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Sample records for nicaragua

  1. Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nicaragua is on the following: geography; the people and history; government and polictical conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Nicaragua. Nicaragua's population is 2.9 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3% (1981). The infant mortality rate is 37/1000; life expectancy is 56 years. Most Nicaraguans are mestizo, a mix of European and Indian. Smaller ethnic groups also are recognizable. A large black minority of Jamaican origin is concentrated on the Caribbean coast, although migration to Managua is on the rise. Nicaragua borders Costa Rica to the south and El Salvador--across the Gulf of Fonseca--and Honduras to the north. The climate is tropical. About 40% of the population are urban; most live in the Pacific lowlands and the adjacent interior highlands region. On July 19, 1979 the Government of National Reconstruction formed in exile as a coalition of the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) and civic leaders, stepped into the power vacuum left by the Somoza government's collapse. The GRN was organized into a 5-member junta, the 19 member Council of Ministers, and the 33 member quasi legislative National Council. The GRN's July 19 Declaration of San Jose, promising a democratically elected government and an equitable pluralistic society, met with strong popular support. Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly are guaranteed by the declaration, yet the GRN's efforts at promoting political freedom have been less successful than its efforts at economic equity. At different times, the GRN has restricted operation of opposition newspapers on national security grounds, banned individual foreign films on political grounds, attempted to reduce the role of the Roman Catholic Church and tried to reduce the traditional autonomy of the national university. The country's resources are primarily agricultural. Some estimates indicate that 70% of Nicaragua's territory is usable

  2. Audiology in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, Laura

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 37 individuals in Nicaragua were the basis of this review of the audiology field in that nation. The review covers the prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment, training for audiologists, government services for individuals with hearing impairment, private agencies concerned with hearing impairment, and fitting and use of…

  3. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  4. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  5. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  6. Teaching Business Communication in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Global partnerships between educational institutions are one mechanism for building a capacity to educate students and prepare them for the global economy. In this article, the author describes a seminar on business communication he taught to the faculty members of Universidad Centroamerica de Managua (UCA) in Managua, Nicaragua. The purpose of…

  7. The Nicaragua Radio Mathematics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Barbara

    The Radio Mathematics Project was funded by the Agency for International Development to design, implement, and evaluate, in conjunction with personnel of a developing country, a system for teaching primary-grade mathematics by radio. In July 1974, a project in Nicaragua began with a series of radio presentations, each followed by 20 minutes of…

  8. [The health system of Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Muiser, Jorine; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Nicaragua and discusses the characteristics of its national health system including its structure and coverage, its financial sources its physical, material and human resources the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the system and the level of satisfaction of health care users. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the decentralization of the regulation of health facilities and the design and implementation of a new health care model known as Family and Community Health Model.

  9. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  10. Identification of Aedes albopictus in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Emperatriz Del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Zachariah, Marcus A; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Salgado, Mario J; Pérez, Roselo; Hammond, Samantha N; Harris, Eva

    2005-09-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus, a mosquito known for transmitting dengue virus, were identified in the city of León, Nicaragua, in 2003. Mosquito larvae were collected from a total of 2,225 residences in the 2 largest cities in Nicaragua during the period from June to September of 2003, and larval Ae. albopictus were identified in 4 homes in León. This represents the 1st detection of Ae. albopictus in a major Nicaraguan urban center, and increased control efforts appear to have eliminated the mosquito subsequently from León. The presence of Ae. albopictus in urban Nicaragua highlights the need for surveillance of areas thought to be free of the mosquito so that early detection and control activities can prevent its spread.

  11. Education of the deaf in nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Polich, L

    2001-01-01

    Nicaragua now ranks as the third poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (Interamerican Development Bank [IDB], 1995). Occasionally educational improvement has been a national priority (Arrien & Matus, 1989). Usually, however, education rests at the lower end of a long list of national needs. The history of education in Nicaragua is marked by low teacher salaries, deteriorated physical plants, and scarcities of teaching materials (Arnove, 1994). Deaf education has been no exception. Teachers have been expected to learn empirically what deafness is and how to teach deaf children, to teach pupils who have had little or no language exposure before entering school, and to manage with the barest physical resources, all the while receiving only meager compensation. This article places education of the deaf in Nicaragua in a historical perspective, reports the results of a teacher survey, and discusses national policies that, so far, have had only indirect effects, but are likely to gain importance in the future.

  12. Severe Histoplasmosis in Travelers to Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Julia; Lance-Parker, Susan; Traeger, Marc; Wiersma, Steven; Phan, Quyen; Dennison, David; MacDonald, Pia; Lindsley, Mark; Guarner, Jeannette; Connolly, Patricia; Cetron, Martin; Hajjeh, Rana

    2003-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of unexpectedly severe histoplasmosis among 14 healthy adventure travelers from the United States who visited a bat-infested cave in Nicaragua. Although histoplasmosis has rarely been reported to cause serious illness among travelers, this outbreak demonstrates that cases may be severe among travelers, even young, healthy persons. PMID:14609473

  13. Extension Learning Exchange: Lessons from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Paul; Lachapelle, Paul; Howe, Rod

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need to support global professional development, international education, and collaborative learning opportunities in Extension. The program described here established an international learning exchange in Nicaragua to lead to global professional development and future international collaboration. The primary lessons and outcomes…

  14. Nicaragua 1980: The Battle of the ABCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a first-hand account of the massive literacy program in Nicaragua. They describe the political rationale and the extensive organizational tasks of the National Literacy Crusade, pointing out that its success depended upon the commitment of the people and the government to literacy and liberation. (Author/SK)

  15. Nicaragua's Libraries: A Struggle for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Description of the effects of the revolution, U.S. government policy, and natural disasters on the economic climate in Nicaragua focuses on problems faced by the country's libraries and library school. Support and funding provided to Nicaraguan libraries by American library groups are reviewed, and attitudes of Nicaraguan librarians toward the…

  16. Analysis of maternal mortality in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cavalleru, M; Quintana, M; Ara, A

    1992-01-01

    The Women's Collective in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, Sanitaria VI region estimated maternal mortality rates for 1989 and 1990 to be 309 and 239/100,000 live births, respectively. The majority of births took place at home, assisted by untrained midwives, and in 68% of cases the place and attendant(s) were not listed. National figures for maternal mortality are 49.4 and 159/per 100,000 in 1989. Thus the proportion of unreported maternal mortality is probably high in Nicaragua. The Collective believers that health workers give substandard prenatal care and fail to refer high risk cases to higher levels of care. They recommend that women mount a permanent campaign, insist on training programs for health workers that focus on women's situation, that more data be collected, and that women themselves take action.

  17. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  18. Will the Nicaragua Canal connect or divide?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-11-03

    A century after the opening of the Panama Canal, a second inter-oceanic passage is set to be built in Central America, this time in Nicaragua. The ambitious and astronomically expensive project promises to bring economic opportunity to a poor country but it also carries risks to its tropical ecosystems. Will the new waterway ultimately link two oceans or divide a continent? Michael Gross investigates.

  19. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  20. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  1. U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua: Illegal and Unwarranted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Ved P.

    1988-01-01

    Appraises the legality, under international law, of the U.S. intervention in Nicaragua. Describes the concepts of intervention, international resolutions, and declarations on the subject. Points out that international law is violated by many nations. Concludes that U.S. intervention in Nicaragua is impermissible under international law and unwise…

  2. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  3. Schools, Communities, and Democracy: The Nicaragua BASE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The 1990 election of Dona Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as President of Nicaragua marked the end of the Sandinista era and the return of U.S. foreign assistance the following year. Education was prominent in the U.S. assistance package. Since early 1994, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission to Nicaragua has funded a…

  4. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  5. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.
SETTING—León, Nicaragua.
PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.
MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.
CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.


Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  6. [Mental disorders in Nicaragua: family perspective].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-09-01

    In recent years the family perspective in Psychiatry has become more important a factor. Therefore this paper is aimed at examining the family structure of mentally disordered people in León, Nicaragua, as well as presenting the use of a Genogram in epidemiological research. 201 families were randomly selected, whose members were interviewed in two steps: a screening, and a diagnostic stage. The family map or Genogram for each family was analyzed with respect to adult and child cases, generations within the family, and other background variables.

  7. By and for women. Nicaragua's Si Mujer.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In Nicaragua, a group of women physicians and health professionals created an alternative health service for women. "Si Mujer" (Yes Woman), which stands for Integrated Services for Women, provides: 1) gynecologic services (comprehensive check-up, early cancer detection, sterility counseling, and AIDS and sexually transmitted disease [STD] prevention); 2) obstetric services (prenatal care, normal and high-risk pregnancy care, and family planning); 3) counseling (for women, couples, and families, and for victims of sexual violence); and 4) sex education and training (in reproductive health, gynecology, and sexuality). The non-profit organization collects fees according to ability to pay (11% pay nothing) and serves approximately 800 clients per month. Special programs provide services to teenagers and to men. While the training program began as a secondary effort, it is now as important as the direct service provision, with training activities reaching more than 1600 people in the first year through courses on such topics as sexuality, gender and power, AIDS and STD prevention, and cancer prevention. Si Mujer is one of more than 52 women's health centers in Nicaragua that have arisen to fill the gap left by the deterioration of public health services and which apply a gender perspective to the manner in which they approach their clients.

  8. Early childbearing in Nicaragua: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Luis; Carballo Palma, Luis; Wulf, Deirdre; Remez, Lisa; Prada, Elena; Drescher, Joanna

    2006-09-01

    (1) Among Nicaraguan women 20-24 years old, six in 10 had entered a union and almost half had had a child before their 20th birthday. (2) A quarter of all births in Nicaragua--35,000 per year--are to 15-19-year-olds. (3) Rural women, who have less education, on average, than their urban counterparts, are more likely than city dwellers to enter a union and become mothers during adolescence. (4) The proportion of 20-24-year-olds who had a child during adolescence is more than twice as high among the poorest as among those in the highest socioeconomic category. (5) Nearly half--45%--of births to adolescent women are unplanned, a level that varies little by women's urban-rural residence and their educational achievement. (6) Among all sexually active women aged 15-19 (in union and not in union), 86% do not want a child in the next two years, and 36% have an unmet need for effective contraception. Unmet need for family planning is equally high in urban and rural areas. (7) The strong link between low educational attainment and early motherhood suggests that improving educational opportunities for girls is a promising way of reducing high levels of adolescent childbearing in Nicaragua.

  9. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  10. Satellite Animation Shows Landfall of Hurricane Otto in Nicaragua

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Nov. 22 to Nov. 25 shows Hurricane Otto moving through the southwestern Caribbean Sea and making landfall in southern Nicaragua on Nov. 24....

  11. State Approaches Toward Reducing Youth Violence in Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    maintaining a lower incidence of violence and capable of addressing its domestic gang problems. In contrast, Honduran violent entrepreneurs who...TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA by Luis E. Preciado September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Arturo C. Sotomayor Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATE APPROACHES TOWARD REDUCING YOUTH VIOLENCE IN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA 5

  12. A new geothermal anomaly in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Yoram

    1982-03-01

    The information acquired during reconnaissance surface exploration in Nicaragua suggests a large geothermal reservoir in the region of Masaya—Nandaime. The exploration programme included geological, geophysical, geochemical, as well as hydrogeological investigations. Integration of the results from various disciplines permitted postulation of a conceptual model of the reservoir and of the thermal regime within the zone immediately above and around the reservoir. The reservoir with a temperature in excess of 200°C is emplaced at a depth between 2 and 4 km in a predominantly graywacke formation. It is sealed off by a silica cap and camouflaged by the flow of groundwater in a thick phreatic aquifer, that intercepts and redistributes anomalous heat flow from above the reservoir.

  13. Reflections on curative health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Slater, R G

    1989-01-01

    Improved health care in Nicaragua is a major priority of the Sandinista revolution; it has been pursued by major reforms of the national health care system, something few developing countries have attempted. In addition to its internationally recognized advances in public health, considerable progress has been made in health care delivery by expanding curative medical services through training more personnel and building more facilities to fulfill a commitment to free universal health coverage. The very uneven quality of medical care is the leading problem facing curative medicine now. Underlying factors include the difficulty of adequately training the greatly increased number of new physicians. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement continue to be major problems. The curative medical system is not well coordinated with the preventive sector. Recent innovations include initiation of a "medicina integral" residency, similar to family practice. Despite its inadequacies and the handicaps of war and poverty, the Nicaraguan curative medical system has made important progress. PMID:2705603

  14. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  15. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  16. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  17. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  18. 19 CFR 10.608 - Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. 10.608 Section 10.608 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Preference Level § 10.608 Submission of certificate of eligibility for certain apparel goods of Nicaragua. An importer who claims preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating apparel good of Nicaragua...

  19. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    PubMed

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly.

  20. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large‐scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far‐reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. PMID:27253906

  1. Health services reforms in revolutionary Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Taboada, E

    1984-01-01

    Before the Nicaraguan revolution of 1979, access to health services was largely limited to the affluent sectors of the urban population and the minority of workers with social security coverage. Repeated attempts at reform by organized medicine were ineffective. Since the revolution, a tremendous expansion in health services has occurred. The national health system receives approximately one-third of its funds from the social security system. Steadily increasing equity in access is a result of the promotion of primary care, health campaigns involving up to 10 per cent of the general population as volunteers, the use of paramedical aides, and foreign assistance. Private practice nevertheless remains strong. In the coming years, several complex issues must be examined, including: a balance in the number of nurses and doctors trained, the role of private practice, and the relationship of the Ministry of Health to the social security system. Further progress in health reforms may be delayed by the defensive war which Nicaragua is fighting on its northern and southern borders. Despite emergent health problems in the war zones, most of the innovative aspects of the health system remain intact as of this writing. PMID:6476169

  2. Characterization of multiresistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Castro, I; Bergeron, M G; Chamberland, S

    1993-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in Nicaragua raises concerns about the resulting levels of susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria. This is the first study that characterizes 18 strains of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in Nicaragua (1989), for their antibiotic susceptibility. Strains were predominantly of the auxotype/serotype Proto/PIB. There was no difference in lipopolysaccharides profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE for all strains. Variable expression of the PII outer membrane protein was not associated to antimicrobial resistance. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, rifampin and cefoxitin. The strains were classified in five groups based on plasmid profiles. A total of 78% of the isolates were penicillinase-producing (PPNG) and 22% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG). One PPNG strain showed a concomitant decreased of penicillin binding to penicillin-binding protein 2. These randomly chosen isolates of N. gonorrhoeae from Nicaragua possess high levels of resistance to multiple families of drugs.

  3. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  4. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    trans/. 12 Rachel Nuwer, “Nicaragua Plans to Bisect the Country With a Massive Canal.” 13 John Daly, “Naval Choke Points and Command of the Sea ,” World Politics...corredorinteroceanico.com/main_i.asp?clc=467. Daly, John. “Naval Choke Points and Command of the Sea .” World Politics Review, 2 March 2009. http

  5. Reavistamientos de Corvus corax en las tierras altas de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Francisco J. Muñoz; Wayne J. Arendt; Marvin A. Tórrez; Liliana Chavarría; Arlen Pinell.

    2009-01-01

    The common raven (Corvus corax) is one of the most widespread naturally occurring birds in the world. Thus, from a conservation and management perspective, it is of minimum concern. Yet, in Nicaragua, observations of this species are few and not well documented. After a lapse of almost 40 years since the last written report, we describe recent sightings from the...

  6. Nicaragua: The Values, Attitudes and Beliefs of its Educated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard J.

    The study examines the attitudes of young people in the secondary schools and universities of Nicaragua toward politics, government, religion, education, and work. The report also looks at teacher's attitudes towards education. Over 50 instruments which provide information concerning attitudes, values, and beliefs were sent to random samples of…

  7. Education in Nicaragua: What Difference Can a Revolution Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sheila

    1987-01-01

    To stimulate development in Nicaragua it was necessary for the Sandinistas to raise the education level of its populace. This was accomplished through a national literacy crusade which decreased the illiteracy rate by 37.1 per cent. The crusade showed the importance of incorporating popular organizations into the process of change. (VM)

  8. First record of Tricoloured Munia (Lonchura malacca) for Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    W. J. Arendt; O. Lane; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    We report the first published record of Tricolored Munia (Lonchura malacca) for Nicaragua, thus adding to our knowledge of its distribution in the New World. Escaped cage birds have established multi-focal feral populations, thereby expediting the species’ range expansion in Mesoamerica from Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama to northwestern South America (...

  9. Nicaragua: Political-Economy as Communication and Media Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    The Nicaraguan people, through a successful revolution and subsequent elections, have chosen a communist government. This paper, using an historical-descriptive methodology, examines the status of Nicaragua under the current political-economy that prevails in that nation. Political-economic statements made and published in the press that support…

  10. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  11. Household Structure and Short-Run Economic Change in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul; Stecklov, Guy; Todd, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    During the economic crises Nicaragua suffered between 2000 and 2002, a conditional cash transfer program targeting poor households began operating. Using panel data on 1,397 households from the program's experimentally designed evaluation, we examined the impact of the program on household structure. Our findings suggest that the program enabled…

  12. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  13. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  14. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  15. Learning from Each Other--Inspiration and Example from Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Audrey

    1993-01-01

    Reviews community development projects in Nicaragua that use the multiplier effect in which people learn from each other. Projects include volunteer community health promoters, women's family gardens cooperatives, soil and water conservation programs, a women's collective, and a wheelchair repair workshop. (SK)

  16. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  17. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sapag, Jaime C.; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Objective Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Design Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. Results A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. Discussion To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global

  18. Global mental health: transformative capacity building in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sapag, Jaime C; Herrera, Andrés; Trainor, Ruth; Caldera, Trinidad; Khenti, Akwatu

    2013-09-30

    Mental health is increasingly recognised as integral to good public health, but this area continues to lack sufficient planning, resources, and global strategy. It is a pressing concern in Latin America, where social determinants of health aggravate existing inequities in access to health services. Nicaragua faces serious mental health needs and challenges. One key strategy for addressing gaps in mental health services is building capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels. Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses the four-year collaborative process between the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua in León (UNAN-León) and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Canada, which is aimed at improving mental healthcare in Nicaragua. Based on a critical analysis of evaluation reports, key documents, and discussion among partners, the central steps of the collaboration are analysed and main successes and challenges identified. A participatory needs assessment identified local strengths and weaknesses, expected outcomes regarding competencies, and possible methodologies and recommendations for the development of a comprehensive capacity-building programme. The partners delivered two international workshops on mental health and addiction with an emphasis on primary healthcare. More recently, an innovative Diploma and Master programme was launched to foster interprofessional leadership and effective action to address mental health and addiction needs. Collaborative activities have taken place in Nicaragua and Canada. To date, international collaboration between Nicaragua and CAMH has been successful in achieving the jointly defined goals. The process has led to mutual knowledge sharing, strong networking, and extensive educational opportunities. Evidence of effective and respectful global health capacity building is provided. Lessons learned and implications for global health action are identified and discussed.

  19. Assessing the Applicability of Earthquake Early Warning in Nicaragua.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massin, F.; Clinton, J. F.; Behr, Y.; Strauch, W.; Cauzzi, C.; Boese, M.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Ramirez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Nicaragua, like much of Central America, suffers from frequent damaging earthquakes (6 M7+ earthquakes occurred in the last 100 years). Thrust events occur at the Middle America Trench where the Cocos plate subducts by 72-81 mm/yr eastward beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow crustal events occur on-shore, with potential extensive damage as demonstrated in 1972 by a M6.2 earthquake, 5 km beneath Managua. This seismotectonic setting is challenging for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) because the target events derive from both the offshore seismicity, with potentially large lead times but uncertain locations, and shallow seismicity in close proximity to densely urbanized areas, where an early warning would be short if available at all. Nevertheless, EEW could reduce Nicaragua's earthquake exposure. The Swiss Development and Cooperation Fund and the Nicaraguan Government have funded a collaboration between the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich and the Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER) in Managua to investigate and build a prototype EEW system for Nicaragua and the wider region. In this contribution, we present the potential of EEW to effectively alert Nicaragua and the neighbouring regions. We model alert time delays using all available seismic stations (existing and planned) in the region, as well as communication and processing delays (observed and optimal) to estimate current and potential performances of EEW alerts. Theoretical results are verified with the output from the Virtual Seismologist in SeisComP3 (VS(SC3)). VS(SC3) is implemented in the INETER SeisComP3 system for real-time operation and as an offline instance, that simulates real-time operation, to record processing delays of playback events. We compare our results with similar studies for Europe, California and New Zealand. We further highlight current capabilities and challenges for providing EEW alerts in Nicaragua. We also discuss how combining different algorithms, like e.g. VS

  20. Developments in health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Halperin, D C; Garfield, R

    1982-08-05

    The 4 year war that resulted in the overthrow of Nicaragua's Somoza dictatorship cost 50,000 lives. In 1972 an earthquake killed 20,000 with 10,000 injured. Under Somoza health conditions had been worse than in neighboring countries with 35% of the urban and 95% of the rural population lacking access to potable water and only about 10% of the population receiving adequate medical care. 1/3 of the people contracted malaria at least once in their lives and 46-83% of the children were malnourished. Life expectancy at the time of the revolution was 52.9 years, infant mortality was between 120-140/1000. Since July 1979, however, about 70% of the people have regular medical care and health care education campaigns are widespread. Public health programs have administered vaccinations to thousands of children and literacy programs have incorporated elementary health principles into their curricula. However, despite these efforts malaria continued to rise from 4.4 people/1000 in 1978 to 9.4/1000 in 1980. After an antimalarial drug campaign in 1981, a 98% decline was noted in new cases of malaria. Poliomyelitis and tuberculosis prevention campaigns are likewise effective and oral rehydration centers have been set up to combat infant diarrhea. Having recently experienced a baby boom, a campaign to disseminate family planning information is being planned. Technical and professional health training has been expanded as well with a second medical school opening in Managua in 1981 along with growth in the amount of nursing school students. International aid has been crucial in health care with more than 24 countries sending medical supplies and personnel. Lack of equipment and facilities is holding back medical advances and there is a dilemma concerning physicians' time spent at public versus their private practices. Drugs remain the largest health import for the country even though their pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased production. 5 new hospitals are being built with

  1. A new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Nicaragua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicaltica new genus and new species (N. selvanegra), from Nicaragua are described and illustrated. Nicaltica is compared to Kiskeya Konstantinov and Chamorro, Monotalla Bechyne, and Normaltica Konstantinov....

  2. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  3. The Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Ledogar, Robert J; Coloma, Josefina; Hernández-Alvarez, Carlos; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa María; Belli, Alejandro; Andersson, Neil; Harris, Eva

    2017-05-30

    Camino Verde (the Green Way) is an evidence-based community mobilisation tool for prevention of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral diseases. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in 2010-2013 in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Nicaraguan arm of the trial was preceded, from 2004 to 2008, by a feasibility study that provided valuable lessons and trained facilitators for the trial itself. Here, guided by the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), we describe the Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua, presenting its rationale, its time and location, activities, materials used, the main actors, modes of delivery, how it was tailored to encourage community engagement, modifications made from the feasibility study to the trial itself, and how fidelity to the process originally designed was maintained. We also present information on costs and discuss the place of this study within the literature on implementation science. ISRCTN27581154 .

  4. Providing sanctuary for battered women: Nicaragua's casas de la mujer.

    PubMed

    Wessel, L; Campbell, J C

    1997-01-01

    A combination of participant observation and in-depth interviews (10 with key informants; 21 with battered women) was used to investigate wife battering in Nicaragua and the casas de la mujer, or women's centers, that have been established to help abused women. The results are presented within the context of the historical and structural realities of women's lives in Nicaragua and the sanctions and sanctuary framework of cultural analysis of wife battering. Nicaraguan wife battering is exacerbated in the context of cultural traditions of acceptance of wife beating, machismo, and the recent history of warfare. Findings about the relationship context and intervention outcomes were similar to those found in studies of battered women and shelters in the United States. The results were generally supportive of the framework, demonstrating the importance of women's solidarity groups, community sanctions against domestic violence, and sanctuary for battered women.

  5. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. International collaboration for pediatric oncology nursing leadership: Nicaragua and Canada.

    PubMed

    Orozco, A; Marin, V; Reyes, S; Challinor, J; Carpio, B

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, with financial support from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario, a pilot nursing leadership project linked pediatric oncology nurses from Canada with nurses at the La Mascota Hospital in Managua, Nicaragua. Following consultation with the pediatric oncology team in Nicaragua, a program was developed to strengthen clinical nursing leadership in a clinical setting through continuing education. The nurses believed that care of the patient and family improved due to the increased leadership skills of nurses in the unit and as the profile and credibility of nurses as peers in the health care team became evident. Providing nurses with the autonomy and financing for a project related directly to nursing care represented an important development for leadership in the profession.

  7. Developing Public Health Management Training Capacity in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Elena; Conway, Mary J.; Bull, David L.; Malison, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Initiative in Nicaragua is distinctive in its focus on developing a cadre of in-country trainers whose aim is to equip frontline public health managers with widely applicable tools and techniques to assist them in identifying and solving implementation problems. Since 1999, 137 trainees—37% more than originally planned—have demonstrated competence by completing and presenting applied management projects. Nineteen professors from the preventive medicine faculty at the Autonomous University of Nicaragua also have been trained. The country office now has a cadre of seasoned trainers who can meet the ongoing management training needs of CARE staff and their counterparts in the Ministry of Health and in other nongovernmental organizations. PMID:11574313

  8. Learning from the Third World: health care in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kugel, C

    1991-01-01

    In this article, Candace Kugel, a family nurse practitioner in Pennsylvania who visited Nicaragua as part of an exchange program, describes her impressions of the country's health care system. Kugel is a member of the Project Gettysburg/Leon, a sister-city program that promotes cultural exchanges. She arrived in Nicaragua less than 2 weeks after the newly elected UNO government assumed power. In Leon, Kugel visited seven rural and urban clinics, the city's hospital, the health education organization, and the medical, dental, and nursing schools. In all health facilities, she discovered politically energized and committed health care workers. It is this determination that allows then to continue working in spite of perpetual shortages of even the most basic supplies. The hospital was out of insulin, and was having to reuse bulb syringes for newborns. One clinic lacked water supply. Kugel also found nurses to be in short supply. As she explains, the physicians outnumber professional nurse 3-1. Because of low salaries, 1 6-day work schedule, and staffing shortages, few are interested in becoming nurses. Furthermore, the nursing school is severely ill-equipped. Nonetheless, Nicaragua's health care system has accomplished health: immunization, family planning, prenatal care, well-child screening, health education, and treating open water for malaria and dengue-bearing mosquitoes. From 1979-88, infant mortality dropped from 93/1000-62/1000, and life expectancy increased from 56-63.3 years. Additionally, Nicaraguans now consider health care a right, not a privilege. Kugel hopes that with the end of the US embargo and the renewal of US aid, Nicaragua will accomplish even more.

  9. "Siempre me critican": barriers to reproductive health in Ocotal, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.

  10. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  11. Literacy Crusades and Revolutionary Governments: The Cases of Cuba, 1961, and Nicaragua, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, William

    After the Castro revolution of 1959, the new Cuban revolutionary government began a massive literacy campaign that taught 700,000 persons to read in about a year. Twenty years later, Nicaragua, facing an even more serious literacy problem, conducted a similar literacy campaign. In approximately six months, Nicaragua had reduced illiteracy by 37…

  12. 76 FR 44648 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nicaragua Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Div. F... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Nicaragua and I hereby waive such restriction....

  13. Geochemistry of Concepcion and Maderas Volcanoes, Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, F. N.; Bolge, L. L.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of geochemical zoning along the Central American volcanic arc is due primarily to changes in mantle composition and both the composition and amount of incorporated slab components. The maximum slab signal, represented by the ratio of Ba/La, occurs in the Nicaraguan volcano Telica and decreases to both the northwest and southeast. Whereas continuous geochemical coverage between El Salvador and Nicaragua suggests that the transition is gradual, a gap in volcanic geochemical analyses between Nicaraguan and Costa Rican volcanoes hinders any conclusion as to whether the decrease is gradual here as well, or more abrupt. To this end, we analyze newly collected volcanic lavas from Isla de Ometepe in Lago de Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica using XRF and HR- ICP- MS techniques to quantify major oxides and trace elements. The island consists of two volcanoes: Concepcion and Maderas. Concepcion is presently active and records two periods of lava flows, one recent and one prehistoric. Here, our work on lavas from the eastern side of the island complements the recent work by Benjamin van Wyk de Vries on western tephra. Maderas, while not historically active, has long been a private coffee plantation granting public access only recently. These analyses will mark the first samples of this volcano within the geological community.

  14. Provider Perspectives on Intimate Partner Violence in Bluefields, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Laughon, Kathryn; Mitchell, Emma; Price, Julianne

    2017-10-01

    Intimate partner violence represents a significant public health problem and a substantial human rights' issue for women and girls throughout the world. Design and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to answer these research questions: What are the current practices for addressing gender violence in the RACS? What do professionals consider to be the current strengths and gaps in policies related to gender violence in this region? By employing a qualitative descriptive approach (Sandelowski, 2000 ), researchers traveled from the US to Bluefields, Nicaragua, in 2012. The multidisciplinary team of two US nurses, a prosecutor, and a victim-witness advocate interviewed 18 key informants, police officers, advocates, and nurses, and observed court processes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed in the language the interview was conducted in. Researchers coded data independently and identified emergent themes. Informants described the complexity of the nature and dynamics of gender violence, strongly informed by Nicaragua's fairly progressive laws. The participants described holistic, fully integrated services as the intended functioning of the system. These services were often thwarted by gaps-fragmentation and lack of resources-and were additionally hampered by substantial individual and structural economical obstacles.

  15. Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sandiford, P; Pauw, J; Morales, P; Pérez, R M; Alberts, H

    1998-12-01

    Poor hygiene practices are among the risk factors for the transmission of childhood diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Findings are reported from a prospective follow-up study in rural Nicaragua of the effect of a number of hygiene practices upon diarrheal disease in children under age 2 years old. 172 families, of whom half had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhea in their children and the other half a lower rate, participated. Hygiene behavior was observed over 2 mornings and diarrhea incidence was recorded with a calendar over the course of 5 months. Of 46 good practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhea, 5 were unrelated, and a higher risk was observed for 2. The washing of hands, domestic cleanliness, and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect against diarrhea. Mothers with more than 3 years of primary school education and in a comparatively better economic position, including having a radio, exhibited comparatively better general hygiene behavior. Education had a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. However, individual hygiene behavior seems to be highly variable compared to the consistent behavior of the overall community. Appropriate indicators of hygiene behavior were domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child.

  16. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R M; Frieden, T; Vermund, S H

    1987-01-01

    Since 1983, war in Nicaragua has slowed improvements in health which had developed rapidly from 1979-82. The rate of war-related deaths among Nicaraguans now exceeds that of the United States citizens in either the Vietnam War or World War II. Forty-two of the 84 documented war-related casualties among Nicaraguan health workers have been deaths. This high case fatality rate reflects the targeting of health workers by contra troops. The number of staff and services of the public medical system decreased by approximately 10 per cent from 1983 to 1985. Population movements, the establishment of new settlements, and war-related destruction of the primary health infrastructure are associated with recent epidemics of malaria, dengue, measles, and leishmaniasis. The estimated rate of infant mortality in Nicaragua, which had declined from 120 per 1,000 in 1978 to 76/1,000 live births in 1983, has since shown no further decline. Internationally mandated protections enjoyed by civilians and health workers during times of war do not appear to operate in this so-called "low intensity" conflict. Further declines in infant mortality, prevention of epidemics, and improvement in other health indicators will likely await the cessation of military hostilities. PMID:3565659

  17. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A Key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2007-07-01

    Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, is being investigated as an analog for acid-sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts. Our goal is to better understand the mineral alteration pathways and the astrobiological potential of early Mars.

  18. Acid-Sulfate Weathering of Basalts at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua: An Early Mars Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, E. C.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Rogers, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is a high temperature, low pH, S-rich environment, proposed to explain some acid-sulfate weathering on Mars. Simultaneously, we are analyzing field samples, laboratory experiments, theoretical modeling, and microbial studies.

  19. A Rockefeller Foundation health primer for US-occupied Nicaragua, 1914-1928.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ligia María Peña; Palmer, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The article presents views from above and below of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Commission's (IHC's) hookworm control program in Nicaragua from 1914 to 1928. It looks at the meaning, impact, and unique configuration of the Nicaraguan mission, while taking into account the larger global institutional project of this important international health actor. Although the IHC program in Nicaragua complemented some of the social policy goals of the US intervention in Nicaragua, which was a de facto protectorate during this period, the institution cannot be considered a direct expression or agent of US foreign policy. Ultimately the shape and limits of the IHC mission to Nicaragua were determined by the institutional project of the international public health agency itself, and by local considerations ranging from the characteristics of the staff to the response of rural communities to the anti-hookworm campaigns.

  20. Diversidad de aves en agropaisajes en la region norte de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Wayne J. Arendt; Marvin Tórrez; Sergio. Vílchez

    2012-01-01

    Avian diversity in agroscapes in Nicaragua’s north highlands. – Nicaragua’s highland forests are threatened by continual wood extraction and encroaching agriculture. Still, the effects of forest loss and fragmentation on avian communities remain little known. We used fixed-width point counts (distance sampling: 4843 detections during 86 h of observation) to...

  1. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  2. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  3. Interhousehold meat sharing among Mayangna and Miskito horticulturalists in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Koster, Jeremy

    2011-12-01

    Recent analyses of food sharing in small-scale societies indicate that reciprocal altruism maintains interhousehold food transfers, even among close kin. In this study, matrix-based regression methods are used to test the explanatory power of reciprocal altruism, kin selection, and tolerated scrounging. In a network of 35 households in Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve, the significant predictors of food sharing include kinship, interhousehold distance, and reciprocity. In particular, resources tend to flow from households with relatively more meat to closely related households with little, as predicted by kin selection. This generalization is especially true of household dyads with mother-offspring relationships, which suggests that studies of food sharing may benefit from distinctions between lineal and collateral kin. Overall, this analysis suggests that exchanges among kin are primarily associated with differences in need, not reciprocity. Finally, although large game is distributed widely, qualitative observations indicate that hunters typically do not relinquish control of the distribution in ways predicted by costly signaling theory.

  4. Reliability perceptions and water storage expenditures: Evidence from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VáSquez, William F.

    2012-10-01

    Storing water at home has become a common practice in many areas with water delivery systems in developing countries. However, little is known about which factors motivate households to expend on water storage devices. Instrumental variable Tobit models are estimated to investigate the relationship between perceptions of water supply reliability and household expenditures on water storage devices in León, Nicaragua. Findings indicate that almost 80% of households use at least one storage device on which they expend an average of 0.87% of their income. Results show that reliability perceptions are the main factor driving household expenditures on storage devices, followed by home ownership and household income. Findings also indicate that reliability perceptions are associated with service performance and assessment of service hours relative to peers.

  5. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  6. Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A; Herrera Rodríguez, Andrés; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano; Centeno Cárdenas, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in León, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (P<0·05) of maternal resources with household, adult-specific and child-specific food insecurity. Municipality of León, Nicaragua. Households with children aged 3-11 years in rural and urban León. Only 25% of households with young children were food secure, with 50% mildly food insecure and 25% moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34% lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60% lower when mothers managed household money, 48% lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65% higher among single mothers and 16% lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult- and child-specific food insecurity. This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  7. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  8. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  9. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  10. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  11. Pilot assessment of mercury exposure in selected biota from the lowlands of Nicaragua [Evaluacion piloto de exposicion al mercurio en biota selecta de las tierras bajas de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    O.P. Lane; W.J. Arendt; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin, can damage health of humans and wildlife. In 2012, we collected 73 blood and feather samples from birds among diverse foraging guilds to assess mercury exposure in wetland habitats associated with Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Blood levels (0.72 parts per million) in a piscivorous Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus from...

  12. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... reduces the 2010 TPL for Nicaragua to 99,238,862 square meters equivalent to account for the shortfall in... meter equivalent of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven trousers entered under the TPL, Nicaragua... 50 million square meters equivalent in 2009, the fourth year after the date of entry into force...

  13. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... TPL for Nicaragua to 98,447,866 square meters equivalent to account for the shortfall in meeting the... letters dated March 24 and 27, 2006, Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of... the one-to-one commitment is 1,552,134 square meters equivalent. This amount is being deducted...

  14. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...: July 10, 2012. SUMMARY: This notice reduces the 2012 TPL for Nicaragua to 96,529,059 square meters..., Nicaragua agreed that for each square meter equivalent (SME) of exports of cotton and man-made fiber woven...,941 square meters equivalent. This amount is being deducted from the 2012 TPL, resulting in a new...

  15. Nicaragua: an example of commitments and strengths despite problems of poverty.

    PubMed

    Ross, Carl A

    2007-01-01

    Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Central American isthmus between the countries of Honduras and Costa Rica. It is the largest Central American country and is equivalent in size to the state of Georgia. Nicaragua is cited by Pan American Health Organization as one of the poorest third-world countries. One factor that continues to contribute to Nicaragua's chronic poverty state is the demographics of the country. Nearly half of all Nicaraguans are under 15 years of age, and more than a quarter are between the ages of 15 and 29 years. Only a quarter of the population is over 30 years of age. Beyond the hardship and poverty, there is a country rich in beauty. Nicaragua has a beautiful countryside with lush green mountains, black sand beaches of the Pacific Ocean, and the natural wonder of active volcanoes. It is easy to become engulfed by the tranquility of these surroundings and to steer away from the harsh conditions of the country. It is, however, a temporary escape from reality, for it was the hardships and unfavorable circumstances of this country that are never forgotten and which persist until today. This article focuses on a variety of interventions used to assist Nicaragua with their health care and state of well-being.

  16. Population-based study of presbyopia in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hookway, Larry A; Frazier, Marcela; Rivera, Nelson; Ramson, Prasidh; Carballo, Luis; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-11-01

    Uncorrected presbyopia can greatly impact a person's quality of life and employment prospects. Nicaragua is the poorest country in Latin America and there are no population-based reports of prevalence of presbyopia in Nicaragua. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted. The sample was selected through random cluster sampling. Adults 35 years and older were enlisted through a door-to-door method using aged-based sampling. All enumerated household members 35 years and older were asked to attend a free visual acuity screening. Autorefraction was done and then uncorrected distance vision and near visual acuity were measured for all subjects. All those who had distance or near vision that was 6/12 or worse underwent a clinical examination, which included refraction at distance and near. Free spectacles were provided. Of the 3,390 subjects surveyed, 37.1 per cent reported that they wore spectacles on a regular basis. A total of 1,871 (55.2 per cent) of those enumerated were examined. The prevalence of near visual impairment (6/12 [N 6] or worse) was 79.6 per cent for the 35 to 49-year-old group, 97.3 per cent for the 50 to 64-year-old group and 96.7 per cent for the 65 and over group. Of those reporting for the examination, 82.2 per cent did not have glasses. Of those examined, 10 per cent did not need spectacles, four per cent were given spectacles for distance only, 38 per cent spectacles for distance and near, 42 per cent spectacles for near only and seven per cent were referred for medical evaluation due to ocular pathology. During the refractions, 91.5 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at distance and 89.4 per cent were corrected to 6/12 or better at near. The majority of the participants who were examined did not have the spectacles that they needed. Over one-third of those participants who presented without spectacles had distance vision better than 6/12 and could be improved to good near vision with ready-made near-only spectacles

  17. May 2011 eruption of Telica Volcano, Nicaragua: Multidisciplinary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. R.; Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Muñoz, A.; Morales, A.; Tenorio, V.; Chavarria, D.; Feineman, M. D.; Furman, T.; Longley, A.

