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Sample records for nicaraguan sugarcane farm

  1. Heat stress assessment among workers in a Nicaraguan sugarcane farm

    PubMed Central

    Delgado Cortez, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    Background Heat illness is a major cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. Workers exposed to intense heat can become unable to activate compensation mechanisms, putting their health at risk. Heat stress also has a direct impact on production by causing poor task performance and it increases the possibility of work-related morbidity and injuries. During the sugarcane harvest period, workers are exposed to excessive sunlight and heat from approximately 6 am to 3 pm. A first assessment of heat stress during the 2006/2007 harvesting season served to redesign the existing rehydration measures. In this project, sugarcane workers were provided with more rehydration solutions and water during their work schedule. Objective To assess heat stress preventive measures in order to improve existing rehydration strategies as a means of increasing productivity. Methods A small group of 22 workers were followed up for 15 days during working hours, from 6 am to 3 pm. Selection criteria were defined: to have worked more than 50% of the day's working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. A simple data recollection sheet was used. Information regarding the amount of liquid intake was registered. Production output data was also registered. Temperature measurements were recorded by using a portable temperature monitoring device (‘EasyLog’, model EL-USB-2). Results The average temperature measurements were above the Nicaraguan Ministry of Labour thresholds. Seven workers drank 7–8 L of liquid, improving their production. Output production increased significantly (p=0.005) among those best hydrated, from 5.5 to 8 tons of cut sugarcane per worker per day. Conclusions Productivity improved with the new rehydration measures. Awareness among workers concerning heat stress prevention was increased. PMID:20052378

  2. Changes in kidney function among Nicaraguan sugarcane workers

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rebecca L; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan José; Weiner, Daniel E; Kaufman, James S; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Riefkohl, Alejandro; Scammell, Madeleine K; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Sánchez, José Marcel; Parikh, Chirag R; McClean, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology in Central American workers. Objectives: To investigate changes and job-specific differences in kidney function over a 6-month sugarcane harvest season, explore the potential role of hydration, and measure proteinuria. Methods: We recruited 284 Nicaraguan sugarcane workers performing seven distinct tasks. We measured urine albumin and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: eGFR varied by job and decreased during the harvest in seed cutters (−8.6 ml/min/1.73 m2), irrigators (−7.4 ml/min/1.73 m2), and cane cutters (−5.0 ml/min/1.73 m2), as compared to factory workers. The number of years employed at the company was negatively associated with eGFR. Fewer than 5% of workers had albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g. Conclusions: The decline in kidney function during the harvest and the differences by job category and employment duration provide evidence that one or more risk factors of CKD are occupational. PMID:25631575

  3. Biomarkers of Kidney Injury Among Nicaraguan Sugarcane Workers

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rebecca L.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Amador, Juan José; Weiner, Daniel E.; Kaufman, James S.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Riefkohl, Alejandro; Scammell, Madeleine K.; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Sánchez, José Marcel; Parikh, Chirag R.; McClean, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Central America, an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology disproportionately affects young, male agricultural workers. Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting & Participants 284 sugarcane workers in seven jobs were recruited from one company in northwestern Nicaragua. Blood and urine samples were collected before and near the end of the six-month harvest season. Predictors Job category (cane cutter, seeder, seed cutter, agrichemical applicator, irrigator, driver, factory worker); self-reported water and electrolyte solution intake. Outcomes & Measurements Change in urinary kidney injury biomarkers normalized to urine creatinine, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), and albumin; serum creatinine–based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results Mean eGFR was 113 mL/min/1.73 m2 and less than 5% of workers had albuminuria, field workers had increases in NGAL and IL-18 that were 1.49 (95% CI, 1.06-2.09) and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.12-2.31) times as high, respectively, as in non-field workers. Cane cutters and irrigators had the greatest increase in NGAL during the harvest, while cane cutters and seeders had the greatest increase in IL-18. Consumption of electrolyte solution was associated with lower mean NGAL and NAG among cane cutters and lower mean IL-18 and NAG among seed cutters; however, there was no overall effect of hydration among all workers. On average, workers with the largest increases in NGAL and NAG during the harvest had declines in eGFR of 4.6 (95% CI, −8.2 to −1.0) and 3.1 (95% CI, −6.7 to 0.6) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Limitations Surrogate exposure measure, loss-to-follow-up. Conclusions Results are consistent with the hypothesis that occupational heat stress and volume depletion may be associated with development of kidney disease, and future studies should directly measure these occupational factors. The presence

  4. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  5. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  6. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

  7. Impact of fertilizers on heavy metal loads in surface soils in Nzoia nucleus Estate Sugarcane Farms in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Ongeri, David M K; Wanyonyi, Maurice B

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of heavy metals in top soil samples from Nzoia sugarcane farms in Western Kenya found elevated levels of heavy metals in the soils with mean concentrations (mg kg⁻¹ dry weight) of 142.38, 59.12, 73.35, 116.27, 409.84 (dry season) and 144.22, 50.29, 72.14, 158.81, 368.83 (wet season) for Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively, compared with a control soil sample from an adjacent field where fertilizers are not applied having mean concentrations of 117.27, 61.87, 63.68, 123.49, 282.93 (dry season) 108.00, 50.68, 66.10, 114.23, 167.01 (wet season), respectively. The heavy metal loads in the sugarcane farms were above international standards. The levels of the same metals in the fertilizers used in the sugarcane farms were within acceptable international standards. A risk assessment of the continued use of phosphate fertilizer (DAP) in the farms based on a 50-year period, did not exceed international threshold. The soil pH values (6.18 dry season and 5.66 wet season) were low compared to the control (7.46 dry season and 7.10 wet season) a situation that could accelerate heavy metal solubility and mobility in the farm soil. Lowering of soil pH was attributed mainly to fertilizer application and partly to increased organic matter content as shown by the high mean total organic carbon content values of 8.63% (dry season) and 8.43 (wet season) in comparison with a control soil meant total organic carbon content value of 4.76% (dry season) and 5.02 (wet season).

  8. The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the scope and content of the Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980, its organization, workings, and outcomes. Special attention is given to those aspects of the crusade that relate to the goals of integrating previously excluded groups and transforming the political culture of the country. (Author)

  9. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  14. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development.

  15. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B

    2017-03-10

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  16. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  17. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  18. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  19. Refugee remittances: conceptual issues and the Cuban and Nicaraguan experiences.

    PubMed

    Diaz-briquets, S; Perez-lopez, J

    1997-01-01

    "This article assesses the notion that the determinants of remittances generated by refugee flows, particularly from Communist-inspired systems, are different from those associated with labor migrations....These differences have a major bearing on how labor migrants and refugees perceive their relationship with countries of origin. The propensity of labor migrants to dissociate themselves from the home country is considerably less than among refugees whose perceptions are mediated by opposition to the ruling regime and other factors, such as political relations between refugee-sending and refugee-receiving countries and whether or not there has been a regime change or one is expected to occur. The conceptual issues elaborated here are based on the Cuban-American experience, but also reflect an assessment of Nicaraguan emigration during the 1980s."

  20. Numerosity and number signs in deaf Nicaraguan adults.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Molly; Senghas, Ann

    2011-12-01

    What abilities are entailed in being numerate? Certainly, one is the ability to hold the exact quantity of a set in mind, even as it changes, and even after its members can no longer be perceived. Is counting language necessary to track and reproduce exact quantities? Previous work with speakers of languages that lack number words involved participants only from non-numerate cultures. Deaf Nicaraguan adults all live in a richly numerate culture, but vary in counting ability, allowing us to experimentally differentiate the contribution of these two factors. Thirty deaf and 10 hearing participants performed 11 one-to-one matching and counting tasks. Results suggest that immersion in a numerate culture is not enough to make one fully numerate. A memorized sequence of number symbols is required, though even an unconventional, iconic system is sufficient. Additionally, we find that within a numerate culture, the ability to track precise quantities can be acquired in adulthood.

  1. Sugarcane and Energycane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

  2. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in the U.S. is chiefly colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava, which vector economically important viruses of the crop. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to categorize commercial sugarcane cultivars for the...

  3. Categorizing Sugarcane Cultivar Resistance to the Sugarcane Aphid and Yellow Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...

  4. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  5. Comparing costs and returns for sugarcane production on sand and muck soils of southern Florida, 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Roka, Fritz M.; Baucum, Leslie E.; Rice, Ronald W.; Alvarez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane production in Florida is concentrated south and west of Lake Okeechobee and is grown on both muck and sand soils. During the 2008-2009 season, more than 12 million metric tons of sugarcane was harvested and supported important sugarcane milling and sugar refining operations located in southern Florida. Farms on muck soils account for 80% of Florida’s annual sugarcane crop, while farms on sand soils account for the remaining 20%. This paper compares revenues, production costs and net annual returns from two equally sized sugarcane farms (2,000 hectare) representing typical growing conditions on sand and muck soils. Sugarcane growers on muck soils enjoy two distinct advantages over their counterparts farming sugarcane on sand soils. First, total farm revenues are higher because of greater yields and a higher percentage of land that can be grown for commercial harvest. Second, unit costs of production are lower due to the inherent organic matter in muck soils, allowing growers to apply substantially less quantities of fertilizers. Annual net returns to land, management and risk from growing sugarcane on muck soils are estimated to be 400 dollars/ha, more than five times higher than estimated net returns from growing sugarcane on sand soils (70 dollars/ha). Furthermore, while sugarcane production on sand soils is less profitable relative to muck soils, economic returns from sugarcane on sand soils are higher than from cattle operations, offer less risk than presently associated with citrus production, and occupy land area far beyond the capacity of the vegetable industry to absorb.

  6. Comparing costs and returns for sugarcane production on sand and muck soils of southern Florida, 2008-2009

    DOE PAGES

    Roka, Fritz M.; Baucum, Leslie E.; Rice, Ronald W.; ...

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane production in Florida is concentrated south and west of Lake Okeechobee and is grown on both muck and sand soils. During the 2008-2009 season, more than 12 million metric tons of sugarcane was harvested and supported important sugarcane milling and sugar refining operations located in southern Florida. Farms on muck soils account for 80% of Florida’s annual sugarcane crop, while farms on sand soils account for the remaining 20%. This paper compares revenues, production costs and net annual returns from two equally sized sugarcane farms (2,000 hectare) representing typical growing conditions on sand and muck soils. Sugarcane growers onmore » muck soils enjoy two distinct advantages over their counterparts farming sugarcane on sand soils. First, total farm revenues are higher because of greater yields and a higher percentage of land that can be grown for commercial harvest. Second, unit costs of production are lower due to the inherent organic matter in muck soils, allowing growers to apply substantially less quantities of fertilizers. Annual net returns to land, management and risk from growing sugarcane on muck soils are estimated to be 400 dollars/ha, more than five times higher than estimated net returns from growing sugarcane on sand soils (70 dollars/ha). Furthermore, while sugarcane production on sand soils is less profitable relative to muck soils, economic returns from sugarcane on sand soils are higher than from cattle operations, offer less risk than presently associated with citrus production, and occupy land area far beyond the capacity of the vegetable industry to absorb.« less

  7. The emergence of temporal language in Nicaraguan Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Kocab, Annemarie; Senghas, Ann; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers. Experiment 1 showed that while all three cohorts of signers could communicate about linearly ordered discrete events, only the second and third generations of signers successfully communicated information about events with more complex temporal structure. Experiment 2 showed that signers could discriminate between the types of temporal events in a nonverbal task. Finally, Experiment 3 investigated the ordinal use of numbers (e.g., first, second) in NSL signers, indicating that one strategy younger signers might have for accurately describing events in time might be to use ordinal numbers to mark each event. While the capacity for representing temporal concepts appears to be present in the human mind from the onset of language creation, the linguistic devices to convey temporality do not appear immediately. Evidently, temporal language emerges over generations of language transmission, as a product of individual minds interacting within a community of users.

  8. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus.

  9. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  10. English for What? Rural Nicaraguan Teachers' Local Responses to National Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Fabio Oliveira; Henze, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes how rural Nicaraguan teachers and NGO leaders are working with a US university-based team to develop a locally responsive, critical, and inquiry-based approach to the Ministry of Education requirement for English in secondary school. This requirement has placed a new and challenging expectation upon rural…

  11. [Serologic study of the diagnosis of Chagas disease in Nicaraguan students in the Juventud island].

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, N V; Cabrera Alonso, C; Martínez, R; Cantelar de Francisco, N; Pérez Insueta, O

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained during the serologic study for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease in 868 Nicaraguan students in the Isle of Youth are reported. Qualitative hemagglutination and indirect immunofluorescence were used. It was found that 8.5% of these students showed antibodies specific to Trypanosoma cruzi by means of this diagnostic test.

  12. Determining seed transmission of sugarcane mosaic virus and sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importation of sugarcane germplasm is essential to diversify sugarcane germplasm used in United States breeding programs. Foreign germplasm is received primarily as vegetative cuttings. Current permit requirements for importing sugarcane seed into the United States are impractical and limit the ...

  13. Early origins of the Caribbean plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger Caribbean plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous Caribbean ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in southern Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of Caribbean arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the Caribbean plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding

  14. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  15. Herbicide effects on sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of all the areas of the world where sugarcane is grown, Louisiana lies furthest from the Equator. As such, its growing season is the shortest as it is affected by frost in the late–winter (February/March) at the start of the growing season and the fear of freezing temperatures during the harvest se...

  16. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  17. Mid Miocene volcanism in Nicaragua and implications for the formation of the Nicaraguan Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Nicaragua contains Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression consisting of portions of the Coyol Formation to the East and the Tamarindo Formation to the West. The Tamarindo Formation is a narrow band of basaltic to andesitic lavas interlayered with thick ignimbrite deposits and volcaniclastic sediments that parallel Nicaragua’s Pacific coast to the west of the modern volcanic front with ages from 14.7-11.7 Ma. The Coyol represents primarily Miocene volcanism from 25-7 Ma and lies east of the active front. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to speculation that the two coeval units, which are currently separated by almost 100km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data that show the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit. First, the Tamarindo has lower La/Yb values than Coyol, which suggests that the Tamarindo was formed by a higher degree of partial melting, assuming that mantle source compositions are similar for both units. In addition, the Tamarindo has higher Zr/Nb values than Coyol, which are indicative of High Field Strength Element (HFSE) depletion common in arc volcanics. Because the degree of partial melting and HFSE depletion is expected to increase towards the trench, both Tamarindo’s La/Yb and Zr/Nb values are consistent with its being emplaced closer to the trench than Coyol and the presence of these two units of Mid-Miocene age on opposite sides of the Nicaraguan Depression cannot be used as proof of significant extension. In addition, currently available data do not show the significant crustal thinning and large-scale structural surface features that would be expected if the Tamarindo and Coyol were once connected and later separated by extension. Fault displacement along the Nicaraguan Depression is insufficient to accommodate this extension and

  18. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  19. Unique cover crops for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane production practices provide a tremendous opportunity for the use of cover crops following the final sugarcane harvest in the fall of one year and prior to replanting sugarcane during the summer of the next year. A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years...

