this work we show that T. cruzi Nicaragua isolate, is sensitive to early benznidazole treatment. PMID:20493848

  11. Strategies of Educational Decentralization: Key Questions and Core Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1998-01-01

    Explains key issues and forces that shape organization and management strategies of educational decentralization, using examples from Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Nicaragua, and Spain. Core decentralization issues include national and regional goals, planning, political stress, resource distribution, infrastructure development, and job…

  12. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  13. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under this... Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay,...

  14. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities as drug trafficking, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (c) Contract sanctity. Contract..., terrorism, and transnational organized crime. (e) OAS member countries to which firearms controls under this... Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay,...

  15. 75 FR 34200 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Material From the Pre-Hispanic Cultures of the Republic of Nicaragua The Government of the Republic of... Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Hispanic Cultures...

  16. A new species of Neotraginops Prado (Diptera: Odiniidae) from Mexico and Belize, with additional records for Odinia coronata Sabrosky in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Dzul-Cauich, José F

    2014-04-14

    Neotraginops mexicanus n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens from Mexico and Belize, representing the second known species for the genus. Additional records for Odinia coronata Sabrosky from Mexico and Nicaragua are provided.

  17. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official of the Government of Nicaragua, demonstrating that the good is eligible for entry under the... or must be transmitted electronically pursuant to any electronic means authorized by CBP for...

  18. Gas-Dominated Volcanic Systems: An Important Habitable Environment for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Volcanic activity and magmatic outgassing were prevalent for most of Mars' history. Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua is an analog fumarolic environment and supports both thermoacidophilic and endolithic phototrophic communities.

  19. Tortricid moths (Lepidopotera: Tortricidae) reared from the invasive weed Parkinsonia aculeta (Fabaceae), with comments on their host specificity, biology, and geographic distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During efforts to identify native herbivores of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae: Caesalpiniodeae) as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, seven species of Tortricidae were reared in Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Pla...

  20. Why UW: Factoring in the Decision Point for Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    specifically prohibited armed action.189 In 1981, Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as the 40th president of the United States. Clear on his stance against...Communism, President Reagan took two steps towards Nicaragua; first, he cut off all foreign aid from the U.S. to the Sandinista Government, and...1987), 113. 190 Ronald Reagan , Secret Presidential Finding, from the National Security Archive’s Nicaragua collection, Dated 1 December 1981, http

  1. Terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare/Counterinsurgency/Low-Intensity Conflict, and Revolutions 1986 - June 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Lexington Books, 1987. (UG 447 .D68 1987) Hubbard. David C. Winning Back the Sky: A Tactical Analysis of Terrorism. San Francisco: Saybrook. 1986. ( TLC ...Contra Terror in Nicaragua : Report of a Fact-Finding Mission, September 1984-January 1985. Boston: South End, 1985. (F 1528 .B76 1985) Castro’s Puerto...Davis. Peter. Where Is Nicaragua ? New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. (F 1528 .D38 1987) Dixon, Marlene, ed. Revolution and Intervention in Centrzj

  2. Crisis Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    involved Egypt and Israel on opposing sides, as well as other opposing pairs such as Syria and Israel . The advantage of organ- izing the cases in...West municipalities. An agreement to end the blockade was reached in May 1949. Crisis: Costa Rica- Nicaragua Dates: 12/3/48-1/30/49 Country Pair...Costa Rica- Nicaragua In the midst of domestic political turmoil in Costa Rica, Rafael Calderon - previously a Presidential candidate in Costa Rica

  3. Collapsing Insurgent Organizations through Leadership Decapitation: A Comparison of Targeted Killing and Targeted Incarceration in Insurgent Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Somoza family created a virtual dictatorship in the country until overthrown in 1979. Anastasio Somoza Garcia was assassinated in 1956 and his son Luis ...Somoza Debayle assumed control of Nicaragua until he died of natural causes in 1967. Following the death of Luis Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza... Borge , founded Frente Sandinista de Liberacíon Nacional (FSLN). Their aim was to realize in Nicaragua what the 26th of July Movement had achieved in

  4. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), Central American Coastal Marine Areas, West Coast. Volume 2. Area 6 - Manzanillo SE, Area 7 - Acapulco South, Area 8 - Gulf of Tehuantepec, Area 9 - Guatemala SW Coast, Area 10 - Nicaragua SW Coast, Area 11 - Punta Burica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    AREA COD ACAPULCC $ CLIP PEC1411TGE FR[CU~kCY,*OF ¥I:0 SF1EO BY HOUR IG Tl HOUR CALM 1 -3 4-10 11-21 22-33 34൷ 44- MEAN FRED oeS * S$ a . D* 2z, 6 o...590( r45 .47 :38(0 t0 vOCo SO sIo 33 8. . ! t (3:2 C5 .9 0 :0 .0 3.4:0 .3. 8 0 . 3 .0 .5 3. 3- .3 C 7 . 0 . .0 2.2 . 23 . 0 .0 .0 2. 171 0 c C . .3 .8

  5. Determining the Level of US Interest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    3.95, VC NICARAGUA 5-88, 7.81, 4.77, M ISRAEL 5-88, 7.11, 4.88, C SOUTH AFRICA 5-88, 6.17, 2.56, M SAUDI ARABIA 5-88, 6.12, 4.28, C AUSTRIA 5-88, 5.69...JAPAN 5-88 9.40 - M NED VC W. GERMANY 5-88 9.25 - M MED VIC NICARAGUA 5-88 7.81 - M HIGH M ISRAEL 5-88 7.11 - N HIGH C SOUTH AFRICA 5-88 6.17 - M MED M...VC W. GERMANY 5-88 9.25 - N NED VC NICARAGUA 5-88 7.81 - M HIGH M ISRAEL 5-88 7.11 - M HIGH C SOUTH AFRICA 5-88 6.17 - M NED M SAUDI ARABIA 5-88 6.12