    2011-12-01

    Telica volcano, an andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Nicaragua, erupted in May 2011. The eruption, produced ash but no lava and required the evacuation of over 500 people; no injuries were reported. We present the first detailed report of the eruption, using information from the TElica Seismic ANd Deformation (TESAND) network, that provides real-time data, along with visual observations, ash leachate analysis, and fumarole temperature measurements. Telica is located in the Maribios mountain range. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua and has frequent small explosions and rare large (VEI 4) eruptions, with the most recent sizable eruptions (VEI 2) occurring in 1946 and 1999. The 2011 eruption is the most explosive since 1999. The eruption consisted of a series of ash explosions, with the first observations from May 8, 2011 when local residents reported ash fall NE of the active crater. Popping sounds could be heard coming from the crater on May 10. On May 13, the activity intensified and continued with some explosions every day for about 2 weeks. The well-defined plumes originated from the northern part of the crater. Ash fall was reported 4 km north of the active crater on May 14. The largest explosion at 2:54 pm (local time) on May 21 threw rocks from the crater and generated a column 2 km in height. Fresh ash samples were collected on May 16, 18, and 21 and preliminary inspection shows that the majority of the material is fragmented rock and crystalline material, i.e. not juvenile. Ash leachates (ash:water = 1:25) contain a few ppb As, Se, and Cd; tens of ppb Co and Ni; and up to a few hundred ppb Cu and Zn. Telica typically has hundreds of small seismic events every day, even when the volcano is not erupting. The TESAND network detected an increase in the rate and magnitude of seismic activity, with a maximum magnitude of 3.3. Elevated fumarole temperatures at locations near the active vent were also observed throughout the May 2011

  18. The Psychological Impact of First Burn Camp in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa L; Castillo Alaniz, Arlen Tatiana; Lucia Icaza, Ivette; Alejandra Murillo, Evelyn

    Asociacion Pro-Ninos Quemados de Nicaragua (APROQUEN) is a comprehensive burn center that provides a holistic and integrated approach to treating burns. APROQUEN has set the standards internationally with acute treatment for burns, intensive care, reconstructive surgeries, nutritional care, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological treatment. APROQUEN is excelling within Central and South America with life-saving techniques and quality of care. It is imperative that burn centers in Central America recognize that the treatment of a child with a burn injury surpasses physical care to include psychological treatment for the complete well-being of the child. It is necessary to provide the tools necessary to reintegrate the child back into their environment. APROQUEN developed and implemented the first burn camp in Latin America, "Confio en Mi" (I trust myself). The camp theme focused on self-esteem. The camp program included theory (educational) and practice (applied) components where the campers through "classroom type" activities had the opportunity to reflect and share with other campers and camp staff on self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Participants were children who survived major burns (N = 33; 58% women; ages 12-25; 61% <18) and were shown to have difficulty socializing. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to ensure fit for camp. Forty-two percent of the campers had not slept away from home since the burn injury. Mean TBSA = 20% and mean age at time of burn injury was 13. The majority of campers (46%) endured flame burn injuries, with 24% having scald injuries. Mean years postburn = 4.8 + 3.2. Most campers (40%) were enrolled in secondary school, 30% in elementary school, and 21% in college. Standardized measures (CDI-2 Parent Form and Child Form, Rosenberg Scale, APROQUEN Burn Camp Measure Parent and Child Form, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory) were given to all campers prior to attending camp. The same measures

  19. Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-08-15

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases".

  20. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P.; Gorter, A. C.; Smith, G. D.; Pauw, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea. PMID:2737254

  1. Index Cluster Study of Dengue Virus Infection in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Miguel; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Standish, Katherine; Matute, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Oscar; Moraga, Berman; Avilés, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Balmaseda, Angel; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Traditional study designs do not identify acute asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections, thus limiting our understanding of immunologic and viral factors that modulate infection outcome. In the 2006 and 2007 dengue seasons, we conducted a pilot index cluster study in Managua, Nicaragua, in which 442 persons living within 50 meters of 22 index cases identified through an ongoing pediatric cohort study were evaluated for DENV infection. Post-enrollment and pre-enrollment DENV infections were confirmed in 12 (2.7%) and 19 (4.3%) contacts, respectively. Five (42%) post-enrollment infections were asymptomatic, and DENV-2 was identified in 9 (75%) infections. Phylogenetic analysis with full-length DENV genomic sequence from contacts, index cases, and cohort dengue cases indicated focal transmission and infection outside the local area. We demonstrate the feasibility of identification of acute asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic cases in urban Latin America, the first report of such a study in the Americas, and identify age and concomitant immunity to DENV of contacts as a key factor in index cluster study design. PMID:20810839

  2. Determinants of drinking water quality in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, P; Gorter, A C; Smith, G D; Pauw, J P

    1989-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-three water samples from rural Nicaragua were examined for the presence of faecal coliforms during both wet and dry periods. A linear model was fitted by analysis of covariance with the logarithm of the faecal coliform count as the dependent variable. As expected, traditional water sources were grossly contaminated at all times whereas piped water sources were much cleaner. Hand-dug protected wells had significantly higher levels of faecal contamination than unprotected riverside wells and springs during the dry season. The possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed. A close association between rainfall and faecal contamination was demonstrated but the effect of rainfall depended on the type of water source. An association between water quality and the size of the community served by the source was also detected. The finding that stored water was usually more contaminated than fresh water samples is consistent with the results from other studies. Since it is unusual for water quality to be inversely correlated with accessibility, this study site would be suitable for investigating the relative importance of water-borne versus water-washed transmission mechanisms in childhood diarrhoea.

  3. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  4. MPA in Labor: Securing the Pearl Cays of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Clarence; Jentoft, Svein

    2011-04-01

    Implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has always a step-zero, i.e., an initial phase when the idea is incepted, communicated and negotiated among stakeholders. What happens during this phase is likely to have an impact later on. If not done right, the management of the MPA may encounter problems at later stage that will be difficult to correct. Inspired by this working theory, this article describes the effort to establish the Pearl Cays off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua as a protected area. This case-study illustrates the critical actions to be taken during step-zero, i.e., what needs to be considered and done before an MPA is formally declared. The area investigated consists of a number of small islands (cays) and coral reefs, fishing grounds and marine turtle nesting areas. Throughout history, the cays have played an important role in sustaining livelihoods of nearby communities. Although the idea of an MPA was originally conservation, the communities saw it as an opportunity to regain ownership and control of the cays. By Nicaraguan law, in order to establish protected areas, consultation and approval from local people is required. In the case of the Pearl Cays, this has proved difficult. The article demonstrates how MPA initiatives must sometimes relate to already ongoing complex social processes in the area where they are to be instigated.

  5. Quality in practice: preventing and managing neonatal sepsis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Wong, Yudy; Urbina, Luis; Gómez, Ivonne; Escobar, Flavia; Tinoco, Bernarda; Parrales, Alba

    2013-10-01

    Incorrect and excessive diagnosis of newborn infections in Nicaragua caused overcrowding in the neonatal intensive care units and unnecessary hospitalization. A baseline study in nine hospitals found that none correctly utilized disinfectants, sterilization or hand hygiene and that diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was based primarily on clinical manifestations. In 2007, the Ministry of Health (MINSA), with Unites States Agency for the International Development technical assistance, began developing guidelines and implementing quality improvement in infection prevention and control to reduce neonatal infections. In a second intervention phase, the MINSA introduced an algorithm for correct identification of maternal risk factors and standardized laboratory tests for neonatal sepsis. Interventions included developing national guidelines on correct use of disinfectants and hand hygiene; training medical staff on the guidelines; revising the basic medical supply list to support appropriate antisepsis; defining a package of diagnostic tests for neonatal sepsis and systematically measuring compliance with the new procedures. The 18 hospitals achieved appropriate use of disinfectants in a 12-month period. In seven hospitals that introduced improvements in diagnosis and management of neonatal sepsis, application of the standardized laboratory package in suspected sepsis cases increased from 0% in April 2009 to 93% in July 2011, and the median incidence of neonatal sepsis was reduced by 67%. The organizational changes implemented for the diagnosis and verification of neonatal sepsis led to a reduction in the newborn sepsis admissions and expenditures for antibiotics, allowing resources to be redirected to treating other critically ill newborns.

  6. Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, C.; Folch, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-03-01

    Concepción volcano in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua, is a highly active volcano with a rich historical record of explosive eruptions. Tephra fallout from Concepción jeopardizes the surrounding populations, whereas volcanic ash clouds threat aerial navigation at a regional level. The assessment of these hazards is important for territorial planning and adoption of mitigation measures. Here we compute probabilistic hazard maps for Concepción volcano considering three different eruptive scenarios based on past reference events. Previous geological analysis is used to quantify the eruption parameters of the reference events. We account for uncertainties in the definition of the scenarios trough probability density functions. A representative meteorological dataset is created for each scenario by running the WRF-ARW mesoscale meteorological model over a typical meteorological year, defined in terms of wind speed and direction at a given atmospheric height. Tephra transport and deposition under different eruption and wind conditions is modelled using the FALL3D dispersion model. For each scenario, simulations are combined to build probabilistic hazard maps for critical values of tephra load and for threshold values of airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels. Results are useful to identify the expected impacts for each eruption type and aim at improving the assessment and management of risk in the region.

  7. A women's movement in Nicaragua, an advocate of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    O'leary De Macias, G

    1981-02-01

    Description of the activities and services of Genesis II, a women's organization dedicated to providing social welfare and health services to the women of Nicaragua. Genesis II is affiliated with Madres y Madres y Mujeres en Accion, a national women's movement, and is funded by the Comite Evangelico Pro-Ayuda al Desarrollo. The stated goal of Genesis II is to provide services for children, to promote an analysis of the problems affecting women, children, and families and to support women in providing adequate care for their children. The organization operates through daily radio programs, counseling services, limited foster care, and research into the problems affecting women and children. Included in the social services program are prenatal and natural childbirth classes, La Leche League groups for the encouragement of breastfeeding, counseling services for sex education and family planning, as well as several other innovative programs. The target groups for this reeducation effort range from health care professionals, through high school students, to the grassroots and largely illiterate population of Guatemala's women.

  8. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies.

  9. Malaria control in Nicaragua: social and political influences on disease transmission and control activities.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R

    1999-07-31

    Throughout Central America, a traditional malaria control strategy (depending on heavy use of organic pesticides) became less effective during the 1970s. In Nicaragua, an alternative strategy, based on frequent local epidemiological assessments and community participation, was developed in the 1980s. Despite war-related social instability, and continuing vector resistance, this approach was highly successful. By the end of the contra war, there finally existed organisational and ecological conditions that favoured improved malaria control. Yet the expected improvements did not occur. In the 1990s, Nicaragua experienced its worst recorded malaria epidemics. This situation was partly caused by the country's macroeconomic structural adjustment programme. Volunteers now take fewer slides and provide less treatment, malaria control workers are less motivated by the spirit of public service, and some malaria control stations charge for diagnosis or treatment. To "roll back malaria", in Nicaragua at least, will require the roll-back of some erroneous aspects of structural adjustment.

  10. Rotavirus Prevalence in the Primary Care Setting in Nicaragua after Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057

  11. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  12. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  13. Geology and eruptive mechanisms of Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of detailed geologic field mapping and analysis of eruptive mechanisms at Masaya Caldera Complex, Nicaragua are presented. Eruptions began at least 50,000 and possibly 460,000 y.b.p. The Las Sierras Formation, regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, forms the local basement. A central vent of group or vents in the developing Masaya volcanic complex produced diverse deposits, all of basaltic composition. Eruption of a pyroclastic flow-surge sequence at 2250-6500 y.b.p. culminated in wholesale collapse of a caldera with a volume of 15.3 km/sup 3/. The bulk volume of the ignimbrite is 2.2-3.4 kkm/sup 3/ and the surge deposit is 4.9-5.5 km/sup 3/. Pre-historic lava production rates of 1.9-5.5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//year are similar to rates at other volcanoes but 26-76 times greater than the historic rate of production. The average lava effusion rate of 32 m/sup 3//sec during the 1772 eruption is at least an order of magnitude greater than observed effusion rates at other Central American volcanoes, and helps explain the unusual shield-like morphology of the volcano. Pyroclastic eruptions of several types have played an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Fissure-type eruptions, unknown elsewhere in Central America, have created numerous ash and scoria deposits. Two widespread scoria-fall deposits, locally known as the Fontana Lapilli an San Judas Formation, are the first documented plinian airfall deposts of basaltic composition. The Masaya-type caldera is redefined as a caldera associated with voluminous explosive eruptions of much less than 100 km/sup 3/ of mafic magma from a summit vent.

  14. Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, A M; Christiani, D C; McConnell, R; Eisen, E A; Wilcox, M

    1991-01-01

    This is the first epidemiologic study conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Limited environmental sampling, performed using a vertical elutriator in yarn preparation and weaving areas, indicated that exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after the Monday workshift to measure across-shift change in ventilatory function. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking habit, and work tenure, the exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The association between exposure and across-shift decrement in FEV1 was not significant. Byssinotic workers, however, had greater decrements in FEV1% than those without byssinosis: 5.5% versus 1.8%. A consistent gender effect was observed in which both exposed and unexposed women were found to have greater across-shift decrements in FEV1 than men. The gender difference existed among long-term workers as well as workers who had been employed less than 2 years. Results are related to cotton dust exposure, as has been documented elsewhere. The poorer health status of the women in this study population deserves follow-up.

  15. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  16. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  17. Fluid Intake and Decreased Risk for Hospitalization for Dengue Fever, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R.; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzalez, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-01-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses. PMID:12967502

  18. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  19. 75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA94 Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for... TPS Beneficiaries AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland...

  20. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB19 Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua... Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security..., the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recognizes that all re-registrants may not receive new...

  1. Intercultural Bilingual Education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for Improving the Quality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken--especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry…

  2. Using Technology and Mentorship to Improve Teacher Pedagogy and Educational Opportunities in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Anni; Henderson, Kathryn I.; Durán, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study used ethnographic methods to understand factors influencing the implementation of an educational intervention combining short math content videos with teacher trainings and mentorship in high-poverty primary schools in Nicaragua with implications for rural school reform. Educators in rural schools in Latin American face serious…

  3. Caldera-related gold mineralization of the El Limón mining district, western Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Gary B.; Stoiber, Richard E.

    1987-08-01

    The town of El Limón, the center of a small gold mining district, lies 36 km northeast of León, Nicaragua. This paper reports on the sequence of volcanic rocks in the district, the structures in these volcanics and the relationship of the gold veins to them.

  4. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    EPA Science Inventory


    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  5. The State, Nonformal Education, and Socialism in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Grenada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1991-01-01

    Many Latin American states, characterized by "colonization" of the state by dominant families or individuals, are unable to carry out proper state functions. In attempting to address such states' shortcomings, nonformal adult education has been prominent in new educational policies of revolutionary governments in Cuba, Nicaragua, and…

  6. Nicaragua: A Look Across Cultures. An Area Study in Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozete, Oscar

    These curricular units are designed to help Spanish students or bilingual students gain a better understanding of the history, geography, and culture of Nicaragua, Wisconsin's "sister state" in Central America. In its entirety, the bulletin can serve as the basis of a cultural mini-course. However, since each section is a self-contained…

  7. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural…

  8. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  9. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  10. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Espinoza, Henry; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Lacayo, Yann; Keith, Bonnie M; Vail, Janet G

    2011-05-01

    To assess private-sector stakeholders' and donors' perceptions of a total market approach (TMA) to family planning in Nicaragua in the context of decreased funding; to build evidence for potential strategies and mechanisms for TMA implementation (including public-private partnerships (PPPs)); and to identify information gaps and future priorities for related research and advocacy. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted in various locations in Nicaragua from March to April 2010. A total of 24 key private-sector stakeholders and donors were interviewed and their responses analyzed using two questionnaires and a stakeholder analysis tool (PolicyMakerTM software). All survey participants supported a TMA, and public-private collaboration, in family planning in Nicaragua. Based on the survey responses, opportunities for further developing PPPs for family planning include building on and expanding existing governmental frameworks, such as Nicaragua's current coordination mechanism for contraceptive security. Obstacles include the lack of ongoing government engagement with the commercial (for-profit) sector and confusion about regulations for its involvement in family planning. Strategies for strengthening existing PPPs include establishing a coordination mechanism specifically for the commercial sector and collecting and disseminating evidence supporting public-private collaboration in family planning. There was no formal or absolute opposition to a TMA or PPPs in family planning in Nicaragua among a group of diverse nongovernmental stakeholders and donors. This type of study can help identify strategies to mobilize existing and potential advocates in achieving articulated policy goals, including diversification of funding sources for family planning to achieve contraceptive security.

  11. Auditing Nicaragua's anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2011-12-21

    Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed

  12. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  13. Unusual Dengue Virus 3 Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Gamaliel; Standish, Katherine; Narvaez, Federico; Perez, Maria Angeles; Saborio, Saira; Elizondo, Douglas; Ortega, Oscar; Nuñez, Andrea; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–4) cause the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans worldwide. In 2009, Nicaragua experienced the largest dengue epidemic in over a decade, marked by unusual clinical presentation, as observed in two prospective studies of pediatric dengue in Managua. From August 2009–January 2010, 212 dengue cases were confirmed among 396 study participants at the National Pediatric Reference Hospital. In our parallel community-based cohort study, 170 dengue cases were recorded in 2009–10, compared to 13–65 cases in 2004–9. In both studies, significantly more patients experienced “compensated shock” (poor capillary refill plus cold extremities, tachycardia, tachypnea, and/or weak pulse) in 2009–10 than in previous years (42.5% [90/212] vs. 24.7% [82/332] in the hospital study (p<0.001) and 17% [29/170] vs. 2.2% [4/181] in the cohort study (p<0.001). Signs of poor peripheral perfusion presented significantly earlier (1–2 days) in 2009–10 than in previous years according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In the hospital study, 19.8% of subjects were transferred to intensive care, compared to 7.1% in previous years – similar to the cohort study. DENV-3 predominated in 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11, and full-length sequencing revealed no major genetic changes from 2008–9 to 2010–11. In 2008–9 and 2010–11, typical dengue was observed; only in 2009–10 was unusual presentation noted. Multivariate analysis revealed only “2009–10” as a significant risk factor for Dengue Fever with Compensated Shock. Interestingly, circulation of pandemic influenza A-H1N1 2009 in Managua was shifted such that it overlapped with the dengue epidemic. We hypothesize that prior influenza A H1N1 2009 infection may have modulated subsequent DENV infection, and initial results of an ongoing study suggest increased risk of shock among children with anti-H1N1-2009 antibodies. This study demonstrates that

  14. Diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Alonso, Mar; Ibarra, Martha; Rodríguez, Wesly; Melián, Gladys V.; Saballos, Armando; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Álvarez, Julio; Martínez, William

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of fourteen soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed accumulation chamber method at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua. The surveys were undertaken from 1999 to 2016 to constrain the diffuse CO2 emission from this volcano and to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Arc which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER/INVOLCAN has been established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. The first survey carried out at Cerro Negro was in December 1999, just 3 months after the 1999 eruption, with a total diffuse CO2 emission output estimated on 1,869 ± 197 td-1. The second survey carried out in March 2003, three years after the eruption, yielded a value of 432 ± 54 td-1. Both values that can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. The last survey performed at Cerro Negro was in November 2016, with an estimated diffuse CO2 emission of 63 ± 14 tṡd-1and soil CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 7264 g m-2 d-1. The long-term record of diffuse CO2 emissions at Cerro Negro shows small temporal variations in CO2 emissions with a peak in 2004 (256 ± 26 td-1) followed by a peak in seismicity. Except this value, the rest of estimated values can be considered within the inter-eruptive phase, period during which a decreasing trend on the total diffuse CO2 output has been observed, with estimates between 10 and 83 tṡd-1. Regarding to the spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 values, most of relatively high CO2

  15. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  16. Distribution of Thermophilic Acidophiles at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, an Analog for Acid-Sulfate Weathering Environments on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Stephenson, S.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is an excellent terrestrial analog for putative acid-sulfate weathering systems on early Mars. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing acidophiles are found throughout Cerro Negro and can further elucidate the habitability of early Mars.

  17. A Historical Study of the Effectiveness of U.S. Security Assistance to Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    LC) 4 ,SL~c, - - - 4,,.’..O, t . A HISTORI AL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS"" OF U.S. SEC ’PlTY ASSISTANCF TO.’\\ ’ PANA"A, COSTA RICA AND NICARAGUA...Costa Rica ..... .................. ... 18 Nicaragua ...... ... ................... .1 Early History ... .. ................... ... 24 Panama...and the declining world economy combined to lower most Central Americans’ quality of life throughout history to present times. This situation

  18. Nutritional analysis of a programme in eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Horner, M R

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the impact of a World Food Program (WFP) project on the food consumption of preschool Miskito Indian children in eastern Nicaragua. The data were collected during January, March, and May 1977 by the recall method for the random sample of 252 children ranging in age from 6 months-5 years. 24-hour recalls were obtained from mothers or other persons responsible for childfeeding. Homes were visited once per day in the late afternoon. Food intakes for the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview were recorded using food models and marked dishes as aids. The amount of breastmilk consumed was not estimated. In March, homes of selected children were visited 3 days in succession with 24-hour food intakes recorded for each day. To evaluate the contribution of different food sources to the children's diets, the following classification was used: home--food acquired through the family's own agriculture, hunting, fishing, or gathering, or received as a gift; market--food purchased in village stores or a food combination made with purchased ingredients; mixed--food purchased from another family or a food combination made with ingredients from a mixture of home, market, and National Development Institute (INFONAC) sources; and INFONAC--food items from the INFONAC project or a food combination made from a majority of INFONAC ingredients, which consisted of oatmeal, whole wheat, and dried skim milk. Marked changes occurred in food sources over the 5-month period. Data for January and March were relatively similar but, in May, there was a significant increase in the contribution of INFONAC foods to the consumption of almost all nutrients. This shift was due to a decrease in the availabiltiy of "home" foods as well as to increased consumption of INFONAC foods. The percentage contributions of the 4 different food sources to the diets of Miskito Indian children cannot indicate the actual nutrient adequacy of the food consumed. Total food consumption

  19. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  20. The evolutionary dynamics of influenza A and B viruses in the tropical city of Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Balmaseda, Angel; Kuan, Guillermina; Saborio, Saira; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2014-01-01

    Despite mounting evidence of the high disease burden of influenza in tropical regions, relatively little viral sequence data is available from tropical countries in the Western hemisphere. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of influenza A and B viruses in Managua, Nicaragua, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of 1,956 influenza viruses, including 335 collected for this study during 2007–2010 from a population-based cohort in Managua. North America was consistently identified as the most significant source of influenza virus diversity in Managua, although South America and Mexico were important viral sources during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. The low number of viral introductions of Central American origin may reflect differences in the seasonality of influenza in Nicaragua versus neighboring countries, and underscores the need for additional data in this understudied region. PMID:24959982

  1. Retraction of Complaints Among Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence Living in Poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Rivas, Esther; Suarez, Alexia C; Panadero, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    Retraction among female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who report their abuser is a major problem in all societies. This article describes a study of 136 female victims of physical IPV living in poverty in Nicaragua, one of the countries with the lowest levels of development in Central America. This article analyses the aspects that differentiate women living in poverty who retracted after reporting IPV from those who did not. The results show that retraction is widespread among female victims of IPV living in poverty in León (Nicaragua). Although it is difficult to predict the retraction behaviour of the respondents, some differences between the women who retracted their complaint and those who did not were observed. A combination of five variables (including personal circumstances and beliefs about the intimate partner relationship and family) was the best alternative for discriminating between women who had retracted and those who had not.

  2. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  3. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  4. Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

  5. Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers. PMID:23202822

  6. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; de Silva, Aravinda M; Miles, Jeremy J; Jadi, Ramesh S; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-10-01

    Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.

  7. [Chikungunya seroprevalence and clinical case rate in Nicaragua, 2014-2015].

    PubMed

    2017-08-21

    Estimate seroprevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections from chikungunya. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015 at 39 sites distributed across Nicaragua. Demographic and clinical information was compiled through a personal survey. Blood samples were collected to detect chikungunya antibodies using the ELISA inhibition method developed by Nicaragua's National Diagnostic and Reference Center. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models and multilevel Poisson models. A total of 11 722 participants aged >2 years were enrolled and 11 280 samples were processed. National seroprevalence was 32.8% (95% CI [95% confidence interval]: 31.9-33.6), with a clinical case rate of 26.5% (95% CI: 25.7-27.3) and a proportion of subclinical infections of 19.1% (95% CI: 17.8-20.4). Seroprevalence varied among the 39 sites and was greater at sites with higher vector infestation indices. Individually, seroprevalence was higher in participants aged >11 years. Since its introduction, this is the first study on chikungunya seroprevalence in continental Latin America to determine national prevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections. The study model, employing broad community participation and leadership by the Ministry of Health of Nicaragua, can be an example for conducting similar studies in the region.

  8. Gender, inequality and Depo-Provera: Constraints on reproductive choice in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Kristin Elizabeth; Dent, Nicolette Jeannette

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the sociocultural determinants of Nicaraguan women's use of Depo-Provera as a means of contraception. The prevalence of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua is high and increasing compared to other Central American countries. Drawing on data from structured interviews with 87 women and from focus groups with 32 women, we show how women's preference for Depo is shaped by both gendered inequalities and socioeconomic constraints. We employ basic statistical tests to analyse correlations between women's marital status and socioeconomic status (SES) with contraceptive use. Our statistical findings show significant associations between use of Depo and both marital status and SES, such that women who are married or in conjugal unions and women with lower SES are more likely to use Depo. To help explain women's use of Depo-Provera in Nicaragua, we situate our findings within the context of gender, culture, and power, reviewing the contested history of Depo-Provera in the developing world and dynamics of gender inequality, which constrain women's contraceptive choices. We conclude with suggestions for reproductive health programming in Nicaragua and beyond, arguing that gender equity and addressing socioeconomic barriers to family planning remain priorities for the achievement of global reproductive health.

  9. Total Economic Cost and Burden of Dengue in Nicaragua: 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wettstein, Zachary S.; Fleming, Michael; Chang, Aileen Y.; Copenhaver, David J.; Wateska, Angela R.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Kulkarni, Rajan P.

    2012-01-01

    The burden of dengue in Nicaragua has been steadily rising during the last three decades; however, there have been few efforts to quantify the burden (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) and cost to society. Using primary data from the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health (MINSA), the total cost and burden of dengue were calculated from 1996 to 2010. Total costs included both direct costs from medical expenditures and prevention activities and indirect costs from lost productivity. The annual disease burden ranged from 99 to 805 DALYs per million, with a majority associated with classic dengue fever. The total cost was estimated to be US$13.5 million/year (range: US$5.1–27.6 million). This analysis can help improve allocation of dengue control resources in Nicaragua and the region. As one of the most comprehensive analyses of its type to date in Nicaragua and Latin America, this study can serve as a model to determine the burden and cost of dengue. PMID:22890033

  10. Land, Life, and Security: An Interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine K; Gonzalez, Marvin

    2016-08-01

    This is an interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua and Oscar Berríos from the Nicaraguan National Engineering University. The interview was conducted in Nicaragua in October 2013. Garcia and Berríos address the importance of organizing among formal workers and informal workers, and the shared conditions of both in Nicaragua. They highlight the history and context of the agricultural workers who began organizing during the national armed revolutionary war, the role of government to create conditions for healthy and safe work, and the need for workers to organize and advocate for themselves. Finally, they highlight the importance of solidarity among workers and the need for alliances with unions and technical assistance providers around the world. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  12. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in rural Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Julie K.; Tobey, Matthew; Stevens, Lesley A.; Johnson, Sarah; Stringham, Peter; Cohen, Bruce; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mostly anecdotal reports describe a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in northwestern Nicaragua, predominantly among younger men, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. The true prevalence, nature and aetiology of kidney disease in this region remain unknown. Methods. We performed a population-based prevalence study in Quezalguaque, Nicaragua to assess the frequency of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared the prevalence of reduced eGFR in Quezalguaque with the USA using the NHANES 1999–2006 data. We also conducted an embedded case–control study in a subset of participants to assess kidney disease risk factors. Results. From 1882 eligible households, 771 individuals from 300 households participated in the prevalence study, 98 (13%) of whom had reduced eGFR. Reduced eGFR was more common among older participants, men and participants living at lower altitudes. Among 18–29-year-old participants, 2.6% had reduced eGFR, and among 30–41-year-old participants, 7.4% had reduced eGFR; this compares with 0.2% and 0.8%, respectively, in NHANES. No individuals in these age groups were diabetic. Among cases, only 27% had dipstick proteinuria of 1+ or greater, compared with 7% of controls. Haematuria did not significantly differ between cases and controls (24% versus 18%). In age- and sex-adjusted models, hypertension and residence at lower altitude were independently associated with reduced eGFR, while occupational history was not associated with reduced eGFR. Conclusions. Kidney disease appears common in residents of Quezalguaque, Nicaragua, particularly in younger men, with features most consistent with tubulointerstitial disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of kidney disease in this region. PMID:20615905

  14. Predominance of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Nicaragua after Implementation of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Reyes, Yaoska; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV) infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. Methods We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV) and sapovirus (SV) infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE) among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. Results We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330) of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330) and RV (8%, 25/330). The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82%) for NV, GI (46%) for SV and G1P[8] (64%) in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. Conclusions This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination. PMID:24849288

  15. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  16. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  17. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  18. Happiness among poor women victims of intimate partner violence in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes various aspects of overall happiness expressed by 136 women in poverty who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nicaragua, a country with low levels of development. The information was gathered using a structured interview. Results obtained show that despite the hardships they face, one half of the women in poverty who are victims of IPV say they are happy, and the vast majority are optimistic about their future. The main sources of happiness among the interviewees are in areas outside their economic life and are mainly associated with social relations.

  19. Child survival revolutions revisited. Lessons learned from Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lars Åke; Rahman, Anisur; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Musafili, Aimable; Hoa, Dinh Phuong

    2017-03-12

    Analysing child mortality may enhance our perspective on global achievements in child survival. We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nicaragua and Vietnam and Demographic Health Surveys in Rwanda to explore the development of neonatal and under-five mortality. The mortality curves showed dramatic reductions over time, but child mortality in the four countries peaked during wars and catastrophes and was rapidly reduced by targeted interventions, multi-sectorial development efforts and community engagement CONCLUSION: Lessons learned from these countries may be useful when tackling future challenges, including persistent neonatal deaths, survival inequalities and the consequences of climate change and migration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction and Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control. PMID:26335479

  1. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  2. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  3. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  4. A new species of ant mimicking spider, Myrmecotypus jasmineae (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae), from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Leister, Matthew; Miller, Kelly

    2014-07-21

    Spiders of the corinnid genus Myrmecotypus Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 are known for being morphological and behavioral mimics of ants (Reiskind 1969, 1977; Cushing 1997, 2012; Rubio & Arbino 2009; Rubio et al. 2013). This genus currently includes nine species from to the New World. They occur from the United States (one species) to Argentina (one species), but most (seven species) occur from Mexico to Panama (Reiskind 1969; Rubio & Arbino 2009, Platnick 2014). A new species, M. jasmineae, from Nicaragua is described here from two males. A key to males and females of Myrmecotypus, adapted from Reiskind (1969), is modified to include all of the known species.

  5. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  6. Service Learning & Teaching: A Cross-Cultural Experience--Analysis of Languages in a Private School in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins-Gillispie, Delphina

    2012-01-01

    The service learning immersion experience in Central America benefitted preservice teachers, which resulted in a collaborative project on the analysis of languages spoken at the primary to middle school level. This study researches, collects data, and analyzes results from one school system in the country of Nicaragua in hopes of acquiring…

  7. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  8. Governmental Forest Policy for Sustainable Forest Management in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: Regulation, Implementation, and Impact

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. McGinley; Frederick W. Cubbage

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how governmental forest regulation in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua has succeeded or failed in fostering changes in forest owner and user behavior that enhance the sustainability of tropical forest management. As expected, sufficient resources and capacity for forest policy implementation are crucial for attaining governmental forest policy...

  9. The Timeline of Influenza Virus Shedding in Children and Adults in a Household Transmission Study of Influenza in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sophia; Lopez, Roger; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-01-01

    In a household transmission study in Nicaragua, children under 6 years of age had a longer duration of pre-symptomatic influenza virus shedding than adults. The duration of post-symptomatic influenza virus shedding was longest in children 0–5 years of age, followed by children 6-15 years of age and adults. PMID:26910589

  10. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  11. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  12. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  13. Keeping Kids in School: A Slippery Slope for Miskitu Families Living in the Pearl Lagoon Basin of Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Patricia Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Miskitu participants in the communities of Raitipura and Kahkabila and several of their children had dropped out of school. Earlier quantitative research revealed a problem of low matriculation in elementary and high schools in all of Nicaragua. This inquiry differed from others in that it was a qualitative study focusing on one group of…

  14. Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

  15. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  16. The Impact of Institutional Design on the Democratization of School Governance: The Case of Nicaragua's Autonomous School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Minvielle, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    Nicaragua presents an interesting case study of a society pursuing reform of the democratization of its school governance through citizen participation. A radical transformation with a complex institutional arrangement was put in place within a context of major political change and endemic poverty. In order to achieve our objective of empirically…

  17. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  18. Radio, Advertising Techniques, and Nutrition Education: A Summary of a Field Experiment in the Philippines and Nicaragua. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Thomas M.; Romweber, Susan T.

    Infant and child health and nutrition education messages patterned after the reach-and-frequency technique of commercial advertising were broadcast to target groups of young mothers over local radio stations in the Philippines and Nicaragua for one year without the support of more conventional education methods. The messages were developed in…

  19. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Improving Health Care to People with HIV in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Danilo; Moreno, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Background. A 2010 evaluation found generally poor outcomes among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nicaragua. We evaluated an intervention to improve HIV nursing services in hospital outpatient departments to improve patient treatment and retention in care. The intervention included improving patient tracking, extending clinic hours, caring for children of HIV+ mothers, ensuring medication availability, promoting self-help groups and family involvement, and coordinating multidisciplinary care. Methods. This pre/postintervention study examined opportunistic infections and clinical status of HIV patients before and after implementation of changes to the system of nursing care. Hospital expenditure data were collected by auditors and hospital teams tracked intervention expenses. Decision tree analysis determined incremental cost-effectiveness from the implementers' perspective. Results. Opportunistic infections decreased by 24% (95% CI: 14%–34%) and 11.3% of patients improved in CDC clinical stage. Average per-patient costs decreased by $133/patient/year (95% CI: $29–$249). The intervention, compared to business-as-usual strategy, saved money while improving outcomes. Conclusions. Improved efficiency of services can allow more ART-eligible patients to receive therapy. We recommended the intervention be implemented in all HIV service facilities in Nicaragua. PMID:24977038

  1. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777

  2. Maternity waiting homes and institutional birth in Nicaragua: policy options and strategic implications.

    PubMed

    García Prado, Ariadna; Cortez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of promoting institutional births and reducing the high maternal and child mortality rates in rural and poor zones, the government of Nicaragua is supporting the creation of maternity waiting homes. This study analyzes that strategy and examines the factors associated with the use of maternity waiting homes and institutional birth. To that end, we apply a quantitative approach, by means of an econometric analysis of the data extracted from surveys conducted in 2006 on a sample of women and parteras or traditional birth attendants, as well as a qualitative approach based on interviews with key informants. Results indicate that although the operation of the maternity waiting homes is usually satisfactory, there is still room for improvement along the following lines: (i) disseminating information about the homes to both women and men, as the latter frequently decide the course of women's healthcare, and to parteras, who can play an important role in referring women; (ii) strengthening the postpartum care; (iii) ensuring financial sustainability by obtaining regular financial support from the government to complement contributions from the community; and (iv) strengthening the local management and involvement of the regional government. These measures might be useful for health policy makers in Nicaragua and in other developing countries that are considering this strategy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Our data identified associates of adolescents' sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua.

  4. Phenotypic variation within a clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans infecting both tomato and potato in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Blandón-Díaz, J U; Widmark, A-K; Hannukkala, A; Andersson, B; Högberg, N; Yuen, J E

    2012-03-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is a constraint to both potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. The hypothesis that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans is genotypically and phenotypically diverse and potentially subdivided based on host association was tested. A collection of isolates was analyzed using genotypic markers (microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA haplotype) and phenotypic markers (mating type, virulence, and fungicide sensitivity). The genotypic analysis revealed no polymorphism in 121 of 132 isolates of P. infestans tested. Only the Ia haplotype and the A2 mating type were detected. Most of the tested isolates were resistant to metalaxyl. The virulence testing showed variation among isolates of P. infestans. No evidence was found of population differentiation among potato and tomato isolates of P. infestans based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. We conclude that the Nicaraguan population of P. infestans consists of a single clonal lineage (NI-1) which belongs to the A2 mating type and the Ia mitochondrial DNA haplotype. Moreover, based on the markers used, this population of P. infestans does not resemble the population in countries from which potato seed is imported to Nicaragua or the population in neighboring countries. The data presented here indicate that the NI-1 clonal lineage is the primary pathogen on both potato and tomato, and its success on both host species is unique in a South American context.

  5. Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken - especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport recognises the need for a flexible curriculum that reflects individual local and regional linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics, through the use of mother tongue and second language learning. The contextualisation model applied in the Atlantic coastal region of Nicaragua is therefore based on the use of a languages strategy in preparing textbooks and basic technical materials with an IBE approach, as part of the process of improving the quality of education. Thus intercultural communication is enhanced, and the need to strengthen the systematic teaching of languages, differentiating between mother tongue, second language and foreign language, is recognised. As well as explaining the contextualisation process in detail, this article discusses the conceptual differences between intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE). The paper concludes with several recommendations for the further development of BIE in Latin America.

  6. Evaluating the health impact of a public-private partnership: to reduce rotavirus disease in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Shazia; Cardellino, Anna; Klotz, Diana; Kuter, Barbara J; Feinberg, Mark B; Colatrella, Brenda D; Mast, T Christopher

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the RotaTeq(®) Nicaragua Partnership and the evaluation of the public health impact of the vaccine conducted by the partners, including the creation of a rotavirus surveillance program and a vaccine effectiveness assessment. The three main objectives of the partnership were to demonstrate that a new rotavirus vaccine could (1) be introduced rapidly in a developing country, (2) be successfully integrated into the existing vaccine delivery infrastructure, and (3) have a significant and measurable public health impact at the end of the 3-y program. The vaccine impact assessment required collaboration among partners with different areas of expertise, including the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health, Merck, local hospitals, government health clinics, laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Group. Through the partnership, RotaTeq(®) became available in a GAVI-eligible developing country, Nicaragua, in the same year it was approved in the United States. Vaccine coverage rapidly reached over > 90% of eligible Nicaraguan children. The impact assessment evaluated over 10,000 subjects and leveraged and enhanced the existing diarrheal surveillance infrastructure, ultimately providing the scientific community with some of the first real-world rotavirus vaccine effectiveness data from a developing country. The successful public-private partnership (PPP) was internationally recognized as a model for the rapid adoption of a new vaccine in a developing world setting. The model could be adapted to benefit other PPPs interested in demonstrating the impact of their own programs.

  7. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  8. The psychosocial context of young adult sexual behavior in Nicaragua: looking through the gender lens.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manju; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Ainsle, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the nature and magnitude of gender differences in sexual norms among young adults in Nicaragua, and how these differences affect sexual behavior, is important for the design of reproductive health programs. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in six departments in the Pacific region of Nicaragua in 1998. A total of 552 never-married women and 289 never-married men aged 15-24 were interviewed about their perceptions of social pressure to engage in premarital sex; perceived social approval of and attitudes toward premarital sex and premarital pregnancy; perceived sexual activity among peers and siblings; communication with parents on sexuality issues; the psychosocial context of sexual debut; and preferred sources of information on sexuality issues. Most young men (83%) reported that they had received direct encouragement from at least one person in the last year to engage in premarital sex, and at least half perceived that their father, siblings, other relatives and friends approved of premarital intercourse. A significantly greater proportion of men than of women reported that curiosity or gaining experience motivated their sexual debut (61% vs. 21%). Men perceived themselves to have a higher risk of unplanned and unprotected sex than did women. In contrast, women held more negative attitudes toward premarital sex and were more often discouraged by parents or siblings from engaging in sex. Reproductive health programs for young Nicaraguans need to address gender-based double standards, which raise the risk of unplanned, unprotected sex and unintended pregnancy.