  20. Sugarcane Diseases: Futuristic Management Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane pathology and disease control practices are changing due to social, economic and technological events. Sugarcane is becoming more important economically because of the increasing price and demand for sugar and its use for bio-energy. These pressures make the control of diseases more import...

  1. Sugarcane smut and its control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

  2. Registration of "CPSG-3481 sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPSG-3481’ (Reg. No. , PI 676023) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was a new cultivar developed through cooperative research conducted by the Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute in Pakistan and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station in USA, and released to growers for loam soils...

  3. Sugarcane as a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.A.; Edye, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown, generally as a perennial crop, in tropical and subtropical areas; some 750 million tonnes are produced each year. Food, feed and energy are the major products of the sugarcane plant; sugarcane fiber, bagasse, fuels the cane processing plants and provides electricity to local grids through cogeneration. A range of chemicals and polymers is available from process streams and sugars. Microbial products are discussed in the comparison paper on sugarbeet. Chemical transformations reviewed herein include production of sucrose mono-, di- and poly-esters, polyurethanes, carboxylic acid derivatives, and thermally stable polymers. Processes and product will be reviewed.

  4. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  5. Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

  6. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica.

  7. The Moon Also Has Her Own Light. The Struggle To Build a Women's Consciousness among Nicaraguan Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Adult Education, Toronto (Ontario).

    This booklet is a collection of analyses and reflections by women who have worked with the Women's Secretariat of the Nicaraguan Association of Rural Workers (ATC) at the different stages of conception and implementation. "Ending the Myth of the Weaker Sex" (Ana Criquillon) provides the history of the women's program within the ATC. It…

  8. Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-in-law who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in…

  9. New Pliocene-Pleistocene 40Ar/ 39Ar ages fill in temporal gaps in the Nicaraguan volcanic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saginor, Ian; Gazel, Esteban; Carr, Michael J.; Swisher, Carl C., III; Turrin, Brent

    2011-04-01

    The volcanic record of western Nicaragua documents a significant lull in volcanic activity that has persisted from the late Miocene (~ 7 Ma) to the formation of the modern volcanic front around 350 ka. This study fills this gap for the first time with samples collected in Northwest Nicaragua between Cosigüina and San Cristóbal volcanoes and with samples collected from the Nicaraguan Depression. We found two previously unknown volcanic units ranging from 3.6 to 1.3 Ma and the improved volcanic record allows us to reconstruct the geochemical evolution of the Nicaraguan arc. U/Th values increased by nearly threefold since the Miocene following the "carbonate crash" at 10 Ma, when dominantly carbonate sediment deposition shifted toward hemipelagic sediment deposition. This transition was thought to be abrupt, however our new data show that it took place gradually over the last 7 Ma. Northwest Nicaragua is a particularly interesting case study because it contains Middle Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression, the Coyol Formation (25-7 Ma) to the East and the Tamarindo Formation (14.7-11.7 Ma) to the West. The presence of Mid Miocene volcanism on either side of the Nicaraguan Depression has led to the hypothesis that the two coeval units, currently separated by ~ 100 km, were once connected and have since been separated by extension. Here, we present data suggesting that the Tamarindo and Coyol are geochemically distinct and therefore cannot be considered part of the same unit.

  10. Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Sugarcane under Wind Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fuwei; Yang, Wang; Yang, Jian; Meng, Huahai; Wu, Liangjin; Nong, Huitao; Guo, Wenfeng

    2017-03-01

    For difficulties in establishing complex coupling dynamics model of sugarcane-soil-wind system and the dynamic response process of sugarcane by wind effect is unknown problems, establishment of complex coupling dynamics model of sugarcane-soil-wind system was discovered. ALE (Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler) method and soil more hierarchical modeling technology were used in the model. And dynamic response process of sugarcane under wind load was analyzed. Result shows that the modeling method is feasible which can be used on the research of sugarcane lodging. Periodic decay reciprocating vibration occurs in the process.

  12. A plant-defensin from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    PubMed

    Padovan, Lara; Segat, Ludovica; Tossi, Alessandro; Antcheva, Nikolinka; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Ederson, Akio Kido; Brandao, Lucas; Calsa, Tercilio; Crovella, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Comparing available Poaceae defensins with sugarcane ESTs, a putative defensin gene was identified in sugarcane and cloned from genomic sugarcane DNA. The deduced encoded peptide shows the structure and amino acid composition typical of other plant defensins. Using RT-PCR, defensin expression in sugarcane and differences between "normal" and infected sugarcane were evidenced.

  13. Babies and belonging: reproduction, citizenship, and undocumented nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Goldade, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from an ethnographic study of 43 Nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica, among whom two thirds were undocumented. Drawing from more than a year of field research, this research explores how undocumented migrant women parlayed reproductive capacities in a context of a modernizing democratic host nation-state increasingly limited in its capacity to fulfill longstanding national ideals of "health for all." Pregnancy and postpartum periods presented unique opportunities for achieving gains related to citizenship. As the third most common migrant destination context in the Western hemisphere, Costa Rica is grappling with its dual role as a nation of emigration and immigration and is attempting to maintain its "exceptional" national identity in the face of rapid globalization. Due to the jus soli citizenship model, the health care system has become a site for struggle over inclusion in the Costa Rican nation-state.

  14. Carbon Footprint of Biofuel Sugarcane Produced in Mineral and Organic Soils in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward; Amponsah, Nana; Capece, John

    2013-02-06

    Ethanol produced from sugarcane is an existing and accessible form of renewable energy. In this study, we applied the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to estimate the Carbon Footprint (CFP) of biofuel sugarcane produced on mineral (sandy) and organic (muck) soils in Florida. CFP was estimated from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) during the biofuel sugarcane cultivation. The data for the energy (fossil fuels and electricity), equipment, and chemical fertilizers were taken from enterprise budgets prepared by the University of Florida based on surveys and interviews obtained from local growers during the cropping years 2007/2008 and 2009/2010 for mineral soils and 2008/2009 for organic soils. Emissions from biomass burning and organic land use were calculated based on the IPCC guidelines. The results show that the CFP for biofuel sugarcane production is 0.04 kg CO2e kg−1y−1 when produced in mineral soils and 0.46 kg CO2e kg−1y−1 when produced in organic soils. Most of the GHG emissions from production of biofuel sugarcane in mineral soils come from equipment (33%), fertilizers (28%), and biomass burning (27%); whereas GHG emissions from production in organic soils come predominantly from the soil (93%). This difference should be considered to adopt new practices for a more sustainable farming system if biofuel feedstocks are to be considered.

  15. The Nicaraguan Resistance and U.S. Policy: Report on a May 1987 Conference Held in Santa Monica, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Resistance has been the subject of public policy debate. It has been discussed in recent RAND studies on Nicaragua, Honduras, and Cuba ; in an earlier RAND...January 1988; Edward Gonzalez and David Ronfeldt, Castro, Cuba , and the World, The RAND Corporation, R-3420, June 1986; Edward Gonzalez, Brian Michael...revolution; a visiting professor of international relations at El Colegio de Mexico , he was serving as a political adviser to the Nicaraguan Resistance

  16. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  17. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  18. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  19. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  20. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  1. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  2. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  3. A report on the transmissibility of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus through seed in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, exotic germplasm of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is mainly received as vegetative cuttings because the extensive actions required to meet existing APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) permit conditions make the importation of sugarcane seed impractical. While taking...

  4. Gut Microbiome Composition in Young Nicaraguan Children during Diarrhea Episodes and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Allali, Imane; Monteagudo, Andrea; Vilchez, Samuel; Hudgens, Michael G.; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Carroll, Ian M.; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Espinoza, Felix; Andrea Azcarate-Peril, M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the gut microbiota is affected by diarrhea episodes may help explain alterations in intestinal function among children in low-income settings. This study examined the composition of the gut microbiome of Nicaraguan children both during diarrhea episodes and while free of diarrhea for at least 2 months. Relative abundances of bacterial taxa, phylogenetic diversity, and species richness were determined by 16S amplicon sequencing and compared between paired diarrhea and recovery samples. A total of 66 stools were provided by 25 children enrolled in a 1-year cohort study of diarrhea etiologies. Children in our cohort had a mean age of 21.9 months; 64% were breast-fed, and 10% had received an antibiotic during the diarrhea episode. Overall, phylogenetic diversity and species richness did not differ significantly between diarrhea and recovery stools. However, of children who had a bacterial enteropathogen detected in any diarrhea stool, none experienced an increase in phylogenetic diversity in recovery, whereas of those in whom no bacterial enteropathogens were detected in their diarrhea stool(s), 59% experienced an increase in phylogenetic diversity in recovery (P = 0.008). This preliminary study suggests that recovery of the gut microbiota after a diarrhea episode may take longer time than previously thought and may be pathogen specific. PMID:26350452

  5. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  6. Impact of a cleaner-burning cookstove intervention on blood pressure in Nicaraguan women.

    PubMed

    Clark, M L; Bachand, A M; Heiderscheidt, J M; Yoder, S A; Luna, B; Volckens, J; Koehler, K A; Conway, S; Reynolds, S J; Peel, J L

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular-related effects of indoor biomass burning or the role of characteristics such as age and obesity status, in this relationship. We examined the impact of a cleaner-burning cookstove intervention on blood pressure among Nicaraguan women using an open fire at baseline; we also evaluated heterogeneity of the impact by subgroups of the population. We evaluated changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to post-intervention (range: 273-383 days) among 74 female cooks. We measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM(2.5); N = 25), indoor carbon monoxide (CO; N = 32), and personal CO (N = 30) concentrations. Large mean reductions in pollutant concentrations were observed for all pollutants; for example, indoor PM(2.5) was reduced 77% following the intervention. However, pollution distributions (baseline and post-intervention) were wide and overlapping. Although substantial reductions in blood pressure were not observed among the entire population, a 5.9 mmHg reduction [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.3, -0.4] in systolic blood pressure was observed among women aged 40 or more years and a 4.6 mmHg reduction (95% CI: -10.0, 0.8) was observed among obese women. Results from this study provide an indication that certain subgroups may be more likely to experience improvements in blood pressure following a cookstove intervention.

  7. The Emergence of Two Functions for Spatial Devices in Nicaraguan Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Senghas, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of a new sign language since the late 1970s in Nicaragua enables us to capture the effects of successive cohorts of learners on an emerging grammar and to observe how elements are reshaped from one form and function to another. Here we document the contrastive use of a device that has been found to be central to the grammars of sign languages: the spatial modulation of signs. In Nicaraguan Sign Language, this device has two primary functions: expressing the participants of events (that is, indicating who), and describing locations and orientations of referents (that is, indicating where). We ask whether the two uses reduce to a single construction type, or if the more abstract who construction derived from the more iconic and concrete where construction. We compare the first two successive cohorts of deaf signers to acquire the language in its first decade. We find that as learners created new constructions to meet the new functions, they did not simply apply an already developed form more broadly, nor did they develop the more abstract application from the more iconic one. Instead, the more abstract who construction appears to have conventionalized first. Thus, the forms either emerged independently, or split very early in the 1980s, before either had developed as a consistently applied form. PMID:22476198

  8. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome.

  9. Addressing the needs of Nicaraguan older adults living on the edge: A university-community partnership in international service-learning.

    PubMed

    Neal, Margaret B; Cannon, Melissa; DeLaTorre, Alan; Bolkan, Cory R; Wernher, Iris; Nolan, Elisabeth; López Norori, Milton; Largaespada-Fredersdorff, Carmen; Brown Wilson, Keren

    2017-01-01

    Nicaragua is a very low-income country entering a period of rapid aging with limited geriatric training for health care professionals. To help build capacity and to enhance student learning, a short-term international service-learning program was implemented in 2004 in partnership with the Jessie F. Richardson Foundation and Nicaraguan community stakeholders. Graduate and undergraduate students at Portland State University complete coursework for one term in the United States then travel to Nicaragua for about two weeks to participate in educational, research, and service activities, primarily in group homes for older Nicaraguans. Students learn about global aging, gerontology, community development, service learning, and Nicaraguan history and culture, then apply their gerontology-related knowledge by training direct care staff, older adults and their family members, and students. The authors describe the impetus for and evolution of the program, students' evaluation of the program, faculty observations on program benefits and challenges, lessons learned, and future plans.

  10. Evaluation of aphid resistance among sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane, interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). Five sugarcane cultivars, LCP 85-384, HoCP 91-555, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540, and L 97-128, rep...

  11. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  12. Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

  13. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  14. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  15. Exploring Broad Genetic Resources Available to Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used for sugar and energy. It has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is one of the most productive crops globally. Breeders of energycane and sugarcane have overlapping goals in creating cultivars that resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The World Collection of Sugarc...

  16. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  17. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ray; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  18. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ray; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  19. Integrating traditional indigenous medicine and western biomedicine into health systems: a review of Nicaraguan health policies and miskitu health services.