  6. Une coupe de la province volcanique Caraïbe : premiers résultats de la campagne sismique Casis 2A transect of the Caribbean volcanic province: first results of the seismic cruise CASIS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffret, Alain; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Élia; Maillard, Agnès; de Lépinay, Bernard Mercier; Dos Reis, Antonio Tadeu; Miller, Naghieb; Nercessian, Alexandre; Pérez-Vega, Roberto; Perez, Diorys

    2001-11-01

    The eastwards motion of the Caribbean plate is supposed to be related to a Cretaceous flip of subduction from eastwards to westwards vergence. However, we do not observe on the seismic profiles recorded during the CASIS 2 cruise any evidence of subduction beneath the Aves Ridge and Nicaragua Rise. Aves volcanic arc has been probably formed after the collision of the Caribbean volcanic plateau as shown by a wedge of volcanic-clastic sediments imaged by the seismic cruise CASIS 2. A recent left-lateral transtensional tectonics is observed in the lower Nicaragua Rise; the Colombia basin might have a motion towards the northeast relative to the rise.

  7. U.S. Policy Options for Iraq: A Reassessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    would particularly like to thank RAND col- leagues David E. Thaler, Bruce R. Pirnie, Derek Eaton, Sara A. Daly , Jerry M. Sollinger, Sarah Harting...http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070126%5Finsurgency%5Fupdate.pdf Costa Rica, El Salvador , Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, Draft

  8. Mission from Anti-Terrorism to Peace in Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    government of Sri Lanka, and the lessons learned from the termination of the Angolan, Nicaragua or El Salvador civil wars should be studied on how...Menace Challenging Democracies”, Daly News, Sri Lanka, 16 November 2007, 9. 23 Rohan Gunaratna, Terrorism in the Asia- Pacific, Threat and Response

  9. Soundings for Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akey, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an independent study activity designed for secondary students, in which the students researched the desirability of funding the construction of a sea-level canal through Nicaragua by assuming the roles of the scientific specialists who would be involved in such a project. (MLH)

  10. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  11. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  12. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good of Nicaragua described in § 10.607...

  13. The Global War on Terrorism, The First 100 Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Lebanon Liberia Lithuania Malaysia Mexico The Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Pakistan Panama Paraguay...over, and crates of tank and mortar shells could be seen spilling to the ground underneath a thin layer of flour .” Al Qaeda & the Drug Trade. Osama

  14. Go Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdan, Stacie Nevadomski

    2012-01-01

    The author and her family spent a few weeks traveling through Central America last summer. A few years back, they had been to Guatemala, Belize and Costa Rica yet that was it, not much more exploration of their neighbors to the south. They decided on a short tour of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama and realized this would be a great opportunity…

  15. Third World Radical Regimes: U.S. Policy under Carter and Reagan. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 272.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Anthony

    One in a series of booklets on world issues, this document evaluates United States policy toward the nations of Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Vietnam, South Africa, Libya, and Iran. Chapter one reviews United States relations with six radical regimes during the administrations of presidents Carter and Reagan and offers a number of lessons about the…

  16. Youth Violence in Central America: Discourses and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peetz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the social construction of youth violence in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador on the one hand, and the related security policies of the three states, on the other. In each country, there is an idiosyncratic way of constructing youth violence and juvenile delinquency. Also, each country has its own manner of reaction to…

  17. 75 FR 34311 - To Implement Certain Provisions of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement With Respect to Costa Rica, and for Other... ``Agreement'') with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The... preferential tariff treatment being accorded under the Agreement for certain goods of Costa Rica,...

  18. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  19. Education Reform When Nations Undergo Radical Political and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Belle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between radical social transformation and educational reform in Algeria, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Mozambique, and Nicaragua. Examines seven policy areas before and after transformation: centralized control, access to education, tracking, curriculum, personnel, language of instruction, and literacy. (28 references) (SV)

  20. Renewal of Navy’s Riverine Capability: A Preliminary Examination of Past, Current and Future Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    operates under the 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion in Iraq [41]. In conjunction with this change of policy, the SURC contract was terminated with the...34Bolivia Ecuador "Colombia El Salvador "French Guiana Haiti "Nicaragua Honduras "Peru Panama " Suriname "Venezuela River deltas This section lists major

  1. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 26, Number 1, Fall 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent Suriname Trinidad Turks and Caicos Venezuela...Corps military occupational specialties, from aviation to supply and included most Marine Corps weapons systems, from assault amphibian vehicle to non

  2. 77 FR 46044 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...-rate status in non-market economy (``NME'') investigations.\\3\\ \\1\\ See ``Petitions for the Imposition... Comments On March 14, 2012, the Department determined that Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nicaragua... Extension of Provisional Measures'' section of this notice, below. Non-Market-Economy Country For...

  3. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  4. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 25, Number 3, Spring 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    rights impact in Latin America (El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua). The focus is on research derived from secondary sources and student surveys...Acquisition Life -Cycle Solutions By Brigadier General Edward M. Harrington Defense Contract Management Agency Although federal weapons suppliers and... life of the contract. We interact with our customers, including the various Army, Navy, Marine, Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  6. Educating the Special Child in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Stowe State Coll., St. Louis, MO. Teacher Education Dept.