  9. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  10. Excellence in Development of Health Care Providers: The Nicaragua Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Norma Graciela; Miller, Alyssia; Knappen, Jackson; Visina, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 17% of the U.S. population is Latino, with an expected increase to 31% by 2060. It is imperative that we prepare students who will be future health care providers with the resources needed to care for the Latino population, specifically increasing the number of Spanish-speaking health care providers who have some understanding of the Latino culture. There is a lack of health care providers who are educated about the Latino culture and lack mentorship in the development of medical conversational Spanish. The Nicaragua Clinical Experience is a service learning abroad program embedded in an academic setting through the scholarship of cultural immersion, language development, health care, and leadership development of students. The Nicaragua Clinical Experience is a unique academic program that prepares pre-health care majors to provide culturally congruent health care for the Latino population. Students are prepared to care for Latino patients through the cultural immersion program and are also introduced to working in "team-based care" multidisciplinary groups to improve health care outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Building social capital in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Brune, Nancy E; Bossert, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Studies of social capital have focused on the static relationship between social capital and health, governance and economic conditions. This study is a first attempt to evaluate interventions designed to improve the levels of social capital in post-conflict communities in Nicaragua and to relate those increases to health and governance issues. The two-year study involved a baseline household survey of approximately 200 households in three communities in Nicaragua, the implementation of systematic interventions designed to increase social capital in two of the locales (with one control group), and a second household survey administered two years after the baseline survey. We found that systematic interventions promoting management and leadership development were effective in improving some aspects of social capital, in particular the cognitive attitudes of trust in the communities. Interventions were also linked to higher levels of civic participation in governance processes. As in other empirical studies, we also found that higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with some positive health behaviors. The behavioral/structural components of social capital (including participation in groups and social networks) were associated with more desirable individual health behaviors such as the use of modern medicine to treat children's respiratory illnesses. Attitudinal components of social capital were positively linked to community health behaviors such as working on community sanitation campaigns. The findings presented here should be of interest to policy makers interested in health policy and social capital, as well as those working in conflict-ridden communities in the developing world.

  12. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    A successful landslide hazard and risk assessment requires awareness and good understanding of the potential landslide problems within the geographic area involved. However, this requirement is not always met in developing countries where population, scientific community, and the government may not be aware of the landslide threat. The landslide hazard assessment is often neglected or is based on sparse and not well documented technical information. In Nicaragua (Central America), the basic conditions for landslide hazard and risk assessment were first created after the catastrophic landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. A single landslide took the life of thousands of people at Casita volcano forcing entire communities to be evacuated or relocated and, furthermore, thousands of smaller landslides caused loss of fertile soils and pasture lands, and made serious damages to the infrastructure. Since those events occurred, the public awareness has increased and the country relies now on new local and national governmental laws and policies, on a number of landslide investigations, and on educational and training programs. Dozens of geologists have been capacitated to investigate landslide prone areas, The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), governmental geo-scientific institution, has assumed the responsibility to help land-use planners and public officials to reduce geological hazard losses. They are committed to work cooperatively with national, international, and local agencies, universities and the private sector to provide scientific information and improve public safety through forecasting and warnings. However, in order to provide successful long-term landslide hazard assessment, the institutions must face challenges related to the scarcity and varied quality of available landslide information; collection and access to dispersed data and documents; organization of landslide information in a form that can be easy to

  13. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  14. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  15. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

  16. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  17. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J. R.; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R.

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30–36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21–24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9–99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania. PMID:28542624

  18. Mid Miocene volcanism in Nicaragua and implications for the formation of the Nicaraguan Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Nicaragua contains Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression consisting of portions of the Coyol Formation to the East and the Tamarindo Formation to the West. The Tamarindo Formation is a narrow band of basaltic to andesitic lavas interlayered with thick ignimbrite deposits and volcaniclastic sediments that parallel Nicaragua’s Pacific coast to the west of the modern volcanic front with ages from 14.7-11.7 Ma. The Coyol represents primarily Miocene volcanism from 25-7 Ma and lies east of the active front. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to speculation that the two coeval units, which are currently separated by almost 100km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data that show the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit. First, the Tamarindo has lower La/Yb values than Coyol, which suggests that the Tamarindo was formed by a higher degree of partial melting, assuming that mantle source compositions are similar for both units. In addition, the Tamarindo has higher Zr/Nb values than Coyol, which are indicative of High Field Strength Element (HFSE) depletion common in arc volcanics. Because the degree of partial melting and HFSE depletion is expected to increase towards the trench, both Tamarindo’s La/Yb and Zr/Nb values are consistent with its being emplaced closer to the trench than Coyol and the presence of these two units of Mid-Miocene age on opposite sides of the Nicaraguan Depression cannot be used as proof of significant extension. In addition, currently available data do not show the significant crustal thinning and large-scale structural surface features that would be expected if the Tamarindo and Coyol were once connected and later separated by extension. Fault displacement along the Nicaraguan Depression is insufficient to accommodate this extension and

  19. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  20. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    PubMed

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  1. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  2. Low stress drop earthquakes in the rupture zone of the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Susan L.; Rotman, Holly M. M.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2016-10-01

    Tsunami earthquakes, events that generate larger than expected tsunami and are deficient in high-frequency seismic radiation, are rare but hazardous to coastal populations. One model for these events is shallow rupture through low-strength materials. We calculate seismic moment, corner frequency, and stress drop for 216 earthquakes (2.1 < Mw < 4.7, November 2005 to June 2006) within and external to the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake rupture zone to test the hypothesis that differences in fault zone properties defined the limits of the 1992 tsunami rupture zone and continue to produce spatial variations in earthquake source properties. Mean stress drop of events within the rupture area is 1.2 MPa, and 5.5 MPa for events just outside of the rupture zone, with similar magnitude earthquakes in each group. Our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake.

  3. Chikungunya Virus Sequences across the First Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Saborio, Saira; Gresh, Lionel; Eswarappa, Meghana; Wu, Diane; Fire, Andrew; Parameswaran, Poornima; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 and Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported and 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 and April 2015. One full-length and two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported and 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases and three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date. PMID:26643533

  4. Chemical changes during alteration of volcanic rocks and gold ore formation, La Libertad, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darce, M.; Levi, B.; Nyström, J. O.

    A chemical comparison between altered and unaltered basic lavas from a Tertiary epithermal gold deposit at La Libertad and its surroundings in central Nicaragua shows that chemical changes associated with the geothermal field type of alteration centered at the mining district reach more than 5 km away from it. Titanium seems to have been immobile, H 2O, CO 2, K, and S have been added, and Ni, Mg, and Cl partly lost from the fossil geothermal system. Gold, originally concentrated in the glass of basic lavas, was leached during zeolite facies conditions and precipitated with silica in fractures, forming veins in the center of the geothermal field. An estimate shows that the amount of Au released during the alteration was sufficient to form the La Libertad deposit.

  5. Quiet zone within a seismic gap near western Nicaragua: Possible location of a future large earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow, D.H.; White, R.A.; Cifuentes, I.L.; Aburto, Q.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 5700-square-kilometer quiet zone occurs in the midst of the locations of more than 4000 earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. The region is indicated by the seismic gap technique to be a likely location for an earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. The quiet zone has existed since at least 1950; the last large earthquake originating from this area occurred in 1898 and was of magnitude 7.5. A rough estimate indicates that the magnitude of an earthquake rupturing the entire quiet zone could be as large as that of the 1898 event. It is not yet possible to forecast a time frame for the occurrence of such an earthquake in the quiet zone. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  6. Flood Hazard Map for Masachapa Urban Area and Maravilla River Flood Plain, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udono, T.; Palacio, L.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A flooding hazard study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting hazard map shows the inundated area for a 200 years return period flood in a small riverbasin (65 square kilometers) near the Nicaraguan Pacific Coast. This area is affected by heavy rainfall induced by tropical storms in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The map results from a study performed by a Nicaraguan-Japanese team that developed a flood hazard approach for a small river basin with scarce hydrometeorological data to be replicated to other basins. The team elaborated 25, 50,100 and 200 year return period flood hydrographs to be applied to a bidimensional mathematic model. The simulation results were transformed into a cartographic map using GIS. The map was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use.

  7. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  8. Nicaragua Eruption Lava Threat Closely Monitored by NASA EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua, began erupting on Dec. 1, 2015, after more than a century of inactivity. On Dec. 4, 2015, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft observed the new eruption. This image is created from infrared data, and shows the incandescent active vent at the summit of the volcano and lava flowing down the side of the volcano. These data are being examined by scientists to determine where lava will flow, allowing assessment of possible threats to local infrastructure. The EO-1 data were obtained at an altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers) and at a resolution of 98 feet (30 meters) per pixel at different visible and infrared wavelengths. The ALI image is 23 miles (37 kilometers) wide. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20203

  9. Who cares in Nicaragua? A care regime in an exclusionary social policy context.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Juliana Martínez; Voorend, Koen

    2011-01-01

    In Latin American countries with historically strong social policy regimes (such as those in the Southern Cone), neoliberal policies are usually blamed for the increased burden of female unpaid work. However, studying the Nicaraguan care regime in two clearly defined periods — the Sandinista and the neoliberal eras — suggests that this argument may not hold in the case of countries with highly familialist social policy regimes. Despite major economic, political and policy shifts, the role of female unpaid work, both within the family and in the community, remains persistent and pivotal, and was significant long before the onset of neoliberal policies. Nicaragua's care regime has been highly dependent on the ‘community’ or ‘voluntary’ work of mostly women. This has also been, and continues to be, vital for the viability of many public social programmes.

  10. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  11. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  12. Emergency contraceptive pills: knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ehrle, Nina; Sarker, Malabika

    2011-06-01

    As abortion is illegal in Nicaragua, postcoital contraception is an important option for preventing pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills are available in Nicaraguan pharmacies over the counter, but pharmacy personnel's knowledge and attitudes about this method can affect access. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Managua, Nicaragua's capital. Interviewers administered a semistructured questionnaire to 93 pharmacy employees to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to examine responses of and differences between male and female employees. All participants knew about emergency contraceptive pills and reported experience selling them. The majority sold them at least once a week (92%), usually without a prescription (97%). Of participants who were aware that emergency contraceptive pills should be taken only after sexual intercourse, 45% knew that the pills can be taken up to three days afterward; none knew that the pills are effective up to five days afterward. More than one-third of all respondents (39%) thought the pills can induce abortion, and most overestimated contraindications and side effects. Large majorities believed the availability of emergency contraceptive pills discourages use of ongoing methods (75%), encourages sexual risk-taking (82%) and increases transmission of HIV and other STIs (76%). Sixty-three participants (68%) thought emergency contraceptive pills are necessary to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancy; 65% were willing to provide them to all women in need, although only 13% would provide them to minors. Managuan pharmacy personnel frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills, but need additional education to accurately counsel women about the method.

  13. Measuring dimensions of social capital: evidence from surveys in poor communities in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew David; Bossert, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    A dominant perspective in social capital research emphasizes a "structural" dimension of social capital, consisting of network connections, and a "cognitive" dimension, consisting of attitudes toward trust. Correspondingly, membership in organizations (i.e., membership density) and general trust in people (i.e., social trust) are two indicators commonly used to relate structural and cognitive social capital, respectively, to a variety of health and other outcomes. This study analyzed relationships between membership density, social trust and a more comprehensive set of household-level social capital indicators as well as selected civic and health behaviors in the context of Nicaragua. The sample of respondents was drawn from 6 communities and interviews were conducted with 482 heads of households, resulting in data on 2882 individuals. Factor analyses suggest that membership density loaded strongly (loading=0.81) onto an "organizational participation" factor which contained a number of qualitative characteristics of involvement, including bridging social capital. Further, this structural dimension of social capital appears to be a construct consisting of more than just informal social networks. However, factor analyses suggest that distinctions between levels of trust are warranted in Nicaragua: social trust loaded weakly (loading=0.32) onto a factor characterized by institutional trust in a factor analysis of trust items, and well below 0.30 in a factor analysis of both structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital. A nuanced understanding of these household-level indicators of structural and cognitive social capital held implications for civic and health behaviors. While membership density and institutional trust were positively related to an index of political engagement, social trust was either not related or negatively associated (among urban respondents). Similarly, social trust was associated with over 50% reduced odds of an additional childhood

  14. Public health surveillance after a volcanic eruption: lessons from Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992.

    PubMed

    Malilay, J; Real, M G; Ramirez Vanegas, A; Noji, E; Sinks, T

    1996-09-01

    The eruption of the Cerro Negro volcano near León, Nicaragua, on 9 April 1992 distributed an estimated 1.7 million tons of ash over a 200 square kilometer area. An assessment was conducted to evaluate the health effects on approximately 300,000 residents, using routine data obtained by the national epidemiologic surveillance system. It was found that rates of visits to health care facilities for acute diarrheal and respiratory illnesses increased in two study communities, one within and one near the disaster zone. Specifically, visits for acute diarrhea were nearly 6 times more numerous than before the eruption in both communities, while visits for acute respiratory diseases were 3.6 times more frequent in Malpaisillo (the community near the disaster zone) and 6.0 times more frequent in Telica (the community within it). Most of the visits were for infants and children less than 5 years old. Increased diarrheal disease morbidity, which commonly occurs after volcanic eruptions, demands detailed investigation of the type and quality of water supplies following heavy ashfall. Ash-related respiratory problems should be further examined to determine the spectrum of such diseases and the timing of illness onsets among infants and other special population subgroups. Data collected on health conditions before and after an eruption by passive surveillance can be used to detect eruption-related morbidity. Systems already in place, such as Nicaragua's national epidemiologic surveillance system, can be modified or extended so as to increase their sensitivity to new cases and hence their ability to provide appropriate notification to medical relief agencies.

  15. Corner Frequency Variation in the Southeastern Region of the 1992 Nicaragua Tsunami Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, H. M. M.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    At the Nicaragua portion of the Middle America Trench, where the Cocos Plate is subducting at ~85 mm/yr, a tsunami earthquake (mb 5.3, Ms 7.2, Mw 7.6) occurred at 15 km depth on 2 September 1992, causing a tsunami up to 8 m high and >116 deaths. A tsunami earthquake is characterized by deficiency in high frequency radiated energy and large tsunami for its Ms. Tsunami earthquakes are relatively rare, but their occurrence presents a significant hazard to coastal populations, so the potential to identify tsunami earthquake regions has wide-reaching hazard implications. Here we examine the notion that the cause of the dominantly low frequency energy in the 1992 tsunami earthquake may also manifest in small earthquakes in the same area. We examine 241 events within and south of the 1992 rupture limits with hypocenters 8-30 km depth and 1.7 < Mw < 4.6, recorded by land station and ocean bottom seismometers in southern Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica from November 2005 to June 2006. Event source parameters moment, corner frequency, and stress drop are determined using the spectral ratios of S-wave coda. Mean stress drop inside the 1992 rupture area is 3.2 MPa, and immediately south of the 1992 rupture zone mean stress drop is 10.4 MPa. Inside and outside the 1992 rupture zone at similar depths, the increase in stress drop is by a factor of five and occurs abruptly over <50 km. The mean corner frequency of events in the 1992 rupture area is ~45% the mean corner frequency value for events south of the 1992 rupture zone. Therefore, our results demonstrate different source parameter characteristics for microseismicity in the region of a past tsunami earthquake. If this finding can be reproduced at other subduction zones, it may significantly improve subduction zone coastal hazard assessment.

  16. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  17. Etiology of Childhood Diarrhea Following Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Prospective, Population-Based Study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Bucardo, Filemon; Vilchez, Samuel; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Liu, Lan; Weber, David J.; Peña, Rodolfo; Barclay, Leslie; Vinjé, Jan; Hudgens, Michael G.; Nordgren, Johan; Svensson, Lennart; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Paniagua, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement routine immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). In this RV5-immunized population, understanding infectious etiologies of childhood diarrhea is necessary to direct diarrhea treatment and prevention efforts. Methods We followed a population-based sample of children less than 5 years in León, Nicaragua for diarrhea episodes through household visits. Information was obtained on RV5 history and sociodemographics. Stool samples collected during diarrhea episodes and among healthy children underwent laboratory analysis for viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens. Detection frequency and incidence of each enteropathogen was calculated. Results The 826 children in the cohort experienced 677 diarrhea episodes during 607.5 child-years of exposure time (1.1 episodes per child-year). At least one enteropathogen was detected among 61.1% of the 337 diarrheal stools collected. The most common enteropathogens among diarrheal stools were: norovirus (20.4%), sapovirus (16.6%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, 11.3%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (8.3%), Giardia lamblia (8.0%), and enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC, 7.7%), with rotavirus detected among 5.3% of diarrheal stools. EPEC and ETEC were frequently detected among stools from healthy children. Among children with diarrhea, norovirus was more commonly detected among younger children (< 2 years) and G. lamblia was more commonly detected among older children (2-4 years). The mean age of rotavirus detection was 34.6 months. Conclusions In this Central American community following RV5 introduction, rotavirus was not commonly detected among children with diarrhea. Prevention and appropriate management of norovirus and sapovirus should be considered to further reduce the burden of diarrheal disease. PMID:24879131

  18. [Prevalence of mental disorders in adults in Subtiava, León, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Subtiava district of León, Nicaragua. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 219 families (n = 584 persons). The study was carried out in two phases. In the first, probable mental disorder cases were screened using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. In the second, the diagnoses were confirmed through the Present State Examination questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires had been confirmed in a pilot study. The present study was conducted in October and November 1987, when Nicaragua was still immersed in armed conflict. Construction of a family map made it possible to analyze, through the multiple imputation method, the characteristics of persons who were absent at the time of the interviews or who did not respond. The estimated prevalence percentages and their respective 95% confidence intervals were as follows: neurosis, 7.5% (5.2%-9.8%); depression, 6.2% (2.6%-8.1%); reactive crisis, 3.3% (2.6-6.5%); alcoholism, 5.8% (3.9%-8.9%); organic brain syndrome, 3.9% (1.7%-5.2%); psychosis, 0.5% (0.2%-1.6%); and other disorders, 0.7% (0.2%-1.6%). The estimated overall prevalence of mental disorders in the study population was 27.9%. Disorders were more prevalent among men (30.8%) than women (26.3%). It is concluded that these high estimated prevalences are associated with stress caused by the war.

  19. Application of a CROPWAT Model to Analyze Crop Yields in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, R.; Byrne, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT Changes in climate are likely to influence crop yields due to varying evapotranspiration and precipitation over agricultural regions. In Nicaragua, agriculture is extensive, with new areas of land brought into production as the population increases. Nicaraguan staple food items (maize and beans) are produced mostly by small scale farmers with less than 10 hectares, but they are critical for income generation and food security for rural communities. Given that the majority of these farmers are dependent on rain for crop irrigation, and that maize and beans are sensitive to variations in temperature and rainfall patterns, the present study was undertaken to assess the impact of climate change on these crop yields. Climate data were generated per municipio representing the three major climatic zones of the country: the wet Pacific lowland, the cooler Central highland, and the Caribbean lowland. Historical normal climate data from 1970-2000 (baseline period) were used as input to CROPWAT model to analyze the potential and actual evapotranspiration (ETo and ETa, respectively) that affects crop yields. Further, generated local climatic data of future years (2030-2099) under various scenarios were inputted to the CROPWAT to determine changes in ETo and ETa from the baseline period. Spatial variability maps of both ETo and ETa as well as crop yields were created. Results indicated significant variation in seasonal rainfall depth during the baseline period and predicted decreasing trend in the future years that eventually affects yields. These maps enable us to generate appropriate adaptation measures and best management practices for small scale farmers under future climate change scenarios. KEY WORDS: Climate change, evapotranspiration, CROPWAT, yield, Nicaragua

  20. Determinants of perceived insufficient milk among new mothers in León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Safon, Cara; Keene, Danya; Guevara, William J Ugarte; Kiani, Sara; Herkert, Darby; Muñoz, Erick Esquivel; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to improve maternal and child health. In Nicaragua, the primary risk of death and disability-adjusted life years among children under 5 years of age is suboptimal breastfeeding. Although the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health promotes exclusive breastfeeding from within the first half hour through the first 6 months of life, less than a third of children in the country under 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. As part of a larger, mixed-methods study, 21 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with new mothers recruited from three primary health centers between June and August 2015 in order to identify the social, cultural, and structural factors that contribute to infant feeding practices and the discrepancy between recommendations and practices among mothers who delivered at an urban public hospital in León, Nicaragua. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim, and interview transcripts were coded and analyzed by a three-member team using a grounded theory approach. Findings highlight a widespread perception of insufficient milk among mothers that influenced early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding practices. This perception stemmed from anxiety about meeting infant nutritional needs and infant satiety, anxiety about maternal nutrition, advice from and role modeling of family members about mixed feeding, and perceived infant feeding norms. Results suggest that support modeled after the 10 steps of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative as well as strengthened policy-level support are needed. Community interventions that address cultural and structural barriers to improve breastfeeding practices may also help to increase breastfeeding rates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Population History and Mitochondrial Genetic Substructure of the Rama Amerindians from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Norberto F; Crawford, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The Rama are a coastal population from southern Nicaragua who in large part were able to resist, at least for a time, the cultural changes and social reorganization brought on by colonial and modern influences. Historical information leaves the Rama origins and biological relationships with nearby extinct and extant groups ambiguous. The objective of this study was to examine the internal genetic microdifferentiation based on the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of approximately 20% of the population, and to expand the few available historical and anthropological data on the Rama by exploring the effects of cultural practices and historical events on genetic structure, providing an integrative perspective on the Rama genetic history. When considering differences in the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of the mtDNA haplotypes together with historical information on the Rama, a noteworthy pattern emerges. (a) Haplotypes are differentially distributed among a central Rama community (Punta Águila) compared with the other five peripheral communities (analysis of molecular variance: FCT = 0.10, p < 0.001), and their distribution is consistent with the historical relocation of this population after their split from Punta Gorda in the 18th century. (b) Differential genetic signatures found among central and peripheral Rama communities resemble two population histories: one of stability (haplogroup A2) and other of expansion (haplogroup B2), supporting the possibility that these patterns of genetic microdifferentiation between central and peripheral populations resulted from the 18th-century unification in southern Nicaragua of the Rama and a group of Voto migrants from Costa Rica that later split off and moved to the Bay of Bluefields.

  2. Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

    2000-12-01

    Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established.

  3. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-05-19

    Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub-national administrative regions, and

  4. Identifying candidate sites for crop biofortification in Latin America: case studies in Colombia, Nicaragua and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Caldas, Emmanuel; Hyman, Glenn; Pachón, Helena; Monserrate, Fredy Alexander; Varela, Liliana Vesga

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural science can address a population's vitamin, amino acid and mineral malnutrition through biofortification - agronomy, plant breeding and biotechnology to develop crops with high nutrient contents. Biofortified crop varieties should be grown in areas with populations at risk of nutrient deficiency and in areas where the same crop is already grown and consumed. Information on the population at risk of nutrient deficiency is rarely available for sub-national administrative units, such as provinces, districts, and municipalities. Nor is this type of information commonly analyzed with data on agricultural production. This project developed a method to identify populations at risk of nutrient deficiency in zones with high crop production, places where biofortification interventions could be targeted. Results Nutrient deficiency risk data were combined with crop production and socioeconomic data to assess the suitability of establishing an intervention. Our analysis developed maps of candidate sites for biofortification interventions for nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results for Colombia, Nicaragua, and Bolivia are presented in this paper. Interventions in northern Colombia appear promising for all crops, while sites for bean biofortification are widely scattered throughout the country. The most promising sites in Nicaragua are found in the center-north region. Candidate sites for biofortification in Bolivia are found in the central part of the country, in the Andes Mountains. The availability and resolution of data limits the analysis. Some areas show opportunities for biofortification of several crops, taking advantage of their spatial coincidence. Results from this analysis should be confirmed by experts or through field visits. Conclusion This study demonstrates a method for identifying candidate sites for biofortification interventions. The method evaluates populations at risk of nutrient deficiencies for sub

  5. Otoacoustic Emissions in Rural Nicaragua: Cost Analysis and Implications for Newborn Hearing Screening.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lye-Yeng; Espinoza, Francisca; Alvarez, Karen Mojica; Molter, Dave; Saunders, James E

    2017-05-01

    Objective (1) Determine the incidence and risk factors for congenital hearing loss. (2) Perform cost analysis of screening programs. Study Design Proportionally distributed cross-sectional survey. Setting Jinotega, Nicaragua. Subjects and Methods Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were used to screen 640 infants <6 months of age from neonatal intensive care unit, institutional, and home birth settings. Data on 15 risk factors were analyzed. Cost of 4 implementation strategies was studied: universal screening, screening at the regional health center (RHC), targeted screening, and screening at the RHC plus targeted screening. Cost-effectiveness analysis over 10 years was based on disability-adjusted life year estimates, with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) / gross domestic product (GDP) <3, with GDP set at $4884.15. Results Thirty-eight infants failed the initial OAE (5.94%). In terms of births, 325 (50.8%) were in the RHC, 69 (10.8%) in the neonatal intensive care unit, and 29 (4.5%) at home. Family history and birth defect were significant in univariate analysis; birth defect was significant in multivariate analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that OAE screening is cost-effective without treatment (CER/GDP = 0.06-2.00) and with treatment (CER/GDP = 0.58-2.52). Conclusions Our rate of OAE failures was comparable to those of developed countries and lower than hearing loss rates noted among Nicaraguan schoolchildren, suggesting acquired or progressive etiology in the latter. Birth defects and familial hearing loss correlated with OAE failure. OAE screening of infants is feasible and cost-effective in rural Nicaragua, although highly influenced by estimated hearing loss severity in identified infants and the high travel costs incurred in a targeted screening strategy.

  6. Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education

    PubMed Central

    Pena, R.; Liljestrand, J.; Zelaya, E.; Persson, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in fertility and infant mortality rates (IMR) in Leon, Nicaragua, and to examine the effect of women's education on these trends during 1964-1993, a period of rapid social change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, based on random cluster sampling. A retrospective questionnaire on reproductive events was used. SETTING: The municipality of Leon, which is the second largest city in Nicaragua, with a total population of 195,000 inhabitants. SUBJECTS: 10,867 women aged 15-49 years, corresponding to 176,281 person years of reproductive life. Their children contributed 22,899 person years under 12 months of age to the IMR analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fertility rate (number of pregnancies per 1000 person years) for specific age groups and calendar periods, total fertility rate, and IMR. RESULTS: Fertility rates and IMR declined in parallel, especially during the 1980s. However, education specific fertility rates did not decline, but the proportion of educated young women increased from 20% to 46%. This had also an impact on the overall IMR decline, although IMR reduction mainly took place among infants of women without formal education, decreasing from 118 to 69 per 1000 during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: In this demographic transition over three decades, fertility and IMR declined simultaneously. The decreasing trend in fertility was mainly explained by an increase in women's education, while the IMR decline seemed to be the result of health interventions, specially targeted to poorer groups of women and their infants. Thus, social differences in fertility rates remained unchanged, while equity in chances of child survival increased.   PMID:10396488

  7. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance.

  8. Traditional agroforestry practices in Atlantic Nicaragua promote biodiversity and natural resource diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, S.; Roddy, A. B.; Williams, N. E.; Kramer, D.; Stevens, K.; Allison, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of forest to pasture and other agricultural uses has increased interest in the role that small-scale agroforestry systems can play in linking sustainable agriculture to biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. Complementing the provisioning of natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems tend to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. We studied the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforest, and secondary forest: three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity. No significant relationships were found between plant diversity and the soil properties assessed; however higher species richness and phylodiversity was positively correlated with natural resource

  9. Molecular analysis of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Sankar; Rodriguez, Betzabe; Soto, Aida Mercedes; Macedo De Oliveira, Alexandre; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is used as a first-line therapy for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nicaragua. We investigated the prevalence of molecular markers associated with CQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in P. falciparum isolates obtained from the North Atlantic Autonomous Region of Nicaragua. Blood spots for this study were made available from a CQ and SP drug efficacy trial conducted in 2005 and also from a surveillance study performed in 2011. Polymorphisms in P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase gene loci that are associated with resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine, and sulfadoxine, respectively, were detected by DNA sequencing. In the 2005 dataset, only 2 of 53 isolates had a CQ resistance allele (CVIET), 2 of 52 had a pyrimethamine resistance allele, and 1 of 49 had a sulfadoxine resistance allele. In the 2011 dataset, none of 45 isolates analyzed had CQ or SP resistance alleles.

  10. Nicaragua revisited: evidence of lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a high-altitude, coffee-growing village

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; Barreto Ruiz, Gerardo M.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKD’s prevalence in regions at higher altitudes. Methods A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values >1.2 mg/dL for men and >0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/dL), hypertension and body mass index. Results Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the physical exam (82.4% overall). Of the sample, 45% were men. Prevalence rate of estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 0 for men (0%) and 2 for women (1.4%). The prevalence of at least microalbuminuria was significantly higher among men compared with women (27.5% vs. 21.4%, respectively; p=0.02). Conclusions The CKD prevalence in this village is comparable to a previously studied Nicaraguan coffee-farming region and much lower than previously screened portions of northwestern Nicaragua. There is heterogeneity in CKD prevalence across Nicaragua. At this time, screenings should target individuals living in previously identified, higher risk regions. More work is needed to understand determinants of CKD in this resource-poor nation. PMID:21956767

  11. Nicaragua revisited: evidence of lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a high-altitude, coffee-growing village.

    PubMed

    Laux, Timothy S; Bert, Philip J; Barreto Ruiz, Gerardo M; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Torres Lacourt, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found at epidemic levels in certain populations of the Pacific Coast in northwestern Nicaragua especially in younger men. There are knowledge gaps concerning CKD's prevalence in regions at higher altitudes. A cross-sectional study of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years in 1 coffee-growing village in Nicaragua located at 1,000 m above sea level (MASL) altitude was performed. Predictors included participant sex, age, occupation, conventional CKD risk factors and other factors associated with CKD suggested by previous surveys in Central America. Outcomes included serum creatinine (SCr) values >1.2 mg/dL for men and >0.9 mg/dL for women, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, dipstick proteinuria stratified as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/dL) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/dL), hypertension and body mass index. Of 324 eligible participants, 293 were interviewed (90.4%), and 267 of those received the physical exam (82.4% overall). Of the sample, 45% were men. Prevalence rate of estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 0 for men (0%) and 2 for women (1.4%). The prevalence of at least microalbuminuria was significantly higher among men compared with women (27.5% vs. 21.4%, respectively; p=0.02). The CKD prevalence in this village is comparable to a previously studied Nicaraguan coffee-farming region and much lower than previously screened portions of northwestern Nicaragua. There is heterogeneity in CKD prevalence across Nicaragua. At this time, screenings should target individuals living in previously identified, higher risk regions. More work is needed to understand determinants of CKD in this resource-poor nation.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Nicaragua as Estimated by Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Mulatu; Herrera, Isabel; Monzón, Arnulfo; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Coffea arabica L. (arabica coffee), the only tetraploid species in the genus Coffea, represents the majority of the world's coffee production and has a significant contribution to Nicaragua's economy. The present paper was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of arabica coffee in Nicaragua for its conservation and breeding values. Twenty-six populations that represent eight varieties in Nicaragua were investigated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 24 alleles were obtained from the 12 loci investigated across 260 individual plants. The total Nei's gene diversity (HT) and the within-population gene diversity (HS) were 0.35 and 0.29, respectively, which is comparable with that previously reported from other countries and regions. Among the varieties, the highest diversity was recorded in the variety Catimor. Analysis of variance (AMOVA) revealed that about 87% of the total genetic variation was found within populations and the remaining 13% differentiate the populations (FST = 0.13; P < 0.001). The variation among the varieties was also significant. The genetic variation in Nicaraguan coffee is significant enough to be used in the breeding programs, and most of this variation can be conserved through ex situ conservation of a low number of populations from each variety. PMID:22701376

  13. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening in the public health system in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Mvundura, Mercy; Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Kim, Jane J

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (versus Papanicolaou (Pap)-based screening) for cervical cancer screening in Nicaragua. A previously developed Monte Carlo simulation model of the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer was calibrated to epidemiological data from Nicaragua. Cost data inputs were derived using a micro-costing approach in Carazo, Chontales and Chinandega departments; test performance data were from a demonstration project in Masaya department. Nicaragua's public health sector facilities. Women aged 30-59 years. Screening strategies included (1) Pap testing every 3 years, with referral to colposcopy for women with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse result ('Pap'); (2) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to cryotherapy for HPV-positive eligible women (HPV cryotherapy or 'HPV-Cryo'); (3) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to triage with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for HPV-positive women ('HPV-VIA'); and (4) HPV testing every 5 years, with referral to Pap testing for HPV-positive women ('HPV-Pap'). Reduction in lifetime risk of cancer and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER; 2015 US$ per year of life saved (YLS)). HPV-based screening strategies were more effective than Pap testing. HPV-Cryo was the least costly and most effective strategy, reducing lifetime cancer risk by 29.5% and outperforming HPV-VIA, HPV-Pap and Pap only, which reduced cancer risk by 19.4%, 12.2% and 10.8%, respectively. With an ICER of US$320/YLS, HPV-Cryo every 5 years would be very cost-effective using a threshold based on Nicaragua's per capita gross domestic product of US$2090. Findings were robust across sensitivity analyses on test performance, coverage, compliance and cost parameters. HPV testing is very cost-effective compared with Pap testing in Nicaragua, due to higher test sensitivity and the relatively lower number of visits required. Increasing

  15. Dynamics of diffuse CO2 emission and eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Diaz, M.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Ibarra, M.; Strauch, W.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is the youngest of a group of cinder cones NW of Las Pilas at 25 km from León (Nicaragua) with 685 meters above sea level and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. It has erupted 21 times since its birth in 1850, with an eruptive cycle about 7-8 years. Since the last eruption, occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a research collaboration program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro. Since then, ten CO2 surface efflux surveys have been undertaken covering an area of 0,6 km2, in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation with the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed always by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1869 t d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the 2002 and 2003 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 84 t d-1, respectively. However, during the 2004 a slightly increase on the total diffuse CO2 emission was observed, reaching up to 256 t d-1. The observed relatively increase was addressed to the occurrence of a seismic swarm at Cerro Negro during the survey. The yearly surveys performed at Cerro Negro from 2005 until present, have always shown background levels of CO2 emission, with 68, 38, 45, 10 and 12 t d-1, respectively. The temporal evolution of the diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro will allow us to determine the typical range of seasonal or other transient departures from its normal or “baseline” behaviour and its relation with the eruptive cycle.

  16. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level

  17. The 10 April 2014 Earthquake in Central Nicaragua: Evidence of Complex Crustal Deformation in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Muñoz, A.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Farraz, I.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-12-01

    On 10 April 2014 a magnitude Mw 6.1 struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan seismic network. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt but caused relatively little damage to the city of Managua and to the surrounding cities and towns. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that in 1972, the earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a southeast trending fault. The reported source mechanism suggests right-lateral strike slip motion on a plane with the same azimuth as the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of seismic activity occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated, beneath Apoyeque volcano. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Seismic scaling relations between magnitude and the fault length predict a length of approximately 10 km for an earthquake of this magnitude. This is in agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. The northeast - southwest trending Tiscapa and Ciudad Jardín faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. This set of conjugate faults confirms that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic style of deformation. The forearc sliver between the trench and the volcanic arc moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate. This deformation, however, does not take place on a single set of faults. The motion is apparently accommodated by a system of conjugate faults: right lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc and another set of faults trending northeast

  18. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Sistla, Seeta A.; Roddy, Adam B.; Williams, Nicholas E.; Kramer, Daniel B.; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region’s first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  19. Three-Dimensional Thermal Model of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-10-01

    The thermal structure of a subduction zone controls many key processes, including subducting plate metamorphism and dehydration, the megathrust earthquake seismogenic zone and volcanic arc magmatism. Here, we present the first three-dimensional (3D), steady-state kinematic-dynamic thermal model for the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone. The model consists of the subducting Cocos plate, the overriding Caribbean Plate, and a viscous mantle wedge in which flow is driven by interactions with the downgoing slab. The Cocos plate geometry includes along-strike variations in slab dip, which induce along-strike flow in the mantle wedge. Along-strike flow occurs primarily below Costa Rica, with a maximum magnitude of 4 cm/year (~40 % of the convergence rate) for a mantle with a dislocation creep rheology; an isoviscous mantle has lower velocities. Along-margin flow causes temperatures variations of up to 80 °C in the subducting slab and mantle wedge at the volcanic arc and backarc. The 3D effects do not strongly alter the shallow (<35 km) thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models predict that the megathrust seismogenic zone width decreases from ~100 km below Costa Rica to just a few kilometers below Nicaragua; the narrow width in the north is due to hydrothermal cooling of the oceanic plate. These results are in good agreement with previous 2D models and with the rupture area of recent earthquakes. In the models, along-strike mantle flow is induced only by variations in slab dip, with flow directed toward the south where the dip angle is smallest. In contrast, geochemical and seismic observations suggest a northward flow of 6-19 cm/year. We do not observe this in our models, suggesting that northward flow may be driven by additional factors, such as slab rollback or proximity to a slab edge (slab window). Such high velocities may significantly affect the thermal structure, especially at the southern end of the subduction zone. In this area, 3D models that

  20. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  1. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  3. Social security health insurance for the informal sector in Nicaragua: a randomized evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Rebecca L; Hatt, Laurel E; Field, Erica M; Islam, Mursaleena; Diaz, Freddy Solís; González, Martha Azucena

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results from an experimental evaluation of a voluntary health insurance program for informal sector workers in Nicaragua. Costs of the premiums as well as enrollment location were randomly allocated. Overall, take-up of the program was low, with only 20% enrollment. Program costs and streamlined bureaucratic procedures were important determinants of enrollment. Participation of local microfinance institutions had a slight negative effect on enrollment. One year later, those who received insurance substituted toward services at covered facilities and total out-of-pocket expenditures fell. However, total expenditures fell by less than the insurance premiums. We find no evidence of an increase in health-care utilization among the newly insured. We also find very low retention rates after the expiration of the subsidy, with less than 10% of enrollees still enrolled after one year. To shed light on the findings from the experimental results, we present qualitative evidence of institutional and contextual factors that limited the success of this program.

  4. Collaboration on contentious issues: research partnerships for gender equity in Nicaragua's Fair Trade coffee cooperatives.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.

  5. Health promotores' perceptions of their communities' health needs, knowledge, and resource needs in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Weatherbie, Katherine

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine rural Nicaraguan health promotores' perceptions of their community's health problems, their self-identified learning needs, and resource needs. Despite the valuable contributions of promotores, there is limited research regarding unpaid volunteer promotores' perceptions of their needs in providing care to remote communities. A qualitative descriptive study of 13 unpaid, volunteer promotores in Waslala, Nicaragua, was conducted. Data were collected during individual interviews with seven promotores and two focus groups with 13 promotores. Data were analyzed by reading verbatim transcripts repeatedly and establishing general themes. Promotores confirmed the findings. Waslalan promotores described a synergy of traditional folk health beliefs and natural practices along with use of modern medications while working to meet the health needs of their communities. Without much formal training, the promotores used public health strategies to influence health behaviors and address health disparities in the communities they serve. Serving their communities and God were their motivation in their work. Recommendations include supporting efforts to meet promotores' needs regarding community health education with messages from community leaders and nurses, finding methods to financially compensate promotores, and including promotores in health program planning and evaluation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Masaya, the “Mouth of Hell”, Nicaragua: Volcanological interpretation of the myths, legends and anecdotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viramonte, José G.; Incer-Barquero, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Nicaragua's conquest started only 30years after Christopher Columbus arrived to America in 1492. At that moment the Masaya and Momotombo volcanoes were erupting simultaneously. The former was the first permanent lava lake observed by Europeans, and this produced a strong impression and interest in it. For more than a century there was great controversy over the nature of this phenomenon. Some people believed that it was the Mouth of Hell, whereas others could greedily see in the lava a source of gold or silver. This fact led to many attempts trying to prove it. In this paper, aboriginal myths about the volcano are described as well as different ideas and "supported evidence" given by the Spaniards regarding whether it was or not indeed the Mouth of Hell. Moreover, the first detailed geological descriptions are exposed as well as interesting interpretations found in the chronicles. It is also narrated the first descent into the volcano's mouth to extract samples of that "gold", a real exploit for that time. From these descriptions, a volcanological interpretation is proposed, which is a contribution to the understanding of the eruptive history and evolution of the Masaya volcanic complex, one of the largest, shallow magma chamber systems in Central America.

  7. Trends in patterns of dengue transmission over four years of a pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Balmaseda, Angel; Standish, Katherine; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Matute, Juan Carlos; Tellez, Yolanda; Saborío, Saira; Hammond, Samantha N.; Nuñez, Andrea; Avilés, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gordon, Aubree; Coloma, Josefina; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and a major urban public health problem worldwide. Methods A prospective cohort study of ~3,800 children initially aged 2-9 years old was established in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 to study the natural history of dengue transmission in an urban pediatric population. Blood samples from healthy subjects were collected annually prior to the dengue season, and identification of dengue cases occurred via enhanced passive surveillance at the study health center. Results Over the first four years of the study, seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies increased from 22-40% in the 2-year-old cohort and 90-95% in the 9-year-old cohort. The incidence of symptomatic dengue cases and the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic DENV infection varied substantially year-to-year. The switch in dominant transmission from DENV-1 to DENV-2 was accompanied by an increase in disease severity but, paradoxically, a decrease in transmission. Phylogeographic analysis of full-length DENV-2 sequences revealed strong geographic clustering of dengue cases. Conclusions This large-scale cohort study of dengue in the Americas demonstrates year-to-year variation of dengue within a pediatric population, revealing expected patterns in transmission while highlighting the impact of interventions, climate, and viral evolution. PMID:19929380

  8. The scaling relationship between self-potential and fluid flow on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Conner, C.