    PubMed

    Carrie, Heather; Mackey, Tim K; Laird, Sloane N

    2015-11-30

    Throughout the world, indigenous peoples have advocated for the right to retain their cultural beliefs and traditional medicine practices. In 2007, the more than 370 million people representing 5000 distinct groups throughout the world received global recognition with the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). UNDRIP Article 24 affirms the rights of indigenous peoples to their traditional medicines and health practices, and to all social and health services. Although not a legally binding agreement, UNDRIP encourages nation states to comply and implement measures to support and uphold its provisions. Within the context of indigenous health and human rights, Nicaragua serves as a unique case study for examining implementation of UNDRIP Article 24 provisions due to the changes in the Nicaraguan Constitution that strive for the overarching goal of affirming an equal right to health for all Nicaraguans and supporting the integration of traditional medicine and biomedicine at a national and regional level. To explore this subject further, we conducted a review of the policy impact of UNDRIP on health services accessible to the Miskitu indigenous peoples of the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN). We found that although measures to create therapeutic cooperation are woven into Nicaraguan health plans at the national and regional level, in practice, the delivery of integrated health services has been implemented with varying results. Our review suggests that the method of policy implementation and efforts to foster intercultural collaborative approaches involving respectful community engagement are important factors when attempting to assess the effectiveness of UNDRIP implementation into national health policy and promoting traditional medicine access. In response, more study and close monitoring of legislation that acts to implement or align with UNDRIP Article 24 is necessary to ensure adequate promotion and access

  20. Impact of a novel, resource appropriate resuscitation curriculum on Nicaraguan resident physician’s management of cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Project Strengthening Emergency Medicine, Investing in Learners in Latin America (SEMILLA) created a novel, language and resource appropriate course for the resuscitation of cardiac arrest for Nicaraguan resident physicians. We hypothesized that participation in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation program would significantly improve the physician’s management of simulated code scenarios. Methods: Thirteen Nicaraguan resident physicians were evaluated while managing simulated cardiac arrest scenarios before, immediately, and at 6 months after participating in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation program. This project was completed in 2014 in Leon, Nicaragua. The Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest), a validated scoring system, was used to evaluate performance on a standardized simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Mixed effect logistic regression models were constructed to assess outcomes. Results: On the pre-course simulation exam, only 7.7% of subjects passed the test. Immediately post-course, the subjects achieved a 30.8% pass rate and at 6 months after the course, the pass rate was 46.2%. Compared with pre-test scores, the odds of passing the CASTest at 6 months after the course were 21.7 times higher (95% CI 4.2 to 112.8, P<0.001). Statistically significant improvement was also seen on the number of critical items completed (OR=3.75, 95% CI 2.71-5.19), total items completed (OR=4.55, 95% CI 3.4-6.11), and number of “excellent” scores on a Likert scale (OR=2.66, 95% CI 1.85-3.81). Conclusions: Nicaraguan resident physicians demonstrate improved ability to manage simulated cardiac arrest scenarios after participation in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation course and retain these skills. PMID:27378010

  1. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... including cattle; sheep; pigs; goats; llamas; alpacas; and poultry only happens at petting zoos or on farm ...

  2. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  3. Referential shift in Nicaraguan Sign Language: a transition from lexical to spatial devices

    PubMed Central

    Kocab, Annemarie; Pyers, Jennie; Senghas, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Even the simplest narratives combine multiple strands of information, integrating different characters and their actions by expressing multiple perspectives of events. We examined the emergence of referential shift devices, which indicate changes among these perspectives, in Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL). Sign languages, like spoken languages, mark referential shift grammatically with a shift in deictic perspective. In addition, sign languages can mark the shift with a point or a movement of the body to a specified spatial location in the three-dimensional space in front of the signer, capitalizing on the spatial affordances of the manual modality. We asked whether the use of space to mark referential shift emerges early in a new sign language by comparing the first two age cohorts of deaf signers of NSL. Eight first-cohort signers and 10 second-cohort signers watched video vignettes and described them in NSL. Narratives were coded for lexical (use of words) and spatial (use of signing space) devices. Although the cohorts did not differ significantly in the number of perspectives represented, second-cohort signers used referential shift devices to explicitly mark a shift in perspective in more of their narratives. Furthermore, while there was no significant difference between cohorts in the use of non-spatial, lexical devices, there was a difference in spatial devices, with second-cohort signers using them in significantly more of their narratives. This suggests that spatial devices have only recently increased as systematic markers of referential shift. Spatial referential shift devices may have emerged more slowly because they depend on the establishment of fundamental spatial conventions in the language. While the modality of sign languages can ultimately engender the syntactic use of three-dimensional space, we propose that a language must first develop systematic spatial distinctions before harnessing space for grammatical functions. PMID:25713541

  4. Referential shift in Nicaraguan Sign Language: a transition from lexical to spatial devices.

    PubMed

    Kocab, Annemarie; Pyers, Jennie; Senghas, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Even the simplest narratives combine multiple strands of information, integrating different characters and their actions by expressing multiple perspectives of events. We examined the emergence of referential shift devices, which indicate changes among these perspectives, in Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL). Sign languages, like spoken languages, mark referential shift grammatically with a shift in deictic perspective. In addition, sign languages can mark the shift with a point or a movement of the body to a specified spatial location in the three-dimensional space in front of the signer, capitalizing on the spatial affordances of the manual modality. We asked whether the use of space to mark referential shift emerges early in a new sign language by comparing the first two age cohorts of deaf signers of NSL. Eight first-cohort signers and 10 second-cohort signers watched video vignettes and described them in NSL. Narratives were coded for lexical (use of words) and spatial (use of signing space) devices. Although the cohorts did not differ significantly in the number of perspectives represented, second-cohort signers used referential shift devices to explicitly mark a shift in perspective in more of their narratives. Furthermore, while there was no significant difference between cohorts in the use of non-spatial, lexical devices, there was a difference in spatial devices, with second-cohort signers using them in significantly more of their narratives. This suggests that spatial devices have only recently increased as systematic markers of referential shift. Spatial referential shift devices may have emerged more slowly because they depend on the establishment of fundamental spatial conventions in the language. While the modality of sign languages can ultimately engender the syntactic use of three-dimensional space, we propose that a language must first develop systematic spatial distinctions before harnessing space for grammatical functions.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  6. Integration is not enough: gender inequality and empowerment in Nicaraguan agricultural co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Mayoux, L

    1993-03-01

    Cooperatives have been seen as a means of increasing the productivity of the poor, increasing their income, and providing them with more political power. The aim of this article is to discuss the experiences of women in agricultural cooperatives in Matagalpa and Esteli Regions in Nicaragua under the Sandinistas at the end of 1988. Since the Revolution in 1979, women had been encouraged to participate in agricultural cooperatives, although gender issues were ignored in the wider cooperative policy. Discussion is directed to gender conflicts of interest, the effects of policy change on women's participation, the limits of integration, 4 case studies of integration, some problems, inadequate policy and the implications for feminist participatory strategy. The Nicaraguan experience suggests that the nature of empowerment of women is an important consideration; the extent of empowerment or whether all eligible women can be reached is debatable. Women and men have different needs and priorities in cooperatives because of the division of labor and power structures, both within the family and within society. Cooperative structures need to change in a way that deals with inequalities within and between families and with reproductive issues. Cooperatives were formed in the context of competing interests. There is dispute over whether current structures empower rural producers or are an imposition by the state in order to control production. The history of policy changes affecting the formation and extent of formation of different types of cooperatives are described. The Cooperative Law of 1981 formed the basis for women's right to equal involvement in cooperative organization and management. The Agrarian Reform Act of 1981 gave women equal access to land; land was not redistributed until 1983. The Labor Law of 1979 meant wages were paid directly to workers. Practices, however, changed little. The case studies show the extent of discrimination against women members. Women

  7. Extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane bagasse and the enzymatic hydrolysis of dewaxed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Peng, Fen; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-16

    Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bioeconomy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was performed and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. About 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of Fourier-transform infrared characterization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives. In addition, the effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was also investigated. The digestibilities of cellulose and xylan in dewaxed sugarcane bagasse were 18.7 and 10.3%, respectively, compared with those of 13.1 and 8.9% obtained from native sugarcane bagasse. The dewaxed sugarcane bagasse became more accessible to enzyme due to the disruption of the outermost layer of the waxy materials.

  8. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  9. Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano

    2002-08-01

    Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting.

  10. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  11. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  12. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-process by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 2.7 mt of bagasse each year. In ...

  13. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-processed by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse each...

  14. Virus Strains Causing Mosaic in Louisiana and Florida Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), respectively, affects sugarcane in Louisiana and Florida. Between 2004 and 2007, surveys were conducted in both states to determine which virus and virus strains were causing mosaic of sugarcane. In Louisiana, leaf sam...

  15. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    PubMed Central

    Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Rocha, Flávia R; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugênio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

    2009-01-01

    Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be

  16. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  17. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  18. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  19. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-08

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  20. Emissions of PAHs derived from sugarcane burning and processing in Chiapas and Morelos México.

    PubMed

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Santiago-de la Rosa, Naxieli; Figueroa-Lara, Jesús; Flores-Rodríguez, Julio; Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel; Magaña-Reyes, Miguel

    2015-09-15

    Sugarcane burning is an agricultural practice implemented to ease farm worker duties; nevertheless, as a consequence, tons of particles are emitted to the atmosphere. Additionally, during harvesting the sugar-mills operate the whole day emitting hundreds of tons of pollutants. Therefore, health risks to neighboring population should be a major governmental concern, leading first to identification and quantification of toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to establish the magnitude of the problem, four sampling campaigns of PM10 and PM2.5 were carried out in this study, during harvesting and no-harvesting seasons in two municipalities of México, with different climatic and social conditions. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and organic compounds were determined daily, followed by extraction, identification and quantification of the 17 EPA-established PAHs from all samples. The results showed that during harvest, the PM10 mass increased lightly in Chiapas, but approximately twice in Morelos, whereas total PAH concentrations increased twice and six times, respectively. The most abundant PAHs, namely: indene [1,2,3cd] pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo [a,h] anthracene are composed of 5 or more aromatic rings. Of the total PAHs quantified, 44% to 52% corresponded to carcinogenic compounds, consequently, the overall carcinogenic potential increased twice or three times. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was applied to source apportionment at each site, suggesting three different sources during harvesting: the combustion process in the sugar mill, sugarcane burning and vehicular emissions. The combustion markers for sugar mill are, BAA, BBF, BKF, BAP, IND and BGP, whereas for sugarcane burning were ANT, PHE, FLT and PYR. The results obtained indicate that processing and burning sugarcane are the main sources of the PAH levels measured, proving that the health risks are boosted during harvesting

  1. Landsat-Based Detection and Severity Analysis of Burned Sugarcane Plots in Tarlac, Philippines Using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloloy, A. B.; Blanco, A. C.; Gana, B. S.; Sta. Ana, R. C.; Olalia, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Philippines has a booming sugarcane industry contributing about PHP 70 billion annually to the local economy through raw sugar, molasses and bioethanol production (SRA, 2012). Sugarcane planters adapt different farm practices in cultivating sugarcane, one of which is cane burning to eliminate unwanted plant material and facilitate easier harvest. Information on burned sugarcane extent is significant in yield estimation models to calculate total sugar lost during harvest. Pre-harvest burning can lessen sucrose by 2.7% - 5% of the potential yield (Gomez, et al 2006; Hiranyavasit, 2016). This study employs a method for detecting burn sugarcane area and determining burn severity through Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) using Landsat 8 Images acquired during the late milling season in Tarlac, Philippines. Total burned area was computed per burn severity based on pre-fire and post-fire images. Results show that 75.38% of the total sugarcane fields in Tarlac were burned with post-fire regrowth; 16.61% were recently burned; and only 8.01% were unburned. The monthly dNBR for February to March generated the largest area with low severity burn (1,436 ha) and high severity burn (31.14 ha) due to pre-harvest burning. Post-fire regrowth is highest in April to May when previously burned areas were already replanted with sugarcane. The maximum dNBR of the entire late milling season (February to May) recorded larger extent of areas with high and low post-fire regrowth compared to areas with low, moderate and high burn severity. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse vegetation dynamics between the burn severity classes. Significant positive correlation, rho = 0.99, was observed between dNBR and dNDVI at 5% level (p = 0.004). An accuracy of 89.03% was calculated for the Landsat-derived NBR validated using actual mill data for crop year 2015-2016.

  2. Australia's pesticide environmental risk assessment failure: the case of diuron and sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Glen

    2014-11-15

    In November 2012, the Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) concluded a 12 year review of the PSII herbicide diuron. One of the primary concerns raised during the review was the potential impact on aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef. The environmental risk assessment process used by the APVMA utilised a runoff risk model developed and validated under European farming conditions. However, the farming conditions in the sugarcane regions of the Great Barrier Reef catchments have environmental parameters beyond the currently validated bounds of the model. The use of the model to assess environmental risk in these regions is therefore highly inappropriate, demonstrating the pitfalls of a one size fits all approach.

  3. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  4. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  5. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  6. Registration of 'UFCP 84-1047' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 84-1047 (Reg. No.; PI xxxx) was released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP), Florida, and the University of Florida (UF) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP 84-1047 is a high fiber sugarcane (Saccha...

  7. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millable stalks of a forty-ton sugarcane crop contain up to 75 pounds of N. Total above and below ground biomass to achieve that yield level, of course, requires appreciably more N. Knowing the crop requirements for N, however, is not the same as knowing how much fertilizer N to apply. Nitrogen fert...

  8. Sugarcane Variety Census:Florida 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  9. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges Ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Chakravarthi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016) have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  10. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen rate recommendations for sugarcane in Louisiana take into account crop age (plant cane or stubble) and soil texture (light or heavy). Recommended rates in the 1950s ranged from 40 pounds N/A for plant cane on light-textured soil to 100 pounds of N/A for stubble cane on heavy-textured soil a...

  11. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Chakravarthi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016) have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27790238

  12. Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

    2012-12-01

    The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

  13. Farm Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  14. The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Study Design, Methods, Use of Information Technology, and Extension to Other Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Guillermina; Gordon, Aubree; Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Hammond, Samantha N.; Elizondo, Douglas; Nuñez, Andrea; Coloma, Josefina; Balmaseda, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2004, the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study was established in Managua, Nicaragua, to study the natural history and transmission of dengue in children. Here, the authors describe the study design, methods, and results from 2004 to 2008. Initially, 3,721 children 2–9 years of age were recruited through door-to-door visits. Each year, new children aged 2 years are enrolled in the study to maintain the age structure. Children are provided with medical care through the study, and data from each medical visit are recorded on systematic study forms. All participants presenting with suspected dengue or undifferentiated fever are tested for dengue by virologic, serologic, and molecular biologic assays. Yearly blood samples are collected to detect inapparent dengue virus infections. Numerous information and communications technologies are used to manage study data, track samples, and maintain quality control, including personal data assistants, barcodes, global information systems, and fingerprint scans. Close collaboration with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health and use of almost entirely local staff are essential components for success. This study is providing critical data on the epidemiology and transmission of dengue in the Americas needed for future vaccine trials. PMID:19435864

  15. Sugarcane Land Classification with Satellite Imagery using Logistic Regression Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, F.; Herwindiati, D. E.; Mulyono, S.; Hendryli, J.

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the classification of sugarcane plantation area from Landsat-8 satellite imagery. The classification process uses binary logistic regression method with time series data of normalized difference vegetation index as input. The process is divided into two steps: training and classification. The purpose of training step is to identify the best parameter of the regression model using gradient descent algorithm. The best fit of the model can be utilized to classify sugarcane and non-sugarcane area. The experiment shows high accuracy and successfully maps the sugarcane plantation area which obtained best result of Cohen’s Kappa value 0.7833 (strong) with 89.167% accuracy.