    This paper represents the perspectives of 25 special education teacher scholarship students from 13 Caribbean and Central American countries (Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nevis, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Jamaica, Grenada, and Antigua) on the status of special education in their…

  7. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  8. War Powers Litigation Initiated by Members of Congress Since the Enactment of the War Powers Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-17

    majority of the Members of Congress.”22 Grenada In Conyers v. Reagan ,23 11 Members of the House challenged the President Reagan’s use of force in...military activities in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Grenada ; military action taken during the Persian Gulf conflict between Iraq and Iran; U.S...4 Grenada

  9. Avoiding the Slippery Slope: Conducting Effective Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    President Ronald Reagan sent Marines to Lebanon for what proved to be a disas- trous, short-lived mission. He invaded Grenada that same year to prevent...decisive actions in Grenada and Panama, the small covert operation in Nicaragua, and the advisory mission in El Salvador. During the decade following the

  10. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  11. Twelve Years on: Women's Literacy in a Nicaraguan Municipality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankshear, C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The first phase of a pilot project to compare morbidity and mortality of children of three groups of mothers (illiterate, literate through formal schooling, literate through Nicaragua's National Literacy Crusade begun in 1980) found that substantial numbers of women became literate as a result of the crusade and have maintained their literacy. (SK)

  12. The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    Nicaragua's National Literacy Crusade of 1980 has brought impressive results. Through a mass mobilization effort, people of all ages served in 60,000 Sandinista Literacy Units; those who read taught those who could not. This article describes the program's implementation and outcomes. (Author/WD)

  13. Conquest from Within: A Comparative Analysis between Soviet Active Measures and United States Unconventional Warfare Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-27

    This would include examining the strategic significance of Grenada, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Panama, El Salvador , Nicaragua, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru...autobiographers in other walks of life to romanticize their own importance, minimize their mistakes, and pass over unpleasant or sensitive events with...

  14. The Coming of Age of Development Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Judy

    1984-01-01

    Reviews landmark projects in development communication since the formation of the Information Center on Instructional Technology in 1972, including Nicaragua's Radio Mathematics for the primary grades; India's Satellite Instructional Television; Guatemala's Basic Village Education Project; and the use of mass media to disseminate health…

  15. Health Education Intervention. An Annotated Bibliography. Nutrition Education Series Issue 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This annotated bibliography contains 73 citations describing health education programs around the world. Countries represented include: Bangladesh, Egypt, Gambia, Gilbert Islands, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Swaziland, Thailand, Tunisia, Australia, Colombia, India, United Kingdom, Canada,…

  16. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  17. Some Phases of Educational Progress in Latin America. Bulletin, 1919, No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1920-01-01

    This bulletin discusses the phases of educational progress in Latin America. The following topic areas are covered: (1) Central America (practical education; Guatemala; Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Nicaragua; Panama); (2) British Guiana (new school regulation); (3) Argentina (preliminary; illiteracy; report of National Council of Education;…

  18. The CERCA School Report Card: Communities Creating Education Quality. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez Guio, Ana; Chesterfield, Ray; Siri, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The CERCA (Civic Engagement for Education Reform in Central America) school report card (SRC) model was developed with schools in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua in 2004 and 2005. This document summarizes the major findings, successful procedures, and implications of the experience for the region. The SRC…

  19. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  20. What Counts as Outcomes? Community Perspectives of an Engineering Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nora Pillard

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of community organization representatives and community residents about a partnership between a College of Engineering and a rural municipality in Nicaragua. The intended community outcomes described by university participants during interviews corresponded with tangible project outcomes, such as access to…

  1. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay.../new_site/en/parties_under_article5_para1.php. Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua & Barbuda..., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia,...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru...'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Fiji Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru...'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Fiji Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana...

  5. Repertorio de Servicios Iberoamericanos de Documentacion e Informacion Educativas = Repertorio de Servicos Ibero-Americanos de Documentacao e Informacao Educativas (Directory of Ibero-American Services for Educational Documentation and Information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organizacion de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educacion, la Ciencia y la Cultura, Madrid (Spain).

    This directory provides information on the location and functioning of educational documentation and information services in Spain and Portugal in Europe, and in the 18 Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvader, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto…

  6. Randomized Experiments for Planning and Testing Projects in Developing Countries: Threshold Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; Boruch, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Determining which program evaluations in developing countries are appropriate/feasible for randomized experiments to plan and evaluate social programs is discussed. Five threshold conditions are defined. Reviews of experiments from Barbados, China, Colombia, Kenya, Israel, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Taiwan, and the United States illustrate the issues…

  7. The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations NWP 9 (REV.A)/ FMFM 1-10. Annotated Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    and Komodo Islands. many (Andaman Islands) rocks in channel 63371-1 96,290 73041 -1 212.660 131 ’Ten Degree Channel 77 1.000.+’ 10 India 145. *Sumba...Bab al Mandeb Nicaragua Entrance to Gulf of Fonseca Yemen (Sanaa) Bab a1 Mandeb Trinidad and Tobago Serpent’s Mouth Yemen (Aden) Bab-el Mandeb Dragons

  8. 77 FR 2070 - Anneri Izurieta: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... imported dairy products that FDA had detained after receiving notice from FDA that the dairy products were... dairy products and other food to be imported from Honduras and Nicaragua. Despite a request from FDA to disclose the location of shipments of dairy products after learning that FDA had slated specific...

  9. By the Sweat & Toil of Children. Volume V: Efforts To Eliminate Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Maureen; Eugenio, Marcia M.; Hillmeyer, Jack; Hurlburt, Teresa; Ledan, Marie E.; Singh, Simrin; Willcutts, Keven; Woodson, Antonio

    This report reviews the child labor situation in 16 countries where child labor has been identified as a problem, and the level and types of action being undertaken to reduce child exploitation. The information is based on material gathered during field visits to Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua,…

  10. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  11. "A Pesar De Las Fronteras"/"In Spite of the Boundaries": Exploring Solidarity in the Context of International Service Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Alice B.; Fletcher, C. Vail; Ruíz-Tolento, María Guadalupe; Goble, Laura; Velloso, Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    The move to "internationalize" United States universities has contributed to increased interest in global service-learning. This article presents qualitative data collected by a team of faculty and students during a service immersion in Nicaragua. The solidarity model of service-learning attempts to address shortcomings of earlier…