    2003-11-11

    The concurrent measurement of self-potential (SP) and soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub s}{sup CO2}) in volcanic systems may be an important tool to monitor intrusive activity and understand interaction between magmatic and groundwater systems. However, quantitative relationships between these parameters must be established to apply them toward understanding processes operating at depth. Power-law scaling exponents calculated for SP and F{sub s}{sup CO2} measured along a fault on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua indicate a nonlinear relationship between these parameters. Scaling exponents suggest that there is a declining increase in SP with a given increase in F{sub s}{sup CO2}, until a threshold (log F{sub s}{sup CO2} {approx} 2.5 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) above which SP remains constant with increasing F{sub s}{sup CO2}. Implications for subsurface processes that may influence SP at Masaya are discussed.

  9. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  10. Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children's rights.

    PubMed

    Corriols, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    Since 1995, Nicaragua has adopted several legal instruments to comply with children's rights, including international conventions and a minimum working age of 14 years. However, records from the Ministry of Health's Pesticide Program show continuing occupational acute pesticide poisonings (APP) among children five to 14-years-old from 1995 to 2006. We reviewed and described all reported APPs and estimated the yearly incidence and underreporting rates. Of 2069 APP cases, 432 were occupational. Annual incidence rates (range: 1-4.7/100,000) have been decreasing since 1997. Six fatal and most non-fatal cases were related to work in tobacco and basic grain crops. Based on underreporting data, we estimate actual incidence during the period studied to be 18,516 (95% CI, 3840-33,204) cases among five- to fourteen-year-olds. With regard to child labor and pesticide exposure, children's rights violations still exist and must be abolished in both formal employment and in the informal economy, including in family-based agricultural activities.

  11. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  12. An epidemic of pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: implications for prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, R; Hruska, A J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the Northwestern Nicaraguan Ministry of Health surveillance system for detecting pesticide poisonings. METHODS. Cases were reported to the regional department of epidemiology through daily telephone reports and through monthly consolidated reports from each of the 18 health centers of the National Health Service. Reporting forms were also distributed to the four area hospitals. RESULTS. During June and July 1987, an epidemic of 548 pesticide poisoning was detected in northwestern Nicaragua. Seventy-seven percent of the poisonings were caused by carbofuran or methamidophos. Of the work-related cases (91% of reported poisonings), more than 80% occurred among maize farmers and on small to medium land holdings (fewer than 140 hectares). Nineteen percent of the work-related cases involved children under 16 years of age. CONCLUSIONS. Unsafe working conditions such as manual application of pesticides and the use of backpack sprayers, the introduction of a hazardous powdered formulation of carbofuran highly restricted in the developed world, and agricultural subsidies that encouraged the use of hazardous pesticides all contributed to the epidemic. PMID:8238678

  13. Characterization of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae) production sites in urban Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree L; Lugo, Emperatriz del C; Moreno, Gilberto; Kuan, Guillermina M; López, María M; López, Josefa D; Delgado, Marco A; Valle, Sonia I; Espinoza, Perla M; Harris, Eva

    2007-09-01

    To characterize the production patterns of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culcidae), pupal surveys were conducted in selected neighborhoods of two major cities in Nicaragua. In León, 833 houses were visited in July and September 2003, corresponding to the beginning and middle of the dengue season; in Managua, 1,365 homes were visited in July 2003. In total, 7,607 containers were characterized, of which 11% were positive for Ae. aegypti larvae and 4% for pupae. In addition to barrels, potted plants and superficial water on tarps and in puddles were identified as highly productive sites. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed frequency of container use, use of a lid, and rainwater filling as key variables affecting pupal positivity. Importantly, this survey demonstrated the risk associated with the presence of lids, the limited temporal efficacy of temephos, and the lack of association of water availability with risky water storage practices. Finally, we introduce the concept of an efficiency value and an accompanying graphical display system that can facilitate development of targeted pupal control strategies. These data underscore the importance of entomological surveillance of pupal productivity to gather information from which to derive streamlined, efficient, and effective vector control measures to reduce the density of Aedes mosquito larvae and pupae and thus the risk for dengue.

  14. Factors associated with a successful expansion of influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Vasconez, Nancy; Thompson, Mark; Mirza, Sara; Moen, Ann C; Bresee, Joseph; Talavera, Ivy; Ropero, Alba María

    2016-02-17

    Pregnant women are at risk of severe influenza disease and are a priority group for influenza vaccination programs. Nicaragua expanded recommendations to include influenza vaccination to all pregnant women in the municipality of Managua in 2013. We carried out a survey among 1,807 pregnant women who delivered at public hospitals in the municipality of Managua to evaluate the uptake of influenza vaccination and factors associated with vaccination. We observed a high (71%) uptake of influenza vaccination among this population, with no differences observed by age, education or parity of the women. Having four antenatal visits and five or more visits were associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (AORs: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.81, and 2.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.0, respectively). Also, receipt of influenza vaccination recommendation from a health care provider was positively associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (AOR: 14.22; 95% CI: 10.45, 19.33). The successful expansion of influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the municipality of Managua may be due to ready access to free medical care and health care providers' recommendation for vaccination at health care clinics that received influenza vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    PubMed

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).

  16. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  17. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  18. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  19. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  20. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  1. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of an area polluted by heavy metals in central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Dahlin, T.; Barmen, G.

    2006-06-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical surveys were used to investigate the hydrogeological conditions in one of the Río Sucio microbasins, in central Nicaragua. Zones of vertical structures (i.e. fractures and quartz veins) and weathering were mapped using Continuous Vertical Electrical Soundings (CVES), as such zones are of major importance for groundwater transport. Water from the springs was analysed to determine concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. Low ion concentrations and 18O analyses indicate that the springs occur close to their recharge areas and there is a relatively rapid groundwater circulation. Mercury (Hg) content in the springs was low, while comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) were found. The results presented here demonstrate the important function of weathering and tectonics in the occurrence of groundwater systems in the basin. Hg and Pb found in the springs’ water reveal the existence of an increase in pollution sources disseminating in the area. More than 100 years of using mercury in the gold-mining industry and releasing wastes into rivers has affected water quality and ecosystems. Further investigations are needed in this area to determine the groundwater vulnerability to this pollution as this resource may be needed in the future.

  2. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period. PMID:23817336

  3. Globalization, shifting livelihoods, and their effects on natural resources on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of local peoples' livelihoods is important in understanding the use of, access to, and regulation of natural resources. Drivers of global change, including climate change and globalization, often result in shifts in local peoples' livelihood portfolios. Here, we use longitudinal data to examine how increasing market access, migration, and technology adoption have affected livelihood portfolios in a dozen communities along Nicaragua's Atlantic coast and the effects of livelihood change on terrestrial and marine wildlife. Our study communities are located in varying proximity to the terminus of the first trans-isthmian highway in this region, completed in 2008. Our results indicate that changes in livelihood portfolios, such as shifts between agriculture, fishing, and tourism, can be explained by a combination of household and community characteristics. Moreover, globalization's effects on specific livelihoods are distinct while varying both spatially and temporally. Trends in fisheries abundance, deforestation, and the management of endangered species and protected areas are better understood in the context of these shifting livelihood patterns. Moreover, this study provides new insights as to how natural resource dependent communities might decrease their vulnerability to the forces of global change.

  4. Environmental factors associated with childhood norovirus diarrhoea in León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Becker-Dreps, S; Cuthbertson, C C; Bucardo, F; Vinje, J; Paniagua, M; Giebultowicz, S; Espinoza, F; Emch, M

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus is detected in one in five diarrhoea episodes in children, yet little is known about environmental risk factors associated with this disease, especially in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to examine environmental risk factors, and spatial and seasonal patterns of norovirus diarrhoea episodes in children in León, Nicaragua. We followed a population-based cohort of children under age 5 years for norovirus diarrhoea over a 1-year period. At baseline, characteristics of each household were recorded. Households were geocoded and spatial locations of garbage dumps, rivers, and markets were collected. In bivariate analysis we observed younger children and those with animals in their households were more likely to have experienced norovirus episodes. In adjusted models, younger children remained at higher risk for norovirus episodes, but only modest associations were observed with family and environmental characteristics. We next identified symptomatic children living in the same household and within 500 m buffer zones around the household of another child infected with the same genotype. Norovirus diarrhoea episodes peaked early in the rainy season. These findings contribute to our understanding of environmental factors and norovirus infection.

  5. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16–24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services. PMID:28030599

  6. A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the southern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu

    2012-11-01

    Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern Caribbean and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.

  7. Economic Analysis of a Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Initiative in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Edward I.; López, Sergio R.; Aguilar, María Nela; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Pérez, Magaly; Sánchez, Nieves

    2012-01-01

    We performed an economic analysis of an intervention to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevalence in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at two Nicaraguan hospitals to determine the cost of the intervention and how effective it needs to be in order to be cost-neutral. A matched cohort study determined differences in costs and outcomes among ventilated patients. VAP cases were matched by sex and age for children older than 28 days and by weight for infants under 28 days old to controls without VAP. Intervention costs were determined from accounting and PICU staff records. The intervention cost was approximately $7,000 for one year. If VAP prevalence decreased by 0.5%, hospitals would save $7,000 and the strategy would be cost-neutral. The finding that the intervention required only modest effectiveness to be cost-neutral and has potential to generate substantial cost savings argues for implementation of VAP prevention strategies in low-income countries like Nicaragua on a broader scale. PMID:22518174

  8. Impact of a combined pediatric and adult pneumococcal immunization program on adult pneumonia incidence and mortality in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Amaya, Erick; Liu, Lan; Rocha, Julio; Briceño, Rafaela; Moreno, Gilberto; Alemán, Jorge; Hudgens, Michael G; Woods, Christopher W; Weber, David J

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Nicaragua implemented an adult immunization program with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) and a pediatric immunization program with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13). We assessed incidence rates of ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia and pneumonia-related mortality in adults over the age of 50 years before and after the program's implementation in the Department of León, Nicaragua. We collected visit diagnoses from all 107 public health facilities between 2008 and 2012 in León. We compared incidence rates of ambulatory visits for pneumonia, pneumonia hospitalizations, and pneumonia-related mortality in the pre-vaccine (2008-2009) and vaccine (2011-2012) periods among older adults using Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE), controlling for age group, municipality, and proportions of adults who were immunized against influenza. Exposure time was estimated by official municipality population estimates. We did not observe lower incidence rates of ambulatory visits or hospitalizations for pneumonia among adults during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period. However, pneumonia-related mortality was lower in the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, with an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRRa) of 0.73 (0.56, 0.94) among adults aged 50-64 years, and 0.55 (0.43, 0.70) among adults aged ≥65 years. These early results following introduction of a combined pediatric and adult pneumococcal immunization program in Nicaragua show a probable impact of the program on the reduction of pneumonia-related deaths in older adults, but a less clear impact on the reduction of health facility visits for pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P A; Mora, F

    1987-01-01

    Under the rubrics of preventive and social medicine, public health, and family and community medicine, medical educators in Latin America have developed programs to train physicians for community-oriented health care (COPC). The historical background for such programs in Latin America is reviewed. Three relevant examples of programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are highlighted, drawing on the author's direct experience with and in these faculties. The paper addresses the relation between these programs and national and regional trends in education and services. PMID:3826469

  10. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women.

  11. Suicide attempts and stressful life events among female victims of intimate partner violence living in poverty in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Ana Isabel; Panadero, Sonia; Rivas, Esther; Vázquez, José Juan

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a study of 136 female intimate partner violence victims living in poverty in Nicaragua. The paper aimed to analyze the relationship between experiencing stressful life events (SLE) and perceived social support with suicide attempts, and to evaluate the differences in the SLE experienced by female suicide attempters versus non-attempters. The results showed the existence of a high level of SLE among the interviewees, and that women who have attempted suicide have experienced substantially more of these events. Experiences of violence and less social support were especially related to suicide attempts among the interviewees.

  12. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  13. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. Methods From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Results Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Conclusions Our data identified associates of adolescents’ sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua. Chinese Abstract 摘要 背景与目的 尼加瓜拉是拉丁美洲青少年妊娠率最高的国家。本研究旨在深入了解其性行为相关因素。 方法 2011年7月至8月,研究者在马那瓜贫困地区随机抽样,通过入户访视对青少年进行调查。统计方法采用Logistic回归,分析与性发生及避孕相关的影响因素。 结果 研究分析了2 803名青少年的数据。在475名与299名有性活动的男孩与女孩中,分别有43%与54%采取了避孕措施。研究表明,性发生与年龄增长、男性性别、酒精摄入及脱离父母独

  14. Spatial density analysis of volcanic vents in the Concepción volcanic complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saballos, J. A.; Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have applied a bivariate Gaussian kernel function to estimate spatial density of volcanic vents associated to the Concepción Volcanic Complex, CVC. Our dataset consists of 36 known vents distributed on an area 11.0 km (N-S) by 11.3 km (E-W), and whose age of formation is unknown. There are 3 known vents on the western side of the CVC, 21 in the central area, and 12 in the eastern side. All these three regions describe preferentially N-S elongate zones. Concepción is the most active composite volcano in Nicaragua and forms the northwestern side of the Ometepe Island with a total population estimated to be ~33,000, and with the vast majority living very near the volcano. Thus there is an immediate need for estimating the probabilistic hazard associated with areas more prone to the formation of new volcanic vents and how they compare to the location of population centers. We computed the spatial density using the sum of the asymptotic mean squared error (SAMSE), and the least-square cross validation (LSCV) algorithms, both available in the freely-distributed R statistical software library. Both algorithms produce grossly similar spatial density, but with significantly different emphasis on the three elongate vent zones. The SAMSE algorithm yields a spatial vent density of 3x10-2 - 4x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and an elliptical bandwidth of 2.6 km in the N-S direction and 2.2 km in the E-W. The LSCV algorithm produces a spatial vent density of 5x10-2 - 5x10-4 event/km2 between the 1st and 99th percentiles, and a highly eccentric bandwidth with axis of 2.8 km in the N-S direction and 0.8 km in the E-W. The vent spatial density map produced by the SAMSE algorithm embraces all the vents below the 95th percentile with a spatial density > 2x10-3 event/km2, and the shape of the map is quite homogeneous and not particularly sensitive to local geology or tectonic setting. The spatial density produced by the LSCV algorithm shows three parallel

  15. Treatment of childhood Hodgkin's disease with COPP or COPP-ABV (hybrid) without radiotherapy in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Baez, F; Ocampo, E; Conter, V; Flores, A; Gutierrez, T; Malta, A; Pacheco, C; Palacios, R; Biondi, A; Riva, L; Sala, A; Silvestri, D; Cavalli, F; Sessa, C; Casanova, M; Masera, G

    1997-03-01

    Childhood Hodgkin's disease (HD) in low-income countries has been reported to have distinct presenting features, including a high prevalence of the mixed cellularity subtype, which also seems to be associated with poorer prognosis. Further investigations are needed to evaluate these issues. Another controversial aspect of childhood HD is the use of radiotherapy (RT) in its treatment and the growing concern about its serious adverse side effects. In this paper, data on the diagnosis and outcome of children treated without RT in a low-income country (Nicaragua) are reported. Forty-eight consecutive children aged 0-15 years, diagnosed at 'La Mascota' Hospital of Managua (Nicaragua) from January 1990 to October 1995. entered this study. Follow-up was updated in May 1996. Clinical and histopathological staging was performed according to Ann Arbor and Rye criteria, respectively. Treatment consisted of COPP (six cycles) for stages I or IIA, or COPP-ABV hybrid): eight cycles for stages IIB or III, and ID cycles for stage IV. Total cumulative doses of adriamycin and bleomycin in this protocol are, respectively, 200 and 80 mg:sqm for stages II B or III and 250 and 100 mg/sqm for stage IV. The median age of the 48 patients at diagnosis was seven years, and the mean age was 7.9 years (range 3-15 years). Clinical stages were IA in 5, IIA in 9, IIB in 6, IIIA in 5, IIIB in 14, and IVB in 9. Histopathologically, 25 cases presented with mixed cellularity, 15 with nodular sclerosis, 5 with lymphocytic predominance and 3 with lymphocytic depletion. Four patients did not proceed with treatment and were lost to follow-up. Two patients (stages IIIB and IVB), who never achieved complete remission (CR) during treatment, presented progressive disease at the end of the scheduled chemotherapy. The remaining 42 patients were in complete remission at the end of chemotherapy. Following discontinuation of therapy, one patient (stage IA) was lost to follow-up and two patients with stage IIIB

  16. The science and politics of forest management in Northern Nicaragua after hurricane Felix (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Idarraga, Esteban

    This dissertation examines the ecological effects of hurricane Felix (2007) in Northern Nicaragua as well as the socio-political factors that influenced forest management efforts in hurricane impacted locations. Specifically, this research focused on the following questions: first, what were the regional damage patterns caused by hurricane Felix on the forests of Northern Nicaragua? Second, what stand and tree attributes explain observed post-hurricane damage patterns? And, third, why were post-hurricane management efforts unsuccessful? The first dissertation article characterizes the intensity and spatial distribution of forest damage after hurricane Felix using satellite imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and aerial photographs. Results indicated that Broadleaf forests experienced larger damage (>75% trees blown down) than Pine forest, and that Enhanced Vegetation Index data (EVI), obtained from the MODIS sensor, can adequately depict post-hurricane damage in tropical forests. The agreement between the obtained EVI damage map and the reference data set ranged from 91% in high-damage locations to 85% in low-damage locations, with 86% overall agreement. The second dissertation article describes the relationship between hurricane damage patterns and ecological variables at the local level. Specifically, it characterizes the relationship between tree-and-stand attributes (i.e. DBH, height, density, basal area) and wind damage, using field data. Findings indicate that tree attributes such as DBH and height strongly influenced the amount and type of wind damage and that stand attributes such as maximum canopy height and distance to the hurricane path were also predictive of the amount of damage. Observed differences in damage patterns among broadleaf and pine forests were strongly correlated with the height to diameter ratio (H/D). Field observations showed that while post-hurricane regeneration was abundant in broadleaf

  17. Characterising water balance dynamics and different runoff components in a poorly gauged tropical catchment, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The water balance dynamics, groundwater flow systems and the runoff components of a tropical forested small catchment (46 km2) is the southwestern Pacific coast of Nicaragua were studied by a combination of hydrometry (observation of rainfall, runoff, evaporation and groundwater levels), geological characterisation (hydrogeological mapping, flow systems, characterization and Piper diagrams) and hydrochemical and isotopic tracers (chemograph analysis, 2- and 3-component hydrograph separation, discharge-hydrochemical hysteresis effects, and MWL). Although some methods can be considered standard in runoff generation research in temperate climate regions; to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few studies that used the combination of these techniques in a tropical catchment of Central America. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, finding that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by geology, catchment size, and dominant landscape elements. Two major groundwater flow systems were identified with different chemical and isotopic characteristics. Indication of moisture recycling in the upper catchment area was found based on d-excess analysis. Runoff components were studied at different spatial and temporal scales, demonstrating that different sources and temporal contributions are controlled by dominant landscape elements and precipitation distribution. Evidence of strong river-aquifer interactions in the lower part of the catchment was found. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the surface and groundwater contributions to stream flow and its temporal and spatial distribution, which indicate the importance of runoff generation areas upstream in the catchment and also the vulnerability of the alluvial aquifer to contamination. This provides the basis to develop realistic, evidence-based water management plans for this developing region.

  18. Geochemically distinct sources for interstratified lavas from the Nejapa cinder cone alignment, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenson, M.D.; Carr, J.J.; Walker, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Nejapa cinder cone alignment, near Managua, Nicaragua, produces mafic subalkaline basalts that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The Nejapa basalts can be divided into high- and low-titanium suites that are interstratified. Although major element compositions are similar to MORB, concentrations of Ba and Sr in the Nejapa basalts are higher, ranging from 2 x MORB in the high-titanium suite to 10 X MORB for the low-titanium lavas. Recently determined Nd and Sr isotopic and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for Nejapa basalts show that the high and low titanium suites have distinct sources and cannot be related by simple crystallization trends. For example, although the high-Ti lavas are light REE depleted and have overall MORB-like REE concentrations, they are systematically lower in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and higher in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Low-Ti lavas, on the other hand, are LREE-enriched but have Nd isotopes identical to MORB (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is distinctly higher). The contradictory geochemical characteristics displayed by the Nejapa lavas can be explained in a general sense by a mixing model that involves upper mantle peridotite and a fluid derived from hydrothermally-altered subducted oceanic crust. This fluid may enrich overlying mantle in Ba, Sr, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, and may supply enough water to stabilize an accessory phase such as rutile at high pressure. Melts generated from this source will be low in Ti, but high in Ba, Sr, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd. Subjacent peridotite melting with less of the hydrous flux will generate lavas with higher Ti, lower Sr and Ba, and isotopic ratios of the peridotite.

  19. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Richard E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Connor, Charles B.; Sandberg, Stewart K.; Diez, Mikel

    2007-10-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60 m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity.

  20. Integrated geophysical and hydrothermal models of flank degassing and fluid flow at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.

  1. Investigation of the groundwater system at Masaya Caldera, Nicaragua, using transient electromagnetics and numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, R.E.; Sanford, W.E.; Connor, C.B.; Sandberg, S.K.; Diez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of groundwater beneath Masaya Volcano, in Nicaragua, and its surrounding caldera was characterized using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). Multiple soundings were conducted at 30 sites. Models of the TEM data consistently indicate a resistive layer that is underlain by one or more conductive layers. These two layers represent the unsaturated and saturated zones, respectively, with the boundary between them indicating the water-table elevation. A map of the TEM data shows that the water table in the caldera is a subdued replica of the topography, with higher elevations beneath the edifice in the south-central caldera and lower elevations in the eastern caldera, coinciding with the elevation of Laguna de Masaya. These TEM data, combined with regional hydrologic data, indicate that the caldera in hydrologically isolated from the surrounding region, with as much as 60??m of difference in elevation of the groundwater table across caldera-bounding faults. The water-table information and estimates of fluxes of water through the system were used to constrain a numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The simulation results indicate that basalt flows in the outer parts of the caldera have a relatively high transmissivity, whereas the central edifice has a substantially lower transmissivity. A layer of relatively high transmissivity must be present at depth within the edifice in order to deliver the observed flux of water and steam to the active vent. This hydrologic information about the caldera provides a baseline for assessing the response of this isolated groundwater system to future changes in magmatic activity. ?? 2007.

  2. Reactive plume chemistry and links to mercury deposition at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, Roland; Donohoue, Deanna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Witt, Melanie; Mather, Tamsin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes are known to emit significant quantities of gases and trace metals including mercury. Some of these gases are involved in very fast reaction cycles in the atmosphere. This is especially true for chlorine and bromine which destroy ozone catalytically and also oxidise elemental gaseous mercury. Oxidised mercury is soluble and can be taken up by particles which can potentially increase the deposition of toxic mercury near the volcano. In order to quantify these processes we conducted a field campaign at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua in March/April 2011. We measured gaseous S, F, Cl, Br, I, total gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and particle size distributions near the crater rim and at a site ~ 2.5 km downwind fumigated by the plume. We also measured BrO and SO2 near the crater rim and at two distances downwind by U.V. spectroscopy. The BrO/SO2 ratio was clearly elevated downwind compared to near-crater showing that reaction cycles to produce BrO are efficient on timescales of less than 10min. Changes in the mercury speciation (i.e., increased proportions of particulate Hg) were also observed at the downwind site, consistent with the links between reactive halogens and mercury discussed above. A one-dimensional model was used to simulate the evolution of the volcanic emissions in the atmosphere, the comparison with the field data showed good model skill at reproducing the chemical processes. Details of the field data and the model results will be discussed.

  3. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners.

  4. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatisticalestimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2004-04-27

    We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.

  5. MOMANIC Project - Temporary seismic installation to study the unrest at MOmotombo and MAsaya volcanoes in NICaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Graf, Pascal; Garcia, Fernando; Grillo, Ulbert; Mendoza, Francisco; Herrera, Martha; Argüello, Greyving; Massin, Frédérick; John, Clinton; Strauch, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    In the past three years, the region around the volcanoes Masaya and Momotombo, which includes Nicaraguans capital Managua, has shown an unusually high seismic and volcanic activity. On April 10, 2014, a M6.3 earthquake occurred near Momotombo volcano followed by intense aftershock activity and a migration of seismicity towards Managua. In the following 2 years, the seismic activity remained considerably higher than in the previous network operation time (1975-2013). In December 2015 and January 2016, Momotombo volcano erupted after 110 years of quiescence. Since Mid December 2015, Masaya volcano has a lava lake in its main crater with gradually increasing activity. With 30 broadband stations, we temporarily (Dec16-March17) densified the seismic network from the seismological department of INETER around these volcanoes. With this network, we expect to be able to image the magma chambers and feeding channels of the volcanoes using both, ambient noise tomography and earthquake tomography. A detailed analysis of the present seismicity shall provide us with a better understanding of the underlying tectonic processes and possible interactions between seismic and volcanic activity. In this contribution, we will present the project as well as first results from the field campaign. Acknowledgements This work is supported by the government of Nicaragua on behalf of the Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). GeoForschungsZentrum/Potsdam (GFZ-Potsdam) provided the 30 mobile seismic broad band stations from its geophysical instruments pool. The cooperation between SED/ETHZ and INETER is promoted and supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation DEZA.

  6. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured (FCO2) using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured (FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m-2 day-1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ??5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ??22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8-19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, we argue that this change is due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. In order to estimate the mean and associated CO2 emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial FCO2 distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: Arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO2 emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by ??4.4%, the FCO2 maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of FCO2, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO2 emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Magma-tectonic interactions in Nicaragua: the 1999 seismic swarm and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Femina, Peter C.; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Brittain E.; Strauch, Wilfried; Saballos, J. Armando

    2004-09-01

    A low-energy (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 1), small-volume (0.001 km 3 Dense Rock Equivalent [DRE]) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three earthquakes (each ˜ Mw 5.2) with strike-slip and oblique-slip focal mechanisms, the first of which occurred approximately 11 h before eruptive activity and within 1 km of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures formed during these events extend up to 4 km from Cerro Negro, but concentrate ˜1 km south of Cerro Negro. Surface ruptures did not occur within 300 m of the cone, however, three new vents formed on the south flank and base of Cerro Negro and on trend with the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro volcanic alignment. Earthquake swarms were located northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro and seismicity was elevated for up to 11 days after the initial event. The temporal and spatial patterns of earthquake swarms, surface ruptures, and the eruption location can be explained using the Hill [J. Geophys. Res. 82 (1977) 1347] model for earthquake swarms in volcanic regions, where an eruption is triggered by tectonically induced changes in the regional stress field. In this model, tectonic strain, rather than magmatic overpressure causes dilation of the conduit for magma ascent. Numerical simulations for the 1999 eruption illustrate that the observed velocities (up to 75 m s -1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little excess magmatic pressure, in response to changes in Coulomb stress along the Cerro La Mula-Cerro Negro alignment. These observations and models show that 1999 Cerro Negro activity was a tectonically induced small-volume eruption in an arc setting, with the accommodation of extensional strain by dike injection.

  8. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  9. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  10. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  11. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the

  12. A controlled HIV/AIDS-related health education programme in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Pauw, J; Ferrie, J; Rivera Villegas, R; Medrano Martínez, J; Gorter, A; Egger, M

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a community-wide intervention to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, change attitudes and increase safer-sex practices in Managua, Nicaragua. Household-based health education intervention trial comprising a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey at baseline, a health education intervention and a follow-up KAP survey. Four neighbourhoods were included, two received the intervention, and the other two served as controls. Randomly selected residents aged 15-45 years were interviewed at baseline (n = 2160) and follow-up (n = 2271) using an identical questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a health education campaign that emphasized HIV transmission and condom use. OUTCOME AND ANALYSIS: Knowledge levels regarding transmission and prevention of HIV infection, self-reported use of condoms, levels of worries about HIV/AIDS and perceptions of personal risk of HIV infection. Comparisons between baseline and follow-up employed chi 2 tests with continuity correction. The influence of the intervention was examined in multivariate logistic models including an appropriate interaction term. Intervention and control samples were comparable with regard to sex, age, and age at first intercourse. Significantly less intervention residents had formal education (P < 0.001). At baseline, outcome variables were generally similar in control and intervention samples. Condom use increased from 9 to 16% (P = 0.003) among intervention women, but only from 9 to 11% (P = 0.5) in control women (test for interaction, P = 0.08). Among men, increases were from 31 to 41% (P < 0.001) and from 30 to 37% (P = 0.06), respectively (test for interaction, P = 0.3). Levels of worries about HIV/AIDS decreased in all groups, but perception of individual risk increased only among intervention women (test for interaction, P = 0.02). This household-targeted health education intervention appears to have had some effect; however, sustained efforts are needed further to

  13. Prevalence of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children and Young Adults in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Paar, John A.; Berrios, Nubia M.; Rose, John D.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Peña, Rodolfo; Pérez, Wilton; Chen-Mok, Mario; Jolles, Erik; Dale, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) results in morbidity and mortality that is disproportionate among people in developing countries compared to those living in economically developed countries. The global burden of disease is uncertain because most previous studies to determine the prevalence of RHD in children relied on clinical screening criteria that lacked the sensitivity to detect most cases. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of RHD in children and young adults in León, Nicaragua, an area previously thought to have a high prevalence of RHD. This was an observational study of 3150 children, ages 5–15, and 489 adults, ages 20–35, randomly selected from urban and rural areas of León. Cardiopulmonary exams and echo-Doppler studies were performed on all subjects. Echo-Doppler diagnosis of RHD was based on pre-defined consensus criteria that were developed by a WHO/NIH working group. The overall prevalence of RHD in children was 48/1000 (95% C.I. = 35/1000–60/1000. The prevalence in urban children was 34/1000 and in rural children it was 80/1000. Using more stringent echo-Doppler criteria designed to diagnose definite RHD in adults, the prevalence was 22/1000 (95% C.I.=8/1000–37/1000). In conclusion, the prevalence of RHD among children and adults in this economically disadvantaged population far exceeds previously predicted rates. The findings underscore the potential health and economic burden of acute rheumatic fever and RHD and support the need for more effective measures of prevention, which may include safe, effective and affordable vaccines to prevent the streptococcal infections that trigger the disease. PMID:20538135

  14. Old cinder cone or young composite volcano?: The nature of Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Steven B.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1997-04-01

    Determining whether a volcano is a cinder cone or a composite volcano is important because its classification categorizes the magmatic system and associated volcanic hazards. The criteria of age and size of the volcano that are usually used for this assessment are inadequate for active, young volcanoes. Other criteria on which that determination can be based are magma production rates, cone morphology, and eruption style. Cerro Negro is an active, young, small basaltic volcano in northwestern Nicaragua that is similar to both cinder cones and composite volcanoes in many ways. It has had at least 22 historically documented eruptions since it first appeared in 1850; the most recent occurred in late 1995. The magma production rate for Cerro Negro (˜1.6 km3/k.y.) is of the same magnitude as those of a variety of composite volcanoes and an order of magnitude higher than the production rate for the Parícutin cinder cone region of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. Structurally, Cerro Negro's cone, is a composite of scoria and lavas cut by dikes around a dense volcanic core. Cerro Negro's shape has been more like a composite volcano than a cinder cone, except when infrequent sub-Plinian eruptions have altered the cone to make it look like a cinder cone. Comparisons of Cerro Negro to well-known, historically active cinder cones and young composite volcanoes show that it is best described as a young composite volcano. The future hazards posed by Cerro Negro are, therefore, not those associated with cinder cone eruptions, but the potentially more dangerous ones of composite volcanoes.

  15. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua as determined using the screening method.

    PubMed

    Cardellino, Anna; Khawaja, Shazia; Sánchez Cruz, Edmundo; Mast, T Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The screening method is a surveillance tool to evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) using coverage data on cases and available administrative estimates of vaccine coverage in the population. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the utility and limitations of using the screening methodology to estimate VE, particularly in a developing world country with a high coverage rate, and to compare it with the VE estimates from 2 case-control studies. Using data from 2008, the screening method employed in this study estimated that VE for 3 doses of RV5 among children<12 mo of age to prevent wild-type severe disease, resulting in hospitalization or emergency department visits, was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78-100%). Additional sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the point estimates of VE against severe disease ranged from 72% (95% CI: 62-83%) to 92% (95% CI: 78-100%); this range of VE estimates, although wide, is relatively consistent with results reported from 2 case-control studies in Nicaragua for the same time period. When the infrastructure is in place to collect reasonably robust case data, the use of the screening method to estimate VE is possible in the developing world setting. Cases of severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis were obtained through an observational, hospital-based, prospective, surveillance program to assess rotavirus acute gastroenteritis. The proportion of cases vaccinated was estimated using the child's vaccination card or health record. The proportion of the population vaccinated was estimated using administrative population-based vaccination coverage estimates provided by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health.

  17. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  18. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  19. Permanent tremor of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua: Wave field analysis and source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MéTaxian, Jean-Philippe; Lesage, Philippe; Dorel, Jacques

    1997-10-01

    The Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, is a basaltic caldera in a subduction zone. The permanent source of the volcanic tremor was located inside Santiago crater, at the lava lake's position and 400 m below the NE rim, and therefore corresponds to superficial magma activity. We used two tripartite arrays (90 m side), one semicircular array (r=120 m) in 1992, and two semicircular arrays (r=60 m) and a 2500 m long linear array radiating out from the source and on the flank of the crater in 1993. We used both a cross-spectrum method and a correlation method to determine the wave delay time between the reference station and the other stations of an array and to quantify the wave field. Using the delays therefore by intersecting the back azimuth wave directions from the arrays, we could pinpoint the source. Additionally, the correlation coefficients obtained as functions of frequency for the three components of motion confirm the inferred position of the source of tremor. The tremor's wave field is composed of comparable quantities of dispersed Rayleigh and Love surface waves, whose phase velocities lie in the ranges 730-1240 m/s at 2 Hz and 330-550 m/s at 6 Hz. The dispersive phase velocities were inverted to obtain crustal structures with a minimal number of layers. The resulting velocity models are similar for the northern and southern parts of the volcano. After geometrical spreading corrections, Q2Hz=14 and Q3Hz=31 were determined along the northern linear array. The typical low velocities and low Q corresponding to the cone structure and are similar to those of other basaltic volcanoes like Puu Oo, Hawaii, and Klyuchevskoy, Kamchatka.

  20. Case-control study of the effectiveness of vaccination with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Mast, T Christopher; Khawaja, Shazia; Espinoza, Félix; Paniagua, Margarita; Del Carmen, Leonel Palacio; Cardellino, Anna; Sánchez, Edmundo

    2011-11-01

    In 2006, Merck & Co., Inc., partnered with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health to demonstrate the public health impact of routine universal vaccination by delivering more than 1.3 million doses of the oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in a 3-year period. A matched case-control study evaluated the effectiveness of RV5 in reducing the risk for severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) resulting in hospitalizations and emergency department visits among children who completed the recommended 3-dose regimen as part of the routine national vaccine program. Cases were identified from 6 hospitals from February 2007 to October 2009 and were age-matched with hospital controls and community controls. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated using conditional logistic regression. Three hundred RGE cases eligible for analysis were matched to 792 hospital and 851 community controls. Vaccine coverage of RV5 in the community reached 92%. Vaccine effectiveness during 2 years of follow-up against severe disease in children receiving 3 doses of RV5 was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-93) for community controls, 64% (95% CI, 44-78) for hospital controls, and 76% (95% CI, 63-84) when the groups were combined. For the combined groups, vaccine effectiveness was 85% (95% CI, 66-93) among children <12 months old at the time of RGE onset. The Merck-Nicaragua Rotavirus Vaccine Partnership promoted rapid and widespread uptake of a novel vaccine in a developing country. Vaccine effectiveness was greatest for children younger than 12 months of age who were at the highest risk for severe rotavirus disease.

  1. Correlations between intestinal parasitosis, physical growth, and psychomotor development among infants and children from rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Oberhelman, R A; Guerrero, E S; Fernandez, M L; Silio, M; Mercado, D; Comiskey, N; Ihenacho, G; Mera, R

    1998-04-01

    The correlations between malnutrition, parasitosis (especially helminth infections), and child development are complex, and studies of these interrelationships will allow health agencies to maximize screening and intervention strategies for developing countries. We examined these correlations in a cross-sectional program in Carazo State, Nicaragua. Nine hundred sixty-one children in two age strata (ages 0-24 months and ages 2-10 years) from one urban and three rural communities were screened for intestinal parasites (direct smear and ZnSO4 flotation), malnutrition, and developmental delays. Nutritional status was determined as weight-for-age (WFA), weight-for-height (WFH), and height-for-age (HFA). Developmental status (normal, suspect) was determined for the four subtests of the Denver II Screening Test. The prevalence of malnutrition was 14.6% (WFA), 8.4% (WFH), and 36.3% (HFA). Parasitosis was more prevalent in children less than 24 months of age with low HFA, whereas in older children low WFA was more closely associated with parasitic infections. Ascaris and Trichuris were more prevalent in malnourished children. On the Denver II, suspect test results in all four categories (language, social, gross motor, and fine motor) were associated with low WFA, and suspect language tests were associated with both intestinal parasites (P = 0.0003) and Ascaris infection in particular (P = 0.044). Developmental disabilities are a significant and frequently undetected health problem in developing countries, and malnutrition associated with intestinal helminth infections may be an important contributory factor for these disabilities.

  2. Geochemical differences between along-arc and across-arc volcanics in west-central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Freundt, Armin; Wörner, Gerhard; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The La Paz Centro - Malpaisillo Lineament (LPML) in west-central Nicaragua is a north-south striking, 20 km long chain of maars and cinder cones, which intersects the northwest-southeast striking main volcanic front. A tectonic control of LPML volcanism is likely but only evident for the Malpaisillo fissure at the northern end of the LPML. Previous work demonstrated geochemical variations implying changes in mantle-source composition (i.e., added slab components) along the Central American Volcanic Arc at spatial scales of some 10's of kilometers. Our study of the LPML shows that minor but systematic changes also occur across the arc within 20 km distance. Variations in trace element ratios such as Zr/Nb, Ba/Th, Ba/La, Th/Zr, U/La and La/Yb along the LPML, i.e. across the volcanic front indicate little change in the degree of partial melting but an increase particularly in the hemipelagic sediment component in the mantle source from the fore arc towards the arc front, followed by a decrease behind the arc. Interestingly, the slab component is most prominent just in front of the arc. About 60 km southeast of the LPML, the Nejapa-Miraflores volcanic and tectonic lineament, which marks a 20 km north-south offset in the arc, differs substantially from the LPML. There is a wide scatter in incompatible trace element ratios indicating a heterogeneous mantle source at small spatial scales (c. 1 km). This mantle heterogeneity may represent vertical rather than across-arc variations and is probably related to the arc offset, because in the absence of such offset at the LPML mantle source conditions vary much less but more systematically.

  3. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  4. The ecological sustainability of tropical forest management: evaluation of the national forest management standards of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, with emphasis on the need for adaptive. management

    Treesearch

    Kathleen McGinleya; Bryan Fineganb

    2003-01-01

    From a conceptual point of view, national forest management standards in Latin American countries have progressed significantly in recent years.Examples include the Costa Rican Standards and Procedures for Sustainable Forest Management and Certification, developed by the National Commission for Forest Certification and in Nicaragua, the National Institute of Forestry...

  5. Claves y pautas graficas en la determinacion de edad en dos especies del genero Thryothorus (Troglodytidae) en el Pacifico de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Marvin Torrez; Wayne J. Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Photographic key to determine age in two Thryothorus wrens from Nicaragua's Pacific slope. – We used plumage and molt characteristics to determine age in two Neotropical species of the family Troglodytidae, Rufous-and-White Wren (Thryothorus rufalbus) and Plain Wren (T. modestus). Color density, shape, and strength of the black barring in the remiges, rectrices,...