  16. Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.

    PubMed

    Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs.

  17. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E.

  18. Transforming narratives into educational tools: the collaborative development of a transformative learning tool based on Nicaraguan adolescents' creative writing about intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Robyn; Picado Araúz, María de la Paz; Trocin, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2017-01-01

    The use of narrative has become increasingly popular in the public health, community development, and education fields. Via emotionally engaging plotlines with authentic, captivating characters, stories provide an opportunity for participants to be carried away imaginatively into the characters' world while connecting the story with their own lived experiences. Stories have been highlighted as valuable tools in transformative learning. However, little published literature exists demonstrating applications of stories in group-based transformative learning curricula. This paper describes the creation of a narrative-based transformative learning tool based on an analysis of Nicaraguan adolescents' meaning-making around intimate partner violence (IPV) in their creative narratives. In collaboration with a Nicaraguan organization, US researchers analyzed a sample of narratives ( n = 55; 16 male-authored, 39 female-authored) on IPV submitted to a 2014 scriptwriting competition by adolescents aged 15-19. The data were particularly timely in that they responded to a new law protecting victims of gender-based violence, Law 779, and contradicted social-conservative claims that the Law 779 destroys family unity. We incorporated results from this analysis into the creation of the transformative learning tool, separated into thematic sections. The tool's sections (which comprise one story and three corresponding activities) aim to facilitate critical reflection, interpersonal dialogue, and self- and collective efficacy for social action around the following themes derived from the analysis: IPV and social support; IPV and romantic love; masculinity; warning signs of IPV; and sexual abuse. As a collaboration between a public health research team based at a US university and a Nicaraguan community-based organization, it demonstrates the potential in the age of increasingly smooth electronic communication for novel community-university partnerships to facilitate the development of

  19. Field Performance of Transgenic Sugarcane Lines Resistant to Sugarcane Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Ruan, Miaohong; Qin, Lifang; Yang, Chuanyu; Chen, Rukai; Chen, Baoshan; Zhang, Muqing

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease is mainly caused by the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which can significantly reduce stalk yield and sucrose content of sugarcane in the field. Coat protein mediated protection (CPMP) is an effective strategy to improve virus resistance. A 2-year field study was conducted to compare five independent transgenic sugarcane lines carrying the SCMV-CP gene (i.e., B2, B36, B38, B48, and B51) with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT). Agronomic performance, resistance to SCMV infection, and transgene stability were evaluated and compared with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT) at four experimental locations in China across two successive seasons, i.e., plant cane (PC) and 1st ratoon cane (1R). All transgenic lines derived from Badila had significantly greater tons of cane per hectare (TCH) and tons of sucrose per hectare (TSH) as well as lower SCMV disease incidence than those from Badila in the PC and 1R crops. The transgenic line B48 was highly resistant to SCMV with less than 3% incidence of infection. The recovery phenotype of transgenic line B36 was infected soon after virus inoculation, but the subsequent leaves showed no symptoms of infection. Most control plants developed symptoms that persisted and spread throughout the plant with more than 50% incidence. B48 recorded an average of 102.72 t/ha, which was 67.2% more than that for Badila. The expression of the transgene was stable over many generations with vegetative propagation. These results show that SCMV-resistant transgenic lines derived from Badila can provide resistant germplasm for sugarcane breeding and can also be used to study virus resistance mechanisms. This is the first report on the development and field performance of transgenic sugarcane plants that are resistant to SCMV infection in China. PMID:28228765

  20. Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

    2012-12-22

    The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates.

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first reported in China in 2006. In order to determine the distribution existence of SCYLV in major sugarcane-growing provinces in China, leaf samples were collected from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum ...

  2. DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

  3. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  4. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

  5. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  6. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  7. Impact of Subfreezing Temperatures on the 2006 Louisiana Sugarcane Harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in over 20 of the 79 sugarcane producing countries, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States. This has forced the Louisiana industry to adapt to a short growing season (7-9 months) and a short milling season (about 3 months). Th...

  8. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  9. Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

  10. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  11. Low tech use of post-harvest/processed sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 2.7 million mt of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaini...

  12. Low tech use of post-harvest, processed sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons (11.6 million mt) of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons (1.36 million mt) of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons (2.7 million...

  13. Preliminary observations of sugarcane trash degradation for repurposing as mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential use for sugarcane trash is to convert it to mulch. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a compost enhancer or nitrogen would accelerate degradation of leaf trash. Trash was obtained from a sugarcane grower, and was treated with water only, a commercial compost starter composed o...

  14. Sugarcane aphid resistance in sorghum and a host range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, has been present in the United States primarily on sugarcane in Florida, Hawaii, and Louisiana until 2013 where it was found on grain sorghum near Beaumont, Texas. Since 2013, the SCA has been rapidly spreading and overwintering. Depending on the plant...

  15. NDVI to detect sugarcane aphid injury to grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. The purpose of this report is to describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants i...

  16. Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

  17. Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-02-01

    Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  18. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  19. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  20. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals) covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites). We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old) and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s) of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more) recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The genetic differentiation

  1. [The Iowa Family Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the family farm of the past. All aspects of farm life are covered: what was grown on farms, how the chores were done and who was responsible for them, what the houses were like, and what tools and equipment were used. Comparisons are made between modern farms and farms of 50 or 150 years ago, and…

  2. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil.

  3. A multi-disciplinary approach to sugarcane research at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mission of the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) is to provide research-based solutions that enhance the viability of domestic sugarcane industry. To accomplish this mission, SRU uses a multidisciplinary approach to develop improved varieties and environmentally friendly production strategies. Cons...

  4. The latest progress in sugarcane molecular genetics research at the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, two sugar molecular genetics tools were developed in the USDA-ARS, Southeast Area, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, LA. One is the high throughput fluorescence- and capillary electrophoregrams (CE)-based SSR genotyping tool and the other is single pollen collection and SSR genotyping...

  5. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  6. Sugarcane Flood Tolerance: Current Limits and Future Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert

    2010-01-08

    Sugarcane flood tolerance is discussed in this presentation. Related issues are looked at from four perspectives – various limits, physiological and morphological changes, future gains speculations and possible ecological and hydrological applications. Sugarcane flood tolerance and yield changes are presented on several field experiments during the crop various growth phases – (1) after planting with furrow open and with furrow closed, (2) during summer growth and (3) prior to harvest. It is documented that flood or shallow water-table depth do not affect photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. It is also documented that roots of all 40 sugarcane genotypes tested in Florida had aerenchyma, while stalks form aerenchyma after being flooded. However, only some genotypes form aerenchyma in stalks without exposure to flood; this provides extra flood tolerance. While it is still a theory, it seems that sugarcane root growth is decreased when roots must grow into water. However, sugarcane roots appear to meet the needs of the plant when flooded for up to 2 weeks. It is concluded that most commercial sugarcane cultivars in Florida can tolerate floods for 1 to 2 weeks and that sugarcane has physiological and morphological traits that allow it to respond well to short-duration floods, while continuous shallow water tables are more harmful to sugarcane than periodic flooding. Given these facts, new strategy of storing water on sugarcane fields is proposed - field A could be flooded for 1-2 weeks, then drained to the field B which would be flooded for 1-2 weeks, then drained to the field C, etc. Research should focus on extending this flood period duration, so new strategies for ecological and hydrological application could be pursued further.

  7. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  8. Xanthan production by Xanthomonas albilineans infecting sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2008-03-13

    Xanthomonas albilineans is the causal organism of leaf scald, a bacterial vascular disease of sugarcane. Xanthomonas may invade the parenchyma between the bundles and cause reddened pockets of gum, identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide. Since xanthan contains glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media, but the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. A hypothesis about the role of sugarcane polysaccharides to assure the production of bacterial xanthan is discussed.

  9. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

  10. Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

  11. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-12-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.

  12. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  13. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  14. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

    2013-10-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants.

  16. Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

  17. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  18. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  19. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  20. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines.

  1. Performance of dairy goats fed whole sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Batista, A M V; Mustafa, A; de Carvalho, F F R; Guim, A; Monteiro, P S; Lucena, R B

    2009-03-01

    Five lactating goats were used in a 5x5 Latin square experiment to determine the effects of feeding whole sugarcane (WSC) on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were fed diets containing 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g kg(-1) WSC and 400, 300, 200, 100, and 0 g kg(-1) tifton hay (TH). Intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Total tract nutrient digestibilities were not influenced by WSC inclusion except for the digestibility of NDF which decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Inclusion of WSC linearly (p<0.05) decreased milk yield without affecting milk composition. It was concluded that WSC had a lower feeding values than TH for lactating goats.

  2. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  3. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  4. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  5. Comparison of unburned and burned sugarcane harvesting in Florida - an energy viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel consumption and performance characteristics of four sugarcane harvesting systems were measured in unburned and burned sugarcane. Unburned sugarcane harvesting operations had significantly higher field losses, required twice as much fuel, and had lower production rates than in burned cane harvesting.

  6. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  7. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  8. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  9. Relationships between Sugarcane Canopy Reflectance and Yield Components across a Large Number of Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) growth and yield components are important traits in breeding and cultivar selection programs. Canopy reflectance of sugarcane during the growing season may be used to evaluate genotypes in growth and yield potential in the early stages of a sugarcane breeding program. The ...

  10. Assessment of Sugarcane Growth and Yield across Genotypes Using Canopy Reflectance Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical for sustainable sugarcane production. Estimation of sugarcane yield potential based on growth and physiological traits during early growth sta...

  11. Louisiana sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for yellow squash production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the juice from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Typically, Louisiana sugarcane mills burn a por...

  12. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  13. Identifying Markers for Resistance to Sugarcane Orange Rust (Puccinia kuehnii) via Selective Genotyping and Capture Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii, is a serious disease of sugarcane. The most effective strategy to combat the disease is to develop resistant sugarcane cultivars. Phenotypic screening for resistance to orange rust is a laborious and time-consuming process, and breeders...

  14. Growth and Yield Performances of Two Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane in Florida grows on sand soils. Water deficit during the sugarcane formative growth phase may limit growth and yield on the sand soils. Identification of useful physiological and growth traits may help scientists select sugarcane genotypes with stress tolerance and imp...

  15. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  16. The Distinguished American Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surdovel, Catherine; Gruber, Marcella

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an elementary school curriculum on farms to give students a knowledge and appreciation of the farm as a food source and of the steps involved moving food from the farm to the table. Specific activities are suggested, and appropriate book titles are recommended. (Contains 10 references.) (LRW)

  17. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  18. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  19. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    PubMed Central

    Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

  20. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

  1. Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields.

  2. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death.

  3. Coping with climate variability and long-term climate trends for Nicaraguan maize-bean farmers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S.; Zelaya Martinez, C.; Martinez Valle, A.; Mejia, O.; Laderach, P.; Lobell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate variability and change impact farmers at different timescales, but both are of concern for livelihoods and long-term viability of small farms in tropical, rain-fed agricultural systems. This study uses a historical dataset to analyze the impact of 40-year climate trends in Nicaragua on bean production, a staple crop that is an important source of calories and protein in the local diet, particularly in rural areas and in lower income classes. Bean yields are sensitive to rising temperatures, but also frequently limited by seasonal drought and low soil fertility. We use an empirical model to relate department-level yields to spatial variation and inter-annual fluctuations in historical precipitation, temperature and extreme rain events. We then use this model to quantify the impact on yields of long-term observed warming in day and night temperatures, increases in rainfall intensity, longer gaps between rain events, a shorter rainy season and overall drying in certain regions of the country. Preliminary results confirm the negative impacts of warming night temperatures, higher vapor pressure deficits, and longer gaps between rain events on bean yields, although some drying at harvest time has helped to reduce rotting. Across all bean-growing areas, these climate trends have led to a ~10% yield decline per decade relative to a stationary climate and production system, with this decline reaching up to ~20% in the dry northern highlands. In regions that have been particularly impacted by these trends, we look for evidence of farm abandonment, increases in off-farm employment, or on-farm adaptation solutions through crop diversification, use of drought or heat-tolerant seed, and adoption of rainwater harvesting. We will also repeat the modeling exercise for maize, another staple crop providing ~25% of daily calories at the national scale, but which is projected to be more resilient to climate trends.

  4. AmeriFlux US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ray; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. First cycle of observations were from July 2011 to November 2012. Second cycle was from April 2013 to December 2013. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and meteorology.

  5. Sugarcane Serine Peptidase Inhibitors, Serine Peptidases, and Clp Protease System Subunits Associated with Sugarcane Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) Herbivory and Wounding.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ane H; Mingossi, Fabiana B; Dias, Renata O; Franco, Flávia P; Vicentini, Renato; Mello, Marcia O; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2016-09-01

    Sugarcane's (Saccharum spp.) response to Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: (Crambidae) herbivory was investigated using a macroarray spotted with 248 sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) encoding serine peptidase inhibitors, serine peptidases. and Clp protease system subunits. Our results showed that after nine hours of herbivory, 13 sugarcane genes were upregulated and nine were downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, nine were similar to serine peptidase inhibitors and four were similar to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences belong to a phylogenetic group of sugarcane BBIs that are potentially involved in plant defense against insect predation. The remaining four upregulated genes included serine peptidases and one homolog to the Arabidopsis AAA+ chaperone subunit ClpD, which is a member of the Clp protease system. Among the downregulated genes, five were homologous to serine peptidases and four were homologous to Arabidopsis Clp subunits (three homologous to Clp AAA+ chaperones and one to a ClpP-related ClpR subunit). Although the roles of serine peptidase inhibitors in plant defenses against herbivory have been extensively investigated, the roles of plant serine peptidases and the Clp protease system represent a new and underexplored field of study. The up- and downregulated D. saccharalis genes presented in this study may be candidate genes for the further investigation of the sugarcane response to herbivory.

  6. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion.

  7. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  8. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  9. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  10. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  11. Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Yolanda; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans.