  12. No Place To Be a Child: Growing Up in a War Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; Kostelny, Kathleen; Dubrow, Nancy

    War and violence are part of day-to-day life for many of the world's children. This book explores the lives of the children of Cambodia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and inner-city Chicago. Through research on the psychological and developmental effects of trauma in early life and interviews with children in war zones…

  13. The Influence of Conditional Cash Transfers on Eligible Children and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincove, Jane Arnold; Parker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) are used to reduce poverty while incentivizing investments in children. Targeting CCTs to certain groups of children can improve efficiency, but positive effects on eligible children may be offset by reductions in investments for ineligible siblings. Using data from Nicaragua, we estimate program effects on…

  14. Profiles of Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1982

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide information missing from elementary and secondary educational materials, briefly reviews the history, geography, and current political, economic, demographic, and social characteristics of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Some information is also given about Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize.

  15. Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 18

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Huntley Keywords: Environment, Central America, Topography, Climate, Gulf of Mexico, Operations Systems, Belize , Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa...for Army Terrain Analysts) Terrain Analysis Procedural Guide for Geology ETL-0207 1979 (Report No. 3 in the ETL Series on Guides for Army Terrain

  16. Strategic Planning for International Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Rita M.; White, Joanne F.

    1996-01-01

    The Nicaraguan American Nursing Collaboration project consisted of two phases. Phase one addressed current health care needs in Nicaragua and emphasized related nursing interventions. Phase two evaluated phase one outcomes and provided further development of nurses and others employed by the Health Ministry. (JOW)

  17. The Soviets: What is the Conflict about? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith; Landau, David

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers United States-Soviet conflict. The first of four sections, "US-Soviet Relations at the Crossroads," looks at different American perceptions of the Soviet Union. "Regional Conflicts, Global Ambitions" focuses on Nicaragua as a case…

  18. ICT, Literacy and Teacher Change: The Effectiveness of ICT Options in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature that use research design for causal inference that estimate the effect of information and communications technology (ICT) programs on literacy outcomes in early primary, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are several programs that have used ICT at a large scale, including Los Angeles, Peru, Nicaragua, Rwanda…

  19. Making Aid More Effective by 2010: 2008 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration Indicators in Selected FTI Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a pilot survey on aid effectiveness indicators in the education sector carried out by the Education for All--Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Secretariat. The covers 10 FTI-endorsed countries: Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Rwanda. All…

  20. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  1. Three New Teosintes (Zea spp., Poaceae) From Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of new species of teosinte from México motivated the comparative study of populations from México, Guatemala and Nicaragua through detailed ecogeographic, morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterization. The study involved a comparative analysis of morphological, ecogeographic,...

  2. The United Nations Human Rights Council: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-25

    10 from Western Europe and other states. 21 Current Vice-Presidents are Guillermo Valles Galmes of Uruguay, Mohamed-Siad Doualeh of Djibouti, Daya...Nigeria - 2009 Senegal - 2009 South Africa - 2010 Zambia - 2008 Bolivia - 2010 Brazil - 2008 Cuba - 2009 Guatemala - 2008 Mexico - 2009 Nicaragua - 2010

  3. Rural Women, Money and Financial Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiggins, Janice

    1985-01-01

    The author points out the multifaceted aspects of the problems associated with rural women's need for money and financial services and outlines innovative schemes in this area such as the bank for the landless in Bangladesh, a savings and loan cooperative for market women in Nicaragua, and a savings development movement in Zimbabwe. (CT)

  4. Upper extremity musculoskeletal pain among office workers in three Spanish speaking-countries: findings from the CUPID study

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Fumero, Adriana; Delclos, George L.; Douphrate, David I.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Serra, Consol; Coggon, David; Gimeno, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and incidence of upper extremity musculoskeletal pain (UEMP) and related disability among office workers in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Spain. Methods Data from the multinational CUPID study on 947 (93%) participants at baseline with 90% follow-up after 12 months. logistic regression was used to estimate the associations (odds ratios [ORs] and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95%CIs]) between country and six outcomes: baseline prevalence of (1) UEMP in past 12 months, (2) UEMP in past month, and (3) disabling UEMP in past month; (4) incidence of new UEMP at follow-up; (5) incidence of new disabling UEMP at follow-up; and (6) persistence of UEMP at follow-up, after adjustment for sociodemographic, job-related and health-related covariates. Results Baseline prevalence of UEMP in the past month was higher in Costa Rica (53.6%) (OR=1.89; 95% CI: 1.36-2.62), and Nicaragua (51.9%) (OR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.28-2.35) than in Spain (38.4%). Compared to Spain (33.2%), the incidence of new UEMP was 50.4% in Costa Rica (OR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.34-3.12), and 60.2% in Nicaragua (OR=3.04; 95% CI: 2.06-4.50). The incidence of disabling UEMP was higher in Nicaragua (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.50-4.41) and Costa Rica (OR=2.16; 95% CI: 1.22-3.84) when compared to Spain. Conclusion Prevalence of UEMP was approximately 2-fold higher and its incidence 2- to 3-fold higher in Costa Rica and Nicaragua as compared with Spain. Between-country differences were only partially explained by the covariates analyzed. Research is needed to explore other aspects of work and cultural attributes that might explain the residual differences in UEMP. PMID:26972870

  5. The ants of North and Central America: the genus Mycocepurus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, William P.; Maes, Jean-Michel; Fernández, Patricia Rojas; Luna, Gladys