  6. Aves hormigueras en bosque seco del Pacífico de Nicaragua: uso de hábitat y comportamiento parasítico

    Treesearch

    Marvin A. Tórrez; Wayne Arendt; Pomares. Salmeron

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen species of ant-following birds belonging to eight taxonomic families were observed parasitizing army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) in dry forest on the Pacifi c slope of Nicaragua. The birds used all three habitats previously selected as part of a broader biodiversity study: secondary forest, forest fallow, and coffee plantation. Species known to follow army...

  7. Training for Empowerment: A Kit of Materials for Popular Literacy Workers Based on an Exchange among Educators from Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Judith; And Others

    This kit of materials, designed for trainers of adult literacy teachers, attempts to capture the experience of five adult literacy workers from Mozambique on a study tour of Nicaragua and Brazil, and to introduce the user to the concept, methodology, and tools of "popular literacy." The kit both reports an experience and offers a set of…

  8. Governmental regulation and nongovernmental certification of forests in the tropics: policy, execution, uptake, and overlap in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Kathleen McGinley; F.W. Cubbage

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed how and why governmental forest regulation and nongovernmental forest certification in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Nicaragua and their execution lead to, or fail to produce desired changes in forest owner and user behavior toward the enhanced sustainability of tropical forests. The findings confirmed not only that sufficient resources and capacity for...

  9. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  10. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  11. Cruise ships and bush medicine: Globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Design Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Sample Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18–45. Measurements After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. Results In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Conclusions Findings on the relationships between culture, disease and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help healthcare providers and public health policy makers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:24766610

  12. Primary healthcare providers’ views on improving sexual and reproductive healthcare for adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Ossio, Freddy Cordova; Vega, Bernardo; Auquilla, Nancy; Medina, Joel; Gorter, Anna C.; Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Temmerman, Marleen; Edmonds, Alexander B.; Valius, Leonas; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) care in their communities can be improved. Methods Overall, 126 healthcare providers (46 from Bolivia, 39 from Ecuador, and 41 from Nicaragua) took part in this qualitative study. During a series of moderated discussions, they provided written opinions about the accessibility and appropriateness of ASRH services and suggestions for its improvement. The data were analyzed by employing a content analysis methodology. Results Study participants emphasized managerial issues such as the prioritization of adolescents as a patient group and increased healthcare providers’ awareness about adolescent-friendly approaches. They noted that such an approach needs to be extended beyond primary healthcare centers. Schools, parents, and the community in general should be encouraged to integrate issues related to ASRH in the everyday life of adolescents and become ‘gate-openers’ to ASRH services. To ensure the success of such measures, action at the policy level would be required. For example, decision-makers could call for developing clinical guidelines for this population group and coordinate multisectoral efforts. Conclusions To improve ASRH services within primary healthcare institutions in three Latin American countries, primary healthcare providers call for focusing on improving the youth-friendliness of health settings. To facilitate this, they suggested engaging with key stakeholders, such as parents, schools, and decision-makers at the policy level. PMID:23680267

  13. Cruise ships and bush medicine: globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18-45. After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow-up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Findings on the relationships between culture, disease, and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help health care providers and public health policymakers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  15. Serpentinization in the trench-outer rise region offshore of Nicaragua: constraints from seismic refraction and wide-angle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivandic, Monika; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Bialas, Joerg; Petersen, C. Joerg

    2010-03-01

    Recent seismic evidence suggested that most oceanic plate hydration is associated with trench-outer rise faulting prior to subduction. Hydration at trenches may have a significant impact on the subduction zone water cycle. Previous seismic experiments conducted to the northwest of Nicoya Peninsula, Northern Costa Rica, have shown that the subducting Cocos lithosphere is pervasively altered, which was interpreted to be due to both hydration (serpentinization) and fracturing of the crustal and upper-mantle rocks. New seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction data were collected along two profiles, running parallel to the Middle American trench axis offshore of central Nicaragua, revealing lateral changes of the seismic properties of the subducting lithosphere. Seismic structure along both profiles is characterized by low velocities both in the crust and upper mantle. Velocities in the uppermost mantle are found to be in the range 7.3-7.5kms-1 thus are 8-10 per cent lower than velocities typical for unaltered peridotites and hence confirm the assumption that serpentinization is a common process at the trench-outer rise area offshore of Nicaragua. In addition, a prominent velocity anomaly occurred within the crust beneath two seamounts. Here, velocity reduction may indicate increased porosity and perhaps permeability, supporting the idea that seamounts serve as sites for water percolation and circulation.

  16. Well water quality in rural Nicaragua using a low-cost bacterial test and microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Patricia; Aw, Tiong Gim; Urquhart, Gerald R; Galeano, Miguel Ruiz; Rose, Joan B

    2016-04-01

    Water-related diseases, particularly diarrhea, are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Monitoring water quality on a global scale is crucial to making progress in terms of population health. Traditional analytical methods are difficult to use in many regions of the world in low-resource settings that face severe water quality issues due to the inaccessibility of laboratories. This study aimed to evaluate a new low-cost method (the compartment bag test (CBT)) in rural Nicaragua. The CBT was used to quantify the presence of Escherichia coli in drinking water wells and aimed to determine the source(s) of any microbial contamination. Results indicate that the CBT is a viable method for use in remote rural regions. The overall quality of well water in Pueblo Nuevo, Nicaragua was deemed unsafe, and results led to the conclusion that animal fecal wastes may be one of the leading causes of well contamination. Elevation and depth of wells were not found to impact overall water quality. However rope-pump wells had a 64.1% reduction in contamination when compared with simple wells.

  17. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality.

  18. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Velasquez, E.; Belmar, R.; Coye, M.; Drucker, E.; Landrigan, P.J.; Michaels, D.; Sidel, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime.

  19. Mercury poisoning in Nicaragua: a case study of the export of environmental and occupational health hazards by a multinational corporation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A; Velasquez, E; Belmar, R; Coye, M; Drucker, E; Landrigan, P J; Michaels, D; Sidel, K B

    1981-01-01

    Pennwalt Inc., a multinational chemical and pharmaceutical firm based in the United States, operates a chloralkali plant in Managua, Nicaragua. This plant utilizes elemental mercury in the production of chlorine and caustic soda for markets throughout Central America. The plant was recently found to be contaminating the waters of Lake Managua (on which the plant is located) with 2 to 4 tons of inorganic mercury effluent per year-over 40 tons in the 13-year history of the plant. Examination of the 152 workers employed in the plant showed that 56(37 percent) were suffering symptoms and signs of mercury poisoning, including tremors (in 45), memory and attention deficits (in 45) and paresthesias (in 52). Levels of airborne mercury vapor in the plant were found to range as high as 600 microgram/m3. (The airborne standard set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration is 100 microgram/m3.) Workers in the plant had never been alerted to the hazards of mercury. The plant was found to be in deteriorated condition, with no recent investments in maintenance or modern safety equipment. It is reported that the parent corporation, Pennwalt, has been withdrawing capital from the operation (and from Nicaragua) since the fall of the Somoza regime.

  20. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. METHODS: A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. RESULTS: IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality. PMID:10630139

  1. Investigating competing uses of unevenly distributed resources in Nicaragua applying the Climate, Land Use (Food), Energy and Water strategies framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eunice; Sridharan, Vignesh; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The distribution of resources in Nicaragua is not even, as it is the case in many countries in the world. However, in the particular case of water resources, commonly used by different sectors and essential to basic human activities, their availability differs along the main drainage basins and is often mismatched with sectoral demands. For example, the population is distributed unevenly, with 80% being located in water scarce areas of the Pacific and Central region of Nicaragua. Agricultural activities also take place in regions where water resources are vulnerable. The spatial distribution of water and energy resources, population and land use in Nicaragua allowed for the identification of three target regions for the analysis: the Pacific coast, the Dry Corridor zone, and the Atlantic region. Each of these zones has different challenges on which the CLEWs assessment focused on. Water sources in the Pacific coast are mostly groundwater, and uncertainty exists related to the long-term availability of such source. This is also the region where most of the sugarcane, an important source of revenue for Nicaragua, is produced. As sugarcane needs to be irrigated, this increases the pressure on water resources. The Dry Corridor is an arid stretch in Central America cyclically affected by droughts that have a severe impact on the households whose economy and subsistence depends on agriculture of grains and coffee beans. It is expected that climate change will exacerbate further the food security problem. When water is lacking, also population experiences limited access to water for drinking and cooking. In addition, two major hydropower plants are located in this zone. Water resources are available both from surface and groundwater sources, however, due to their intensive use and vulnerability to climate, their availability can affect severely different sectors, presenting risks to food, water and energy security. Hydropower potential is foreseen to be exploited in the

  2. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally < 2000 μg/g) and H2O are lost to the vapor phase during deep decompression (P > 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P < 50-60 MPa), volatile-poor (H2O < 0.3-1.7 wt%; CO2 < 23

  3. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua: A key Mars Analog Environment for Acid-Sulfate Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, B. M.; Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfate-rich bedrock has been discovered in many locations on Mars and has been studied by both orbiting spacecraft and landers. It appears that in most cases these minerals are produced by acid-sulfate weathering of igneous rocks, which may have been a widespread process for the first billion years of Mars' history. The origin of life on Earth may have occurred in iron-sulfur hydrothermal settings and it is conceivable that early Mars had similar environmental conditions. An excellent terrestrial analog for acid- sulfate weathering of Mars-like basalts exists at Cerro Negro (CN), Nicaragua, where sulfur-bearing gases interact with recently erupted basaltic ash in numerous fumaroles. To date, we have made two expeditions to CN to assess the chemical, mineralogical, and biological conditions. At the fumaroles pH ranges from <1 to 5 and temperatures range from 40 to 400° C. Basalts with a chemical composition very similar to those on Mars are being chemically altered in the solfatara setting. In a few years, freshly erupted basalt can be converted into predominately Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-sulfates, Fe-hydroxides (including jarosite), clays, and free silica. Altered rocks have up to 30 wt% SO3 equivalent, which is similar to the Meridiani Planum bedrocks and inferred in other sulfate-bearing bedrock on Mars. Moreover, heavily weathered rocks have silica contents up to 80 wt%, similar to silica-rich soils at Gusev Crater that possibly formed in hydrothermal environments. Samples were collected for biological analysis including enrichment and isolation of novel thermophiles as well as molecular characterization of thermophile diversity. The low water and nutrient levels found in solfatara environments lead to less biomass when compared to hot springs with similar geochemical conditions. Nonetheless, microbes are thriving in these hot, acidic vent environments. At Cerro Negro solfatara, we are characterizing the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of resident microbial

  4. Shape evolution of arc volcanoes, a case study of Concepción and Maderas (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Mathieu, L.; Cecchi, E.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanoes change shape as they grow due to the interplay of several processes such as eruption style, intrusion, vent migration, erosion, and through the effects of tectonic and gravitational deformation. Their shapes can thus hold clues as to their volcano-tectonic state and their structural evolution. We have recently carried out a study on volcano shape evolution by the morphometric analyses of 115 volcanoes from Central America and the southern Central Andes using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) (Grosse et al., 2009, Geology). The study allowed us to obtain a classification of volcanic edifices (cones, sub-cones, and massifs) and to recognize several evolutionary trends, which seem to be mainly related to magma flux, edifice strength and structural / tectonic conditions. In order to test some of the hypotheses on specific cases, we here explore the morphometric evolution of the two volcanoes that make up the island of Ometepe (Nicaragua), Concepción and Maderas. From basic geological mapping we have a detailed knowledge of the stratigraphy, lithology and architecture of these two volcanoes. Both volcanoes have experienced or are experiencing gravitational spreading, but they differ in that Concepción is a rapidly growing active cone, whereas Maderas is a squat and dormant sub-cone. In addition to the SRTM DEM, we use a higher resolution 30-meter DEM from the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and combine the morphometric analysis with our field data. We find clear differences in the morphology of the two volcanoes and more subtle variations within discrete sectors of each volcano that are associated with local lava/tephra ratios, the prevailing winds, eruption and erosion rates, and gravitational spreading. The effects of gravitational spreading on the morphometry of the volcanoes are further investigated by comparing with 3-D analogue experiments. This specific case study shows how detailed

  5. Ending Intimate Partner Violence after pregnancy: Findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Valladares, Eliette; Öhman, Ann; Högberg, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background Although reducing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem, few longitudinal studies in developing countries have assessed ways to end such abuse. To this end, this paper aims to analyze individual, family, community and societal factors that facilitate reducing IPV. Methods A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied. Results Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a

  6. Violence against women and unintended pregnancies in Nicaragua: a population-based multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an increased use of contraceptive methods by women, unintended pregnancies represent one of the most evident violations of women’s sexual and reproductive rights around the world. This study aims to measure the association between individual and community exposure to different forms of violence against women (physical/sexual violence by the partner, sexual abuse by any person, or controlling behavior by the partner) and unintended pregnancies. Methods Data from the 2006/2007 Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey were used. For the current study, 5347 women who reported a live birth in the five years prior to the survey and who were married or cohabitating at the time of the data collection were selected. Women’s exposure to controlling behaviors by their partners was measured using six questions from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Area-level variables were constructed by aggregating the individual level exposures to violence into an exposure measurement of the municipality as a whole (n = 142); which is the basic political division in Nicaragua. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results In total, 37.1% of the pregnancies were reported as unintended. After adjusting for all variables included in the model, individual exposure to controlling behavior by a partner (AOR = 1.28, 95% CrI = 1.13–1.44), ever exposure to sexual abuse (AOR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.62), and ever exposure to physical/sexual intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.44, 95% CrI = 1.24–1.66) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancies. Women who lived in municipalities in the highest tertile of controlling behavior by a partner had 1.25 times higher odds of reporting an unintended pregnancy than women living in municipalities in the lowest tertile (AOR = 1.25, 95% CrI = 1.03–1.48). Conclusions Nicaraguan women often experience unintended pregnancies, and the occurrence of

  7. Geochemistry and genesis of behind-arc basaltic lavas from eastern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoušek, V.; Erban, V.; Holub, F. V.; Magna, T.; Bellon, H.; Mlčoch, B.; Wiechert, U.; Rapprich, V.

    2010-05-01

    The petrology and chemistry of the Behind the Volcanic Front (BVF) lavas from eastern mainland Nicaragua and the adjacent Great Corn Island in the Caribbean Sea illustrate the complex nature of sources and processes operating in such a tectonic setting. The older, Early Miocene (˜ 17 Ma) group of low-Ti (< 1 wt.%) basalts-andesites is characterized by a strong LILE/HFSE depletion. The low-Ti lavas from El Rama and El Bluff areas are interpreted as relics of Early Miocene volcanic arc, largely analogous to the nowadays extinct Coyol arc further west. However, these rocks differ in some parameters from the modern volcanic front lavas, most notably in having lower δ7Li values, Ba/Yb ratios and lower U contents. The younger high-Ti (Ti > 1.5%) lavas, rich in other HFSE as well, are represented both by alkaline (Quaternary trachybasalts: Volcán Azul and Kukra Hill) and subalkaline (basalts-basaltic andesites: Late Miocene, ˜ 11 Ma Great Corn Island and Quaternary, Pearl Lagoon) volcanic rocks. The Late Miocene and Quaternary high-Ti BVF lavas probably represent small-volume decompression melts of a source similar to that of the OIB-like magmas, most likely upwelling asthenosphere having a strong Galápagos mantle imprint. The positive Sr-Nd isotopic correlation indicates an interaction between this OIB component and a depleted lithospheric mantle modified by a subduction-related influx of Sr and, to a lesser extent, other hydrous fluid-mobile elements. However, the rocks show no recognizable influence of the modern subduction. The feeble trace-element (e.g., slightly elevated Ba, K, and Sr at some localities) and a more pronounced Sr-Li isotopic subduction-related signal stems most likely from the Miocene convergence episode. Subduction of the Galápagos hot-spot tracks in Costa Rica produces magmas that can be readily recognized by their elevated Sr isotopic ratios due to seafloor alteration; the Nd isotopic signature remains unaffected. Such a component with

  8. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from <0 to 5. Adjacent to some fumaroles, silica is being precipitated from condensing steam on the crater walls and endolithic photosynthetic mats are found at 1-2 cm depth within these silica deposits. We have analyzed one of these mats, Monkey Cheek (T=65°C, pH ~4.5), for both Archaeal and Bacterial diversity. Cloning of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes reveals a diverse community of Bacteria, with eight phyla represented. The most common bacterial sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted

  9. Characterization of Mesoamerican Nephropathy in a Kidney Failure Hotspot in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Kupferman, Joseph; Amador, Juan José; Lynch, Katherine E; Laws, Rebecca L; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Kaufman, James S; Lau, Jorge Luis; Weiner, Daniel E; Robles, Ninoska Violeta; Verma, Karina P; Scammell, Madeleine K; McClean, Michael D; Brooks, Daniel R; Friedman, David J

    2016-11-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is a kidney disease of unknown cause that mainly affects working-age men in Central America. Despite being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this region, its clinical characteristics have not been well defined. Cross-sectional family-based study. 266 members of 24 families with high chronic kidney disease (CKD) burdens in a MeN hotspot in Northwestern Nicaragua. We compared clinical and biochemical characteristics of affected individuals first with their unaffected relatives and then with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) participants with CKD in order to reveal identifying features of MeN. CKD defined as serum creatinine level ≥ 1.5mg/dL in men and ≥1.4mg/dL in women. Clinical and biochemical parameters, including serum sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and uric acid. Hyperuricemia, in many cases severe, was common among patients with MeN. Uric acid levels in patients with MeN were higher than those in NHANES participants (mean, 9.6 vs 7.4mg/dL for men in each group) despite more frequent use of uric acid-lowering medications in Nicaraguan individuals (71.7% vs 11.2%). In multivariable linear mixed-effects regression analysis, uric acid levels were 2.0mg/dL (95% CI, 1.0-3.0; P<0.001) higher in patients with MeN compared with their NHANES counterparts after adjusting for age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and uric acid-lowering therapies. In contrast to prior reports, hyponatremia and hypokalemia were not common. CKD defined by single serum creatinine measurement; population likely not representative of full MeN phenotype spectrum across Central America; major differences between MeN and NHANES groups in important characteristics such as age, ancestry, and recruitment method. Hyperuricemia out of proportion to the degree of decreased kidney function was common among Nicaraguan patients with MeN. Our results suggest that rather than being solely a consequence

  10. Gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, E; Marín, F M; García, J; Berglund, S; Liljestrand, J; Persson, L A

    1997-07-01

    This study sought to uncover gender and social differences in adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Nicaragua through an investigation of age at first coitus and first pregnancy. Data were gathered through a 1993 cross-sectional, community-based survey of a representative sample of 7789 households in the municipality of Leon. Interviews were held with 10,867 women aged 15-49, and more detailed information was elicited from a random subsample of 388 men and 413 women. It was found that median age at first coitus was 17.8 for women and 16.2 for men, with 25% of the population engaging in coitus before age 15. Women delivered their first child at a median age of 19.6 years, whereas men became fathers at 21.2 years. Lack of formal education increased risk of earlier pregnancy for women by 2.5 times, but no increased risk occurred for rural versus urban residence. Earlier pregnancy occurred in women who did not live with their biological fathers during childhood and adolescence (living with a stepfather increased risk of early coitus and delivery even more). Men without a formal education became fathers at an earlier age in both urban and rural areas. The period between first coitus and delivery for women was 21.5 months (20 months for women with primary education or less and 27 months for those who completed ninth-grader or higher). Age groups comparisons (15-20, 21-27, 28-35, and 36-49) showed that the current adolescents were experiencing first coitus and first pregnancy significantly later than the older groups but that the 28-35 age group showed significantly earlier onset of each event. These results point to the need to improve gender equity and women's status and to develop a health care policy that responds to the special needs of adolescents (counseling, access to contraceptives, and availability of safe abortion). Sex education programs must begin at the primary levels in schools because of high drop-out rates.

  11. Normal block faulting in the Airport Graben, Managua pull-apart rift, Nicaragua: gravity and magnetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Zambrana Arias, X.; Keppie, D.; Ramón Márquez, V.

    2012-12-01

    Regional scale models have been proposed for the Nicaraguan depression: 1) parallel rifting of the depression (and volcanic front) due to roll back of the underlying subducted Cocos plate; 2) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and locally offset by pull-apart basins; 3) right-lateral strike-slip faulting parallel to the depression and offset by left-lateral transverse or bookshelf faults. At an intermediate scale, Funk et al. (2011) interpret the depression as half graben type structures. The E-W Airport graben lies in the southeastern part of the Managua graben (Nicaragua), across which the active Central American volcanic arc is dextrally offset, possibly the result of a subducted transform fault where the subduction angle changes. The Managua graben lies within the late Quaternary Nicaragua depression produced by backarc rifting during roll back of the Middle American Trench. The Managua graben formed as a pull-apart rift associated with dextral bookshelf faulting during dextral shear between the forearc and arc and is the locus of two historical, large earthquakes that destroyed the city of Managua. In order to asses future earthquake risk, four E-W gravity and magnetic profiles were undertaken to determine its structure across the Airport graben, which is bounded by the Cofradia and Airport fault zones, to the east and west, respectively. These data indicated the presence of a series of normal faults bounding down-thrown and up-thrown fault blocks and a listric normal fault, Sabana Grande Fault. The models imply that this area has been subjected to tectonic extension. These faults appear to be part of the bookshelf suite and will probably be the locus of future earthquakes, which could destroy the airport and surrounding part of Managua. Three regional SW-NE gravity profiles running from the Pacific Ocean up to the Caribbean See indicate a change in crustal structure: from north to south the crust thins. According to these regional

  12. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  13. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  14. Evidence for static stress changes triggering the 1999 eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua and regional aftershock sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez, M.; La Femina, P. C.; Connor, C. B.; Strauch, W.; Tenorio, V.

    2005-02-01

    Remarkable evidence of coupling between tectonic and magmatic events emerges from investigation of three tectonic earthquakes, aftershock sequences and eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua in 1999. Here, we explain this coupling through static stress changes following three Mw 5.2 earthquakes. We use focal mechanism solutions to estimate fault system geometry and magnitude of slip from these events, which are then used to calculate the change in minimum horizontal principal stress (σ3) for the region and the change in Coulomb failure stress on optimally oriented fault planes. Results of these simulations indicate that σ3 was reduced by ~0.08 MPa and that Coulomb failure stress was raised by 0.001 to 0.2 MPa in the region. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates spatial correlation of Coulomb failure stress changes and triggered seismicity and volcanism, and suggests that these small changes in static stress can trigger subsequent geophysical events under appropriate circumstances.

  15. The Role of Flux Melting on U-series Systematics of Young Lavas from Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Reagan, M. K.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    We have acquired U, Th and Pa isotope data for young lavas that derive from source regions affected by slab fluid addition that ranges in magnitude from minor beneath Costa Rica to substantial beneath Nicaragua. Four of the five Costa Rican samples have (231Pa/235U) and (230Th/238U)>1 five out of six Nicaraguan lavas have (230Th/238U)<1 and (231Pa/235U)>1, but (231Pa/235U) ranges to lower values in Nicaragua. On a (231Pa/235U) vs. (230Th/238U) diagram, the data, though limited in number, seem to define two trends with decreasing (230Th/238U), one with a slope of ~2.5 and the other with a slope of ~0.7. Trace element ratios indicate that the latter were affected more by addition of hemipelagic sediment, suggesting a link between subduction-fluid source and Pa-Th-U systematics. The combined 231Pa-235U and 232Th-238U-230Th data provide constraints on the timing and mechanisms of fluid addition and partial melting beneath the Central American arc. Significant (231Pa/235U) excesses (>1.5) in both Costa Rica and Nicaragua require a melting process that allows for ingrowth, as simple batch or fractional melting cannot explain the excesses at melt fractions large enough to explain trace element abundances and ratios. We propose a flux-ingrowth melting model in which the mantle wedge flows downward with the subducting slab and partially melts as fluid is added to regions with suitably hot temperature. We assume critical melting at low porosity ( ~10-3) and that melt extraction and transport are rapid enough (< 8 kyr) to preserve observed 226Ra excesses. Because solid mantle may traverse the melting region over 105-106 yrs., 231Pa and 230Th ingrow from U retained in the matrix. Magmas are aggregated instantaneously from all parts of the melting regime. This flux-ingrowth model matches a wide range of U-series and trace element data from Costa Rican and Nicaraguan lavas, with required average extents of melting of ~1% and 8-10%, respectively. Integration of melts from regions

  16. The 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua: Investigation of the role of hydrothermal smectite in promoting slope instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Delmelle, P.; Boivin, P.; Delvaux, B.

    2006-08-01

    Buildup of excess pore water pressure within highly fractured rocks is held responsible for the initiation of the disastrous 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua. Here, we postulate that the presence of smectite clay (up to 50 wt.%) in the hydrothermally-altered bedrock contributed to slope instability. Over decades or more, the clayey material probably (i) acted as an efficient barrier to water infiltration, (ii) progressively decreased shear-strength, and (iii) gradually destabilized the overlying rock mass. These effects are explained by the shrink-swell behavior of the clay-rich bedrock. During intense rainfall, formation of incipient weak failure surfaces in the superficial rock mass could have been favoured due to rapid alteration in the mechanical properties of smectite-containing clays deposited in fracture, joint and gouge interfaces.

  17. Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: a case-referent study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Peña, Rodolfo; Ellsberg, Mary Carroll; Persson, Lars Ake

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the impact of violence against mothers on mortality risks for their offspring before 5 years of age in Nicaragua. From a demographic database covering a random sample of urban and rural households in Le n, Nicaragua, we identified all live births among women aged 15-49 years. Cases were defined as those who had died before the age of 5 years, between January 1993 and June 1996. For each case, two referents, matched for sex and age at death, were selected from the database. A total of 110 mothers of the cases and 203 mothers of the referents were interviewed using a standard questionnaire covering mothers' experience of physical and sexual violence. The data were analysed for the risk associated with maternal experience of violence of infant and under-5 mortality. A total of 61% of mothers of cases had a lifetime experience of physical and/or sexual violence compared with 37% of mothers of referents, with a significant association being found between such experiences and mortality among their offspring. Other factors associated with higher infant and under-5 mortality were mother's education (no formal education), age (older), and parity (multiparity). The results suggest an association between physical and sexual violence against mothers, either before or during pregnancy, and an increased risk of under-5 mortality of their offspring. The type and severity of violence was probably more relevant to the risk than the timing, and violence may impact child health through maternal stress or care-giving behaviours rather than through direct trauma itself.

  18. Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Coloma, Josefina; Hernández-Alvarez, Carlos; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    A cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. Data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the Nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditions of the national vector control programme. Three household entomological indicators for Aedes aegypti breeding were Household Index, Households with pupae, and Pupae per Person. The primary exposure indicator at the six time points was temephos identified physically during the entomological inspection. A stricter criterion for exposure at four time points included households reporting temephos application during the last 30 days and temephos found on inspection. Using generalized linear mixed modelling with cluster as a random effect and temephos as a potential fixed effect, at each time point we examined possible determinants of lower entomological indicators. Between 2005 and 2013, temephos exposure was not significantly associated with a reduction in any of the three entomological indices, whether or not the exposure indicator included timing of temephos application. In six of 18 multivariate models at the six time points, temephos exposure was associated with higher entomological indices; in these models, we could exclude any protective effect of temephos with 95% confidence. Our failure to demonstrate a significant protective association between temephos and entomological indices might be explained by several factors. These include ecological adaptability of the vector, resistance of Aedes to the pesticide, operational deficiencies of vector control programme, or a decrease in preventive actions by households resulting from a false sense of protection fostered by the

  19. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.

  20. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need for multi-dimensional local interventions to break the cycles of

  1. Breaking the cycles of poverty: Strategies, achievements, and lessons learned in Los Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2014

    PubMed Central

    Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo; Perez, Wilton; Berglund, Staffan; Contreras, Mariela; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In a post-war frontier area in north-western Nicaragua that was severely hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, local stakeholders embarked on and facilitated multi-dimensional development initiatives to break the cycles of poverty. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of priority-setting, and the strategies, guiding principles, activities, achievements, and lessons learned in these local development efforts from 1990 to 2014 in the Cuatro Santos area, Nicaragua. Methods: Data were derived from project records and a Health and Demographic Surveillance System that was initiated in 2004. The area had 25,893 inhabitants living in 5,966 households in 2014. Results: A participatory process with local stakeholders and community representatives resulted in a long-term strategic plan. Guiding principles were local ownership, political reconciliation, consensus decision-making, social and gender equity, an environmental and public health perspective, and sustainability. Local data were used in workshops with communities to re-prioritise and formulate new goals. The interventions included water and sanitation, house construction, microcredits, environmental protection, school breakfasts, technical training, university scholarships, home gardening, breastfeeding promotion, and maternity waiting homes. During the last decade, the proportion of individuals living in poverty was reduced from 79 to 47%. Primary school enrolment increased from 70 to 98% after the start of the school breakfast program. Under-five mortality was around 50 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and again peaked after Hurricane Mitch and was approaching 20 per 1,000 in 2014. Several of the interventions have been scaled up as national programs. Conclusions: The lessons learned from the Cuatro Santos initiative underline the importance of a bottom-up approach and local ownership of the development process, the value of local data for monitoring and evaluation, and the need

  2. AFLP diversity and spatial structure of Calycophyllum candidissimum (Rubiaceae), a dominant tree species of Nicaragua's critically endangered seasonally dry forest.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Lara, A; Affenzeller, M; Tribsch, A; Díaz, V; Comes, H P

    2017-10-01

    The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation. Genetic diversity was low in all investigated populations (mean HE=0.125), and negatively correlated with latitude. Overall population differentiation was moderate (ΦST=0.109, P<0.001), and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed two major latitudinal clusters (I: 'Pacific North'+'Central Highland'; II: 'Pacific South'), along with a genetic cline between I and II. Population-based cluster analyses indicated a strong pattern of 'isolation by distance' as confirmed by Mantel's test. Our results suggest that (1) the low genetic diversity of these populations reflects biogeographic/population history (colonisation from South America, Pleistocene range contractions) rather than recent human impact; whereas (2) the underlying process of their isolation by distance pattern, which is best explained by 'isolation by dispersal limitation', implies contemporary gene flow between neighbouring populations as likely facilitated by the species' efficient seed dispersal capacity. Overall, these results underscore that even tree species from highly decimated forest regions may be genetically resilient to habitat fragmentation due to species-typical dispersal characteristics, the necessity of broad-scale measures for their conservation notwithstanding.

  3. Mutated G4P[8] Rotavirus Associated with a Nationwide Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in 2005▿

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemon; Karlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Paniagua, Margarita; González, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Espinoza, Felix; Svensson, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    During February and March 2005, one of the largest national recorded outbreaks of severe acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nicaragua, affecting ≥64,000 individuals and causing ≥56 deaths, predominantly in children under 5 years of age. Through a nationwide laboratory-based study, stool samples were collected and investigated for rotavirus. Of 108 stool samples examined, 72 (67%) were positive for rotavirus. While 69% (50/72) of the positive samples were found in children less than 2 years of age, 50% (6/12) of the adult samples were positive. A mutated G4P[8] strain was the most commonly recognized strain (85%), followed by mixed G strains (8%) and G9P[8] (7%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that the G4 strains belonged to the emerging lineage Ic and was distantly related to the ST3 and VA70 G4 strains. Secondary structure predictions of the VP7 G4 protein revealed an insert of an asparagine residue in position 76, which, combined with additional mutations, surprisingly modified two downstream β-sheets at amino acid positions 80 to 85 and 115 to 119. The 2005 G4P[8] strain compared to a G4P[8] strain from 2002 had a substitution of an asparagine residue for threonine (Asn→Thr) at position 96 within antigenic region A, thus eliminating a potential glycosylation site. The mutated G4 virus was introduced in Nicaragua after 2002 and probably emerged from Brazil, Argentina, or Uruguay. PMID:17229854

  4. Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: a case-referent study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Peña, Rodolfo; Ellsberg, Mary Carroll; Persson, Lars Ake

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of violence against mothers on mortality risks for their offspring before 5 years of age in Nicaragua. METHODS: From a demographic database covering a random sample of urban and rural households in Le n, Nicaragua, we identified all live births among women aged 15-49 years. Cases were defined as those who had died before the age of 5 years, between January 1993 and June 1996. For each case, two referents, matched for sex and age at death, were selected from the database. A total of 110 mothers of the cases and 203 mothers of the referents were interviewed using a standard questionnaire covering mothers' experience of physical and sexual violence. The data were analysed for the risk associated with maternal experience of violence of infant and under-5 mortality. FINDINGS: A total of 61% of mothers of cases had a lifetime experience of physical and/or sexual violence compared with 37% of mothers of referents, with a significant association being found between such experiences and mortality among their offspring. Other factors associated with higher infant and under-5 mortality were mother's education (no formal education), age (older), and parity (multiparity). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an association between physical and sexual violence against mothers, either before or during pregnancy, and an increased risk of under-5 mortality of their offspring. The type and severity of violence was probably more relevant to the risk than the timing, and violence may impact child health through maternal stress or care-giving behaviours rather than through direct trauma itself. PMID:12640470

  5. GIS-based debris flow source and runout susceptibility assessment from DEM data - a case study in NW Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinau, M.; Vilajosana, I.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch triggered numerous landslides (mainly debris flows) in Honduras and Nicaragua, resulting in a high death toll and in considerable damage to property. The potential application of relatively simple and affordable spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping in developing countries was studied. Our attention was focused on a region in NW Nicaragua, one of the most severely hit places during the Mitch event. A landslide map was obtained at 1:10 000 scale in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from the interpretation of aerial photographs and detailed field work. In this map the terrain failure zones were distinguished from the areas within the reach of the mobilized materials. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 20 m×20 m of pixel size was also employed in the study area. A comparative analysis of the terrain failures caused by Hurricane Mitch and a selection of 4 terrain factors extracted from the DEM which, contributed to the terrain instability, was carried out. Land propensity to failure was determined with the aid of a bivariate analysis and GIS tools in a terrain failure susceptibility map. In order to estimate the areas that could be affected by the path or deposition of the mobilized materials, we considered the fact that under intense rainfall events debris flows tend to travel long distances following the maximum slope and merging with the drainage network. Using the TauDEM extension for ArcGIS software we generated automatically flow lines following the maximum slope in the DEM starting from the areas prone to failure in the terrain failure susceptibility map. The areas crossed by the flow lines from each terrain failure susceptibility class correspond to the runout susceptibility classes represented in a runout susceptibility map. The study of terrain failure and runout susceptibility enabled us to obtain a spatial prediction for landslides, which could contribute to landslide risk mitigation.

  6. The good and the bad: alkaloid screening and brineshrimp bioassays of aqueous extracts of 31 medicinal plants of eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Coe, Felix G; Parikh, Dimpi M; Johnson, Caley A; Anderson, Gregory J

    2012-03-01

    Presence/absence tests for alkaloids of 31 medicinal vascular plant species from 31 genera and 26 families of eastern Nicaragua provided a baseline for bioactivity tests. To determine the bioactivity and cytoxicity of aqueous extracts of widely used medicinal species in eastern Nicaragua. Ethnomedicinal applications were obtained from interviews of traditional healers. We used Dragendorff's reagent to test alkaloids and brine shrimp for cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts. Twenty-nine of the 31 species tested positive for alkaloids. The median lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 h of contact with the extract (LC(50) was less than 1000 µg/mL for 4 (13%) species (the usual cytotoxic category), 1001-5000 µg/mL for 23 (74%) species, and between 5001-7500 µg/mL for the remaining 4 (13%) species. Twenty-five of the ethnomedicines contain alkaloids but are not cytotoxic. In contrast to first suppositions, we suggest that this is a good and desirable, and perhaps expected, outcome. Medicinal plants that are cytotoxic may obviously control or kill bacteria or other pathogens, but may also negatively affect the patient; some high alkaloid levels have been associated with carcinogens. Thus, perhaps the majority of effective medicinals should be expected to be noncytotoxic. We suggest that this is a new paradigm for consideration of the overall value and effectiveness of medicinals. Of course, medicinals also can be effective in numerous ways (e.g., organ stimulation or other physiological functions) other than simply as antimicrobials or antipathogens.

  7. [Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Somoto, Nicaragua, using indirect ELISA and IFI on blood samples on filter paper].

    PubMed

    Palacios, X; Belli, A; Espino, A M

    2000-12-01

    We standardized a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in asymptomatic persons who live in an area of Nicaragua endemic for Chagas' disease. The test was standardized to analyze filter-paper blood samples, which are easy to transport. In the first phase of our investigation, ELISA was used to study 18 samples of total serum and 18 eluates of blood from patients with chronic Chagas' disease; 30 samples of serum and 30 eluates of blood from healthy people, used as negative controls; and 14 samples of serum and 14 eluates of blood from patients with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, which were used to study cross-reactions. Both with the total-serum and the blood-eluate samples, the ELISA test provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Cross-reactions in the patient samples were observed only with visceral leishmaniasis. The second phase of our investigation was a population study that included eight rural communities in the area of Somoto, Nicaragua. Through random sampling, filter-paper blood samples were collected from 2,434 people (1,335 men and 1,099 women) from the communities of Aguas Calientes, El Brocal, La Manzana, Las Playas, Los Canales, Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Teresa. Studied by ELISA and by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the samples included 260 found seropositive by ELISA (10.7%), of which 207 were positive according to IIF (8.5%). With both techniques, the majority of seropositives were among women, but the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. There was a high level of agreement between the results obtained with the two techniques. There was an upward trend with age, with 5.4% of those found seropositive by ELISA being persons 10 years of age or younger and 42.7% of those found seropositive being older than 50. The vast majority of the individuals analyzed were asymptomatic.

  8. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  9. δ13C Degassing Dynamics of a Young Volcanic Center, Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, G.; Stix, J.; Wing, B. A.; Muñoz, A.; Ibarra, M.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of gas-phase δ13C values above active volcanic centers has the potential for monitoring magma dynamics associated with degassing and recharge events above subduction zones. The strong isotopic partitioning between C in the gas and melt, and C isotopic differences among magmas enables degassed CO2 to give insight into processes happening deep underground. Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua is an ideal center for detecting such magma interactions due to its rich history of volcanic activity and unusual eruption style. It is a subduction-driven, basaltic cinder cone that erupts on average once every 20 years with light to moderate intensity explosive eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index: 1-3) commonly accompanied by lava flows. Amid these eruptions are periods of extreme quiescence with very little seismic activity and gas emissions, suggesting rapid magmatic changes beneath the volcano. The brief lag time (on average 30 min). separating precursors and eruption supports this interpretation. In this study, we compare the isotopic composition of gas samples collected from fumaroles, fractures and other thermal areas on the volcano over a period of nearly 2 decades (1992-2011) in order to constrain the magmatic evolution beneath Cerro Negro. While the general systematics of the entire dataset are broadly consistent with degassing models for the natural evolution of CO2 and δ13C values, recent sampling campaigns suggest that new magma may be entering the system. Gases collected in January 2011 after 12 years of quiescence reveal CO2 concentrations ranging from 1-100%, with δ13C values varying from -1.5% to -10.4% with a mean of -3.3±0.28 % for 32 samples. Only limited spatial variability is present in this dataset: inner crater mean δ13C = -4.0±0.12 %, outer crater (-2.4±0.46 %), flanks (-4.4±0.26 %), and thermal areas to the N (-3.5±0.24 %) and SE (-2.5±0.25 %). Based on previous work, a lack of substantial spatial variation in δ values is

  10. Geological setting and failure mechanisms of the 1998 Casita volcano landslide, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.; Cepeda, J.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    A flank collapse occurred at the Casita volcano in Nicaragua on 30 October 1998 during Hurricane Mitch. The collapse transformed into a disastrous lahar that completely buried two small towns 6 km downstream (killing about 2500 people), destroyed small settlements and disrupted the Pan American Highway. Based on the knowledge acquired during previous investigations with additional unpublished field data and observations, this study provides a comprehensive review of all previous studies (published and unpublished) on the 1998 Casita lahar and new insights into the initial flank collapse and the current stability. The knowledge on pre- and post-failure geometry, geology, lithology, tectonics and stratigraphy of the scarp area is improved and a summary of available geotechnical data is provided. Lithological characteristics that were significant in the initial flank collapse and failure mechanism were identified. The location of the failure surface was more precisely defined and the number and sequence of stages in the initial failure presented in previous studies have been confirmed. Slope stability analyses were carried out using limit-equilibrium methods. Geological interpretations, analysis of digital elevation models and geotechnical back-analyses confirmed that the flank collapse took place in three stages involving both the northern and southern areas of the scarp and occurred continuously during a time interval of seconds to a few minutes. In the first stage, failure initiated in a highly fractured and altered volcanic breccia in the northern area of the scarp which released a volume of 260 000 m3. The flow that developed from this failure removed colluvium deposits at the toe of the slope in the southern part in not more than 40 seconds. This rapid removal of the colluvium triggered a second stage which comprised 640 000 m3 and consisted in the failure of the southern part of the scarp by the sliding of a fractured volcanic breccia over a unit of clay

  11. Camino Verde (The Green Way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Arostegui, Jorge; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Since the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, WHO-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (Abate), in household water storage containers. These and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. A feasibility study in Managua, Nicaragua, generated instruments, intervention protocols, training schedules and impact assessment tools for a cluster randomised controlled trial of community-based approaches to vector control comprising an alternative strategy for dengue prevention and control in Nicaragua and Mexico. The Camino Verde (Green Way) is a pragmatic parallel group trial of pesticide-free dengue vector control, adding effectiveness to the standard government dengue control. A random sample from the most recent census in three coastal regions of Guerrero state in Mexico will generate 90 study clusters and the equivalent sampling frame in Managua, Nicaragua will generate 60 clusters, making a total of 150 clusters each of 137-140 households. After a baseline study, computer-driven randomisation will allocate to intervention one half of the sites, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9 years and, in Nicaragua, level of community organisation. Following a common evidence-based education protocol, each cluster will develop and implement its own collective interventions including house-to-house visits, school-based programmes and inter-community visits. After 18 months, a follow-up study will compare dengue history, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection (via measurement of anti-dengue virus antibodies in saliva samples) and entomological indices between intervention and control sites. Our hypothesis is that informed community mobilisation adds effectiveness in controlling

  12. Primer reporte del híbrido intergenérico Vermivora chrysoptera x Vermivora pinus (“Brewsters Warbler”) en Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    W.J. Arendt; M.A. Tórrez

    2008-01-01

    This article is in Spanish. During an inventory to assess avian biodiversity among the critical watersheds that flow into the Pacific from Nicaragua, we captured a hybrid Vermivora chrysoptera (“Golden-winged Warbler”) with V. pinus (“Blue-winged Warbler”) known as Brewster’s Warbler (V. leucobronchialis). The capture ocurred on November 30, 2007 in dry forest (...