  12. Sugarcane White Leaf Disease Incidences and Population Dynamic of Leafhopper Insect Vectors in Sugarcane Plantations in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rattanabunta, Chiranan; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2015-04-01

    The work consisted of two experiments, i.e. Experiment 1 was conducted under controlled environments where sugarcane plants were used as hosts. This investigation aimed to monitor the occurrence of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease and the abundance of Leafhopper insect vectors and also the work aimed to provide useful information in understanding some aspects on epidemiology of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease. A Completely Randomized Design with three replications was used to justify growth and development of Leafhopper insects as affected by different temperatures: 20 (T1), 25 (T2), 30 (T3) and 35 degrees C (T4). Experiment 2 was carried out to determine the numbers of Leafhopper insects with the use of light traps in the sugarcane Field 1 (ratoon plants), Field 2 (newly planted), Field 3 (newly planted) and Field 4 (ratoon plants). The results of Experiment 1 showed that growth and development of Leafhopper insects were highly affected by temperatures i.e. the higher the environmental temperature the faster the growth and development of the insects to reach its full adulthood. At 20 degrees C, Leafhopper insects took 12 days to lay eggs whereas at 25 degrees C the insects took only 6 days. Male reached its adulthood approximately 9 days earlier than female when cultured at 25 degrees C and became approximately one week at 30 degrees C or higher. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the majority of Leafhopper insects were found within the months of June and July for both newly planted and ratoon crops. A small amount was found in May and August with an exceptional case of Field 4 where the highest number of Leafhopper insects was found in April followed by June and July. For Sugarcane White Leaf disease, the disease was found in all months of the year except February for Fields 2 and 3. Newly planted sugarcane plants attained much smaller percentages of disease than those of the ratoon plants.

  13. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  14. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  15. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam V; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels.

  16. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-6848’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of 'CPCL 02-6848' (Reg. No. 667596; PI), sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by collaborative research of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. The female paren...

  17. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1102’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPCL 05-1102’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 05-1102 was released to growers in Fl...

  18. Biomass production from sugarcane and sweet sorghum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a field study on growing sugarcane and sweet sorghum in the Lake Okeechobee area of Florida are reported. Two experiments were conducted on row-spacing of sugarcane and one on row-spacing of sorghum. There were no surprises in the data obtained in this year's sugarcane experiments. High biomass, sugar and fiber were produced both on sand and muck soils in south Florida. Yields were, as in previous years, higher for the narrow row spacing where solar radiation was better than in plant cane. Likewise it is greater for a second ratoon than for a first ratoon. Sweet sorghum produced well but not as well as last year due to a planting data which was 1 to 2 months late and to the wider spacings used to facilitate the trial of sugarcane harvesting equipment. Moisture is much more critical for sorghum than for cane. One experiment on muck suffered due to wet conditions. A second experiment on sand was lost due to lack of moisture.

  19. Relationship between sugarcane rust severity and soil properties in louisiana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Richard, Edward P

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv. LCP 85-384) in southern Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sampled at several intensities and rust ratings were collected at each point over 6 to 7 weeks. Soil properties exhibited significant variability (coefficients of variation = 9 to 70.1%) and were spatially correlated in 39 of 40 cases with a range of spatial correlation varying from 39 to 201 m. Rust ratings were spatially correlated in 32 of 33 cases, with a range varying from 29 to 241 m. Rust ratings were correlated with several soil properties, most notably soil phosphorus (r = 0.40 to 0.81) and soil sulfur (r = 0.36 to 0.68). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.22 to 0.73, and discriminant analysis further improved the overall predictive ability of rust models. Finally, contour plots of soil properties and rust levels clearly suggested a link between these two parameters. These combined data suggest that sugarcane growers that apply fertilizer in excess of plant requirements will increase the incidence and severity of rust infestations in their fields.

  20. Breeding for resistance to the sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari] (SCA) was first reported to damage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the United States in Louisiana and Texas in 2013, and was subsequently detected in Oklahoma and the Mississippi Delta. In 2014, the aphid spread and was eventually reported in state...

  1. Sugarcane aphid spatial distribution in grain sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important summer grain crop in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. produced 432 million bushels of sorghum valued at $1.67 billion on more than 6 million acres. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), was discovered in damaging numbers in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor ...

  2. Registration of ‘CP 88-1165’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. A cooperative program among the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. located at an ARS facility in Canal Poi...

  3. Identification, Phylogeny, and Transcript of Chitinase Family Genes in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Zhuqing; Yang, Yuting; Chen, Yun; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Chitinases are pathogensis-related proteins, which play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. The role of the sugarcane chitinase family genes remains unclear due to the highly heterozygous and aneuploidy chromosome genetic background of sugarcane. Ten differentially expressed chitinase genes (belonging to class I~VII) were obtained from RNA-seq analysis of both incompatible and compatible sugarcane genotypes during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge. Their structural properties and expression patterns were analyzed. Seven chitinases (ScChiI1, ScChiI2, ScChiI3, ScChiIII1, ScChiIII2, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVI1) showed more positive with early response and maintained increased transcripts in the incompatible interaction than those in the compatible one. Three (ScChiII1, ScChiV1 and ScChiVII1) seemed to have no significant difference in expression patterns between incompatible and compatible interactions. The ten chitinases were expressed differentially in response to hormone treatment as well as having distinct tissue specificity. ScChiI1, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVII1 were induced by various abiotic stresses (NaCl, CuCl2, PEG and 4 °C) and their involvement in plant immunity was demonstrated by over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The results suggest that sugarcane chitinase family exhibit differential responses to biotic and abiotic stress, providing new insights into their function. PMID:26035173

  4. Registration of ‘CP 07-2137’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 07-2137’ (Reg. No.__; PI__) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was released in September 2014 to be cultivated on sandy (mineral) soils in Florida. CP 07-2137 was developed through a collaborative cultivar development program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florid...

  5. Sugarcane soil fertility research: New data and current recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Potassium (K) has been associated with plant water use and may aid in drought tolerance and disease resistance, phosphorus (P) is important for...

  6. Nitrogen management research in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in sugarcane production and is considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer remained expensive after a drastic price increase in 2008. The average cost of a ton of N as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution from 2003 to 2007 wa...

  7. Registration of "HoCP 00-950" Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoCP 00-950 sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross HoCP 93-750 x HoCP 92-676 made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 00-950 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Stati...

  8. 50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

  9. Sugarcane Fertilizer Recommendations for the 2008 Crop Year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face challenges as they attempt to maximize profits and increase production efficiency. This year yet another challenge has been added through the significant increase in the cost of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. Due to these i...

  10. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers have been extensively used in sugarcane breeding research, little is known about its inheritance mechanism. To address this problem, a high throughput molecular genotyping experiment was conducted on 964 single pollen grains and a 288-self progeny S1 map...

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of Brazilian Metarhizium associated with sugarcane agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of spittlebug with Metarhizium in sugarcane is an example of the successful application of sustainable pest management in Brazil. However little is known about the richness, distribution and ecology of Metarhizium species in the agroecosystems and natural environments of Brazil. W...

  12. Registration of ‘CP 08-1110’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 08-1110’ (Reg. No.____; PI 678579) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for mineral (sand) soils in Florida in October 2014. ...

  13. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  14. Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...

  15. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  16. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1201’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CPCL 05-1201 is a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) hybrid bred by US Sugar Corporation in 2002 and tested for seven years through the cooperative breeding program led by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, before its release to Florida growers in Oct. 2012. CPCL 05-...

  17. Registration of ‘CP 06-2042’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 06-2042’ (Reg. No.____; PI 675156) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic (muck) and mineral (sand) soils in Flor...

  18. Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI 670018) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Fl...

  19. Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI ____) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Florida in October 2013. ...

  20. Early harvest affects sugarcane ratooning ability in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of sugarcane processors in Louisiana has decreased over time forcing growers to begin the harvest season earlier for fear of complete cane loss at the end of the harvest period due to freezing temperatures during this period of late winter. Experiments were conducted to investigate effec...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  2. Sugarcane aphid in Oklahoma: Responding to a new pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA) was first found in Oklahoma in 2013, and quickly became a major threat to grain sorghum production. Scientists at Oklahoma State University and the USDA's Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Lab in Stillwater, working with cooperators in other sorghum producing st...

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks of different Hawaiian sugarcane cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investi...

  4. Genetic studies on sugarcane aphid resistance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southern United States, the white sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) has recently become a major pest of sorghum. The aphid population can build up rapidly on the undersides of sorghum leaves causing leaf damage, leaf death, stunting, delayed flowering, and plant death. Furthermore, the ov...

  5. Sugarcane Response to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help redu...

  6. Response of sugarcane to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP72-2086, CP73-1547, CP88-1508, and CP80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air, respectively. Each TGG maintained temperatures in four zones at Base temperature wit...

  7. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  8. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taniguti, Lucas M.; Peters, Leila P.; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P.; Vieira, Maria L. C.; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression. PMID:27583836

  9. Sugarcane Response to High Water Tables and Intermittent Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production has engendered environmental concerns of nutrient transfer to neighboring ecosystems and subsidence of organic soils on which the crop is often grown. These environmental issues might be ameliorated if water was retained on the fields to minimize nutrient trans...

  10. Climate change and sugarcane production: potential impact and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has increased by about 30% since the mid-18th century. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change clearly result in the increase ...

  11. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  12. The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...

  13. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  14. Genetic population structure of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in sorghum, sugarcane and Jonhson Grass in the continental United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, an outbreak of Melanaphis sacchari, the sugarcane aphid, was reported in sorghum in Texas. Although this aphid has been reported in the continental U.S. since the 1920s, its occurrence was limited to Florida and Louisiana sugarcane. In just two years M. sacchari has been reported in almos...

  15. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  16. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  17. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  18. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  19. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_value<0.1). These gauges are located in specific regions with the highest sugarcane production. Also, the October totals showed significant and negative trends (p_value<0.1) for more than 95% of precipitation gauges. These results are strongly indicating a longer dry season in the last twenty years. These changes in the precipitation variability can be related with the instability of the sugarcane market in Brazil in the last years.

  20. Sugarcane Serine Peptidase Inhibitors, Serine Peptidases, and Clp Protease System Subunits Associated with Sugarcane Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) Herbivory and Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Ane H.; Mingossi, Fabiana B.; Dias, Renata O.; Franco, Flávia P.; Vicentini, Renato; Mello, Marcia O.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane’s (Saccharum spp.) response to Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: (Crambidae) herbivory was investigated using a macroarray spotted with 248 sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) encoding serine peptidase inhibitors, serine peptidases. and Clp protease system subunits. Our results showed that after nine hours of herbivory, 13 sugarcane genes were upregulated and nine were downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, nine were similar to serine peptidase inhibitors and four were similar to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences belong to a phylogenetic group of sugarcane BBIs that are potentially involved in plant defense against insect predation. The remaining four upregulated genes included serine peptidases and one homolog to the Arabidopsis AAA+ chaperone subunit ClpD, which is a member of the Clp protease system. Among the downregulated genes, five were homologous to serine peptidases and four were homologous to Arabidopsis Clp subunits (three homologous to Clp AAA+ chaperones and one to a ClpP-related ClpR subunit). Although the roles of serine peptidase inhibitors in plant defenses against herbivory have been extensively investigated, the roles of plant serine peptidases and the Clp protease system represent a new and underexplored field of study. The up- and downregulated D. saccharalis genes presented in this study may be candidate genes for the further investigation of the sugarcane response to herbivory. PMID:27598134

  1. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Bonnett, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  2. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  3. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  4. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare.

  5. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  6. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  7. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  8. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  9. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  10. Fiber composition of a diversity panel of the world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) and related grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrids) and related grasses (WCSRG) is an important genetic resource for sugarcane and energy cane (Saccharum hybrids) breeding. Fiber components and structural carbohydrates in bioenergy feedstocks are utilized for conversion to lignocellulosic biofuel....

  11. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  12. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  13. Farm and Family Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This teacher's guide contains four units for the farm and family management program, a three-year educational program through which farm families have the opportunity to participate in group and individualized instruction. The program is intended to help provide basic farm and home management information to farm families to meet the changes of the…

  14. Microalgae cultivation in sugarcane vinasse: Selection, growth and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Santana, Hugo; Cereijo, Carolina R; Teles, Valérya C; Nascimento, Rodrigo C; Fernandes, Maiara S; Brunale, Patrícia; Campanha, Raquel C; Soares, Itânia P; Silva, Flávia C P; Sabaini, Priscila S; Siqueira, Félix G; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is produced at large scale generating wastes that could be used for microalgae biomass production in a biorefinery strategy. In this study, forty microalgae strains were screened for growth in sugarcane vinasse at different concentrations. Two microalgae strains, Micractinium sp. Embrapa|LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40, presented vigorous growth in a light-dependent manner even in undiluted vinasse under non-axenic conditions. Microalgae strains presented higher biomass productivity in vinasse-based media compared to standard Bold's Basal Medium in cultures performed using 15L airlift flat plate photobioreactors. Chemical composition analyses showed that proteins and carbohydrates comprise the major fractions of algal biomass. Glucose was the main monosaccharide detected, ranging from 46% to 76% of the total carbohydrates content according to the strain and culture media used. This research highlights the potential of using residues derived from ethanol plants to cultivate microalgae for the production of energy and bioproducts.

  15. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs.

  16. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  17. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    SciTech Connect

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  18. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  19. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  20. Paternity identification in sugarcane polycrosses by using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xavier, M A; Pinto, L R; Fávero, T M; Perecin, D; Carlini-Garcia, L A; Landell, M G A

    2014-03-31

    Although polycrosses have been used to test the potential of cross-combination of a large number of sugarcane parents, the male parent of the half-sib progenies produced is unknown. The present study aimed to integrate the molecular marker technology to the sugarcane polycross approach by the application of microsatellite markers to identify the male parent of 41 elite clones derived from polycross families. Ten microsatellite [single sequence repeats (SSRs)] primer pairs were used to identify the most likely male parent considering markers present in the selected clone but absent in the female parent. The number of alleles generated by the 10 microsatellite primer pairs ranged from 102 (cross-pollination lantern 4) to 120 (cross-pollination lantern 2) with an average of 113.25 alleles per SSR. The average genetic similarity among the involved parents in the polycrosses was 45.9%. The results of the analysis of the SSR markers absent in the female parent and present only in the selected clone as well as the genetic similarity values allowed the identification of the most likely male parent in 73% of the total clones evaluated and also to detect probable contaminations. The obtained results highlight the importance of using molecular marker technology in the identification and confirmation of the male parent of high-performance clones derived from polycrosses in the sugarcane breeding programs.

  1. Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by β-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by CC and COC links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

  2. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  3. Herbicide retention in soil as affected by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhou, L; Zhu, H

    2003-01-01

    Reducing surface and subsurface losses of herbicides in the soil and thus their potential contamination of water resources is a national concern. This study evaluated the effectiveness of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) residue (mulch cover) in reducing nonpoint-source contamination of applied herbicides from sugarcane fields. Specifically, the effect of mulch residue on herbicide retention was quantified. Two main treatments were investigated: a no-till treatment and a no-mulch treatment. The amounts of extractable atrazine [2-chloro-4-(isopropylamino)-6-ethylamino-s-triazine], metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one], and pendimethalin [N-(ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline] from the mulch residue and the surface soil layer were quantified during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Significant amounts of applied herbicides were intercepted by the mulch residue. Extractable concentrations were at least one order of magnitude higher for the mulch residue compared with that retained by the soil. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue on the sugarcane rows was highly beneficial in minimizing runoff losses of the herbicides applied. When the residue was not removed, a reduction in runoff-effluent concentrations, as much as 50%, for atrazine and pendimethalin was realized. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue resulted in consistently lower estimates for rates of decay or disappearance of atrazine and pendimethalin in the surface soil.