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We provide a review of the North American ants (north of Colombia) of the ant genus Mycocepurus, including keys to the workers and females, illustrations and distribution maps. The distribution of M. tardus is extended to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The female of M. curvispinosus is described. Resumen Se revisan las especies del género Mycocepurus de Norte América (al norte de Colombia). Se incluyen claves para la identificación de las obreras y las hembras, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución. Se amplia hacia el norte la distribución de M. tardus, incluyendo ahora Nicaragua y Costa Rica y se describe la hembra de M. curvispinosus. PMID:15861242

  6. In Search of Peace: Structural Adjustment, Violence, and International Migration.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Steven Elías; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-07-01

    The authors analyze the effects of structural adjustment and violence on international migration from selected countries in Latin America by estimating a series of event history models that predicted the likelihood of initial migration to the United States as a function of the murder rate, economic openness, and selected controls in the country of origin. Although several theories posit a connection between structural economic change and violence, such a pattern held only in Nicaragua, where the homicide rate increased as the economy was opened to trade and average incomes deteriorated. Moreover, only in Nicaragua was lethal violence positively related to out-migration. In Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, rising violence reduced the likelihood of emigration. Violence does not appear to have uniform effects on patterns of international migration but depends on broader social and political conditions within particular countries.

  7. Addressing the needs of Nicaraguan older adults living on the edge: A university-community partnership in international service-learning.

    PubMed

    Neal, Margaret B; Cannon, Melissa; DeLaTorre, Alan; Bolkan, Cory R; Wernher, Iris; Nolan, Elisabeth; López Norori, Milton; Largaespada-Fredersdorff, Carmen; Brown Wilson, Keren

    2017-01-01

    Nicaragua is a very low-income country entering a period of rapid aging with limited geriatric training for health care professionals. To help build capacity and to enhance student learning, a short-term international service-learning program was implemented in 2004 in partnership with the Jessie F. Richardson Foundation and Nicaraguan community stakeholders. Graduate and undergraduate students at Portland State University complete coursework for one term in the United States then travel to Nicaragua for about two weeks to participate in educational, research, and service activities, primarily in group homes for older Nicaraguans. Students learn about global aging, gerontology, community development, service learning, and Nicaraguan history and culture, then apply their gerontology-related knowledge by training direct care staff, older adults and their family members, and students. The authors describe the impetus for and evolution of the program, students' evaluation of the program, faculty observations on program benefits and challenges, lessons learned, and future plans.

  8. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  9. Hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Government officials in Montserrat and in Nicaragua spent the first week of December trying to usher residents out of their homes and away from simmering volcanoes in each of those nations. Some people cooperated, others decided to take their chances. On the tiny Caribbean island of Montserrat, about 3,500 people were ordered to vacate their homes for the second time in three months, as a lava dome in the Chances Peak volcano grew and threatened to erupt. In Leon, Nicaragua, at least a third of the 12,000 people ordered to evacuate their homes refused, choosing to protect their homes from looters rather than flee the gurgling Cerro Negro. The Nicaraguan volcano spewed ash and lava 900 m into the air on Dec. 2; the eruption was visible from Managua, 120 km to the southeast.

  10. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B T

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras.

  11. Learning from recovery after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Christoplos, Ian; Rodríguez, Tomás; Schipper, E Lisa F; Narvaez, Eddy Alberto; Bayres Mejia, Karla Maria; Buitrago, Rolando; Gómez, Ligia; Pérez, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews how Nicaragua has recovered from Hurricane Mitch of October 1998. In particular, it examines how the assumptions and claims that were made during initial recovery planning have proven relevant in light of subsequent development. One must consider the response to Hurricane Mitch from the perspective of the broader trends that have driven recovery, including household, community and government initiatives and the wider economic context. Recovery efforts have not 'transformed' Nicaragua. In fact, market upheavals and livelihood changes in rural areas have had a more profound impact on poverty profiles than recovery programmes. Social protection programmes have been piloted, but patron-client ties and relations with aid providers are still more reliable sources of support in a time of crisis. Risk reduction has become more deeply integrated into the rural development discourse than was the case before the disaster, but risk reduction initiatives continue to place undue emphasis on hazard response rather than addressing vulnerability.

  12. Defense Management: U.S. Southern Command Demonstrates Interagency Collaboration, but Its Haiti Disaster Response Revealed Challenges Conducting a Large Military Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Florida, in October 2009 and Panama City, Panama , in December 2009, during which we interviewed U.S. government, international partner, and...nongovernmental organization officials.5 We also visited U.S. embassies in Panama , Colombia, and the Dominican Republic in December of 2009, interviewing U.S...Suriname, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Panama , Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Page 4 GAO-10-801 Defense Management Figure 1

  13. Comparative Estimates of Crude and Effective Coverage of Measles Immunization in Low-Resource Settings: Findings from Salud Mesoamérica 2015.

    PubMed

    Colson, K Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gagnier, Marielle C; Palmisano, Erin; Ranganathan, Dharani; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Salvatierra, Benito; Nazar, Austreberta; Tristao, Ignez; Sanchez Monin, Emmanuelle; Anderson, Brent W; Haakenstad, Annie; Murphy, Tasha; Lim, Stephen; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measurement of population protection against measles is critical for decision-making and prevention of outbreaks. However, little is known about how survey-based estimates of immunization (crude coverage) compare to the seroprevalence of antibodies (effective coverage), particularly in low-resource settings. In poor areas of Mexico and Nicaragua, we used household surveys to gather information on measles immunization from child health cards and caregiver recall. We also collected dried blood spots (DBS) from children aged 12 to 23 months to compare crude and effective coverage of measles immunization. We used survey-weighted logistic regression to identify individual, maternal, household, community, and health facility characteristics that predict gaps between crude coverage and effective coverage. We found that crude coverage was significantly higher than effective coverage (83% versus 68% in Mexico; 85% versus 50% in Nicaragua). A large proportion of children (19% in Mexico; 43% in Nicaragua) had health card documentation of measles immunization but lacked antibodies. These discrepancies varied from 0% to 100% across municipalities in each country. In multivariate analyses, card-positive children in Mexico were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in urban areas or the jurisdiction of De Los Llanos. In contrast, card-positive children in Nicaragua were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in rural areas or the North Atlantic region, had low weight-for-age, or attended health facilities with a greater number of refrigerators. Findings highlight that reliance on child health cards to measure population protection against measles is unwise. We call for the evaluation of immunization programs using serological methods, especially in poor areas where the cold chain is likely to be compromised. Identification of within-country variation in effective coverage of measles immunization will allow researchers and public health