  13. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. Results There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Conclusions Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America. PMID:21143865

  14. Improvements to water purification and sanitation infrastructure may reduce the diarrheal burden in a marginalized and flood prone population in remote Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Denslow, Sheri A; Edwards, Jess; Horney, Jennifer; Peña, Rodolfo; Wurzelmann, Daniel; Morgan, Douglas

    2010-12-08

    The isolated northern region of Nicaragua has one of the highest rates of diarrheal disease in Central America. Political and environmental hardships faced by inhabitants of this region are contributing factors to this health inequity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between water and latrine infrastructure and the prevalence of diarrhea in this region. A population-based, cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age was conducted in the Sahsa region of northern Nicaragua in July, 2009. Households were selected by two stage cluster sampling methodology. A questionnaire was administered in Spanish and Miskito with assessment of household and socioeconomic conditions, sanitation practices, and health care access. Diarrhea prevalence differences at the household level over a two week reporting period were estimated with a standardized instrument which included assessment of water treatment and latrine use and maintenance. There were 189 women enrolled in the current study. The use of water purification methods, such as chlorine and filters, and latrine ownership were not associated with reduced prevalence of household diarrhea in the two week reporting period. Latrine overflow, however, was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea during the same two week period [adjusted prevalence difference and 95% CI: 0.19 (0.03, 0.36)]. Simple, low cost interventions that improve water and latrine infrastructure may reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease in the isolated regions of Nicaragua and Central America.

  15. Volatile contents of mafic-to-intermediate magmas at San Cristóbal volcano in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Rotolo, S. G.; Rizzo, A. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    San Cristóbal volcano in northwest Nicaragua is one of the most active basaltic-andesitic stratovolcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Here we provide novel constraints on the volcano's magmatic plumbing system, by presenting the first direct measurements of major volatile contents in mafic-to-intermediate glass inclusions from Holocene and historic-present volcanic activity. Olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] < 80; Fo< 80) glass inclusions from Holocene tephra layers contain moderate amounts of H2O (0.1-3.3 wt%) and S and Cl up to 2500 μg/g, and define the mafic (basaltic) endmember component. Historic-present scoriae and tephra layers exhibit more-evolved olivines (Fo69-72) that contain distinctly lower volatile contents (0.1-2.2 wt% H2O, 760-1675 μg/g S, and 1021-1970 μg/g Cl), and represent a more-evolved basaltic-andesitic magma. All glass inclusions are relatively poor in CO2, with contents reaching 527 μg/g (as measured by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry), suggesting pre- to postentrapment CO2 loss to a magmatic vapor. We use results of Raman spectroscopy obtained in a population of small (< 50 μm) inclusions with CO2-bearing shrinkage bubbles (3-12 μm) to correct for postentrapment CO2 loss to bubbles, and to estimate the original minimum CO2 content in San Cristóbal parental melts at 1889 μg/g, which is consistent with the less-CO2-degassed melt inclusions (MI) (> 1500 μg/g) found in Nicaragua at Cerro Negro, Nejapa, and Granada. Models of H2O and CO2 solubilities constrain the degassing pathway of magmas up to 425 MPa ( 16 km depth), which includes a deep CO2 degassing step (only partially preserved in the MI record), followed by coupled degassing of H2O and S plus crystal fractionation at magma volatile saturation pressures from ∼ 195 to < 10 MPa. The variation in volatile contents from San Cristóbal MI is interpreted to reflect (1) Holocene eruptive cycles characterized by the rapid emplacement of basaltic magma

  16. Implementing a vector surveillance-response system for chagas disease control: a 4-year field trial in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kota; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Byron; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Lenin

    2017-03-06

    Chagas disease is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). International goals for its control involve elimination of vector-borne transmission. Central American countries face challenges in establishing sustainable vector control programmes, since the main vector, Triatoma dimidiata, cannot be eliminated. In 2012, the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua started a field test of a vector surveillance-response system to control domestic vector infestation. This paper reports the main findings from this pilot study. This study was carried out from 2012 to 2015 in the Municipality of Totogalpa. The Japan International Cooperation Agency provided technical cooperation in designing and monitoring the surveillance-response system until 2014. This system involved 1) vector reports by householders to health facilities, 2) data analysis and planning of responses at the municipal health centre and 3) house visits or insecticide spraying by health personnel as a response. We registered all vector reports and responses in a digital database. The collected data were used to describe and analyse the system performance in terms of amount of vector reports as well as rates and timeliness of responses. During the study period, T. dimidiata was reported 396 times. Spatiotemporal analysis identified some high-risk clusters. All houses reported to be infested were visited by health personnel in 2013 and this response rate dropped to 39% in 2015. Rates of insecticide spraying rose above 80% in 2013 but no spraying was carried out in the following 2 years. The timeliness of house visits improved significantly after the responsibility was transferred from a vector control technician to primary health care staff. We argue that the proposed vector surveillance-response system is workable within the resource-constrained health system in Nicaragua. Integration to the primary health care services was a key to improve the system performance. Continual efforts are necessary to keep adapting

  17. Free-living Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. amebae in water sources of León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Byron; Clasdotter, Emma; Linder, Ewert; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga

    2008-06-01

    Free-living amebae (FLA) are known to occur worldwide in water-related biotopes, but only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Nicaragua. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp. in different water sources to which the population of Le6n municipality is exposed. Since pathogenic amebae are thermotolerant, we were especially interested in the occurrence of FLA in geothermal areas. Water samples were collected from Le6n area in Nicaragua: 88 samples were from rivers and springs, 111 from wells, 74 from water taps and 21 from water tanks in urban and suburban Le6n and from three nearby geothermal areas of San Jacinto, Posoltega and Tipitapa. Amebae were identified using morphological and physiological criteria, immunohistochemical staining procedures and molecular methods. Indirect immunofluorescent test was performed on cysts and trophozoites fixed on microscopical slides and incubated for 30 min at room temperature in separate experiments with the following antibodies: rabbit-anti N fowleri/N lovanensis (Nf-Pab), mouse monoclonal antibody anti N. fowleri (Nf-5D12u), rabbit antibodies against Acanthamoeba spp. And fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using 18S rRNA-targeted fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Probes: GSP for the detection of Acanthamoeba and NAEG1088 for the detection of Naegleria. Free-living amebae were recovered from approximately 43 % of the samples. Acanthamoeba spp was found in 21% of samples from León municipality and in 2% of samples from geothermal areas. Amoeboflagellates were found in 10 % of samples from Le6n and in 19% in geothermal areas. Fifty three percent of tested wells in the geothermal area contained thermotolerant amoeboflagellates. Naegleria spp. was identified in 24 out of 39 (61.5 %) of isolated amoeboflagellates. Twelve of them were

  18. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  19. Community social capital on the timing of sexual debut and teen birth in Nicaragua: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Beogo, Idrissa; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Adesanya, Oluwafunmilade; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-09-15

    Community attributes have been gradually recognized as critical determinants shaping sexual behaviors in young population; nevertheless, most of the published studies were conducted in high income countries. The study aims to examine the association between community social capital with the time to sexual onset and to first birth in Central America. Building upon the 2011/12 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Nicaragua, we identified a sample of 2766 community-dwelling female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Multilevel survival analyses were performed to estimate the risks linked with three domains of community social capital (i.e., norms, resource and social network). Higher prevalence of female sexual debut (norms) and higher proportion of secondary school or higher education (resource) in the community are associated with an earlier age of sexual debut by 47 % (p < 0.05) and 16 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Living in a community with a high proportion of females having a child increases the hazard of teen birth (p < 0.001) and resource is negatively associated with teen childbearing (p < 0.05). Residential stability and community religious composition (social network) were not linked with teen-onset sex and birth. The norm and resource aspects of social capital appeared differentially associated with adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Interventions aiming to tackle unfavorable sexual and reproductive outcomes in young people should be devised and implemented with integration of social process.

  20. First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Chikeka, Ijeuru; Miles, Jeremy J.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed. Conclusions/Significance We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither rickettsial infections nor Q fever were considered or treated. Further study is warranted to define the burden of these infections in Central America. PMID:28036394

  1. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections and cervical neoplasia in women's health clinics in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, P; Gonzalez, C; Gonzalez, M; Van Renterghem, L; Temmerman, M

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Consecutive women attending women's health clinics in different regions were interviewed and examined for STI, HIV, and cervical neoplasia. Results: Whereas only 30.4% of the 1185 participating women attended the clinics because of STI related complaints, 77.0% reported symptoms after probing. Clinical cervicitis was diagnosed in 32.8%, Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.1%, gonorrhoea in 0.4%, trichomoniasis in 10.2%. Antibodies for syphilis were found in 0.7%, for hepatitis B in 3.7%, and none were HIV seropositive. The STI prevalence was 21.8% in women attending with complaints, 17.3% in symptomatic women after probing, and 14.8% in asymptomatic women. Abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were found in 7.7%, with high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types in almost 60%. Male promiscuity was associated with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and reported former screening was not shown to be protective. Young age and being employed were risk factors for C trachomatis. Conclusion: Nearly one out of five women attending women's health clinics in Nicaragua had an STI, and one out of 13 a precancerous lesion of the cervix. These clinics provide an opportunity to improve the reproductive health of women by probing for STI symptoms, especially in young women, and by offering cervical screening to casual attendees. Of concern is the high rate of cervical lesions in women with a screening history, underlining the need for proper quality control. PMID:12238655

  3. High Dengue Case Capture Rate in Four Years of a Cohort Study in Nicaragua Compared to National Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Standish, Katherine; Kuan, Guillermina; Avilés, William; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES) program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3) times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development. PMID:20300515

  4. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  5. Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: Findings from a health and demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Methods Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Results Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Conclusions Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one- third. PMID:22894144

  6. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: findings from a health and demographic surveillance site.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Wilton; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Peña, Rodolfo; Källestål, Carina

    2012-08-15

    Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one-third.

  7. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  8. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying against Triatoma dimidiata

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space–time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. PMID:26416118

  9. Heat flow and bending-related faulting at subduction trenches: Case studies offshore of Nicaragua and Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Kaul, Norbert; Diaz-Naveas, Juan L.; Villinger, Heinrich W.; Ranero, Cesar R.; Reichert, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Detailed heat flow surveys on the oceanic trench slope offshore Nicaragua and Central Chile indicate heat flow values lower than the expected conductive lithospheric heat loss and lower than the global mean for crust of that age. Both areas are characterised by pervasive normal faults exposing basement in a setting affected by bending-related faulting due to plate subduction. The low heat flow is interpreted to indicate increased hydrothermal circulation by the reactivation and new creation of faults prior to subduction. A previous global approach [1] [Stein C.A., Heat flow and flexure at subduction zones, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (2003) doi:10.1029/2003GL018478] failed to detect similar features in the global but sparse data set. Detailed inspection of the global data set suggests that the thickness of the sedimentary blanket on the incoming plate is an important factor controlling the local hydrogeological regime. Areas with a relatively thick sedimentary cover do not show any heat flow anomaly while areas where normal faulting exposes basement suffer from increased hydrothermal activity. Both geochemical data from arc volcanoes and seismological evidence from intra slab events suggest that the flux of water into the deep subduction zone is larger in areas characterised by reactivated hydrothermal circulation. It is reasonable to assume that the larger water flux is caused by serpentinization of the upper mantle, facilitated by bending-related faults cutting into the upper mantle.

  10. An assessment of health sector guidelines and services for treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Billings, Deborah L; Paredes-Gaitan, Yolanda; Padilla Zuniga, Karen

    2012-12-01

    In Central America, approximately 12% of women report ever having been forced to have sex by an intimate male partner, and sexual violence by others is also a frequent experience. All Central American countries are signatories to human rights agreements that oblige States to ensure access to comprehensive health services for victims of sexual violence, but there is limited information as to whether these agreements have been translated into policy and practice. This article critically examines health sector guidelines for the treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and reports on an assessment of services in 34 private- and public-sector facilities in the four countries. Overall, policies were consistent with international agreements and included guidance on detection and documentation of violence, forensic examination, treatment, referral and follow-up care. However, only a small proportion of women who experience sexual violence actually seek care. The challenge facing all four countries is to turn policy into practice. Screening practices were inconsistent, and policies needed to indicate more clearly the roles and responsibilities of health care providers and forensic specialists. Finally, women's right to privacy and confidentiality in reports of cases to legal authorities needed further consideration, as well as the importance of providing all services at a single location. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from different aquatic environmental sources in León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Amaya, E; Reyes, D; Paniagua, M; Calderón, S; Rashid, M-U; Colque, P; Kühn, I; Möllby, R; Weintraub, A; Nord, C E

    2012-09-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial use in humans and animals. Water plays an important role in dissemination of these organisms among humans, animals and the environment. We studied the antibiotic resistance patterns among 493 Escherichia coli isolates from different aquatic environmental sources collected from October 2008 to May 2009 in León, Nicaragua. High levels of antibiotic resistance were found in E. coli isolates in hospital sewage water and in eight of 87 well-water samples. Among the resistant isolates from the hospital sewage, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was the most common multi-resistance profile. Among the resistant isolates from the wells, 19% were resistant to ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. E. coli producing ESBL and harbouring bla(CTX-M) genes were detected in one of the hospital sewage samples and in 26% of the resistant isolates from the well-water samples. The bla(CTX-M-9) group was more prevalent in E. coli isolates from the hospital sewage samples and the bla(CTX-M-1) group was more prevalent in the well-water samples.

  12. Modern periplatform highstand shedding of two semidrowned or drowned shallow carbonate systems, Pedro Bank and the southern shelf of Jamaica, northern Nicaragua Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Droxler, A.W.; Glaser, K.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Water depth as well as bank-top sediment cover and thickness are the most commonly used criteria to determine whether a modern carbonate bank is drowned or semidrowned. Because neritic carbonate production appears to drop by a factor of two in water depths ranging between 10 and 20 m, it is believed that the limit of neritic carbonate production is the main constraint on the drowning of modern carbonate platforms. Because the shallow isolated carbonate banks on the northern Nicaragua Rise, on the Nicaragua/Honduras and southern Jamaica carbonate shelves, and on many other modern carbonate banks worldwide are covered by an average of 20 to 30 m or more of water and usually by coarse carbonate sediment, carbonate sedimentologists have considered these banks good examples of semidrowned or even drowned carbonate banks. Based on recent research on the northern Nicaragua Rise, however, the authors can demonstrate that these banks are today still healthy producers of large volumes of periplatform sediment (fine aragonite and magnesian calcite), which are almost totally exported to the deep surrounding slopes. These sediments, deposited during the past 9,000 yr, form periplatform wedges that are defined on 3.5-kHz profiles. Radiocarbon ages of the wedge surface sediment, ranging between 230 and 610 yr ago, are clear evidence for contemporaneous production of sediments on the shallow bank and shelf, and their instantaneous export to the upper slopes. For the last 5,000 yr, sedimentation rates ranging from 2,000 mm/k.y. off Pedro Bank to 1,300 mm/k.y. off Jamaica are comparable to sedimentation rates on the slopes of Great Bahama Bank, ranging between 2,700 and 6,000 mm/k.y.

  13. Urine biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in Nicaragua, a region affected by an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Amador, Juan José; Kaufman, James S.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Khan, Usman; McClean, Michael D.; Laws, Rebecca L.; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Friedman, David J.; Kupferman, Joseph; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional aetiology has been recently recognized by health authorities as a public health priority in Central America. Previous studies have identified strenuous manual work, agricultural activities and residence at low altitude as potential risk factors; however, the aetiology remains unknown. Because individuals are frequently diagnosed with CKD in early adulthood, we measured biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in different regions of Nicaragua to assess whether kidney damage might be initiated during childhood. Methods Participants include 200 adolescents aged 12–18 years with no prior work history from four different schools in Nicaragua. The location of the school served as a proxy for environmental exposures and geographic locations were selected to represent a range of factors that have been associated with CKD in adults (e.g. altitude, primary industry and CKD mortality rates). Questionnaires, urine dipsticks and kidney injury biomarkers [interleukin-18, N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and albumin–creatinine ratio] were assessed. Biomarker concentrations were compared by school using linear regression models. Results Protein (3.5%) and glucose (1%) in urine measured by dipstick were rare and did not differ by school. Urine biomarkers of tubular kidney damage, particularly NGAL and NAG, showed higher concentrations in those schools and regions within Nicaragua that were defined a priori as having increased CKD risk. Painful urination was a frequent self-reported symptom. Conclusions Although interpretation of these urine biomarkers is limited because of the lack of population reference values, results suggest the possibility of early kidney damage prior to occupational exposures in these adolescents. PMID:26311057

  14. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  15. HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Individuals in the Largest Public Hospital in Nicaragua, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Matías-Florentino, Margarita; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Hernández-Álvarez, Bismarck F; Moreira-López, Sumaya E; Quant-Durán, Carlos J; Porras-Cortés, Guillermo; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015. HIV pol sequences were obtained at a WHO-accredited laboratory in Mexico by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). PDR was assessed using the WHO surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list and the Stanford HIVdb tool. 283 individuals were enrolled in the study. The overall PDR prevalence based on the list of SDRMs was 13.4%. Using the Stanford HIVdb tool, overall PDR reached 19.4%; with both nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI and NNRTI) PDR levels independently reaching moderate levels (6.7% and 11.3% respectively). Protease inhibitor PDR was low (2.8%). Using NGS with 2% threshold to detect SDRMs, PDR increased to 25.3%. K103N and M41L were the most frequent SDRMs and were present mostly in proportions >20% in each individual. A significant temporal increase in NNRTI PDR was observed (p = 0.0422), with no apparent trends for other drug classes. Importantly, PDR to zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz and tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz, the most widely used first-line regimens in Nicaragua, reached 14.6% and 10.4% respectively in 2015. Of note, a higher proportion of females was observed among individuals with PDR compared to individuals without PDR (OR 14.2; 95% CI: 7.1-28.4; p<0.0001). Overall PDR in the Nicaraguan cohort was high (19.4%), with a clear increasing temporal trend in NNRTI PDR. Current HIVDR to the most frequently used first-line ART regimens in Nicaragua reached levels >10%. These observations are worrisome and need to be evidenced to strengthen the

  16. HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Individuals in the Largest Public Hospital in Nicaragua, 2011-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Hernández-Álvarez, Bismarck F.; Moreira-López, Sumaya E.; Quant-Durán, Carlos J.; Porras-Cortés, Guillermo; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. Methods HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015. HIV pol sequences were obtained at a WHO-accredited laboratory in Mexico by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). PDR was assessed using the WHO surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list and the Stanford HIVdb tool. Results 283 individuals were enrolled in the study. The overall PDR prevalence based on the list of SDRMs was 13.4%. Using the Stanford HIVdb tool, overall PDR reached 19.4%; with both nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI and NNRTI) PDR levels independently reaching moderate levels (6.7% and 11.3% respectively). Protease inhibitor PDR was low (2.8%). Using NGS with 2% threshold to detect SDRMs, PDR increased to 25.3%. K103N and M41L were the most frequent SDRMs and were present mostly in proportions >20% in each individual. A significant temporal increase in NNRTI PDR was observed (p = 0.0422), with no apparent trends for other drug classes. Importantly, PDR to zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz and tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz, the most widely used first-line regimens in Nicaragua, reached 14.6% and 10.4% respectively in 2015. Of note, a higher proportion of females was observed among individuals with PDR compared to individuals without PDR (OR 14.2; 95% CI: 7.1–28.4; p<0.0001). Conclusions Overall PDR in the Nicaraguan cohort was high (19.4%), with a clear increasing temporal trend in NNRTI PDR. Current HIVDR to the most frequently used first-line ART regimens in Nicaragua reached levels >10%. These observations are worrisome

  17. Use of all-trans retinoic acid to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia: a case with very severe features at the onset in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Malta, A; Pacheco, C; Baez, F; Ocampo, E; Conter, V; Masera, G; Biondi, A; Rovelli, A

    1996-04-01

    We observed a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who, at the onset, had extremely severe hemorrhagic and septic complications. According to our experience in Nicaragua, there was a very high risk of early death. The patient was successfully treated with a program that included all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) followed by cytotoxic chemotherapy. ATRA has two important features: it is effective in initial treatment of APL and it is inexpensive. Because of the high cost and the need for extensive supportive care, optimal myeloablative therapy used in patients with various types of acute myeloid leukemia generally cannot be given in developing countries. ATRA treatment for APL is affordable everywhere.

  18. Evidence based community mobilization for dengue prevention in Nicaragua and Mexico (Camino Verde, the Green Way): cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Arosteguí, Jorge; Morales-Perez, Arcadio; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Hernandez-Alvarez, Carlos; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Balmaseda, Angel; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio Juan; Serrano de Los Santos, René; Coloma, Josefina; Ledogar, Robert J; Harris, Eva

    2015-07-08

    To test whether community mobilization adds effectiveness to conventional dengue control. Pragmatic open label parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Those assessing the outcomes and analyzing the data were blinded to group assignment. Centralized computerized randomization after the baseline study allocated half the sites to intervention, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9, and vector indices. Random sample of communities in Managua, capital of Nicaragua, and three coastal regions in Guerrero State in the south of Mexico. Residents in a random sample of census enumeration areas across both countries: 75 intervention and 75 control clusters (about 140 households each) were randomized and analyzed (60 clusters in Nicaragua and 90 in Mexico), including 85,182 residents in 18,838 households. A community mobilization protocol began with community discussion of baseline results. Each intervention cluster adapted the basic intervention-chemical-free prevention of mosquito reproduction-to its own circumstances. All clusters continued the government run dengue control program. Primary outcomes per protocol were self reported cases of dengue, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection, and conventional entomological indices (house index: households with larvae or pupae/households examined; container index: containers with larvae or pupae/containers examined; Breteau index: containers with larvae or pupae/households examined; and pupae per person: pupae found/number of residents). Per protocol secondary analysis examined the effect of Camino Verde in the context of temephos use. With cluster as the unit of analysis, serological evidence from intervention sites showed a lower risk of infection with dengue virus in children (relative risk reduction 29.5%, 95% confidence interval 3.8% to 55.3%), fewer reports of dengue illness (24.7%, 1.8% to 51.2%), fewer houses with larvae or pupae among houses visited

  19. Evidence based community mobilization for dengue prevention in Nicaragua and Mexico (Camino Verde, the Green Way): cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Arosteguí, Jorge; Morales-Perez, Arcadio; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Hernandez-Alvarez, Carlos; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Balmaseda, Angel; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio Juan; Serrano de los Santos, René; Coloma, Josefina; Ledogar, Robert J; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether community mobilization adds effectiveness to conventional dengue control. Design Pragmatic open label parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Those assessing the outcomes and analyzing the data were blinded to group assignment. Centralized computerized randomization after the baseline study allocated half the sites to intervention, stratified by country, evidence of recent dengue virus infection in children aged 3-9, and vector indices. Setting Random sample of communities in Managua, capital of Nicaragua, and three coastal regions in Guerrero State in the south of Mexico. Participants Residents in a random sample of census enumeration areas across both countries: 75 intervention and 75 control clusters (about 140 households each) were randomized and analyzed (60 clusters in Nicaragua and 90 in Mexico), including 85 182 residents in 18 838 households. Interventions A community mobilization protocol began with community discussion of baseline results. Each intervention cluster adapted the basic intervention—chemical-free prevention of mosquito reproduction—to its own circumstances. All clusters continued the government run dengue control program. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes per protocol were self reported cases of dengue, serological evidence of recent dengue virus infection, and conventional entomological indices (house index: households with larvae or pupae/households examined; container index: containers with larvae or pupae/containers examined; Breteau index: containers with larvae or pupae/households examined; and pupae per person: pupae found/number of residents). Per protocol secondary analysis examined the effect of Camino Verde in the context of temephos use. Results With cluster as the unit of analysis, serological evidence from intervention sites showed a lower risk of infection with dengue virus in children (relative risk reduction 29.5%, 95% confidence interval 3.8% to 55.3%), fewer reports of

  20. Gene Expression Patterns of Dengue Virus-Infected Children from Nicaragua Reveal a Distinct Signature of Increased Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loke, P'ng; Hammond, Samantha N.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Kim, Charles C.; Batra, Sajeev; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue viruses (DENV) leads to a spectrum of disease outcomes. The pathophysiology of severe versus non-severe manifestations of DENV infection may be driven by host responses, which could be reflected in the transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood immune cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted genome-wide microarray analysis of whole blood RNA from 34 DENV-infected children in Nicaragua collected on days 3–6 of illness, with different disease manifestations. Gene expression analysis identified genes that are differentially regulated between clinical subgroups. The most striking transcriptional differences were observed between dengue patients with and without shock, especially in the expression of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins associated with protein biosynthesis. In the dengue hemorrhagic fever patients, one subset of differentially expressed genes encode neutrophil-derived anti-microbial peptides associated with innate immunity. By performing a meta-analysis of our dataset in conjunction with previously published datasets, we confirmed that DENV infection in vivo is associated with large changes to protein and nucleic acid metabolism. Additionally, whereas in vitro infection leads to an increased interferon signature, this was not consistently observed from in vivo patient samples, suggesting that the interferon response in vivo is relatively transient and was no longer observed by days 3–6 of illness. Conclusions/Significance These data highlight important differences between different manifestations of severity during DENV infection as well as identify some commonalities. Compilation of larger datasets in the future across multiple studies, as we have initiated in this report, may well lead to better prediction of disease manifestation via a systems biology approach. PMID:20559541

  1. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Meteorological influence on the seasonal and diurnal variability of the dispersion of volcanic emissions in Nicaragua: A numerical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Baerbel; Hort, Matthias; Hansteen, Thor

    2009-05-01

    Nicaragua comprises seven historically active volcanoes (Cosigüina, San Cristobal, Telica, Cerro Negro, Momotombo, Masaya, and Concepcion), five of which are in a state of continuous degassing. Published measurements of the atmospheric dispersion of continuous emissions from Nicaraguan volcanoes, the chemical and aerosol microphysical modifications of the released gases and aerosols, and related acid deposition and impacts on the environment cover only short periods of time. We applied a three-dimensional atmosphere-chemistry/aerosol numerical model over Central America focussing on Nicaraguan volcanic emissions for month long simulation periods during the dry and wet seasons of 2003. The model is able to reproduce observed monthly precipitation and wind speed throughout the year 2003. Model results for near surface SO 2 concentrations and SO 2 dry deposition fluxes around Masaya volcano are in very good agreement with field measurements. During the dry season, oxidation of SO 2 to sulphate plays only a minor role downwind of the Nicaraguan volcanoes and over the Pacific Ocean, whereas SO 2 released from Arenal and Poas in Costa Rica is oxidised to sulphate much faster and closer to the volcanoes due to higher humidity and cloud water availability. During the wet season, more variable wind conditions lead to reduced dispersion of SO 2 over the Pacific Ocean and increased dispersion inland. The availability of liquid water in the atmosphere favours sulphate formation close to the Nicaraguan volcanoes via aqueous phase oxidation and represents another limitation for the dispersion of SO 2. Strong precipitation removes sulphate quickly from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations and in particular dry deposition close to the volcanoes show a pronounced diurnal cycle.

  3. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  4. Chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua: a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with physicians and pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan Jose; Kaufman, James S; Weiner, Daniel E; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2013-04-16

    Northwestern Nicaragua has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause among young adult men. In addition, frequent occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among men and a dysuria syndrome described by sugarcane workers as "chistata" are both reported. This study examines health professionals´ perceptions regarding etiology of these conditions and their treatment approaches, including use of potentially nephrotoxic medications. Nineteen in-person semi-structured interviews were conducted in November 2010 among ten physicians and nine pharmacists practicing in the region. Health professionals perceived CKD as a serious and increasing problem in the region, primarily affecting young men working as manual laborers. All interviewees regarded occupational and environmental exposure to sun and heat, and dehydration as critical factors associated with the occurrence of CKD. These factors were also considered to play a role in the occurrence of chistata in the region. Health professionals indicated that reluctance among workers to hydrate might be influenced by perceptions of water contamination. Symptoms often were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics and antibiotics. Physicians acknowledged that the diagnosis of UTI usually was not based on microbial culture and opined that the use of potentially nephrotoxic medications may be contributing to CKD. Interviews provided evidence suggesting that medications such as diuretics, antibiotics and NSAIDs are widely used and sold over the counter for symptoms that may be related to dehydration and volume depletion. These factors, alone or in combination, may be possible contributors to kidney damage. Acute kidney damage coupled with volume depletion and exposures including medications and infectious agents should be further evaluated as causal factors for CKD in this region.

  5. Upper Paleogene shallow-water events in the Sandino Forearc Basin, Nicaragua-Costa Rica - response to tectonic uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjic, Goran; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Neogene Sandino Forearc Basin is exposed in the southeastern Nicaraguan Isthmus and in the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. It consists of an elongated, slightly folded belt (160 km long/30 km wide). During Campanian to Oligocene, the predominantly deep-water pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sequences were successively replaced by shelf siliciclastics and carbonates at different steps of the basin evolution. We have made an inventory of Tertiary shallow-water limestones in several areas of Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. They always appear as isolated rock bodies, generally having an unconformable stratigraphic contact with the underlying detrital sequences. The presence of these short-lived carbonate shoals can be attributed to local or regional tectonic uplift in the forearc area. The best-preserved exposure of such a carbonate buildup is located on the small Isla Juanilla (0.15 km2, Junquillal Bay, NW Costa Rica). The whole island is made of reef carbonates, displaying corals in growth position, associated with coralline red algae (Juanilla Formation). Beds rich in Larger Benthic Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina undosa -favosa group permit to date this reef as late Oligocene. A first uplift event affected the Nicaraguan Isthmus, that rose from deep-water to shelfal settings in the latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Formation formed on an anticline that developed during the early Oligocene, contemporaneously with other folds observed in the offshore Sandino Forearc Basin. During the early Oligocene, a period of global sea-level fall, the folded tectonic high underwent deep erosion. During the late Oligocene, a time of overall stable eustatic sea level, tectonic uplift gave way to moderate subsidence, creating accommodation space for reef growth. A 4th or 5th order (Milankovic-type) glacio-eustatic sea level rise, could also have triggered reef growth, but its preservation implies at least moderate

  6. Smallholder Food and Water Security in the Face of Climatic Stress and the Coffee Leaf Rust: Lessons from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. T.; Bacon, C. M.; Sundstrom, W.

    2015-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in Nicaragua and throughout much of Central America preserve forest biodiversity and contribute to the sustainable production of coffee and other crops while, paradoxically, they themselves must cope with recurring periods of seasonal hunger. Smallholder food and water security in the region is affected by hurricanes, periodic drought events, climatic changes, an on-going outbreak of the coffee leaf rust, and fluctuations in food prices. Using regression analysis, our research examines what factors strengthened resilience to these hazards at the household level over the 1981 - 2014 time period. To this end, we integrate qualitative research on coping responses and local institutions, a participatory survey of 368 households, and an analysis of hydro-climatic data. Our results indicate that coping responses to the coffee leaf rust outbreak and the 2014 drought are comparable in severity to those used to endure Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a severe 2009 drought. Higher smallholder resilience to stresses affecting food and water security is associated with larger farms, off-farm employment, more on-farm food production, higher numbers of fruit trees, and greater coffee harvests. Households that reported more severe coping responses to hazards earlier in the study period tended to be more strongly impacted by later hazards and reported generally greater seasonal hunger. Affiliation with local farmer-to-farmer institutions prioritizing either subsistence-oriented production or sales to international fair-trade markets did not correlate strongly with coping responses; however, subsistence-oriented institutions promote several resilience-enhancing practices. Lessons learned by adapting to past hazards may be used to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies for smallholders under continued climate variability and change.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Childhood Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Nicaragua: A Disability Adjusted Life Year Model.

    PubMed

    Saunders, James E; Barrs, David M; Gong, Wenfeng; Wilson, Blake S; Mojica, Karen; Tucci, Debara L

    2015-09-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) is a common intervention for severe-to-profound hearing loss in high-income countries, but is not commonly available to children in low resource environments. Owing in part to the device costs, CI has been assumed to be less economical than deaf education for low resource countries. The purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of the two interventions for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a model using disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Cost estimates were derived from published data, expert opinion, and known costs of services in Nicaragua. Individual costs and lifetime DALY estimates with a 3% discounting rate were applied to both two interventions. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to evaluate the effect on the discounted cost of five key components: implant cost, audiology salary, speech therapy salary, number of children implanted per year, and device failure probability. The costs per DALY averted are $5,898 and $5,529 for CI and deaf education, respectively. Using standards set by the WHO, both interventions are cost effective. Sensitivity analysis shows that when all costs set to maximum estimates, CI is still cost effective. Using a conservative DALY analysis, both CI and deaf education are cost-effective treatment alternatives for severe-to-profound SNHL. CI intervention costs are not only influenced by the initial surgery and device costs but also by rehabilitation costs and the lifetime maintenance, device replacement, and battery costs. The major CI cost differences in this low resource setting were increased initial training and infrastructure costs, but lower medical personnel and surgery costs.

  8. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Relationship to the seismogenic zone of the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Meléndez, Adrià; Prada, Manuel; Ranero, César R.; McIntosh, Kirk; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2013-09-01

    We present 2-D seismic velocity models and coincident multichannel seismic reflection images of the overriding plate and the inter-plate boundary of the Nicaragua convergent margin along two wide-angle seismic profiles parallel and normal to the trench acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The trench-perpendicular profile runs over a seamount subducting under the margin slope, at the location where seismological observations predict large coseismic slip. Along this profile, the igneous basement shows increasing velocity both with depth and away from the trench, reflecting a progressive decrease in upper-plate rock degree of fracturing. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at ˜10 km depth beneath the fore-arc Sandino basin, indicating a shallow mantle wedge. A mismatch of the inter-plate reflector in the velocity models and along coincident multichannel seismic profiles under the slope is best explained by ˜15% velocity anisotropy, probably caused by subvertical open fractures that may be related to fluid paths feeding known seafloor seepage sites. The presence of a shallow, partially serpentinized mantle wedge, and the fracture-related anisotropy are supported by gravity analysis of velocity-derived density models. The downdip limit of inter-plate seismicity occurs near the tip of the inferred mantle wedge, suggesting that seismicity could be controlled by the presence of serpentinite group minerals at the fault gouge. Near the trench, the inferred local increase of normal stress produced by the subducting seamount in the plate boundary may have made this fault segment unstable during earthquake rupture, which could explain its tsunamigenic character.

  9. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Nicaragua: long-term results in the context of an international cooperative program.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Carlos; Lucchini, Giovanna; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Malta, Alberto; Conter, Valentino; Flores, Andronica; Biondi, Andrea; Tognoni, Gianni; Arguello, Mercedes; Cavalli, Franco; Silvestri, Daniela; Lacayo, Fulgencio Baez; Masera, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the results of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment in Nicaragua from 1995 to 2005 in the context of an international cooperation program. Patients <18 years with ALL were treated with two consecutive protocols (1995 and 2000). After a steroid prophase, a three-drug induction was administered in protocol 1995, and a four-drug induction, including asparaginase, was administered in protocol 2000. In protocol 2000, a modified BFM phase IB with cyclophosphamide, 6-mercaptopurine and cytosine arabinoside was administered to patients at high risk (HR), who also received IV methotrexate (500 mg/m(2)) in the consolidation phase. Reinduction consisted of dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, cytosine arabinoside, and 6-thioguanine administered over 7 (protocol 1995) or 4 (protocol 2000) weeks; reinduction was repeated twice for patients at HR. Maintenance consisted of p.o. 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate, and vincristine and dexamethasone pulses were added in the 2000 study. The total duration of therapy was 24 months. In total, 540 patients were treated. Overall, 7% of patients died during induction, and 9% abandoned treatment. At 5 and 10 years from diagnosis, event-free survival (EFS) rates of 38.1% and 36.6%, respectively, and overall survival rates of 48.0% and 39.6%, respectively, were obtained, considering abandonment as an event. In our experience, a 10-year EFS of 36.6% was achieved in a country with limited resources. Factors limiting a higher success rate were treatment abandonment and a high relapse rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Land-cover assessment of conservation and buffer zones in the BOSAWAS natural resource reserve of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan H

    2003-02-01

    The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the reserve includes the extents and locations of present land-cover types and recent land-cover changes in the management use zones that were delineated by local indigenous communities. These zones include areas designated for conservation, limited resource extraction, agriculture, and watershed protection. Land-cover for 1986 and 1995 was identified for three of the communities from remotely sensed images and then input into a geographic information system database to identify land-cover types within these management use zones. For both dates of the analysis, advanced forest was the dominant land cover, with the conservation zones entirely forested. The amount of both agricultural land and scrub/early secondary forest increased between the two dates, with much of these land-cover classes occurring in the agriculture zones. Conflicts between the land-cover present and designated use were identified in some of the limited-use buffer and watershed protection zones. Changes between 1986 and 1995 were identified by overlaying the two land-cover data sets. Three change processes were identified as occurring: deforestation, reforestation, and reconversion. Changes were concentrated in the agriculture zones but were found to occur in every type of zone, except for conservation. The results of this study will establish baseline information for the future management of the BOSAWAS Reserve, an important component in uniting conservation areas along the Central American isthmus.

  11. Use of Peptide-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay followed by Immunofluorescence Assay To Document Ehrlichia chaffeensis as a Cause of Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Matute, Armando J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Mayorga, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the United States. Limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including Central and South America but not Nicaragua to date. Diagnosis of E. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but IFA is impractical, variably reproducible, and cumbersome for large epidemiologic studies and for clinical diagnosis in resource-poor regions. We evaluated a high-throughput, objective peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for use alone or in combination with IFA. We found that it performed best as a screening test (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84%) to reduce the proportion of serum samples that were required by the more cumbersome and subjective IFA testing to <20%. Using a two-step diagnostic approach (IFA is performed if the ELISA is positive), we identified E. chaffeensis or a serologically and antigenically similar organism as a heretofore unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in humans in Nicaragua and demonstrated the utility of the peptide ELISA as a screening tool for large-scale clinical studies. PMID:27053675

  12. Women's autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

  13. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Christopher A.; Schank, Cody J.; Urquhart, Gerald R.; Dans, Armando J.

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird’s tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species. PMID:27007122

  14. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Christopher A; Schank, Cody J; Urquhart, Gerald R; Dans, Armando J

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species.

  15. GPR investigation of tephra fallout, Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua: a method for constraining parameters used in tephra sedimentation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtland, L. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C. B.; Connor, L. J.; Savov, I. P.; Martin, K. T.