  4. Genetic diversity and relationships in native Hawaiian Saccharum officinarum sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Schenck, S; Crepeau, M W; Wu, K K; Moore, P H; Yu, Q; Ming, R

    2004-01-01

    Commercial sugarcane hybrid cultivars currently in production are high-yielding, disease-resistant, millable canes and are the result of years of breeding work. In Hawaii, these commercial hybrids are quite distinct from many Saccharum officinarum canes still in existence that were brought to the islands and cultivated by the native Polynesians. The actual genetic relationships among the native canes and the extent to which they contributed to the commercial hybrid germplasm has been the subject of speculation over the years. Genetic analysis of 43 presumed native Hawaiian S. officinarum clones using 228 DNA markers confirmed them to be a group distinct from the modern hybrid cultivars. The resulting dendrogram tended to confirm that there were several separate S. officinarum introductions that, owing to selections of somatic mutations, diverged into a number of cluster groups. When the "Sandwich Isles" were discovered by Captain James Cook in 1778, the Hawaiians were found to be growing sugarcane, S. officinarum ( Cook 1785). Sugarcane (ko, in the Hawaiian language) appeared in a variety of stalk and leaf colors, often with stripes (the "ribbon canes"). In the interest of preserving this historic germplasm, a collection was assembled in the 1920s by Edward L. Caum of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and W. W. G. Moir of American Factors. Histories and descriptions of the canes were reported by Moir (1932).

  5. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect's digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms.

  6. Transforming Farming Systems on Public Lands in the EAA to Support Everglades Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Capece, John; Hanlon, Ed A.

    2010-01-08

    The public purchase of farmlands in the EAA provides an opportunity for transforming farming systems into truly sustainable systems and these can support the Everglades restoration efforts. The concept proposed in this presentation is that by reducing the yield intensity of farms and adding ecosystem services, public farm lands can serve both restoration and the economy more effectively and more efficiently. This working hypothesis will be evaluated by applying systems analysis approaches including life cycle analysis and embodied energy analysis. The rationale for pursuing new approaches ranges from the fact that climate change threats are global, not local, to the fact that eliminating Florida farms and moving production elsewhere yields no net ecological benefit. Historic water flow from Lake Okeechobee to Everglades is shown and the current concept of moving water explained. Southern Flow Way Plan 6 is explained and sustainable farming system in this newly acquired land presented. To determine if an EAA pulse-way strategy would work and meet the sustainability criteria requires integrated analysis of several systems - water budget, soil & water nutrient dynamics, prospects for new sugarcane varieties, soil subsidence and overall energy and carbon budget.

  7. Soil carbon stock and total nitrogen in Hawaiian sugarcane commercial plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in Hawaiian sugarcane as a biofuel feedstock. However, there is little information on how much soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) is stored in Hawaiian sugarcane fields under normal, monoculture operations. Soil C and N data are needed to assess the life cycl...

  8. Next Generation Sequencing: A useful tool for detection of sugarcane viruses in quarantine programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The international exchange of sugarcane germplasm includes the risk of introducing potentially devastating pathogens that may threaten production. The USDA-APHIS Plant Germplasm Quarantine Program (PGQP) imports and tests sugarcane accessions that are used in research, variety development, and comme...

  9. Transcriptome profiling of sugarcane roots in response to low potassium stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoying; Ling, Qiuping; Fan, Lina; Li, Yu; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jianwen; Huang, Zhenrui; Deng, Haihua; Li, Qiwei; Qi, Yongwen

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important crop for supplying sugar. Due to its high biomass, sugarcane needs to absorb a large amount of potassium (K) throughout its lifecycle. In South China, a deficiency of K available in soil restricts the production of sugarcane. Increasing the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K will be an effective approach for improving survival of the crop in this area. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of tolerance to low-K stress in sugarcane. In this study, a customized microarray was used to analyze the changes in the level of transcripts of sugarcane genes 8 h, 24 h and 72 h after exposure to low-K conditions. We identified a total of 4153 genes that were differentially expressed in at least one of the three time points. The number of genes responding to low-K stress at 72 h was almost 2-fold more than the numbers at 8 h and 24 h. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that many genes involved in metabolic, developmental and biological regulatory processes displayed changes in the level of transcripts in response to low-K stress. Additionally, we detected differential expression of transcription factors, transporters, kinases, oxidative stress-related genes and genes in Ca+ and ethylene signaling pathways; these proteins might play crucial roles in improving the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K stress. The results of this study will help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane tolerance to low-K.

  10. Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multievironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contributions of the location with a sand soil to the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarcane genotypes in Flor...

  11. Evaluation of optical sensing and variable nitrogen rate application in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient and considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs in sugarcane production. A need-based N application can be implemented with the use of optical sensor technology allowing acquisition of sugarcane N status in the absence of soil and plant tissue te...

  12. Identifying Physiological and Yield Related Traits in Sugarcane and Energy Cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing interest of producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for both sugar and bioenergy and saturation of using organic soils provide an opportunity to expand production on mineral (sand) soils. However, sugarcane yields and profits on sand soils are generally low. Energy cane may be an alternative ...

  13. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  14. Varietal susceptibility to the corn wireworm Melanotus Communis (Coleoptera:>Elateridae) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms (larval Elateridae) reduce the stand of newly planted sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) directly by damaging growing points and indirectly by facilitating disease introduction. No research has evaluated resistance or tolerance of sugarcane genotypes grown in Florida. Eleven ge...

  15. Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...

  16. Spatial variability of sugarcane yields in relation to soil salinity in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High soil salinity levels have been documented to negatively impact sugarcane yields. Tests were conducted in commercial sugarcane fields in South Louisiana in 2009-2010 to determine if elevated soil salinity levels resulting from salt water intrusion from several recent hurricanes was having a neg...

  17. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  18. Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2006-02-01

    Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation.

  19. Comparison of Sugarcane and Energy Cane in Growth and Biomass Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of major crops on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are low compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of high biomass for energy....

  20. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  1. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  2. Influence of potential evapotranspiration on the water balance of sugarcane fields in Maui, Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The year-long warm temperatures and other climatic characteristics of the Pacific Ocean Islands have made Hawaii an optimum place for growing sugarcane; however, irrigation is essential to satisfy the large water demand of sugarcane. Under the Hawaiian tropical weather, actual evapotranspiration (A...

  3. Population genetics of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in the continental US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, was reported as a damaging pest of sorghum in the United States (U.S.) for the first time in 2013. However, this aphid is not new to the U.S. Since 1920s up until 2013 SCA have occurred on sugarcane in Florida and later in Louisiana, causing minimal ...

  4. Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

  5. A rapid biochemical test to assess postharvest deterioration of sugarcane and milled juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  6. Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  7. Determining yield loss caused by brown rust in production fields of sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust, appear on Louisiana sugarcane in the spring. Disease expression is usually limited to 2 to 3 months until temperatures exceed those favorable for spore production. The affected sugarcane is harvested 4 to 6 months after rust sympt...

  8. Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

  9. A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

  10. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  11. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  12. Genetic analysis of resistance gene analogues from a sugarcane cultivar resistant to red rot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the important approaches for disease control in sugarcane is to develop a disease resistant variety; this may be accomplished through identification of resistance genes in sugarcane. In this study, PCR primers targeting the conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) class and kinas...

  13. Prediction of sugarcane sucrose content with high resolution, hyperspectral leaf reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine if leaf reflectance measurements could be used to predict theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) levels in sugarcane prior to harvest. Leaf and stalk samples were collected from multi-variety first-ratoon (FR) sugarcane maturity studies in 2005 at three sample ...

  14. Discovery of uncharacterized sugarcane viruses by next generation sequencing technology: the case of Ramu stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  15. Carbon accumulation in a two year sugarcane rotation in Hawai’i, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been examined as a bioenergy feedstock for producing aviation fuel in the Pacific Basin. Hawaii has been a major producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the Pacific, with its typical two-year production cycle having some of the highest reported rates of sugar production in...

  16. Cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Area Trials were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Cultivar FN38 produced a high an...

  17. Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...

  18. Outbreak of sorghum/sugarcane aphid on sorghum: First detections, distribution, and notes on management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...

  19. Allelic divergence in sugarcane cultivars revealed through capillary electrophoregrams of fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electerophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 eac...

  20. Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...

  1. Oligomerization, membrane association and in vivo phosphorylation of sugarcane UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is a C4 plant that accumulates sucrose to levels of up to 50% of dry weight in the stalk. The mechanisms involved in sucrose accumulation in sugarcane are not well understood and little is known with regard to factors that control the extent of sucrose storage in stalks. UDP-glucose pyroph...

  2. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  3. The long and short of it: Sugarcane planting systems (whole stalks, billets, and single nodes)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) producers use vegetative cuttings to plant their 100,000 plus acres of their sugarcane crop rotation each year. Researchers with USDA-ARS, LSU AgCenter, American Sugar Cane League, private industry, and producers have conducted cooperative and independent researc...

  4. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop loop-mediated isothermal...

  6. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-08-29

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel.

  7. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility.

  8. Proteomic analysis of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and Sporisorium scitamineum.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ashwin, N M R; Kaverinathan, K; Trentin, Anna Rita; Pivato, Micaela; Sundar, A Ramesh; Malathi, P; Viswanathan, R; Rosana, O B; Neethukrishna, K; Carletti, Paolo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-04-01

    Smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is one of the important diseases of sugarcane with global significance. Despite the intriguing nature of sugarcane, S. scitamineum interaction, several pertinent aspects remain unexplored. This study investigates the proteome level alterations occurring in the meristem of a S. scitamineum infected susceptible sugarcane cultivar at whip emergence stage. Differentially abundant proteins were identified by 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Comprehensively, 53 sugarcane proteins identified were related to defence, stress, metabolism, protein folding, energy, and cell division; in addition, a putative effector of S. scitamineum, chorismate mutase, was identified. Transcript expression vis-à-vis the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was relatively higher in the infected meristem. Abundance of seven candidate proteins in 2D gel profiles was in correlation with its corresponding transcript expression levels as validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, this study has opened up new perspectives on the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum.

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel sugarcane streak mastrevirus and an isolate of the A-strain of maize streak virus from sugarcane in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Adama; Dangora, Danladi B; Alegbejo, Matthew D; Kumar, P Lava; Alabi, Olufemi J

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane and maize plants showing symptoms typical of those described for the so-called "African streak viruses" (AfSVs) were encountered during field surveys conducted from February to July 2015 to document viruses infecting both crops across the northern Guinea savannah region of Nigeria. As part of this study, two categories of complete mastrevirus-like genome sequences were obtained from nine samples (maize = 2; sugarcane = 7). In pairwise comparisons, the full-length genomes of the first sequence category (2,687 nt each; maize = 2; sugarcane = 2) shared 96 to 99% identity with global isolates of the A-strain of maize streak virus (MSV-A), indicating that sugarcane may also serve as a reservoir host to MSV-A. Analysis of the complete genomes belonging to the second sequence category (2,757 nt each; sugarcane = 5) showed that they shared 42 to 67% identity with their closest AfSV relatives, thus indicating that they represent sequences of a novel mastrevirus. Both sequence categories shared 61-62% sequence identity with each other. Further analysis revealed that the novel sugarcane-infecting virus, tentatively named as sugarcane chlorotic streak virus (SCSV), arose from a putative interspecific recombination event involving two grass-infecting mastreviruses, eragrostis streak virus and urochloa streak virus, as putative parental sequences. The results of this study add to the repertoire of diverse AfSVs present in cereal and sugarcane mixed cropping landscapes in the northern Guinea savannah region of Nigeria, with implications for disease epidemiology.

  10. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  13. Farm animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, G

    2000-01-01

    As we enter a new millennium, the research with the greatest likely impact on both the biological sciences and the biotechnology industry will be the sequencing of the human and other genomes. Widespread interest in farm animal genomics as a method for identifying genes controlling commercially important traits started only a decade ago. Although the genomics of farm animals was relatively late to arrive on the scene compared with the genomics of crop plants, it has the advantage of being able to access the enormous amount of human genome information.

  14. An Examination of Hired Farm Workers on Iowa Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Kenneth Harry

    Characteristics of farms, farmers and hired laborers were examined to provide a basis for decisions about labor needs on Iowa farms. The study was limited to year-round farm jobs in large-sized enterprises to develop some knowledge of working conditions, renumerations, and skills which will be required in the future. A 3-phase study was conducted…

  15. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit.

  16. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  17. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  19. Tox Town Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... download the Flash player. City Farm Town Port US Southwest U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 1-888-FIND-NLM National Institutes of Health Department of Health & Human Services ... Updates Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Copyright Privacy Freedom ...

  20. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  1. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  2. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  3. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  4. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3 years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217 mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns.