  14. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    THE STANDARD, 12 Nov 83) ....................... 24 ARGENTINA Wheat Production, Export Figures for 1984 Reach High Levels (SOMOS, 15 Dec 83...and 3 December 1983. He was accompanied by the minister of foreign affairs, Miguel D’Escoto Brockman and other high Nicaraguan officials. An...Reconstruction Government of Nicaragua and the members of his delegation with high Peruvian officials took place in a cordial atmosphere. Questions of a

  15. Tactical Airlift and Direct Support: The Keys to USAF Relevance in Modern Counterinsurgency and Their Struggle Against Air Force Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Marines and their exploits in the “ Banana Wars” of Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. Perhaps the most famous early example of American...the Banana Wars the Marines discovered that the airplane could be used for non-kinetic yet equally valuable missions. Fortunately, the Marines...had to first conquer An Loc.81 The NVA began shelling and encircling the city on April 5, 1972. After the highway and airfield were lost, airdrop

  16. Putative Role of the Aldo-Keto Reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi in Benznidazole Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Patricia Andrea; Laverrière, Marc; Cannata, Joaquín J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Benznidazole (Bz), the drug used for treatment of Chagas' disease (caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi), is activated by a parasitic NADH-dependent type I nitroreductase (NTR I). However, several studies have shown that other enzymes are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the aldo-keto reductase from T. cruzi (TcAKR), a NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase previously described by our group, uses Bz as the substrate. We demonstrated that both recombinant and native TcAKR enzymes reduce Bz by using NADPH, but not NADH, as a cofactor. TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes showed higher NADPH-dependent Bz reductase activity and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for Bz 1.8-fold higher than that of the controls, suggesting that TcAKR is involved in Bz detoxification instead of activation. To understand the role of TcAKR in Bz metabolism, we studied TcAKR expression and NADPH/NADH-dependent Bz reductase activities in two T. cruzi strains with differential susceptibility to Bz: CL Brener and Nicaragua. Taking into account the results obtained with TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes, we expected the more resistant strain, Nicaragua, to have higher TcAKR levels than CL Brener. However, the results were the opposite. CL Brener showed 2-fold higher TcAKR expression and 5.7-fold higher NADPH-Bz reduction than the Nicaragua strain. In addition, NADH-dependent Bz reductase activity, characteristic of NTR I, was also higher in CL Brener than in Nicaragua. We conclude that although TcAKR uses Bz as the substrate, TcAKR activity is not a determinant of Bz resistance in wild-type strains and may be overcome by other enzymes involved in Bz activation, such as NADPH- and NADH-dependent reductases. PMID:26856844

  17. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. December 2009 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    overwhelming margin, with only India and North Korea voting against, and Bhutan, China, Cuba, France, Iran , Israel, Myanmar and Pakistan abstaining...Emissions Increase Ocean Noise Pollution………………………..13 6.7 Arctic “Pole of Peace” Suggested to Address Arctic Security Issues………………..13 6.8 Nuclear ... Myanmar , Honduras, Vietnam, Nicaragua, Haiti, India, the Dominican Republic, Philippines, and China. The Global Climate Risk Index analyzes the

  18. A Tagging Study of the Freshwater Elasmobranchs of Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From 1966 to 1972, 1634 adult and 1203 juvenile bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and 345 sawfish (Pristis perotteti) were tagged in the Lake...Nicaragua-Rio San Juan system. Recoveries by 1 January, 1973 have included 225 adults (13.8%), 206 juveniles (17.1%) and 153 sawfish (44.3%). Six adults have...the Caribbean Sea in both directions, and that the sharks and sawfish in the lake are not landlocked. The juvenile recoveries have in general been

  19. No Retreat: The Failure of Soviet Decision-Making in the Afghan War, 1979-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    1983 that the United States planned to attack the Soviet Union, and the Reagan Administration’s planned Star Wars missile defense program). These...President Reagan in particular) to seeing the fighting stop. As Gorbachev pressed these officials for assistance in ending the war, he gradually realized...Angola (1975) and Ethiopia (1977), supported the pro-Cuban takeovers in Grenada and Nicaragua, and supplied arms to communist rebels in Mozambique

  20. Congressional Oversight of Homeland Security: Help or Hinderance?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    In 1981 the Reagan administration started providing aid to the rebel Contras in Nicaragua.164 Congress disapproved of this policy and passed the...http://library.cqpress.com/cqalmanac/cqal86–1149226. 35 an arms deal to improve relations with Iran.167 Once President Reagan learned of the deal...finding but did not require it be written, resulting in several conflicting testimonies on what operations President Reagan knew about or ordered during

  1. A New Age for Aerostats: Proving Airfield-Centric MANPADS Defense for Civil Aircraft Supporting Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    groups have also used MANPADS in Nicaragua, Costa Rica , Vietnam, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Afghanistan. 37 In New York, officials arrested three... Costa , O., Holzapfel, F., and Sachs, G. “Trajectory Optimization for Protecting Airliners against Terroristic Threats.” American Institute of...Dec 2009. 75 Hall, Mimi. “ Drones Could Defend Airports.” USA Today, 23 Mar 2007. 76 Doyle, John M. 77 Aviation Week and Space Technology, “No

  2. The Gordian Knot: Analysis of United States Support to Ethnic-Based "Resistance" Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    Conflict. The name alone conjures forth CNN-provided visions of angry camouflaged youths with guns, crying old women with dead children, streams of refugees...York: Puebla Institute, 1987); Nina H. Shea, "Testimony for Nicaraguan Refugees," Nicaragua in Focus, Vol. 1, No. 4, Joseph E. Davis, ed. (New York... Puebla Institute, 1987), 16-23; and Congress, Senate, Republican Policy Committee, Turmoil in Central America (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing

  3. Energy and development in Central America. Volume 2: Country assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Gallagher, W.; Palmedo, P.; Doenberg, A.; Oberg, K.; Kyle, S.