    2012-08-01

    Most tephra fallout models rely on the advection-diffusion equation to forecast sedimentation and hence volcanic hazards. Here, we test the application of the advection-diffusion equation to tephra sedimentation using data collected on the proximal (350 to ~1,200 m from the vent) to medial (greater than ~1,200 m from the vent) tephra blanket of a basaltic cinder cone, Cerro Negro volcano, located in Nicaragua. Our understanding of tephra depositional processes at this volcano is significantly improved by combination of sample pit data in the medial zone and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected in the near vent and proximal zones. If the advection-diffusion equation applies, then the thickness of individual tephra deposits should have Gaussian crosswind profiles and exponential decay with distance away from the vent. At Cerro Negro, steady trade winds coupled with brief eruptions of relatively low energy (VEI 2-3) create relatively simple deposits. GPR data were collected along three crosswind profiles at distances of 700-1,600 m from the vent; sample pits were used to estimate thickness of the 1992 tephra deposit up to 13 km from the vent. Horizons identified in proximal GPR profiles exhibit Gaussian distributions with a high degree of statistical confidence, with diffusion coefficients of ~500 m2 s-1 estimated for the deposits, confirming that the advection-diffusion equation is capable of modeling sedimentation in the proximal zone. The thinning trend downwind of the vent decreases exponentially from the cone base (350 m) to ~1,200 m from the vent. Beyond this distance, deposit overthickening occurs, identified in both GPR and sample pit datasets. The combined data reveal three depositional regimes: (1) a near-vent region on the cone itself, where fallout remobilizes in granular flows upon deposition; (2) a proximal zone in which particles fall from a height of less than ~2 km; and (3) a medial zone, in which particles fall from ~4 to 7

  16. Assessment of biosand filter performance in rural communities in southern coastal Nicaragua: an evaluation of 199 households.

    PubMed

    Fiore, M M; Minnings, K; Fiore, L D

    2010-01-01

    Lack of access to safe drinking water is a major health issue for more than one billion people globally. In areas where community-wide water treatment is not possible, point-of-use (POU) solutions are necessary. The biosand filter (BSF) is one of several such POU technologies available to treat water in the home to reduce the risk of infection. This study was conducted to evaluate the use and performance of BSFs in the rural communities surrounding San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua. Approximately 600 filters had been installed in this area over the preceding 2 years by local workers supported by US and Canadian NGOs. This field study was conducted In July and August 2009. Unannounced household visits were carried out by US volunteers supported by a local interpreter and driver. Visits were made to a convenience sample of 199 households where BSFs had been in place for an average of 12 months. Water for analysis was collected from wells, filter spouts and storage buckets and an 11 item questionnaire was administered. Laboratory analyses were performed on water samples using the membrane filtration method to determine Escherichia coli colony forming units (CFUs). Forty-five of 199 households visited had discontinued use of their BSF. In the 154 households tested, median CFU of E. coli per 100 mL of water from the source, filter spout and storage vessel were 313, 72, and 144, respectively. Median bacterial removal efficiency for the filters was 80%. Although biosand filtration reduced CFUs in 74% of households in which it was used, in only 26 cases (17%) did it reduce CFUs to <10 CFUs/100 mL. Recontamination was an important problem and reduced the overall efficacy (from well to storage bucket) to 48%. Participants were generally satisfied with their filter's performance, citing improved health and better tasting water. Water quality testing of BSFs deployed in the field showed results somewhat inferior to previous reports. Possible explanations include lack of use of best

  17. Late Pleistocene/Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction and eruptive history of Central American volcanoes from lake bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, S.; Dull, R. A.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Gardner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    A shallow coring program in Lake Nicaragua was completed in May/June 2006 by the University of Texas (UT Department of Geography and UT Institute for Geophysics). A total of 35 sediment cores with lengths ranging between 12 cm and 100 cm along with five longer cores were extracted from the lake using a gravity corer and a modified manual square rod piston corer, respectively. Analyses of lake sediments have the following objectives: 1) to correlate the geophysical results with the core data to provide a stratigraphic framework for the shallow lake sediments; 2) to constrain past climate variability in this rather poorly investigated area; and 3) to establish a time series of explosive volcanic activity based on the identification and dating of tephra layers in the cores. Initial measurements of magnetic susceptibility, dry density, loss on ignition and XRF scanning indicated a dominance of fine-grained homogeneous diatomaceous sediments cover most of the lake floor. Increasing values in magnetic susceptibility in the upper part of several short cores most likely reflect increased erosion caused by land-use changes during the Spanish colonial period (1522-1822). Results on the two longest cores from the northeastern (355 cm) and southwestern (478 cm) parts of the lake reveal complete Holocene paleoclimate records in both areas that are comparable to other terrestrial and marine records in the Central and South- American tropics (i.e. Cariaco Basin). A lithologic change from homogeneous gyttia (diatomaceous mud) to blue- grayish waxy clay at the bottom of these records marks the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition as indicated by a radiocarbon dating on plant remains. The latter dense clay forms a distinctive stratigraphic marker in the lake basin. Tephra layers to date were detected in most gravity cores recovered west of Ometepe Island (Volcan Concepcion), and in long records in the northeastern basin (San Antonio Tephra, Masaya volcano, ca. 7,400 interpolated cal

  18. The ˜ 1245 yr BP Asososca maar: New advances on recent volcanic stratigraphy of Managua (Nicaragua) and hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Natalia; Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodríguez, Dionisio

    2008-10-01

    Asososca maar is located at the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua, in the central part of the active, N-S trending and right-lateral Nejapa-Miraflores fault that marks an offset of the Middle America Volcanic Arc. It constitutes one of the ˜ 21 vents aligned along the fault, between the Chiltepe Volcanic Complex to the North and Ticomo vents to the South. Asososca consists of an East-West elongated crater filled by a lake, which is currently used for supplying part of Managua with drinking water (10% of the capital city demand). The crater excavated the previous topography, allowing the observation of a detailed Holocene stratigraphic record that should be taken into account for future hazard analyses. We present a geological map together with the detailed stratigraphy exposed inside and around Asososca crater aided by radiocarbon dating of paleosols. The pre-existing volcanic sequence excavated by Asososca is younger than 12,730 + 255/- 250 yr BP and is capped by the phreato-plinian Masaya Tuff (< 2000 yr BP). The pyroclastic deposits produced by Asososca maar (Asososca Tephra, in this work) display an asymmetric distribution around the crater and overlie the Masaya Tuff. The bulk of the Asososca Tephra is made of several bedsets consisting of massive to crudely stratified beds of blocks and lapilli at the base, and superimposed thinly stratified ash and lapilli beds with dune structures and impact sags. Coarser size-fractions (>- 2 ϕ) are dominated by accidental clasts, including basaltic to basaltic-andesitic, olivine-bearing scoriae lapilli, porphyritic and hypocrystalline andesite blocks and lapilli, altered pumice lapilli and ash, and ignimbrite fragments. Juvenile fragments were only identified in size-fractions smaller than - 1 ϕ in proportions lower than 25%, and consist of black moss-like, fused-shape, and poorly vesiculated, fresh glass fragments of basaltic composition (SiO 2 ˜ 48%). The Asososca Tephra is interpreted as due to the emplacement

  19. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  20. A new species of Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, with a key to the lower Mesoamerican species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; Gracian-Negrete, Jatziry Marlene

    2013-10-30

    A new species of Brycon is described from the Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Brycon costaricensis n. sp. differs from all other Central American Brycon species by the following combination of characters: 49 to 54 scales in the lateral line; 5 or 6 rows of scales between lateral line and pectoral fin base; 9 to 11 rows of scales between lateral line and dorsal fin base; 5 to 7 rows of scales between lateral line and anal fin base; anal fin notably longer than head, with 33 to 37 total rays; and a elongated and shallow caudal peduncle, whose length is 1.78 to 2.35 times its depth. A key to lower Mesoamerican species of the genus is also presented.

  1. Informing the TB suspect for sputum sample collection and communicating laboratory results in Nicaragua: a neglected process in tuberculosis case finding.

    PubMed

    Macq, Jean; Solis, Alejandro; Velázquez, Harry; Dujardin, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    To assess the patient information process before sputum sample collection, the quality of sputum sample and transmission of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) examination results to TB suspects, in three local areas of Nicaragua. (a) directed interviews of consecutive series of TB suspects whose sputum had been examined for AFB; (b) directed interview of health personnel; and (c) assessment of the sputum sample quality. A total of 115 TB suspects and 33 health personnel were interviewed and 625 sputum samples were assessed. Results show multiple weaknesses in the process of information to the patient during sputum collections, as well as in the communication of results. This study unveiled an aspect usually overlooked of case finding, that is, the information process during sputum production, sputum sample quality, and the communication of results to the TB suspects. The results illustrate the need for routine assessment of the whole diagnostic process.

  2. Conditional cash transfers to improve education and health: an ex ante evaluation of Red de Protección Social, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ranjeeta

    2012-10-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized experiment, this article extends and tests in the context of health, the feasibility of a recently proposed reduced form approach to ex ante evaluations of social programs with an application to a conditional cash transfer program in Nicaragua. It uses a behavioural model to estimate the impact on preventive care utilization outcomes for children younger than 3 years. It validates the model with the results of the experiment and then simulates two alternate policy scenarios. The model performs well in predicting the health related outcomes and shows different results for the two sets of policy scenarios. In addition, simulations are also carried out for the school component of the cash transfer program.

  3. Achieving self-sufficiency of red blood cells based on universal voluntary blood donation in Latin America. The case of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Berrios, René; Gonzalez, Alcides; Cruz, José Ramiro

    2013-12-01

    In 2007, the blood collection rate in Nicaragua was 106.6 units per 10,000 inhabitants. Voluntary donation was 39%. The health authorities decided to pursue self sufficiency of blood by eliminating replacement donation and consolidating blood processing in two centers. Replacement donation was terminated in 2009, voluntary donation reached 100% in 2010, and the blood collection rate increased to 125.9 in 2011. The rate of red blood cell transfusion improved from 96.0 to 119.1 units per 10,000 during the 4-year period. The political will of the government, pertinent technical leadership, and a country-wide approach were essential for attaining those goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2–14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region. PMID:27322692

  5. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Guillermina; Ramirez, Stephania; Gresh, Lionel; Ojeda, Sergio; Melendez, Marlon; Sanchez, Nery; Collado, Damaris; Garcia, Nadezna; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Gordon, Aubree; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population). Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5)) than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9)). The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1) in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7) in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.

  6. Cost analysis of centralized viral load testing for antiretroviral therapy monitoring in Nicaragua, a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jay; Sequeira, Magda; Alvarado, Vivian; Cerpas, Christian; Balmaseda, Angel; Gonzalez, Alcides; de Los Santos, Tala; Levin, Carol E; Amador, Juan Jose; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2010-11-05

    HIV viral load testing as a component of antiretroviral therapy monitoring is costly. Understanding the full costs and the major sources of inefficiency associated with viral load testing is critical for optimizing the systems and technologies that support the testing process. The objective of our study was to estimate the costs associated with viral load testing performed for antiretroviral therapy monitoring to both patients and the public healthcare system in a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource country. A detailed cost analysis was performed to understand the costs involved in each step of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua, from initial specimen collection to communication of the test results to each patient's healthcare provider. Data were compiled and cross referenced from multiple information sources: laboratory records, regional surveillance centre records, and scheduled interviews with the key healthcare providers responsible for HIV patient care in five regions of the country. The total average cost of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua varied by region, ranging from US$99.01 to US$124.58, the majority of which was at the laboratory level: $88.73 to $97.15 per specimen, depending on batch size. The average cost to clinics at which specimens were collected ranged from $3.31 to $20.92, depending on the region. The average cost per patient for transportation, food, lodging and lost income ranged from $3.70 to $14.93. The quantitative viral load test remains the single most expensive component of the process. For the patient, the distance of his or her residence from the specimen collection site is a large determinant of cost. Importantly, the efficiency of results reporting has a large impact on the cost per result delivered to the clinician and utility of the result for patient monitoring. Detailed cost analysis can identify opportunities for removing barriers to effective antiretroviral therapy monitoring programmes in limited

  7. Low Prevalence of Rotavirus and High Prevalence of Norovirus in Hospital and Community Wastewater after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Svensson, Lennart; Nordgren, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05), and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July–September), and the majority of all RV detected (6/9) belonged to subgroup (SG) I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity) to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%). Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21) were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction. PMID:22016794

  8. Parsing parallel evolution: ecological divergence and differential gene expression in the adaptive radiations of thick-lipped Midas cichlid fishes from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Tereza; Hull, Pincelli M; Kusche, Henrik; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Franchini, Paolo; Harrod, Chris; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-02-01

    The study of parallel evolution facilitates the discovery of common rules of diversification. Here, we examine the repeated evolution of thick lips in Midas cichlid fishes (the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex)-from two Great Lakes and two crater lakes in Nicaragua-to assess whether similar changes in ecology, phenotypic trophic traits and gene expression accompany parallel trait evolution. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterize transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in the lips of wild-caught sympatric thick- and thin-lipped cichlids from all four instances of repeated thick-lip evolution. Six genes (apolipoprotein D, myelin-associated glycoprotein precursor, four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2, calpain-9, GTPase IMAP family member 8-like and one hypothetical protein) are significantly underexpressed in the thick-lipped morph across all four lakes. However, other aspects of lips' gene expression in sympatric morphs differ in a lake-specific pattern, including the magnitude of differentially expressed genes (97-510). Generally, fewer genes are differentially expressed among morphs in the younger crater lakes than in those from the older Great Lakes. Body shape, lower pharyngeal jaw size and shape, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differ between all sympatric morphs, with the greatest differentiation in the Great Lake Nicaragua. Some ecological traits evolve in parallel (those related to foraging ecology; e.g. lip size, body and head shape) but others, somewhat surprisingly, do not (those related to diet and food processing; e.g. jaw size and shape, stable isotopes). Taken together, this case of parallelism among thick- and thin-lipped cichlids shows a mosaic pattern of parallel and nonparallel evolution.

  9. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  10. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. Methods The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Results Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. Conclusions All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings. PMID:24428933

  11. Comparing progress toward the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in León and Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Wilton; Eriksson, Leif; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Källestål, Carina; Peña, Rodolfo

    2014-01-15

    Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that strive to reduce social inequalities. This population-based study examines the trends, causes, and social inequality of mortality before the age of five years in rural and urban areas in Nicaragua. The study was conducted in one rural (Cuatro Santos) and one urban/rural area (León) based on data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. We analyzed live births from 1990 to 2005 in the urban/rural area and from 1990 to 2008 in the rural area. The annual average rate reduction (AARR) and social under-five mortality inequality were calculated using the education level of the mother as a proxy for socio-economic position. Causes of child death were based on systematic interviews (verbal autopsy). Under-five mortality in all areas is declining at a rate sufficient to achieve MDG4 by 2015. Urban León showed greater reduction (AARR = 8.5%) in mortality and inequality than rural León (AARR = 4.5%) or Cuatro Santos (AARR = 5.4%). Social inequality in mortality had increased in rural León and no improvement in survival was observed among mothers who had not completed primary school. However, the poor and remote rural area Cuatro Santos was on track to reach MDG4 with equitable child survival. Most of the deaths in both areas were due to neonatal conditions and infectious diseases. All rural and urban areas in Nicaragua included in this study were on track to reach MDG4, but social stratification in child survival showed different patterns; unfavorable patterns with increasing inequity in the peri-urban rural zone and a more equitable development in the urban as well as the poor and remote rural area. An equitable progress in child survival may also be accelerated in very poor settings.

  12. Cost analysis of centralized viral load testing for antiretroviral therapy monitoring in Nicaragua, a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV viral load testing as a component of antiretroviral therapy monitoring is costly. Understanding the full costs and the major sources of inefficiency associated with viral load testing is critical for optimizing the systems and technologies that support the testing process. The objective of our study was to estimate the costs associated with viral load testing performed for antiretroviral therapy monitoring to both patients and the public healthcare system in a low-HIV prevalence, low-resource country. Methods A detailed cost analysis was performed to understand the costs involved in each step of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua, from initial specimen collection to communication of the test results to each patient's healthcare provider. Data were compiled and cross referenced from multiple information sources: laboratory records, regional surveillance centre records, and scheduled interviews with the key healthcare providers responsible for HIV patient care in five regions of the country. Results The total average cost of performing a viral load test in Nicaragua varied by region, ranging from US$99.01 to US$124.58, the majority of which was at the laboratory level: $88.73 to $97.15 per specimen, depending on batch size. The average cost to clinics at which specimens were collected ranged from $3.31 to $20.92, depending on the region. The average cost per patient for transportation, food, lodging and lost income ranged from $3.70 to $14.93. Conclusions The quantitative viral load test remains the single most expensive component of the process. For the patient, the distance of his or her residence from the specimen collection site is a large determinant of cost. Importantly, the efficiency of results reporting has a large impact on the cost per result delivered to the clinician and utility of the result for patient monitoring. Detailed cost analysis can identify opportunities for removing barriers to effective antiretroviral therapy monitoring

  13. Rationale, description and baseline findings of a community-based prospective cohort study of kidney function amongst the young rural population of Northwest Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    González-Quiroz, Marvin; Camacho, Armando; Faber, Dorien; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Glaser, Jason; Le Blond, Jennifer; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea; Pearce, Neil; Caplin, Ben

    2017-01-13

    An epidemic of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along the Pacific coast of Central America, but the natural history and aetiology of the disease remain poorly understood. We have recently commenced a community-based longitudinal study to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Nicaragua. Although logistically challenging, study designs of this type have the potential to provide important insights that other study designs cannot. In this paper we discuss the rationale for conducting this study and summarize the findings of the baseline visit. The baseline visit of the community-based cohort study was conducted in 9 communities in the North Western Nicaragua in October and November 2014. All of the young men, and a random sample of young women (aged 18-30) without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD were invited to participate. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with CKD-EPI equation, along with clinical measurements, questionnaires, biological and environmental samples to evaluate participants' exposures to proposed risk factors for MeN. We identified 520 young adults (286 males and 234 females) in the 9 different communities. Of these, 16 males with self-reported CKD and 5 females with diagnoses of either diabetes or hypertension were excluded from the study population. All remaining 270 men and 90 women, selected at random, were then invited to participate in the study; 350 (97%) agreed to participate. At baseline, 29 (11%) men and 1 (1%) woman had an eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Conducting a community based study of this type requires active the involvement of communities and commitment from local leaders. Furthermore, a research team with strong links to the area and broad understanding of the context of the problem being studied is essential. The key findings will arise from follow-up, but it is striking that 5% of males under aged 30 had to be excluded because of pre-existing kidney disease, and that

  14. Is treatment in groups a useful alternative for psychiatry in low-income countries? An evaluation of a psychiatric outpatient unit in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Caldera, T; Kullgren, G; Penayo, U; Jacobsson, L

    1995-11-01

    Centro de Atención Psicosocial in León, Nicaragua is a psychiatric outpatient unit that has developed a group-oriented model of working, in which 80% of all visits are in groups: first-admission groups, insight-oriented group psychotherapy, psycho-educative, family groups and relatives groups. The aim of the present study was to analyze patient characteristics and make a preliminary study of improvement, compliance and patient satisfaction in a 1-year perspective. One hundred consecutive visits were assessed, 44 of them first admissions. They were assessed according to all axes of DSM-III-R plus the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-III Disorders. A 1-year follow up was conducted on 39 of 41 selected patients within the major diagnostic groups. One of 4 patients had a psychotic disorder where schizophrenia dominated. Among nonpsychotics major depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were most frequent. Personality disorders were common (80%) among nonpsychotic patients, paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and masochistic personality disorders dominating. The illiteracy rate was 10%, but 50% had high school or university background. Severity of mental disorders and functional level did not differ between educational levels. There was a strong male dominance in all diagnostic, socioeconomic and educational level strata and few old patients. Improvement in functional level was clinically and statistically significant in all groups, and more than two thirds were very satisfied with the group treatment offered.

  15. Increased Replicative Fitness of a Dengue Virus 2 Clade in Native Mosquitoes: Potential Contribution to a Clade Replacement Event in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern

  16. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Methods and Findings Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country’s pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family’s level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18

  17. Quantification of forest carbon degradation in Nicaragua using RapidEye remote sensing data: El Cuá and Wiwili case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoty, F. N.; Cifuentes, M.; Imbach, P. A.; Vilchez, S.; Casanoves, F.; Ibrahim, M.; Vierling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Forest degradation and deforestation affect ecosystem function and climate regulation services such as carbon storage. Historically, Central America has been a deforestation and forest degradation hotspot. Wiwili and El Cuá municipalities in northern Nicaragua are no exception, where subsistence agriculture and cattle ranch expansion have driven deforestation and other wood extraction activities, leading to various levels of forest degradation. Reduction of Emissions from forest Degradation and Deforestation (REDD) projects are proposed as a tool to slow the degradation and loss of carbon stocks by restoring carbon to its natural levels in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions that cause global warming. REDD projects require baseline estimations of current carbon stocks and forest degradation status. We estimated carbon stocks across a forest degradation gradient based on common biophysical variables and commercially available (RapidEye) remote sensing data. We measured 80 temporary forest plots (50x20m) for aboveground biomass to sample a gradient of forest degradation at two municipalities (El Cuá and Wiwili) in northern Nicaragua. We measured biomass in trees (≥10 cm DBH), saplings (5-9.9 cm DBH), other growth forms (ferns, palms and woody vines), and large detritus (snags and downed wood). Biomass was estimated by a range of allometric models and a constant conversion factor (0.47) was applied to calculate aboveground carbon stocks. Remote sensing data from a RapidEye scene for 02/2010 provided data for 5 spectral bands and 19 vegetation indexes at 6 m spatial resolution. Precipitation, temperature, altitude, slope, canopy cover, and aspect were also used as input variables for carbon modeling. We tested linear mixed models, generalized additive mixed models and regression tree approaches to explain carbon stocks based on vegetation indexes and biophysical variables. Additionally, we grouped plots into low (17-168 Mg C ha-1), medium (168-302 Mg C ha-1

  18. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country.

    PubMed

    Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country's pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family's level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18%) were lost to follow-up and 65 (25

  19. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; Chaotham, Chatchai; Graham, David Y.; Paszat, Lawrence; Rabeneck, Linda; Lundin, Samuel B.; Nookaew, Intawat; Sjoling, Asa

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes of fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence

  20. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    DOE PAGES

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes ofmore » fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence properties.« less

  1. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  2. The 12.4 ka Upper Apoyeque Tephra, Nicaragua: stratigraphy, dispersal, composition, magma reservoir conditions and trigger of the plinian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Freundt, Armin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Highly-explosive plinian eruptions belong to the most devastating phenomena of volcanic activity. Upper Apoyeque Tephra (UAq), erupted in close vicinity of the Managua city region in west-central Nicaragua with two million inhabitants, was formed by a rhyodacitic plinian eruption at 12.4 ka BP. The fallout tephra was dispersed from a progressively rising plinian eruption column that became exposed to different wind speeds and directions at different heights in the stratosphere, leading to an asymmetric tephra fan with different facies in the western and southern sector. Tephra dispersal data integrated with geochemical compositions of lava flows in the area facilitate to delimit the source vent to the south of Chiltepe Peninsula. UAq, Lower Apoyeque Tephra, Apoyeque Ignimbrite, and two lithic clasts in San Isidro Tephra together form a trend distinct from that of the younger tephras and lavas at Chiltepe Volcanic Complex in a TiO2 versus K2O diagram, compositionally precluding a genetic relationship of UAq with the present-day Apoyeque Volcano. Apoyeque Volcano in its present shape did not exist at the time of the UAq eruption. The surface expression of the UAq vent is now obscured by younger eruption products and lake water. Pressure-temperature constraints based on mineral-melt equilibria indicate at least two magma storage levels. Clinopyroxenes crystallised in a deep crustal reservoir at ˜24 km depth as inferred from clinopyroxene-melt inclusion pairs. Chemical disequilibrium between clinopyroxenes and matrix glasses indicate rapid magma ascent to the shallower reservoir at ˜5.4 km depth, where magnesiohornblendes and plagioclase fractionated at a temperature of ˜830°C. Water concentrations ranged at ˜5.5 wt. % as derived from congruent results of amphibole and plagioclase-melt hygrometry. The eruption was triggered through injection of a hotter, more primitive melt into a water-supersaturated reservoir.

  3. The 12.4 ka Upper Apoyeque Tephra, Nicaragua: stratigraphy, dispersal, composition, magma reservoir conditions and trigger of the plinian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, Heidi; Freundt, Armin; Kutterolf, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Upper Apoyeque Tephra (UAq) was formed by a rhyodacitic plinian eruption in west-central Nicaragua at 12.4 ka BP. The fallout tephra was dispersed from a progressively rising plinian eruption column that became exposed to different wind speeds and directions at different heights in the stratosphere, leading to an asymmetric tephra fan with different facies in the western and southern sector. Tephra dispersal data integrated with geochemical compositions of lava flows in the area facilitate delimitation of the source vent to the south of Chiltepe Peninsula. UAq, Lower Apoyeque Tephra, Apoyeque Ignimbrite, and two lava lithic clasts in San Isidro Tephra together form a differentiation trend distinct from that of the younger tephras and lavas at Chiltepe Volcanic Complex in a TiO2 versus K2O diagram, compositionally precluding a genetic relationship of UAq with the present-day Apoyeque stratovolcano. Apoyeque Volcano in its present shape did not exist at the time of the UAq eruption. The surface expression of the UAq vent is now obscured by younger eruption products and lake water. Pressure-temperature constraints based on mineral-melt equilibria and fluid inclusions in plagioclase indicate at least two magma storage levels. Clinopyroxenes crystallised in a deep crustal reservoir at ˜24 km depth as inferred from clinopyroxene-melt inclusion pairs. Chemical disequilibrium between clinopyroxenes and matrix glasses indicates rapid magma ascent to the shallower reservoir at ˜5.4 km depth, where magnesiohornblendes and plagioclase fractionated at a temperature of ˜830 °C. Water concentrations were ˜5.5 wt.% as derived from congruent results of amphibole and plagioclase-melt hygrometry. The eruption was triggered by injection of a hotter, more primitive melt into a water-supersaturated reservoir.

  4. Models of Metabolic Community Structure in Martian Habitable Environments: Constraints from a Terrestrial Analog Acid-Sulfate Fumarole Environment, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial habitability in extreme environments on Earth is described by microscale geochemical conditions that constrain metabolic niches in concert with long-term habitat stability that is governed by dynamic geologic processes. Using terrestrial analogs to identify habitable martian environments requires correlating microscale geochemical constraints with reconstructions of past martian environments that are based on global-scale observations. While past martian environments can be characterized by primary parameters (e.g. pH, redox, mineralogy, thermal history), microbial habitability on Earth is a complex function of both primary and derived parameters (e.g. metabolic reaction energetics, chemical & thermal gradients, flow dynamics). In recent years we have been investigating acid-sulfate fumaroles at the Mars analog site, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where habitability is constrained by steep thermal gradients, spatially- and temporally-variable vent dynamics, and limited water and nutrient availability. The most common niche identified thus far is found in fumaroles that host mixed photosynthetic and chemosynthetic endolithic microbial communities. One such endolith is dominated by acidic red algae (Cyanidiales), aerobic bacterial heterotrophs (Ktedonobacteria), and archaeal thermoacidophiles (Hyperthermus, Caldisphaera, and Thermofilum). An analysis of the metabolic structure suggests that primary production by the red algae supports the growth of heterotrophic thermoacidophiles. Diversification among the chemoheterotrophs with respect to temperature and oxygen tolerance suggests community adaptation to environmental gradients or variable venting dynamics. Furthermore, individual cells within the endolith are silica-encrusted, providing the possibility for biosignature formation and preservation. Putative hydrothermal environments on early Mars with similar conditions could have supported endolithic communities with comparable metabolic strategies. Even

  5. The cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme to reduce sexually transmitted infections in high-risk groups in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Gorter, Anna; Sandiford, Peter; Segura, Zoyla

    2005-07-01

    Current evidence suggests that sexually transmitted infection (STI) interventions can be an effective means of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in populations at an early stage of the epidemic. However, evidence as to their cost-effectiveness when targeted at high-risk groups is lacking. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of a competitive voucher scheme in Managua, Nicaragua aimed at high-risk groups, who could redeem the vouchers in exchange for free STI testing and treatment, health education and condoms, compared with the status quo (no scheme). A provider perspective was adopted, defined as: the voucher agency and health care providers from the public, NGO and private sectors. The cost of the voucher scheme was estimated for a 1-year period (1999) from project accounts using the ingredients approach. Outcomes were monitored as part of ongoing project evaluation. Costs and outcomes in the absence of the scheme were modelled using project baseline data and reports, and relevant literature. The annual cost of providing comprehensive STI services through vouchers was US$62 495, compared with an estimated US$17 112 for regular service provision in the absence of the scheme. 4815 vouchers were distributed by the voucher scheme, 1543 patients were tested for STIs and 528 STIs were effectively cured in this period. In the absence of the scheme, only an estimated 85 cases would have been cured from 1396 consultations. The average cost of the voucher scheme per patient treated was US$41 and US$118 per STI effectively cured, compared with US$12 per patient treated and US$200 per STI cured in its absence. The incremental cost of curing an STI through the voucher scheme, compared with the status quo, was US$103. A voucher scheme offers an effective and efficient means of targeting and effectively curing STIs in high-risk groups, as well as encouraging quality care practices.

  6. How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  7. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  8. Cocos Plate Seamounts offshore NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua: Implications for large-scale distribution of Galápagos plume material in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrich, Antje; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard; Hauff, Folkmar; Bogaard, Paul v. d.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The origin of intraplate volcanism not directly part of a hotspot track, such as diffuse seamount provinces, and the extent of mantle plume influence on the upper mantle remain enigmatic. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar age data and geochemical (major and trace-element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic) data from seamounts on the Cocos Plate presently located offshore of NW Costa Rica and SW Nicaragua. The seamounts (~ 7-24 Ma) require mixing of an enriched ocean island basalt composition, similar to that of the Northern Galápagos Domain, with two depleted components. One of the depleted components is similar to East Pacific Rise normal mid-ocean ridge basalt and the other has more depleted incompatible elements, either reflecting secondary melting of MORB or a depleted Galápagos plume component. Seamounts with ages significantly younger than the ocean crust formed in an intraplate setting and can be explained by northward transport of Galápagos plume material along the base of the Cocos Plate up to 900 km away from the hotspot and 250-500 km north of the Galápagos hotspot track. We propose that melting occurs due to decompression as the mantle upwells to shallower depth as it flows northwards, either due to changes in lithospheric thickness or as a result of upwelling at the edge of a viscous plug of accumulated plume material at the base of the lithosphere. The tholeiitic to alkaline basalt compositions of the Cocos Plate Seamounts compared to the more silica under-saturated compositions of Hawaiian rejuvenated and arch (alkali basalts to nephelinites) lavas are likely to reflect the significant difference in age (< 25 vs ~ 90 Ma) and thus thickness of the lithosphere on which the lavas were erupted.

  9. Assessment of environmental controls on acid-sulfate alteration at active volcanoes in Nicaragua: Applications to relic hydrothermal systems on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Brian M.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Marcucci, Emma C.; Brugman, Kara; Rogers, Karyn L.

    2013-10-01

    A variety of secondary mineralogies has been detected on Mars from both orbiters and landers, indicating widespread aqueous alteration of the crust. Many of these locales exhibit sulfates, which in some cases imply acidic fluids. At present, there are few constraints on the paleoenvironmental conditions that existed during formation of the widespread and diverse classes of secondary minerals on Mars. We investigated hydrothermal systems at three active acidic volcanic systems in Nicaragua, including Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica. The recently erupted materials are similar in composition to the Martian crust and are undergoing extensive acid-sulfate alteration predominately in gas-dominated settings (fumaroles). We characterized the secondary mineralogy and local variables, including temperature, pH, rock and gas composition, and fluid-rock ratio. We find that these environmental parameters exhibit strong controls on the alteration mineralogy. The environments studied include pH that ranged from -1 to 6, temperatures from ambient to hundreds of degrees Celsius, and fumaroles to hot springs. The hottest and most acidic systems contained sulfur, silica, and minor gypsum, while moderately acidic and cooler fumaroles included abundant silica, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates, and phyllosilicates. A setting with a higher fluid-rock ratio but similar temperature and acidity was dominated by phyllosilicates and, to a lesser degree, sulfates. The characterization of aqueous alteration of basalts under a variety of environmental conditions provides a conceptual framework for interpretation of similar relic environments on Mars. Finally, while identification of phyllosilicates on Mars is generally thought to require neutral to alkaline fluids, we documented significant formation of these minerals in the acidic volcanic systems.

  10. Late middle ( ) Miocene Segmentation of an Eocene-early Miocene carbonate megabank on the Northern Nicaragua Rise tied to the tectonic activity at the North America/Caribbean plate boundary zone

    SciTech Connect

    Droxler, A.; Cunningham, A. ); Hine, A.C.; Hallock, P.; Duncan, D. ); Rosencrantz, E.; Buffler, R. ); Robinson, E. )

    1993-02-01

    The Northern Nicaragua Rise (NNR) is comprised today of the eastern Honduras/Nicaragua and southern Jamaica carbonate shelves, and a series of relatively small detached carbonate banks (i.e., Pedro, Rosalind, Serranilla, Diriangen, and Bawika Banks) separated from each other by intervening basins and seaways. The NNR basins and seaways, because of their common north trending orientation, have been previously interpreted as Paleocene, Eocene, and possibly Oligocene rifts, becoming progressively younger from the eastern to the western part of NNR. Results from three recent (1988 and 1992) high resolution seismic surveys within these major seaways and basins, (1) Walton Basin, (2) Pedro Channel, and (3) seaways and Serranilla Basin on the western side of the NNR, show that the present bank and basin configuration evolved from a once continuous megabank that covered the entire length of the NNR, including the Island of Jamaica from Eocene through early Miocene times. In the late middle ( ) Miocene, this megabank progressively broke up into a series of smaller banks, basins and seaways, mainly as the result of tectonic movements related to the overall strike-slip displacement within the North American and Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone of the Cayman Trough. At the same time (late middle Miocene), the most eastern portion of the megabank was uplifted and today forms most of central and south Jamaica. The timing of the megabank segmentation has tentatively been constrained by dating several blocks of shallow water limestone dredged from parts of the megabank outcropping on the sea floor of different seaways.

  11. Evaluating a peer intervention strategy for the promotion of sexual health-related knowledge and skills in 10- to 14-year-old girls. Findings from the "Entre amigas" project in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Peña, R; Quintanilla, M; Navarro, K; Martínez, J; Castillo, V; Pérez, W; Källestäl, C

    2008-01-01

    Report effects on knowledge of sexual health and gender from an intervention using peer methodology in Nicaragua. A prepost nonequivalent control group design. Ciudad Sandino, Managua, Nicaragua. A total of 599 girls were surveyed, 60% nonintervened and 40% intervened. Peer methodology consisted of (1) meetings in which girls talked and worked with other girls, (2) mothers taking an active role in the peer groups, and/or (3) girls watching the soap opera "Sexto Sentido." Indices measuring changes in sexual knowledge and gender vision. Girls participating in the peer groups were twice as likely to have satisfactory sexual health-related self-esteem as those who did not participate. Eleven percent of the girls achieved satisfactory self-esteem as a result of the (peer groups x mothers) interaction and 15% due to the (peer groups x mothers x "Sexto Sentido") interaction. Girls participating in the peer groups were three times as likely to have satisfactory gender visions; if exposed to all three components, they were almost four times as likely to develop satisfactory gender visions. Peer methodology, participation of a female family member, and an educational soap opera seem beneficial in promoting sexual health-related knowledge and gender vision in young girls.

  12. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  13. Informed community mobilization for dengue prevention in households with and without a regular water supply: Secondary analysis from the Camino Verde trial in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Alvaro; Arosteguí, Jorge; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva; Ledogar, Robert J; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    Studies in different countries have identified irregular water supply as a risk factor for dengue virus transmission. In 2013, Camino Verde, a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Managua, Nicaragua, and Mexico's Guerrero State, demonstrated impact of evidence-based community mobilisation on recent dengue infection and entomological indexes of infestation by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This secondary analysis of data from the trial impact survey asks: (1) what is the importance of regular water supply in neighbourhoods with and without the trial intervention and (2) can community interventions like Camino Verde reasonably exclude households with adequate water supply? Entomological data collected in the dry season of 2013 in intervention and control communities allow contrasts between households with regular and irregular water supplies. Indicators of entomological risk included the House Index and pupa positive household index. Generalised linear mixed models with cluster as a random effect compared households with and without regular water, and households in intervention and control communities. For the House Index, regular water supply was associated with a protection in both intervention households (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9) and control households (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.8). For the pupa positive household index, we found a similar protection from regular water supply in intervention households (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8) and control households (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-0.9). The Camino Verde intervention had a similar impact on House Index in households with regular water supply (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-1.0) and irregular water supply (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8); for the pupa positive household index, the effect of the intervention was very similar in households with regular (OR0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8) and irregular (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9) water supply. While Aedes aegypti control efforts based on informed community mobilisation had a strong impact on households without a regular water

  14. Water saturation of hydrothermal smectite-rich clay might have promoted slope instability prior to the 1998 debris avalanche at Casita volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Opfergelt, S.; Boivin, P.; Delvaux, B.

    2006-12-01

    In October 1998, a relatively small collapse (1 600 000 cubic meters) of a pre-existing scarp occurred on the southern flank of the dormant Casita volcano, Nicaragua. It resulted in a debris avalanche, which quickly transformed into a disastrous debris flow that destroyed two towns and killed more than 2500 people. The failure was shown to be triggered by an excess pore water pressure within highly fractured rocks, following prolonged seasonal rains and precipitations from Hurricane Mitch. This pressure was linked to the water saturation of a hydrothermally-altered clay bedrock impeding in-depth infiltration. Yet, the nature and amounts of the clay material involved in the slope failure were still unknown. Here we report on physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations aimed at quantifying the clay content, and identifying the layer silicates of the hydrothermally-altered clays uncovered by the 1998 debris avalanche. The fine clay material was exceptionally rich in smectite (up to 50 wt. percent), which swells upon wetting and shrinks during dry conditions (Opfergelt et al., 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (15), L15305). The smectite belonged to the beidellite-montmorillonite series. The pervasive presence of water-saturated smectitic clay strongly reduced the permeability in depth, and also altered the rheological and mechanical properties of both the pre-failure rock mass and flow materials. The shrink-swell behavior progressively decreased the rock's shear strength, and gradually destabilized the overlying rock mass in the decades and centuries before the landslide, thereby contributing to slope instability. Prolonged intense rainfall led to the formation of incipient weak failure surfaces in the superficial rock mass. As provoked by water saturation, this process was likely favored by the rapid change of the mechanical properties of smectite-rich clays deposited in fracture, joint and gouge interfaces. We suggest that hazard assessments associated with

  15. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  16. The A.D. 1835 eruption of Volcán Cosigüina, Nicaragua: A guide for assessing local volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Devoli, Graziella; Alvarez, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The January 1835 eruption of Volcán Cosigüina in northwestern Nicaragua was one of the largest and most explosive in Central America since Spanish colonization. We report on the results of reconnaissance stratigraphic studies and laboratory work aimed at better defining the distribution and character of deposits emplaced by the eruption as a means of developing a preliminary hazards assessment for future eruptions. On the lower flanks of the volcano, a basal tephra-fall deposit comprises either ash and fine lithic lapilli or, locally, dacitic pumice. An overlying tephra-fall deposit forms an extensive blanket of brown to gray andesitic scoria that is 35–60 cm thick at 5–10 km from the summit-caldera rim, except southwest of the volcano, where it is considerably thinner. The scoria fall produced the most voluminous deposit of the eruption and underlies pyroclastic-surge and -flow deposits that chiefly comprise gray andesitic scoria. In northern and southeastern sectors of the volcano, these flowage deposits form broad fans and valley fills that locally reach the Gulf of Fonseca. An arcuate ridge 2 km west of the caldera rim and a low ridge east of the caldera deflected pyroclastic flows northward and southeastward. Pyroclastic flows did not reach the lower west and southwest flanks, which instead received thick, fine-grained, accretionary-lapilli–rich ashfall deposits that probably derived chiefly from ash clouds elutriated from pyroclastic flows. We estimate the total bulk volume of erupted deposits to be ∼6 km3. Following the eruption, lahars inundated large portions of the lower flanks, and erosion of deposits and creation of new channels triggered rapid alluviation. Pre-1835 eruptions are poorly dated; however, scoria-fall, pyroclastic-flow, and lahar deposits record a penultimate eruption of smaller magnitude than that of 1835. It occurred a few centuries earlier—perhaps in the fifteenth century. An undated sequence of thick tephra-fall deposits on

  17. Payment schemes for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument for the sustainable management of natural resources and poverty reduction - a case study from Belén, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, J.