  5. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect’s digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms. PMID:28248990

  6. Impact of irrigation based sugarcane cultivation on the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers quality, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-02-23

    Agriculture is vital in sustaining human livelihoods. However, agriculture as it is currently practiced, is contributing to the degradation of freshwater ecosystems globally. We investigated impacts of irrigation return flows from sugarcane farming on water quality and health status of the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers, a biodiversity hotspot region in south-eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The water quality at inlets from the crop field into the wetland system; wetland outlets into the river systems; and river sites upstream and downstream of wetland outlets were monitored during the dry and wet seasons. The wetland system formed naturally from excessive drainage from the cane fields but its purifying capacity was unknown to date. An assessment of the water physical-chemical variables (at all sites) and macroinvertebrate communities (at river sites only) was carried out. Results showed that the wetland was deficient in its purifying capacity as it was already saturated by salts and nutrients from high irrigation return flow loads. A significant seasonal variation was observed for conductivity, reactive phosphorus (RP), pH and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations among the inlets to the wetland whereas among the river sites significant seasonal differences were observed for ammonium, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, RP, pH, TP and turbidity concentrations during the dry season. From the macroinvertebrate community data the impact of the irrigation return flows on the river system was apparent, as the good water quality sites were characterised by a high diversity of pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa, while the irrigation impacted sites were characterised and dominated by pollution tolerant taxa. High ion concentration (conductivity and salinity) and pH were found to be important in structuring macroinvertebrate communities as determined using multivariate analysis in the river system. In conclusion, the river water quality was significantly impacted by irrigation return

  7. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  8. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  9. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  10. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-11-13

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

  11. Potential influence of sugarcane cultivation on estuarine water quality of Louisiana's gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Grigg, Brandon C; Kornecki, Ted S; Fouss, James L

    2002-07-17

    Sugarcane is cultivated on some 170000 ha of land in south central and southwestern Louisiana. This acreage drains into bayous and rivers that empty into Louisiana's coastal bays and estuaries. For a number of years the state's Department of Agriculture and Forestry and Department of Environmental Quality have collected water quality data from this sugarcane area. Study of these data shows that approximately one in five detections of atrazine is above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. Currently there is no U.S. atrazine standard for protection of aquatic life. February and October detections of this herbicide are probably due to sugarcane cultivation. Nitrate levels have remained below the MCL for drinking water, but nitrate and phosphorus concentrations may pose a potential for eutrophication problems. The contribution of sugarcane production to the nutrient status of Louisiana's coastal water bodies is difficult to assess because there are other sources of nutrients in the area and native soil phosphorus levels are high. Cultural practices such as subsurface drains, open drainage ditches, and postharvest residue management have potential through enhancement of soil infiltration for decreasing sugarcane's contribution to water quality problems in southern and coastal Louisiana. A new field project is being installed at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Experiment Station's Sugarcane Research Station at St. Gabriel to assess the water quality benefits of these practices with respect to sugarcane cultivation.

  12. A global view of transcriptome dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge in sugarcane by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and "ROC"22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24-48 h) occurred earlier than those in "ROC"22 (48-120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion

  13. A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24–48 h) occurred earlier than those in “ROC”22 (48–120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In

  14. The Changing Face of Farm Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Randy E.

    1995-01-01

    Increased farm size, improved technology, and competing demands for farm land resulted in substantial decline in farm acreage and consequent declines in farm employment. Remaining farm operators are more likely to be white, highly educated, and have larger, capital-intensive farms. (SK)

  15. Defense-related proteins involved in sugarcane responses to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thais P; Dias, Renata O; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2017-02-20

    Sugarcane is one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. However, pathogen infection and herbivore attack cause constant losses in yield. Plants respond to pathogen infection by inducing the expression of several protein types, such as glucanases, chitinases, thaumatins, peptidase inhibitors, defensins, catalases and glycoproteins. Proteins induced by pathogenesis are directly or indirectly involved in plant defense, leading to pathogen death or inducing other plant defense responses. Several of these proteins are induced in sugarcane by different pathogens or insects and have antifungal or insecticidal activity. In this review, defense-related proteins in sugarcane are described, with their putative mechanisms of action, pathogen targets and biotechnological perspectives.

  16. Investigation on fixed bed column performance of fluoride adsorption by sugarcane charcoal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, N K; Bhaumik, R; Roy, P; Das, B; Datta, J K

    2013-11-01

    The present study explores the potentiality of sugarcane charcoal for fluoride removal from synthetic fluoride solution. Column adsorption experiments with respect to variation of flow rate, pH, initial concentration, and column depths were carried out. Sugarcane charcoal exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths with a flow rate 4.34 ml min(-1). Maximum adsorption capacity of sugarcane charcoal was recorded 7.33 mg g(-1). The adsorption studies were simulated using Thomas and Bed depth service time model. Both the models consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  17. Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

    1990-01-01

    This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

  18. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  19. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste sugarcane bagasse in water media.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Lei, Y; Yu, Q; Lui, X; Huan, K

    2002-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of natural cellulose such as sugarcane bagasse is usually carried out in a buffer medium. In this paper, the enzymatic hydrolysis of a waste sugarcane bagasse in water media was carried out.The bagasse was pre-treated with heating explosion and pure (ion exchange), reverse-osmosis and tap water media were used in place of a buffer solution in the hydrolysis process. The yields for reducing sugars and the changes in solution pH and electric conductivity during the hydrolysis under various conditions were studied. The results were also compared with those obtained in buffer solutions. Similar levels of sugar yields were obtained in water and buffer solution media. The pH of the hydrolyzate was in the range of 4.5 - 5.0, which coincided with the optimum pH for the enzyme reaction. It was considered that the enzyme and the substrate formed a transitional complex in the hydrolysis process. The transitional complex provided the buffering capacity pH 5. The results indicate of the hydrolyzate solution at around that industrialization of the enzymatic hydrolysis in a water medium is feasible.

  1. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-05

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC.

  2. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  3. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  4. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  5. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

  6. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem.

  7. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  8. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%).

  9. Binding of soluble glycoproteins from sugarcane juice to cells of Acetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M E; de Armas, R; Barriguete, E; Vicente, C

    2000-09-01

    Sugarcane produces two different pools of glycoproteins containing a heterofructan as glycidic moiety, tentatively defined as high-molecular mass (HMMG) and mid-molecular mass (MMMG) glycoproteins. Both kinds of glycoproteins can be recovered in sugarcane juice. Fluorescein-labelled glycoproteins are able to bind to Acetobacter diazotrophicus cells, a natural endophyte of sugarcane. This property implies the aggregation of bacterial cells in liquid culture after addition of HMMG or MMMG. Anionic glycoproteins seem to be responsible for the binding activity whereas cationic fraction is not retained on the surface ofA. diazotrophicus. Bound HMMG is competitively desorbed by sucrose whereas MMMG is desorbed by glucosamine or fructose. On this basis, a hypothesis about the discriminatory ability of sugarcane to choose the compatible endophyte from several possible ones is proposed.

  10. Current knowledge and practices related to seed transmission of sugarcane pathogens and movement of seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeding programs benefit from sharing genetic resources. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by exchanging vegetative planting material of clones of interest. Diseases can spread during this process, and quarantines were established to enable continued sharing of germplasm while min...

  11. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included.

  12. Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Helma V.; dos Santos, Samuel T.; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Kátia R. dos S.; Reis, Veronica M.; Baldani, José I.

    2008-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA–RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24031296

  13. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  14. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

  15. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure.

  16. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop.

  17. Identification of smut-responsive genes in sugarcane using cDNA-SRAP.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Zhang, Y Y; Xiao, X H; Huang, L; Wu, Q B; Que, Y X; Xu, L P

    2015-06-18

    Sugarcane smut, caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum, is one of the main diseases that affect sugarcane worldwide. In the present study, the cDNA-SRAP technique was used to identify genes that are likely to be involved in the response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum infection. In total, 21 bands with significant differential expression during cDNA-SRAP analysis were cloned and sequenced. Real-time qPCR confirmation demonstrated that expression of 19 of these 21 differential bands was consistent with the expression observed during cDNA-SRAP analysis, with a deduced false positive rate of 9.5%. Sequence alignment indicated that 18 of 19 differentially expressed genes showed homologies from 19% to 100% to certain genes in GenBank, including the following genes: topoisomerase (EU048780), ethylene insensitive (EU048778), and tetraspanin (EU048770). A real-time qPCR assay showed that during 0-72 h after pathogen infection, expression of the topoisomerase and the ethylene insensitive genes was upregulated, whereas expression of the tetraspanin gene was downregulated, identical to the expression patterns observed under salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, all three genes are thought to play a role during S. scitamineum challenge, but with different functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of cDNA-SRAP in differential gene expression analysis of sugarcane during a sugarcane-S. scitamineum interaction. The results obtained also contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with sugarcane-S. scitamineum interactions.

  18. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  19. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W. Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Neto, Adhemar Zerlotini; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes, which hampers sequencing of their genome by standard methods such as WGS. Large tracts of methylated repeats occur at plant genomes interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene enrichment strategies based on methylation profile offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration (MF) with McrBC digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions of sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of MF and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using MF and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The MF allowed the achievement of a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5 times more scaffolds and 1.7 times more assembled Mb compared to unfiltered scaffolds. The coverage of sorghum CDS by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134X the coverage of genic regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds covering all genes at sugarcane BACs, 97.2% of sugarcane ESTs, 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds encoding enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 SNPs in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes were also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  20. Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G + C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred

  1. Identification of xanthans isolated from sugarcane juices obtained from scalded plants infected by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    PubMed

    Fontaniella, Blanca; Rodríguez, C W; Piñón, Dolores; Vicente, C; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-04-25

    The exudate gum produced by Xanthomonas albilineans, a specific sugarcane pathogen, has been isolated from juices of diseased sugarcane stalks, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, and the hydrolysate analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Sucrose. cellobiose, mannose, glucose, glucose-1-P and glucuronic acid were identified as the major components of the polysaccharide isolated from diseased stalks. Juices from healthy stalks contained maltose instead of cellobiose. The chemical nature of this polysaccharide is discussed.

  2. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  3. Functional markers for gene mapping and genetic diversity studies in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The database of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST) offers a great opportunity for developing molecular markers that are directly associated with important agronomic traits. The development of new EST-SSR markers represents an important tool for genetic analysis. In sugarcane breeding programs, functional markers can be used to accelerate the process and select important agronomic traits, especially in the mapping of quantitative traits loci (QTL) and plant resistant pathogens or qualitative resistance loci (QRL). The aim of this work was to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in sugarcane using the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database). Findings A total of 365 EST-SSR molecular markers with trinucleotide motifs were developed and evaluated in a collection of 18 genotypes of sugarcane (15 varieties and 3 species). In total, 287 of the EST-SSRs markers amplified fragments of the expected size and were polymorphic in the analyzed sugarcane varieties. The number of alleles ranged from 2-18, with an average of 6 alleles per locus, while polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.21-0.92, with an average of 0.69. The discrimination power was high for the majority of the EST-SSRs, with an average value of 0.80. Among the markers characterized in this study some have particular interest, those that are related to bacterial defense responses, generation of precursor metabolites and energy and those involved in carbohydrate metabolic process. Conclusions These EST-SSR markers presented in this work can be efficiently used for genetic mapping studies of segregating sugarcane populations. The high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) and Discriminant Power (DP) presented facilitate the QTL identification and marker-assisted selection due the association with functional regions of the genome became an important tool for the sugarcane breeding program. PMID:21798036

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  5. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of different parts of two sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Zhang, Yanbing; Zhong, Zhou; Lu, Baiyi

    2014-05-15

    Antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols of four parts of two sugarcane cultivars have been characterised. The total triterpenoid content (TTC), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total sterol content (TSC) were different among parts and cultivars of sugarcane. The node of both cultivars contained the highest TTC (2096.02 and 1779.66 mg ursolic acid/100g DW for green-rind and red-rind sugarcane, respectively). However, the highest TPC, TFC and TSC were found in the rind. Green-rind sugarcane cultivars contained higher TSC than the red-rind sugarcane cultivars in most parts, while opposite trend were found in TPC and TFC. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were found as two main phytosterols. Furthermore, TPC and TFC revealed good correlations with DPPH and FRAP. As cultivars and parts could affect phytochemical content, present result may provide a theoretical basis for further exploitation of the health beneficial resources of sugarcane.

  6. Natural aflatoxin uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinaurum L.) and its persistence in jaggery.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, P; Vipin, A V; Karuna, S; Raksha, R K; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-04-01

    The present study focused on aflatoxin (AF) uptake by sugarcanes from contaminated soils, and its persistence in jaggery. Analysis of 25 agricultural soil samples from sugarcane growing fields revealed that 80% were found contaminated with AF ranging from 0.5 to 22 ppb and all samples harbored aflatoxigenic fungi. Forty percent of the juices extracted from sugarcane grown in contaminated soil recorded AF ranging from 1.0 to 9.5 ppb. Conversely, jaggery prepared from those samples was almost free from AF. Further, greenhouse experiment confirms the AF uptake ability of sugarcane plants. Analysis of sugarcane juice and jaggery collected from local vendor showed 21% (0.5 to 6.5 ppb) and 5.6% (0.5-1.0 ppb) of AF contamination, respectively. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain was evaluated for their ability to grow and produce AF on jaggery medium. At 14th day after inoculation, decreased concentration of AF was recorded in jaggery medium ranging from 0 to 120 mg jaggery/ml, above which AF was absent though the fungal growth was noted. From the results, it could be concluded that sugarcane plants have the ability to uptake AF from contaminated soil, but AF was reduced during jaggery preparation. Also, higher concentration of jaggery was inhibitory to AF production.

  7. [Trait stability and test site representativeness of sugarcane varieties based on GGE-biplot analysis].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Deng, Zu-Hu; Que, You-Xiong

    2012-05-01

    Arithmetic mean method is commonly used to evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties, and variance analysis is applied to estimate the errors in regional trials. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the varieties due to the discrepancies across test sites and years. In this paper, GGE-biplot method was adopted to analyze the data from the regional trials with seven sugarcane varieties at five sites from 2008 to 2009, aimed to objectively evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties in China. Among the test sugarcane varieties, Funong No. 30 had higher cane yield and better yield stability, Yuegan No. 18 had higher sugar content and better trait stability, Funong No. 28 and Yunzhe 99-91 had high sucrose content and trait stability, while Yuegan No. 16 had the highest cane yield and sugar content but ordinary stability. In the test sites, Zhangzhou City in Fujian Province and Suixi City in Guangdong Province had the best representativeness and discrimination. This study showed that GGE-biplot analysis provided a simple and effective method to analyze the high yield and stability of sugarcane varieties in regional trials, and supplied the basis for the approval and extension of new sugarcane varieties.

  8. Viability of an enzymatic mannitol method to predict sugarcane deterioration at factories.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Karr, Jacob; Parris, Anthony; Legendre, Benjamin

    2008-11-15

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the US, in press (consignment) and crusher juices collected across the 2004 processing season at a Louisiana factory. Weather conditions varied markedly across the season causing periods of the delivery of deteriorated sugarcane to the factory. A strong polynomial relationship existed between mannitol and haze dextran (R(2)=0.912) in press and crusher juices. Mannitol concentrations were usually higher than haze and monoclonal antibody dextran concentrations, which indicates: (i) the usefulness and higher sensitivity of mannitol to better predict sugarcane deterioration from Leuconostoc and other bacteria than dextran, and (ii) the underestimation by sugar industry personnel of the relatively large amounts of mannitol present in deteriorated sugarcane that can affect processing. Greater than ∼2500ppm/%Brix mannitol in juice predicts downstream processing problems. The enzymatic method is quantitative and could be used in a sugarcane payment formula. Approximately >300ppm/%Brix haze dextran in raw sugar indicated that the majority of the crystals were elongated. Approximately >600ppm/%Brix antibody dextran indicated when elongated crystals were predominant in the raw sugar. The enzymatic mannitol method underestimates mannitol in raw sugars.