    1980-03-01

    An energy assessment for each of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama is presented. The program assists the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America. The following issues are treated separately for each individual country; geographic, social and economic aspects; energy resources; current and future energy use; energy strategies.

  4. Colombia’s FARC: More Than Just Opportunistic Criminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    paving roads, and increasing the quality of life of its supporters. As such, Colombia must be willing to treat these ideologically-driven FARC...present) in El Salvador and the Frente Sandinista de Liberacíon Nacional (FSLN: 1961 – present) in Nicaragua. Dr. Gabriel Aguilera, Air War College...Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (FARC for short). This heavily-armed organization – originally created to defend the rights of the

  5. Outsourcing Human Security: The Pros and Cons of Private Security Companies in Peacekeeping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ONUSAL United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador OPM Office of Personnel Management OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in...the war would restart; and finally, there were the cases such as El Salvador , Mozambique, and Nicaragua (coded as successes) where peacekeepers were...It is important to note that although the operations in El Salvador and Nicaraqua were coded as successes by Howard, crime, drug, and gang violence

  6. The New Russian Engagement with Latin America: Strategic Position, Commerce, and Dreams of the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Sandinistas in the February 1990 Nicaraguan national election. 26 The renovation of close relations between Russia and Nicaragua that began in 2008 was...a total of $1.5 bil- lion to develop it.210 Russian energy firms and banks currently play a role in the renovation of Ecuador’s electricity...2014, available from m.rbth.com. 118 346. “RusHydro Signs Memorandum of Understanding with ENERGIA ARGENTINA S.A.,” RusHydro, Official Website, May

  7. Mexico’s Central American Policy: Apologies, Motivations, and Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    Petroleum exports and the concomitant activities of Petr6leos Mexicanos ( PEMEX ) play a special role in the projection of economic advantage. Speaking...other programs in the Caribbean Basin designed to increase Mexico’s economic influence and advantage. In Costa Rica, PEMEX has been engaged in several...programs, including technical advice and exploration. PEMEX has donated oil drilling equipment to Nicaragua and has been training Nicaraguan technicians

  8. Stochastic Simulations of Long-Range Forecasting Models. Volume 3. Technical Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-31

    growth in the Latin American region averages 3.08 percent with only two of the 21 countries below 2 percent (Argentina and Uruguay ).11 As a result of... Uruguay , Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama—fail to show progress. Although they are relatively small and apparently strategically...States. Several coun- tries—Argentina, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay —indicate a greater tendency to vote against the developed

  9. Paraguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua.29 Paraguay is a member of the Common Market of the South ( Mercosur )30 along with Brazil, Argentina and...legislation allowing Venezuela’s membership in Mercosur because he lacked a majority in his Congress.31 As a full voting member of Mercosur , Paraguay...Country Report: Paraguay, July 2009. 30 Mercosur is a common market composed of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay that was established in 1991 to

  10. Terrorist Group Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Cuba and Nicaragua. When AVC leader Rosa Cardenas was arrested in September 1984, she was carrying documents that confirmed these ties and suggested...US Embassy compound in Quito. October 1984 -- Briefly occupied the Costa Rican Embassy to protest that nation’s extradition of AVC leader Rosa Cardenas...PRTC) September 1985 - Kidnaped Inez Duarte Duran , eldest daughter of Jose Napolean Duarte, President of El Salvador. November 1987 - In San Salvador

  11. A Constitutional and Criminal Law Analysis of President Reagan’s Ordering Americans out of Libya.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Reagan administration officials have made the sme observation about the sanctions against Nicaragua. 106/ If we do not think economic sanctions work, what...146/ It was undoubtedly his comand post, but it also was a residence for him and his family , not unrlike the dual function of the White House. The...these presently unknown violators are likely to surface to visit gravely ill, family members in the United States or simply due to a desire to come home

  12. CRS Issue Statement on Latin America and the Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    such as Venezuela under Hugo Chávez, Bolivia under Evo Morales , and Nicaragua under Daniel Ortega. Regarding Venezuela, where relations with the...challenges in bilateral relations with Bolivia under President Evo Morales , with concerns centered on Bolivia’s counternarcotics efforts. In late 2008...Trinidad and Tobago in April 2009; Guatemala’s drug-related violence; the status of U.S. relations with Bolivia ; problems with television broadcasting

  13. The Nicaraguan Resistance and U.S. Policy: Report on a May 1987 Conference Held in Santa Monica, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Resistance has been the subject of public policy debate. It has been discussed in recent RAND studies on Nicaragua, Honduras, and Cuba ; in an earlier RAND...January 1988; Edward Gonzalez and David Ronfeldt, Castro, Cuba , and the World, The RAND Corporation, R-3420, June 1986; Edward Gonzalez, Brian Michael...revolution; a visiting professor of international relations at El Colegio de Mexico , he was serving as a political adviser to the Nicaraguan Resistance

  14. Evolution of Geochemical Variations Along the Central American Volcanic Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I. S.; Gazel, E.; Condie, C.; Carr, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma shows that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab, however our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  15. Evolution of geochemical variations along the Central American volcanic front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, Ian; Gazel, Esteban; Condie, Claire; Carr, Michael J.