    2010-08-01

    The importance of intact ecosystems for human-wellbeing as well as the dependence on functions and services they provide is undoubted. But still neither the costs of ecosystem degradation nor the benefits from ecosystem functions and services appear on socio-economic balance sheets when development takes place. Consequently overuse of natural resources is socio-economically promoted by conventional resource management policies and external effects (externalities), equally positives and negatives, remain unregarded. In this context the potential of payments for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument to foster sustainable natural resource use, and rural development shall be investigated. This paper introduces the principle concept of such payments, presents a case study from Nicaragua and highlights preliminary effects of the application of this instrument on natural resource use and development.

  18. Walking through volcanic mud: the 2,100 year-old Acahualinca footprints (Nicaragua) II: the Acahualinca people, environmental conditions and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Rausch, Juanita; Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed bare human footprints in Holocene tuff preserved in two pits in the Acahualinca barrio in the northern outskirts of Managua (Nicaragua). Lithology, volcanology, and age of the deposits are discussed in a companion paper (Schmincke et al. Bull Volcanol doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0235-9 , 2008). The footprint layer occurs within a series of rapidly accumulated basaltic-andesitic tephra that is regionally correlated to the Masaya Triple Layer Tephra. The people were probably trying to escape from a powerful volcanic eruption at Masaya Caldera 20 km farther south that occurred at 2.1 ka BP. We subdivided the swath of footprints, up to 5.6 m wide, in the northern pit (Pit I) into (1) a central group of footprints made by about six individuals, the total number being difficult to determine because people walked in each other’s footsteps one behind the other and (2) two marginal groups on either side of the central group with more widely spaced tracks. The western band comprises tracks of three adjacent individuals and an isolated single footprint farther out. The eastern marginal area comprises an inner band of deep footprints made by three individuals and, farther out, three clearly separated individuals. We estimate the total number of people as 15-16. In the southern narrow and smaller pit (Pit II), we recognize tracks of ca. 12 individuals, no doubt made by the same group. The group represented in both pits probably comprised male and female adults, teenagers and children based on differences in length of footprints and of strides and depth of footprints made in the soft wet ash. The smallest footprints (probably made by children) occur in the central group, where protection was most effective. The footprint layer is composed of a lower 5-15-cm thick, coarse-grained vesicle tuff capped by a medium to fine-grained tuff up to 3 cm thick. The

  19. Eruptive history and magmatic evolution of the 1.9 kyr Plinian dacitic Chiltepe Tephra from Apoyeque volcano in west-central Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin; Burkert, Cosima

    2011-09-01

    The youngest dacitic Plinian eruption in west-central Nicaragua, forming the 18 km3 Chiltepe Tephra (CT), occurred about nineteen hundred years ago at Apoyeque stratovolcano, which dominates the Chiltepe volcanic complex 15 km north of the capital Managua, where the CT is 2 m thick. We have traced the CT from its proximal facies at the crater rim, through the medial facies in the lowlands around Apoyeque, and to the distal facies up to 550 km offshore in the Pacific. While medial and distal facies consist of widespread Plinian fall deposits, the proximal facies reveals the complexity of this eruption, which we divide into four phases (I-IV). Interaction of rising magma with a pre-existing crater lake generated the phreatomagmatic opening phase I of the eruption, which produced ash fall with accretionary lapilli. Phase II marked a rapid change to persistent magmatic activity that yielded several large Plinian eruptions, declining through a period of unstable eruption conditions, followed by a short hiatus. Phase III began with unstable conditions, probably as a result of eastward migration and widening of the vent, leading to a second period of Plinian eruptions with three major events reaching magma discharge rates five times larger than those of phase II. Phase III again declined through unstable eruption conditions before magmatic activity terminated. Numerous explosions in the shallow hydrothermal system during the final phase IV resulted in the formation of a phreatic tuff ring on the rim of Apoyeque crater. The white, highly-vesicular, dacitic CT pumice contains plagioclase (An45-68), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and minor hornblende, apatite and titanomagnetite phenocrysts. A very subordinate fraction of gray pumice has the highest crystal content, the least evolved bulk-rock, but the most evolved matrix-glass composition. The CT dacite has two unusual compositional features: (1) all white dacite has the same melt (matrix-glass) composition such that

  20. Changing poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness: findings from a cross-sectional study in Granada, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2008, approximately 8.8 million children under 5 years of age died worldwide. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, but little is known about poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors for their children. We examined poor mothers' care-seeking behaviors in response to childhood illness, and identified factors affecting their choices. We also assessed mothers' perception of the medical services and their confidence in the health care available for their children. Methods We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study with structured questionnaires. Participants were 756 mothers and their young children (0-23 months) in Nandaime municipality, Granada province, Nicaragua. We took the children's anthropometric measurements and we assessed the mothers according to their income. We divided them into 3 global absolute poverty categories (income: <1 USD/day, 1-2 USD/day, >2 USD/day), and 4 quintile. Results When a child showed symptoms of illness, most mothers (>75%) selected public health facilities as their first choice. More than half (>58%) were satisfied with the medical services, but the poorest mothers expressed more dissatisfaction (p = 0.003), when we divided the participants into 4 quintiles groups according to their income. In the poorest group, the main reasons for dissatisfaction were cost (46.6%), and distance to the facilities (25.8%). Almost half (41.3%) of mothers lacked confidence in the health care offered to their child, while most of the wealthiest mothers (75.7%) did have confidence in it (p = 0.001). The poorest mothers showed greater interest in health education than the wealthiest (86.2% vs. 77.8%) (p = 0.015). We found that poor mothers (≤2 USD/day) changed their second choice for care in a positive direction. Factors affecting the change in second choice were the child having symptoms of respiratory disease (AOR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.28-4.90, p = 0.007), visiting health post as the first choice (AOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1

  1. Repeating LP events and increases in high-frequency seismic energy preceding the December 1999 eruption of the quiescently active Telica Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, M.; Roman, D. C.; Geirsson, H.; Lafemina, P.; Muñoz, A.; Guzman, C.; Tenorio, V.

    2010-12-01

    Telica volcano, Nicaragua, is a ‘quiescently active’ basaltic andesite stratovolcano located in the Central American volcanic front. A high rate of long-period (LP) seismicity has been recorded at Telica since the installation of a single vertical-component 1 Hz seismic sensor (TELN) near its summit in 1993 by the Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). Due to the continuously high rate of LPs at Telica, traditional methods of forecasting volcanic activity may not be applicable; therefore an understanding of the nature of precursory changes in Telica’s seismicity is necessary to accurately forecast future volcanic activity. A VEI 2 eruption of Telica occurred on the 29th December 1999, preceded by a series of small explosions between the 3rd-15th October 1999. Here we analyse an eight-month period of seismicity bracketing this activity, in an attempt to identify precursory changes with respect to background seismicity. Between August 1999 and March 2000 over 18,000 seismic events were recorded on TELN. We first calculated the dominant frequencies (i.e. frequency with dominant spectral energy) for all events recorded during this period. A time series of the dominant event frequencies between August 1999 and March 2000 shows a significant increase in the number of high frequency (> 5 Hz) events and, in LP events, a shift in the two dominant spectral energy peaks from 2 Hz and 4 Hz to 2 Hz and 3 Hz in the month before the October 1999 explosions. Next, we selected six representative eight-day periods, three from before the explosions and three from after, for multiplet analysis using waveform cross-correlation. Multiplet analysis of the six selected time periods reveal significant changes in behaviour. In period 1 (more than one month before the explosions) events are poorly correlated. In periods 2 and 3 (less than one month before the explosions) we identified several unique families of LP events, each having high cross-correlation values

  2. Export Credit Subsidies to Nicaragua.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Interest Rates : U.S. Officially " Supported Credits .. .......................................... 16 -. 4. Officially Supported Lending To...34 -... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. ....-....- .- . . . °. -. v --. -: , ---°¢ , - ....-;,-,K, " t " ’ : . ," "_ ",",, , [-’ś " -’L-J |VI. 3- interest rate is usually low and the repayment period...long when compared with private financing. Sometimes these loans are advanced at an interest rate below the lending government’s

  3. Playing to Win in Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    Miranda served as Chief of Staff to Humberto Ortega, the Sandinistan Defense Minister. Miranda has reinforced the charge that the Sandinistas agreed... Lucia Annunziata, "Democrats and the Arias Plan," The Nation, Vol. 197, 18 April 1987, pp. 503-505. 11. Elliott Abrams, "Central America: What Are

  4. US Strategic Options in Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    arrested in the fall of 1986. The men were sent to "EI Modelo " prison on the eastern outskirts of Managua, while the women were detained in the security...Santa Monica, Calif. 4. Julia Preston, ~’Gringos Defeated in War Games," The Washington Post, 21 December 1986, pp . I, 33. 5. Richard’Halloran...February 1987), p. 1. 11. Joanne Omang, HThe Contra Commitment," The Washington Post, 1 January 1987, pp . I, 24. 12. Penn Kemble and Arturo Cruz, Jr

  5. Thermal Models of the Costa Rica - Nicaragua Subduction Zone: the Effect of a Three-Dimensional Oceanic Plate Structure and Hydrothermal Circulation in the Temperature Distribution and Mantle Wedge Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, J. C.; Currie, C. A.; He, J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last years several 2D thermo-mechanical models of the Costa Rica - Nicaragua Subduction Zone (CNSZ) have studied the thermal distribution of sections of the fault. Such investigations allow us to understand temperature-related aspects of subduction zones, like volcanism and megathrust earthquake locations. However, certain features of the CNSZ limit the range of applicability of 2D models. In the CNSZ, geochemical trends and seismic anisotropy studies reveal a 3D mantle wedge flow that departs from the 2D corner flow. The origin of this flow are dip variations (20o to 25o between Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and the presence of a slab window in Panama that allows material to flow into the mantle wedge. Also, the Central America trench has abrupt variations in surface heat flux that contrasts with steady changes in plate age and convergence rate. These variations have been attributed to hydrothermal circulation (HC), which effectively removes heat from the oceanic crust.In this project we analyze the thermal structure of the CNSZ. The objective is to study dehydration and metamorphic reactions, as well as the length of the megathrust seismogenic zone. We created 3D finite-element models that employ a dislocation creep rheology for the mantle wedge. Two aspects make our models different from previous studies: an up-to-date 3D slab geometry, and an implementation of HC by introducing a conductive proxy in the subducting aquifer, allowing us to model convective heat transport without the complex, high-Rayleigh number calculations. A 3D oceanic boundary condition that resembles the along-strike changes in surface heat flux is also employed. Results show a maximum mantle wedge flow rate of 4.69 cm/yr in the along-strike direction, representing more than 50% of the slab convergence rate. With respect to 2D models, analysis shows this flow changes temperatures by ~100 C in the mantle wedge near areas of strong slab curvature. Along the subducting interface, there is

  6. Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in León, Nicaragua-A Shared Pool of blaCTX-M Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Badrul; Laurell, Karl; Rakib, Mufti Mahmud; Ahlstedt, Erik; Hernandez, Jorge; Caceres, Mercedes; Järhult, Josef D

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing β-lactamases such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of León, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n = 100), poultry (n = 100) and wild birds (n = 100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-22, and blaCTX-M-3 genotypes. The blaCTX-M-15 constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of blaCTX-M genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  7. Primer registro de Empidonax fulvifrons en Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Francisco J. Muñoz; Wayne J Arendt; Liliana Chavarria; Pablo Somarriba; Aura L. Cruz

    2009-01-01

    English title: First documented report of buff-breasted fl ycatcher Empidonax fulvifrons in Nicargua. A buff-breasted flycatcher (Empidonax fulvifrons) was observed on 4 January 2008 in Loma Fría, Dipilto Municipality, Department of Nueva Segovia. The bird was sited in a pasture with scattered pines (Pinus oocarpa) adjacent to a pine-oak forest. It formed part of a...

  8. Guerrilla Warfare in Nicaragua, 1975-1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    faction, known as the Prolonged Popular WarK Tenenc (tendenia guerra popuZar prolongada or GPP), prolected victory after a decades-long struggle in... Paz Centro on the Managua-Le6n route. On the following day., it was reported that advanced elements of the FSLN guerrillas had returned to Managua and...combat at La Paz Centro. On 16 July, the Sandinista guerrillas finally destroyed the National Guard garrison in Estell which had been under siege for

  9. Education in Nicaragua. Bulletin, 1947, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1947-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  10. First Investigations on the Pantasma Structure (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Beck, P.; Debaille, V.; Devouard, B.; Moustard, F.; Nomade, S.; Cornec, J.

    2016-08-01

    The 13 km diameter structure of Pantasma occurs in subhorizontal volcanics. Morphology, structure and deformation are compatible with a Quaternary impact. Recovered glass pebbles appear to be impact generated.

  11. Education in Nicaragua. Bulletin, 1947, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1947-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  12. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  13. Analyzing IT Service Delivery in an ISP from Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Johnny; Rusu, Lazar; Johanneson, Paul

    This paper presents a method for analyzing IT service delivery and its application in an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The method proposed is based on ITIL-processes and case study technique; it includes questionnaires for gathering information, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and documents as sources of information for recognition of factual information. The method application allows to the ISP determines its practices and limitations of the IT Service Delivery.

  14. The Impact of Child Labor on Schooling Outcomes in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo

    2011-01-01

    Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…

  15. Experimental Evidence from an Early Childhood Parenting Intervention in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macours, Karen; Premand, Patrick; Schady, Norbert; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Despite the strong argument for investing in young children and the many types of interventions and delivery mechanisms that have been developed, knowledge on Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs' effectiveness in low-income settings remains thin. Yet a growing number of programs in developing countries contain interventions seeking to…

  16. Television exposure predicts body size ideals in rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Jucker, Jean-Luc; Thornborrow, Tracey; Jamieson, Mark A; Burt, D Michael; Barton, Robert A; Evans, Elizabeth H; Tovee, Martin J

    2016-11-01

    Internalization of a thin ideal has been posited as a key risk factor in the development of pathological eating attitudes. Cross-culturally, studies have found a preference for heavier bodies in populations with reduced access to visual media compared to Western populations. As yet, however, there has been little attempt to control for confounding variables in order to isolate the effects of media exposure from other cultural and ecological factors. Here, we examined preferences for female body size in relation to television consumption in Nicaraguan men and women, while controlling for the potential confounding effects of other aspects of Westernization and hunger. We included an urban sample, a sample from a village with established television access, and a sample from a nearby village with very limited television access. The highest BMI preferences were found in the village with least media access, while the lowest BMI preferences were found in the urban sample. Data from the rural sample with established television access were intermediate between the two. Amongst rural women in particular, greater television consumption was a stronger predictor of body weight preferences than acculturation, education, hunger, or income. We also found some evidence for television consumption increasing the likelihood of women seeking to lose weight, possibly via body shape preferences. Overall, these results strongly implicate television access in establishing risk factors for body image disturbances in populations newly gaining access to Western media.

  17. Y chromosome haplogroup diversity in a Mestizo population of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Geppert, Maria; Baeta, Miriam; Roewer, Lutz; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña

    2012-12-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are indispensable markers for haplogroup determination. Since Y chromosome haplogroups show a high specific geographical distribution, they play a major role in population genetics but can also benefit forensic investigations. Although haplogroup prediction methods based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) exist and are frequently used, precaution is required in this regard. In this study we determine the Y chromosome haplogroups of a Nicaraguan population using several Y-SNP multiplex reactions. Y chromosome haplogroups have been predicted before, but our results show that a confirmation with Y-SNP typings is necessary. These results have revealed a 4.8% of error in haplogroup prediction based on Y-STR haplotypes using Athey's Haplogroup Predictor. The Nicaraguan Mestizo population displays a majority of Eurasian lineages, mainly represented by haplogroup R-M207 (46.7%). Other Eurasian lineages have been observed, especially J-P209 (13.3%), followed by I-M170 (3.6%) and G-M201 (1.8%). Haplogroup E-P170 was also observed in 15.2% of the sample, particularly subhaplogroup E1b1b1-M35. Finally, the Native American haplogroup Q-M242 was found in 15.2% of the sample, with Q1a3a-M3 being the most frequent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Violent Crime: A Comparative Study of Honduras and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Defense in Latin America, ed. Juan Ria, 2008th ed. (Red de Seguridad y Defensa de América Latina, 2008), 32. 3 B. THE IMPORTANCE OF VIOLENT CRIME...the Sandinista Popular Army (EPS) and 5,100 members of the Ministry of the Interior (MINT) demobilized—a total that exceeded the number of Nicaraguans...the Contras (or Recontras) and the marginalized former soldiers from the Ejército Popular Sandinista or EPS (Las Recompas), as well as a third

  19. The Impact of Child Labor on Schooling Outcomes in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo

    2011-01-01

    Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…

  20. Teachers and Teaching: Conceptualizing Quality Education in Rural Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Policy discourses reflected in the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) (Inter-Agency Commission, 1990) and the subsequent Dakar Framework for Action and EFA: The Quality Imperative (UNESCO, 2001, 2004), have called for the improvement of the quality of basic education. These discourses emphasize student-centered pedagogical approaches in…

  1. Community-based agroforestry initiatives in Nicaragua and Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    David I. King; Richard B. Chandler; John H. Rappole; Raul Raudales; Rich. Turbey

    2012-01-01

    Curbing the loss of biodiversity is a primary challenge to conservationists. Estimates of current rates of species loss range from 14,000 - 40,000 species per year (Hughes et al., 2007), and although a variety of factors are implicated, habitat loss is repeatedly cited as an important cause (Sala et al., 2000). Most ecosystems are under some degree of threat, however...

  2. Post-civil war adaptation and need in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Frederick L; Noble, John H

    2004-07-01

    Within seven years after the end of the Nicaraguan civil war in 1990, forced migrants, whose lives had been most disrupted by the conflict, were self-settled in a squatter community in the capital city of Managua and lived in extreme poverty with minimal health, education, security and social service supports. Compared with voluntary migrant neighbours, whose lives had been less affected by the conflict, forced migrants exhibited equal clinically significant symptoms of physical and mental health and psychosocial maladaptation. These findings run counter to generally held theory and assumptions about the negative long-lasting effects of the trauma and stress of war, forced migration and resettlement. Explanations are offered to explain the discrepancies between theory and the study findings as well as the dominance of poverty and socioeconomic status. Implications are also drawn for increasing social support and other durable forms of assistance that emerge from the study as important to meeting the needs of equally poor and unhealthy forced and voluntary migrants in proliferating squatter communities throughout the Third World.

  3. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  4. Resistance Begins with the First Foreign Footstep: China and Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    shelling of coastal towns, as was naval custom. The conflict also revealed a dichotomy between the Department of State and the local Navy commanders...Ibid., 203. 33 Ibid., 221-227. 34 Ibid., 222. 35 Ibid., 6. 36 Ibid., 222-223. 37 Ibid., 241-242. 38 Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars: United...States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898- 1934 (Lexington, KY: University Press), 55. 39 Bruce Gudmundsson, “The First of the Banana Wars: US

  5. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.

    1996-12-31

    The Momotombo geothermal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} plotted on the Na-K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to reservoir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2, Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than some of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred from a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  6. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  7. Bandaid Diplomacy: An Historical Perspective of U.S. Policy Towards Nicaragua.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Walker particularily condemns the actions of .4. Ambassadors Thomas Whelan (1951-1961) and Turner Shelton (1970-1975). Whelan was a political appointee...the U.S. Shelton was appointed by Nixon. His appointment was based on large contributions to the Nixon presidential campaign and also on his...friendship to such notables as Bebe Rebozo and Howard Hughes. Neither Whelan nor Shelton spoke Spanish. For another account of this tragic affair in our

  8. Influences of scale on bat habitat relationships in a forested landscape in Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Carol L. Chambers; Samuel A. Cushman; Arnulfo Medina-Fitoria; Jose Martinez-Fonseca; Marlon Chavez-Velasquez

    2016-01-01

    Scale dependence of bat habitat selection is poorly known with few studies evaluating relationships among landscape metrics such as class versus landscape, or metrics that measure composition or configuration. This knowledge can inform conservation approaches to mitigate habitat loss and fragmentation.

  9. America - Las Americas. Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    These publications were written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight individual differences between the countries that make up the Americas by providing historical, geographical, and cultural information about them on a quarterly basis. The three issues presented here focus on nations of Central America with…

  10. The Discourse of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Daniel Ortega: Peace in Nicaragua without Concession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Pat

    Seeking to understand American and Nicaraguan perspectives of the Nicaraguan revolution, a study examined the rhetorical strategies used by Presidents Reagan and Ortega in their speeches. Ten public addresses made by each president in 1985-1986, pertaining to funding for Nicaraguan counterrevolutionary forces, were charted and examined for…

  11. Nuevos rangos altitudinales para dos especies de la avifauna de Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; I. Castillo

    2015-01-01

    We document the elevational range expansions of two Nicaraguan bird species, scaled pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) and collared plover (Charadrius collaris). The previously reported elevational range of Patagioenas speciosa was sea level to 600 m. We observed the species in shade coffee at Santa Maura farm at an elevation of 1115 masl. Historically, the second species,...

  12. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    undermining legitimate economies, and disrupting social order” (Federal News Service 2001). While outlining the threats, no plan for engagement was...economic stress caused by the buildup, the heavy recruiting efforts necessary to maintain such a large force induced social stress. Protests against the...of Disasters) Guatemala, Guatemala. Secretaria de Integracion Economica Centroamericana. 68 Smith, Peter H. 2000. Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of

  13. Community cost-benefit discussions that launched the Camino Verde intervention in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alvarez, Carlos; Arosteguí, Jorge; Suazo-Laguna, Harold; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2017-05-30

    Recent literature on community intervention research stresses system change as a condition for durable impact. This involves highly participatory social processes leading to behavioural change. Before launching the intervention in the Nicaraguan arm of Camino Verde, a cluster-randomised controlled trial to show that pesticide-free community mobilisation adds effectiveness to conventional dengue controls, we held structured discussions with leaders of intervention communities on costs of dengue illness and dengue control measures taken by both government and households. These discussions were the first step in an effort at Socialising Evidence for Participatory Action (SEPA), a community mobilisation method used successfully in other contexts. Theoretical grounding came from community psychology and behavioural economics. The leaders expressed surprise at how large and unexpected an economic burden dengue places on households. They also acknowledged that large investments of household and government resources to combat dengue have not had the expected results. Many were not ready to see community preventive measures as a substitute for chemical controls but all the leaders approved the formation of "brigades" to promote chemical-free household control efforts in their own communities. Discussions centred on household budget decisions provide a good entry point for researchers to engage with communities, especially when the evidence showed that current expenditures were providing a poor return. People became motivated not only to search for ways to reduce their costs but also to question the current response to the problem in question. This in turn helped create conditions favourable to community mobilisation for change. ISRCTN27581154 .

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Diffuse Carbon Dioxide Emission From Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Melián, G.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Cerro Negro is a basaltic cinder cone that has erupted 22 times since its birth in 1850. It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Cerro Negro's most recent activity was on 5 August 1999 when erupted ash clouds at heights of about 7 km. In December 1999, three months after the eruption, a surface flux survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 to 35,000 gm-2d-1 and the total diffuse CO2 output was estimated about 2,800 td-1. Soil temperature reached values above 300°C on the NE flank of the volcano (Salazar et al., 2001). The goal of this study is to evaluate how diffuse CO2 degassing rate at Cerro Negro changes through its eruptive cycle and improve its volcano monitoring program. From Febraury 26 to March 11, 2002, a new diffuse CO2 degassing survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Sampling distribution was similar to the 1999 survey covering an area of (0.6 Km2). Diffuse CO2 emission rates for the 2002 survey showed a wide range of values from 0.3 to 26,500 gm-2d-1. Most of the study area showed soil CO2 efflux values above 110 gm-2d-1, and the highest CO2 efflux rate was observed in the Northeastern sector of the crater. Soil temperature was also recorded during the survey, and the highest value was observed in the NE flank reaching temperatures up to 450°C. The total diffuse CO2 output for the 2002 survey was estimated about 280 td-1, which is one order of magnitude lower than the estimated for the 1999 survey. This significant temporal variation on diffuse CO2 emission rate seems to be clearly related to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. If we consider that the statistically eruptive cycle for Cerro Negro is less than a decade, it is obvious that the December 1999 survey was performed within its post-eruptive period, while the recent 2002 survey was carried out two years and a half after the most recent eruption of Cerro Negro, within its inter-eruptive period. These results suggest that diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring at Cerro Negro could be a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance.

  15. 1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

    2013-04-01

    7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

  16. Non-Formal Basic Education as a Development Priority: Evidence from Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Pineda, Heiling; Esquivel, Yannete; Lopez, Blancadilia; Gurdian, Nidia Veronica; Regalia, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Almost 900m adolescents and adults are illiterate in the developing world, yet most policy discussions focus on the educational circumstances of primary aged children. As a result non-formal educational programs for adolescents and adults are given very little support, and this group is virtually ignored in international agreements such as the…

  17. Contextual empowerment: the impact of Health Brigade involvement on the women of Miraflor, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative, descriptive study investigated how working with Health Brigades influenced a sense of empowerment and a resultant shifting of gender-power relationships for women in a rural Nicaraguan community. A convenience sample of 10 women aged 18 to 65 years who had worked with the Brigades were interviewed. Open and axial coding were used to determine core categories and theoretical concepts. From this emerged a grounded theory of contextual empowerment. Key findings included that within this collectivist culture, the concept of contextual empowerment includes psychosocial and structural dimensions. Implications for nursing practice include the impact of unintentional role modeling.

  18. Attitudinal and relational factors predicting the use of solar water disinfection: a field study in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several factors and the intention to use SODIS in the future and actual use were tested. The results showed that intention to use and actual use are mainly related to an overall positive attitude, intention to use is related to the use of SODIS by neighbors, and actual use is related to knowledge about SODIS; SODIS users reported a significantly lower incidence in diarrhea than SODIS nonusers. These results suggest that promotion activities should aim at creating a positive attitude, for example, by choosing a promoter that is able to inspire confidence in the new technology.

  19. A School Finds Its Community. Earthquakes Can Build as Well as Destroy Managua, Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Howard; Burton, Gary

    1974-01-01

    The American-Nicaraguan School in Managua has placed a new emphasis on serving the community through recreational programs, adult education, community projects, work study programs within the community, and cultural presentations for the general public. (Author/DN)

  20. The Organic Chemistry of Volcanoes: Case Studies at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua and Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, A. J.; Seward, T. M.; Gize, A. P.; Hall, T.

    2005-12-01

    Though it has long been known that volcanoes emit organic compounds within their fumarolic gases, it is only in recent years that a concerted attempt has been made to catalogue and quantify the species and fluxes. Two general lines of interest dominate this study. Firstly, volcanic gases represent some of the most likely environments in which the precursor molecules necessary for the origin of life were synthesised. The existence of an active, abiotic, organic chemistry in such settings today is fundamental to our understanding of the early Earth. Secondly, the presence of halogenated organic compounds is of interest to the atmospheric sciences, particularly with respect to their ozone depleting potential. It is clear that natural sources of halocarbons must exist, and though current natural fluxes are low with respect to the anthropogenic signature, volcanogenic halocarbons may have proved to be significant during the eruption of supervolcanoes and continental flood basalts. In this study, gases were collected from fumaroles in the craters of two, very different, active volcanoes. Cerro Negro, a young basaltic cinder cone belonging to the Central American Volcanic Belt, could be defined as a typical subduction zone volcano. Gases were collected from Cerro Negro during March 2003 and 2004 from a single fumarole discharging close to the crater floor. In contrast, Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano and represents the most extreme case of alkali volcanism in the East African Rift system. Fieldwork was conducted in the northern summit crater of Lengai over 8 days in October 2003. In this period, the volcano was in near continuous eruption and gases were sampled from two fumaroles situated within 20m of the eruptive centre, though measured gas temperatures were low at around 195°C. Organic compounds were collected using a variety of activated carbon, molecular sieve type adsorbents, packed into glass cartridges. The water and acid matrix of the gas was first removed using a pair of condensation flasks cooled in ice/water slush. The gas was then passed through the adsorbent cartridges using a low flow battery powered pump. The gases were analysed using GCMS techniques. At Oldoinyo Lengai a wide variety of simple biomolecules such as acetic acid, pyrole and ethanol is noted. However, the low gas temperatures imply that these compounds are the result of bacterial activity within the system rather than abiotic synthesis. At Cerro Negro a rich organic chemistry was found. Alkanes, alkenes and aromatics are present in significant concentrations up to C12. Additionally, halogenated compounds such as trichlorofluoromethane (CFC11), chlorobenzene and tetrachloroethene were discovered in concentrations of up to 10ppbv, permitting revised estimates of the global volcanogenic flux of such halocarbons.

  1. The degassing character of a young volcanic center: Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Muñoz, Angélica; Carcache, Martha Ibarra

    2014-09-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is a young basaltic cinder cone which is part of the Nicaraguan volcanic arc. Eruptive activity at Cerro Negro is characterized by explosive strombolian to subplinian eruptions driven by volatile-rich basaltic magma ascending rapidly from various crustal depths (>15 to 6 km) resulting in the onset of precursory activity only ˜30 min before an eruption. In this paper, we present a comprehensive degassing characterization of the volcano over a 4-year period aimed at improving our understanding of the magmatic plumbing network and its relationship with regional tectonics. A total of 124 individual soil gas samples were collected between 2010 and 2013 and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) from CO2. High temperature fumaroles were sampled for δ18O, δD, and 3He/4He isotope analysis, and major degassing zones were mapped using soil CO2 flux measurements. Gases at Cerro Negro are characterized by a strong 3He/4He mantle signature (6.3 to 7.3 RA), magmatic δ13C ratios (-2.3 to -3.0 ‰), meteoric δ18O and δD ratios, and stable CO2 fluxes (31 t d-1). The lack of δ13C fractionation and an increase in the relative mantle component from 2002 to 2012 suggest that the volatile flux at Cerro Negro originates from the mantle and ascends to the surface via a series of crustal fractures that act as permeable conduits. Despite the lack of new eruptions, the hydrothermal system of Cerro Negro continues to evolve due to seasonal inputs of meteoric water, slope failures that expose and bury sites of active degassing, and bursts of regional seismicity that have the potential to open up new conduits for gas release as well as magma. Continuing geophysical and geochemical monitoring of the main edifice and the recently formed south zone is essential, as the volcano remains overdue to erupt.

  2. After the war in Nicaragua: a psychosocial study of war wounded ex-combatants.

    PubMed

    Hume, F; Summerfield, D

    1994-01-01

    Despite 150 wars in the Third World since 1945, there have been virtually no psychosocial studies of war wounded ex-combatants. This community study of 72 such men, on average 4.9 years post-injury, had both quantitative (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ] and clinical interview) and qualitative (personal narrative) components. Most men were coping adaptively. However their overall GHQ scores were significantly higher than an ex-combatant control group, suggesting relative psychological vulnerability (P = 0.001). 13 (18 per cent) had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) though in only three was this clinically significant, two of whom were aggressive alcoholics. Social dysfunction was a better indicator of the minority who needed psychological help than a diagnosis of PTSD. The one in three with a severe physical disability were not at greater risk than the rest of the group. Personal narratives illuminated the ways subjects had registered and responded to their war experiences. Identification with the social ideals being defended by the war effort had been psychologically bolstering. Ten severely disabled ex-Contra guerrillas, who had fought on the other side, were also interviewed. The availability of appropriate training/work, and thus the economic fortunes of the whole society, are likely to be major determinants of long-term psychosocial outcomes. Six illustrative personal histories are appended.

  3. Registros del Cuco Hormiguero (Neomorphus geoffroyi) en la Reserva de Biosfera de Bosawas, Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    H.M. Herrera-Rosales; M. Tórrez; W.J. Arendt

    2014-01-01

    El cuco hormiguero, Neomorphus geoffroyi, se registró en la Reserva de Biósfera de Bosawás y representa el primer gráfico de la especie para el Norte y para el país. Esta especie es rara y es sensible a la deforestación, se observó en compañía de bandadas mixtas, con su comportamiento...

  4. Scientists raise alarms about fast tracking of transoceanic canal through Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L; Rittmann, Bruce E; Clayton, Anthony; Acosta, Maria L; Bicudo, Carlos E M; K Arroyo, Mary T; Brett, Michael T; Campos, Victor M; Chaimovich, Hernan; Jimenez-Cisneros, Blanca; Covich, Alan; Lacerda, Luiz D; Maes, Jean-Michel; Miranda, Julio C; Montenegro-Guillén, Salvador; Ortega-Hegg, Manuel; Urquhart, Gerald R; Vammen, Katherine; Zambrano, Luis

    2015-04-07

    Seeking economic growth and job creation to tackle the nation's extreme poverty, the Nicaraguan government awarded a concession to build an interoceanic canal and associated projects to a recently formed Hong Kong based company with no track record or related expertise. This concession was awarded without a bidding process and in advance of any feasibility, socio-economic or environmental impact assessments; construction has begun without this information. The 278 km long interoceanic canal project may result in significant environmental and social impairments. Of particular concern are damage to Lake Cocibolca, a unique freshwater tropical lake and Central America's main freshwater reservoir; damage to regional biodiversity and ecosystems; and socio-economic impacts. Concerned about the possibly irreparable damage to the environment and to native communities, conservationists and the scientific community at large are urging the Nicaraguan government to devise and reveal an action plan to address and mitigate the possible negative repercussions of this interoceanic canal and associated projects. Critical research needs for preparation of a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis for this megaproject are presented.

  5. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-10-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  6. Beyond the clinic walls: empowering young people through Youth Peer Provider programmes in Ecuador and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Tebbets, Claire; Redwine, Dee

    2013-05-01

    Youth in Latin America experience high rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, but traditional health services are not meeting their health care needs. Youth require access to tailored health care and information to make informed, healthy decisions. To break down barriers to these vital sexual and reproductive health services, Planned Parenthood Global, a division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, developed a Youth Peer Provider model which has been implemented in Latin America since the early 1990s. The model goes beyond peer education to train Youth Peer Providers under age 20 to provide condoms, oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraception, injectable contraceptives, and sexual and reproductive health information to their peers. Peers with needs beyond Youth Peer Providers' capacity are referred to health professionals offering youth-friendly services. Survey results reveal high levels of contraceptive use among those served by the Youth Peer Providers: 98% of sexually active survey respondents wishing to avoid pregnancy report contraceptive use at least five years after joining the programme. Results of qualitative programme evaluations highlight higher self-esteem, stronger communication and decision-making skills, close relationships with friends and family, more interest in school, understanding of responsibility in relationships, and other positive outcomes among programme participants.

  7. Sex Trafficking, Violence Victimization, and Condom Non-Use Among Prostituted Women in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Mack, Katelyn P.; Barrows, Jeffery J.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Prostituted women report disempowerment-related barriers to condom use, extensive violence victimization and trafficking experiences; findings indicate that disempowerment must be addressed within STI/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:19577234

  8. The Development of an Undergraduate Study Abroad Program: Nicaragua and the Psychology of Social Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shupe, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…

  9. U.S. - Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-08

    Ecuador, Venezuela and Mexico borrowed heavily in order to expand their economies in the belief that oil prices would continue to rise. 15 The banks...paying old debt with new debt became common. Things kept going on with an apparent air of business as usual until October 1982 when Mexico was not...in the continent. Positive long term instruments of policy such as economic cooperation, military alliances, educacion and transfer of technology

  10. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.

  11. Can the Grass Roots Speak? The Literacy Campaign in English on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the Literacy Campaign in English, one of three native language extensions of the Nicaraguan Sandinistas' National Literacy Crusade, explaining how it highlights how state policy and grassroots initiatives interact in indigenous/ethnic language maintenance in Latin America. Analyzes literacy materials designed for the English-speaking…

  12. 76 FR 68493 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Unfair Employment Practices. PRRAC--European Union's Regional Program for the Reconstruction of Central...,600 homes were repaired or constructed through assistance by such organizations as USAID, the European... Nations and the European Union have joined forces with the Nicaraguan government to support a boost...

  13. Vaccine-Derived NSP2 Segment in Rotaviruses from Vaccinated Children with Gastroenteritis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Rippinger, Christine M.; Svensson, Lennart; Patton, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) vaccination programs have been established in several countries using the human-attenuated G1P[8] monovalent vaccine Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline) and/or the human-bovine reassortant G1, G2, G3, G4, P[8] pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq™ (Merck). The efficacy of both vaccines is high (~90%) in developed countries, but can be remarkably lower in developing countries. For example, a vaccine efficacy against severe diarrhea of only 58% was observed in a 2007–2009 Nicaraguan study using RotaTeq. To gain insight into the significant level of vaccine failure in this country, we sequenced the genomes of RVs recovered from vaccinated Nicaraguan children with gastroenteritis. The results revealed that all had genotype specificities typical for human RVs (11 G1P[8], 1 G3P[8]) and that the sequences and antigenic epitopes of the outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) of these viruses were similar to those reported for RVs isolated elsewhere in the world. As expected, nine of the G1P[8] viruses and the single G3P[8] virus had genome constellations typical of human G1P[8] and G3P[8] RVs: G1/3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. However, two of the G1P[8] viruses had atypical constellations, G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N2-T1-E1-H1, due to the presence of a genotype-2 NSP2 (N2) gene. The sequence of the N2 NSP2 gene was identical to the bovine N2 NSP2 gene of RotaTeq, indicating that the two atypical viruses originated via reassortment of human G1P[8] RVs with RotaTeq viruses. Together, our data suggest that the high level of vaccine failure in Nicaraguan is probably not due to antigenic drift of commonly circulating virus strains nor the emergence of new antigenetically distinct virus strains. Furthermore, our data suggests that the widespread use of the RotaTeq vaccine has led to the introduction of vaccine genes into circulating human RVs. PMID:22487061

  14. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  15. Attitudinal and Relational Factors Predicting the Use of Solar Water Disinfection: A Field Study in Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altherr, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Tobias, Robert; Butera, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an uncomplicated and cheap technology providing individuals with safe drinking water by exposing water-filled plastic bottles to sunlight for 6 hours to kill waterborne pathogens. Two communities were visited, and 81 families (40 SODIS users and 41 nonusers) were interviewed. The relationship between several…

  16. Inland occurrence of the strand plant Ipomeoa pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae) around Lake Nicaragua

    Treesearch

    Margaret S. Devall; Leonard B. Thien

    2005-01-01

    Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) Roth (railroad vine, Convolvulaceae) is a pantropical, perenial beach plant that forms large patches just above the high tide line on coastal beaches and dunes throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In spite of its wide distribution, only rare occurrences of I. pes-caprae have been...

  17. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in Nicaragua from 1927 to 1933

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    tactical and operational level. I initially approached this topic by investigating the measure of effectiveness assigned to the occupation, the free and... effective without any organized. resistance.14 The Eleventh Regiment established its headquarters in Ocotal and immediately began ·active patrolling...Nacional. The solution to this lack ofleadership came in the form. of political appointments. The United States attempted to s~lect an equal number of field

  18. U.S. Professors in Nicaraguan Universities: The LASPAU/AID Nicaragua Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    A program that sponsored eight visiting U.S. professors to teach science and conduct applied research in two Nicaraguan universities was evaluated. The program, which was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, was conducted at the Universidad Centroamericana (UCA) in Managua and the Leon campus of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de…

  19. The Development of an Undergraduate Study Abroad Program: Nicaragua and the Psychology of Social Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shupe, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…

  20. Total arsenic in water, fish, and sediments from Lake Xolotlan, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lacayo, M.L.; Cruz, A.; Calero, S.; Lacayo, J.; Fomsgaard, I. )

    1992-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern over arsenic in aquatic environments from such sources as arsenical pesticides, smelters, coal-fired power plants and erosion caused by extensive land use. Another important contribution to As in the environment is the release associated with volcanic activity and hot springs. Lake Xolotlan has a surface area of 1000 km[sup 2]. The content of arsenic in Lake Xolotlan has different origins, such as volcanic activity in the area, waste water from a geothermal plant situated in the Momotombo Volcano on the northwest coast of the lake and a high number of hot springs. The objective of the present study was to determine total As in water, sediments and fish in Lake Xolotlan at different sampling sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.