    2013-10-01

    New geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks in El Salvador add to existing data from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to create a comprehensive set of geochemical data for Central American volcanics. These data coupled with previously published 40Ar/39Ar ages covering the past 30 Ma show that Costa Rica and Nicaragua had similar U/Th and Ba/La values until 10 Ma when the region developed the distinctive along arc variations that made this margin famous. U/Th values increased in Nicaragua since the Miocene, while remaining unchanged along the rest of the volcanic front. This coincides temporally with the Carbonate Crash, which caused a transition in Cocos plate sediments from low-U carbonates to high-U, organic rich hemipelagic muds. Increases in uranium are not observed in Costa Rica because its lower slab dip produces a more diffuse zone of partial melting and because of the contribution from Galapagos-derived tracks dilutes this signal. Ba/La has been used as a geochemical proxy for contributions from the subducting slab; however, our analyses indicate that the Ba concentrations do not vary significantly along strike either in the subducting sediment or the volcanic front. Along-arc variation is controlled by changes in La, an indicator of the degree of partial melting or source enrichment. Trace element models of five segments of the volcanic front suggest that a subducting sediment component is more important to magmas produced in El Salvador and Nicaragua than in Costa Rica, where the geochemistry is controlled by recent (<10 Ma) recycling of Galapagos tracks.

  16. Comparative Estimates of Crude and Effective Coverage of Measles Immunization in Low-Resource Settings: Findings from Salud Mesoamérica 2015

    PubMed Central

    Colson, K. Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Conde-Glez, Carlos J.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Palmisano, Erin; Ranganathan, Dharani; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Salvatierra, Benito; Nazar, Austreberta; Tristao, Ignez; Sanchez Monin, Emmanuelle; Anderson, Brent W.; Haakenstad, Annie; Murphy, Tasha; Lim, Stephen; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measurement of population protection against measles is critical for decision-making and prevention of outbreaks. However, little is known about how survey-based estimates of immunization (crude coverage) compare to the seroprevalence of antibodies (effective coverage), particularly in low-resource settings. In poor areas of Mexico and Nicaragua, we used household surveys to gather information on measles immunization from child health cards and caregiver recall. We also collected dried blood spots (DBS) from children aged 12 to 23 months to compare crude and effective coverage of measles immunization. We used survey-weighted logistic regression to identify individual, maternal, household, community, and health facility characteristics that predict gaps between crude coverage and effective coverage. We found that crude coverage was significantly higher than effective coverage (83% versus 68% in Mexico; 85% versus 50% in Nicaragua). A large proportion of children (19% in Mexico; 43% in Nicaragua) had health card documentation of measles immunization but lacked antibodies. These discrepancies varied from 0% to 100% across municipalities in each country. In multivariate analyses, card-positive children in Mexico were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in urban areas or the jurisdiction of De Los Llanos. In contrast, card-positive children in Nicaragua were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in rural areas or the North Atlantic region, had low weight-for-age, or attended health facilities with a greater number of refrigerators. Findings highlight that reliance on child health cards to measure population protection against measles is unwise. We call for the evaluation of immunization programs using serological methods, especially in poor areas where the cold chain is likely to be compromised. Identification of within-country variation in effective coverage of measles immunization will allow researchers and public health

  17. Terrain Analysis Procedural Guide for Railroads (Report Number 10 in the ETL Series on Guides for Army Terrain Analysis).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AD-A080 064 GUIDE FOR GEOLOGY (Report No. 3...) ETL-0220 Alexander R. Pearson SYNTHESIS GUIDE FOR AD-A084 007 Janet S. Wright CROSS-COUNTRY MOVEENT...Mozambique Newfoundland New Zealand, Nicaragua. Nigeria. Northern Territory (Australia) Philppines. Queensland . Republic of So Africa. So Australia Southern...Algeria. Argentina. Bolivia. Brazil. Burma, Cambodia. Chile. China. Columbia. East Atrica. Ecuador, Ethiopia, Greece. India, Iraq Malaysia, Pakistan

  18. Naval Law Review. Volume 60, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    corrupt, or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own.” Id. 2010 Controlling the Use of Force in Cyber Space 4...to the military and paramilitary activities of the contras in Nicaragua, by financial support, training, supply, of weapons, intelligence and...requires months of evaluation prior to the decision to engage in the specific activity in a specific location of water space in the Arctic. That evaluation

  19. The Joint Staff/J-5 and A-AF CLIC (Center for Low Intensity Conflict) Planning and Policy in Low Intensity Conflict Conference held in Hampton, Virginia on 13-15 December 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-15

    community to examine mutual requirements arising from approved national LIC strategy and exchange LIC lessons learned. AGENDA DAY 1 0700-0800 Coffee 0800...Similarly, Soviet pilot training tends to cohcentrate more on aircraft safety or on ground control of the aircraft rather than on air combat maneuvers... coffee for Soviet arms, Libya has swapped oil or grain for Soviet arms and Nicaragua has used sugar, fruit and coffee to defray some of the cost of

  20. Constructability Improvement: Making Effective Use of Construction Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    New Calendonia BT Bhutan PU Guinea-Bissau NZ New Zealand Bl. Bolivia GY Guyana NU Nicaragua BC Botswvana HA Haiti NG Niger BV Bouvet Is HM Heard Is...COMPONENTE. COMPONENT CSI REFERENCE CODE C C’ 00010 Pre -Bid Information 03700 Concrete Restoratio/Cleaning 08700 Hardware 00100 Instructions To Bidders...04100 Mortar FINISHES 00500 Agreement Forms 04150 Masonry Accessories 09100 Metal Support Systems 00600 Bonda And Certificates 04200 Unit Maory 09200