  9. Biomass accumulation in sugarcane: unravelling the factors underpinning reduced growth phenomena.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Philippus D R; Donaldson, Robin A; Watt, Derek A; Singels, Abraham

    2010-06-01

    Constant radiation use efficiency throughout the entire sugarcane crop cycle is often assumed for crop yield forecasting and management purposes. However, several examples are known where the linear relationship between cumulative intercepted radiation and biomass accumulation becomes uncoupled at some stage, with the latter declining by 21% in one reported case. This slowdown in growth is commonly referred to as the reduced growth phenomenon (RGP). In certain instances, this phenomenon appears to be related to the timing of crop initiation and harvesting. Summer-initiated sugarcane crops do not always resume expected growth rates after the transition from winter to spring, despite conditions being favourable for vigorous growth. Possible factors underlying the failure of sugarcane crops to realize full yield potential are reported and interrogated in this review. The potential involvement of lodging, flowering, and tiller mortality have been reviewed and the data suggest that, while such factors may contribute, they are unlikely to be the major causes of sugarcane RGPs. Similarly, reports indicate that temperature cannot account for reduced growth, as rates remain low despite the onset of favourable conditions in spring. In contrast, a decline in specific leaf nitrogen, potential initiation of sugar-mediated source-sink feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and increased rates of maintenance respiration that occur during sugarcane development and maturation appear to be likely factors contributing to RGPs. An evaluation of areas of sugarcane biology and agronomy that would benefit from further research towards overcoming yield restriction imposed by reduced growth phenomena is provided.

  10. Study of postures in sugarcane cutters in the Pontal of Paranapanema-SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Anchieta Messias, Iracimara; Okuno, Emico

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane monoculture in Brazil in the last decades has pointed out to the necessity of considering the question of sugarcane cutters occupational health. In this work we present a cross-sectional study aiming to examine the occupational posture of a group of sugarcane cutters, which work in a cane field located in the region of Pontal do Paranapanema- SP, Brazil. The study was made using the Ergonomic Analysis of Work - EAW methodology and the postural analysis method by Win-OWAS. Through the obtained records of postures, it was observed that during a workday the sugarcane cutters remain standing erect on two legs or in one leg 66% of the time and that their trunk remain tilted and in rotation, according to 63% of the positions categorized. It was also observed that the sugarcane cutter trunk performs repetitive and boundless movements during his routine of work, which can expose this individual to additional wear of their musculoskeletal functions. The activities in which the individual engages have favorable or adverse influence on his posture. The repetitive movements involved in specialized occupations are equivalent to repeated exercises, thus may be responsible for the excessive development of certain muscle groups. The study suggests that the postures adopted by sugarcane cutters can overload their musculoskeletal system and predispose the cutters to work-related musculoskeletal diseases.

  11. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Renato; Bottcher, Alexandra; Brito, Michael dos Santos; dos Santos, Adriana Brombini; Creste, Silvana; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome. PMID:26241317

  12. Involvement of Wives in Farm Tasks as Related to Characteristics of the Farm, the Family and Work Off the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Ahrens, Nancy

    In an attempt to determine the basis of the farm wife's involvement in farm tasks, hypotheses regarding farm size and type, family cycle and wife's age, off-farm work of husband or wife, and family educational levels were tested in a 1978 random questionnaire survey of 532 Wisconsin farm families. As expected, wives were more involved with farm…

  13. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  14. Isolation from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus cell walls of specific receptors for sugarcane glycoproteins, which act as recognition factors.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Y; Arroyo, M; Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    2005-11-04

    Glycoproteins from sugarcane stalks have been isolated from plants field-grown by size-exclusion chromatography. Some of these glycoproteins, previously labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, are able to bind to the cell wall of the sugarcane endophyte, N2-fixing Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and largely removed after washing the bacterial cells with sucrose. This implies that sugarcane glycoproteins use beta-(1-->2)-fructofuranosyl fructose domains in their glycosidic moiety to bind to specific receptors in the bacterial cell walls. These receptors have been isolated by affinity chromatography on a sugarcane glycoprotein-agarose matrix, desorbed with sucrose and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophresisand capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  15. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  16. Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

    2012-01-01

    The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that 42 of the 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates were affiliated with the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Most of the nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria possessed two other plant growth-promoting activities of IAA production, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Two Enterobacter spp. strains of NN145S and NN143E isolated from rhizosphere soil and surface-sterilized roots, respectively, of the same ROC22 plant were used to inoculate micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Both strains increased the biomass and nitrogen content of the sugarcane seedlings grown with nitrogen fertilization equivalent to 180 kg urea ha−1, the recommended nitrogen fertilization for ROC22 cane crops at the seedling stage. 15N isotope dilution assays demonstrated that biological nitrogen fixation contributed to plant growth promotion. These results suggested that indigenous nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria have the potential to fix N2 associated with sugarcane plants grown in fields in Guangxi and to improve sugarcane production. PMID:22510648

  17. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  18. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  19. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  20. Comprehensive utilization of glycerol from sugarcane bagasse pretreatment to fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of glycerol pretreatment on subsequent glycerol fermentation and biomass fast pyrolysis were investigated. The liquid fraction from the pretreatment process was evaluated to be feasible for fermentation by Paenibacillus polymyxa and could be an economic substrate. The pretreated biomass was further utilized to obtain levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited significantly higher levoglucosan yield (47.70%) than that of un-pretreated sample (11.25%). The promotion could likely be attributed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals by glycerol pretreatment. This research developed an economically viable manufacturing paradigm to utilize glycerol comprehensively and enhance the formation of levoglucosan effectively from lignocellulose.

  1. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P. A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A. S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonça, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, José A. A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  2. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C.

  3. Tissue-specific cell wall hydration in sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Priscila; Jong, Jennifer; Mendes, Fernanda M; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Eder, Michaela; Driemeier, Carlos

    2013-06-19

    Plant cell walls contain water, especially under biological and wet processing conditions. The present work characterizes this water in tissues of sugarcane stalks. Environmental scanning electron microscopy shows tissue deformation upon drying. Dynamic vapor sorption determines the equilibrium and kinetics of moisture uptake. Thermoporometry by differential scanning calorimetry quantifies water in nanoscale pores. Results show that cell walls from top internodes of stalks are more deformable, slightly more sorptive to moisture, and substantially more porous. These differences of top internode are attributed to less lignified walls, which is confirmed by lower infrared spectral signal from aromatics. Furthermore, cell wall nanoscale porosity, an architectural and not directly compositional characteristic, is shown to be tissue-specific. Nanoscale porosities are ranked as follows: pith parenchyma > pith vascular bundles > rind. This ranking coincides with wall reactivity and digestibility in grasses, suggesting that nanoscale porosity is a major determinant of wall recalcitrance.

  4. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  5. Pilot study of manual sugarcane harvesting using biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Clementson, C L; Hansen, A C

    2008-07-01

    In many countries, sugar cane harvesting is a very labor-intensive activity in which workers usually become fatigued after manually cutting the cane for a few hours. They need frequent pauses for rest, and they experience sustained injuries from excessive stress on the joints and muscles of the body. The cutting tool and motion involved directly influence the stresses created. A cutting tool that has not been designed by taking into consideration occupational biomechanics can lead to unnecessary strains in the body's muscle system, resulting in injuries. The purpose of this research was to carry out a pilot study of the impact of two common manual sugarcane cutting tools and the cutting posture they induce on the body with the aid of biomechanics. The machete and the cutlass from South Africa and Guyana, respectively, were examined to determine the cutting forces. Using static strength prediction modeling, the body stress levels at the point of cut in the cutting motion were determined. The cutting postures of three subjects were contrasted, their extreme postures were identified, and suggestions were made to improve the ergonomics of the cutting activity. The results of this pilot study showed that the cutlass required less cutting force than the machete because of the slicing cut provided by the curved blade edge of the cutlass. However, the biomechanical analysis indicated that the bent blade of the machete required less flexion of the back and therefore was likely to cause less back fatigue and injury. An improved design of the sugarcane manual harvesting tool should incorporate the bend of the machete to reduce flexion and a curved cutting edge that provides a slicing cut.

  6. Atrazine sorption-desorption hysteresis by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhu, H

    2005-01-01

    Sorption and desorption kinetics are essential components for modeling the movement and retention of applied agricultural chemicals in soils and the fraction of chemicals susceptible to runoff. In this study, we investigated the retention characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) mulch residue for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) based on studies of sorption-desorption kinetics. A sorption kinetic batch method was used to quantify retention of the mulch residue for a wide range of atrazine concentrations and reaction times. Desorption was performed following 504 h of sorption using successive dilutions, followed by methanol extraction. Atrazine retention by the mulch residue was well described using a linear model where the partitioning coefficient (K(d)) increased with reaction time from 10.40 to 23.4 cm3 g(-1) after 2 and 504 h, respectively. Values for mulch residue K(d) were an order of magnitude higher than those found for Commerce silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) where the sugarcane crop was grown. A kinetic multireaction model was successful in describing sorption behavior with reaction time. The model was equally successful in describing observed hysteretic atrazine behavior during desorption for all input concentrations. The model was concentration independent where one set of model parameters, which was derived from all batch results, was valid for the entire atrazine concentration range. Average atrazine recovery following six successive desorption steps were 63.67 +/- 4.38% of the amount adsorbed. Moreover, a hysteresis coefficient based on the difference in the area between sorption and desorption isotherms was capable of quantifying hysteresis of desorption isotherms.

  7. Analysis of Farm Records. Teacher Edition. Farm Business Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for the Oklahoma Farm Business Management Program contains three instructional units that teach students how to interpret farm records to get optimum use of facilities and maximize profits. Each unit of instruction includes some or all of these components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the instructor,…

  8. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  9. Farm Household Survival Strategies and Diversification on Marginal Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, H.; Van Huylenbroeck, G.; Vernimmen, T.; Bourgeois, M.; van Hecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    On marginal farms, and in agriculture in general, sustainability is largely guaranteed by a broad range of survival strategies, closely interlinked and embedded in the household structure of typical family farms. This paper reports results of a socio-economic study carried out among Belgian farmers, focusing specifically on the opportunities…

  10. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  11. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  12. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  13. Aspergillus parasiticus communities associated with sugarcane in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: implications of global transport and host association within Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Garber, N P; Cotty, P J

    2014-05-01

    In the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (RGV), values of maize and cottonseed crops are significantly reduced by aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops is the product of communities of aflatoxin producers and the average aflatoxin-producing potentials of these communities influence aflatoxin contamination risk. Cropping pattern influences community composition and, thereby, the epidemiology of aflatoxin contamination. In 2004, Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from two fields previously cropped to sugarcane but not from 23 fields without recent history of sugarcane cultivation. In 2004 and 2005, A. parasiticus composed 18 to 36% of Aspergillus section Flavi resident in agricultural soils within sugarcane-producing counties. A. parasiticus was not detected in counties that do not produce sugarcane. Aspergillus section Flavi soil communities within sugarcane-producing counties differed significantly dependent on sugarcane cropping history. Fields cropped to sugarcane within the previous 5 years had greater quantities of A. parasiticus (mean = 16 CFU/g) than fields not cropped to sugarcane (mean = 0.1 CFU/g). The percentage of Aspergillus section Flavi composed of A. parasiticus increased to 65% under continuous sugarcane cultivation and remained high the first season of rotation out of sugarcane. Section Flavi communities in fields rotated to non-sugarcane crops for 3 to 5 years were composed of <5% A. parasiticus, and fields with no sugarcane history averaged only 0.2% A. parasiticus. The section Flavi community infecting RGV sugarcane stems ranged from 95% A. parasiticus in billets prepared for commercial planting to 52% A. parasiticus in hand-collected sugarcane stems. Vegetative compatibility assays and multilocus phylogenies verified that aflatoxin contamination of raw sugar was previously attributed to similar A. parasiticus in Japan. Association of closely related A. parasiticus genotypes with sugarcane produced in Japan and RGV

  14. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  15. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  16. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  17. microRNAs associated with drought response in the bioenergy crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thaís Helena; Gentile, Agustina; Vilela, Romel Duarte; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Dias, Lara Isys; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor that significantly reduces sugarcane yields. However the gene network that mediates plant responses to water stress remains largely unknown in several crop species. Although several microRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation during water stress have been described in other species, the role of the sugarcane microRNAs during drought stress has not been studied. The objective of this work was to identify sugarcane miRNAs that are differentially expressed under drought stress and to correlate this expression with the behavior of two sugarcane cultivars with different drought tolerances. The sugarcane cultivars RB867515 (higher drought tolerance) and RB855536 (lower drought tolerance) were cultivated in a greenhouse for three months and then subjected to drought for 2, 4, 6 or 8 days. By deep sequencing of small RNAs, we were able to identify 18 miRNA families. Among all of the miRNAs thus identified, seven were differentially expressed during drought. Six of these miRNAs were differentially expressed at two days of stress, and five miRNAs were differentially expressed at four days. The expression levels of five miRNAs (ssp-miR164, ssp-miR394, ssp-miR397, ssp-miR399-seq 1 and miR528) were validated by RT-qPCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR). Six precursors and the targets of the differentially expressed miRNA were predicted using an in silico approach and validated by RT-qPCR; many of these targets may play important roles in drought tolerance. These findings constitute a significant increase in the number of identified miRNAs in sugarcane and contribute to the elucidation of the complex regulatory network that is activated by drought stress.

  18. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    PubMed Central

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  19. Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

  20. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

  1. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism.

  2. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-05-19

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  3. Manganese Toxicity in Sugarcane Plantlets Grown on Acidic Soils of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu Lan; Yang, Shu; Long, Guang Xia; Zhao, Zun Kang; Li, Xiao Feng; Gu, Ming Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ratoon sugarcane plantlets in southern China have suffered a serious chlorosis problem in recent years. To reveal the causes of chlorosis, plant nutrition in chlorotic sugarcane plantlets and the role of manganese (Mn) in this condition were investigated. The study results showed that the pH of soils growing chlorotic plantlets ranged from 3.74 to 4.84. The symptoms of chlorosis were similar to those of iron (Fe) deficiency while the chlorotic and non-chlorotic plantlets contained similar amount of Fe. Chlorotic plantlets had 6.4-times more Mn in their leaf tissues compared to the control plants. There was a significantly positive correlation between Mn concentration in the leaves and the exchangeable Mn concentration in the soils. Moreover, leaf Mn concentration was related to both seasonal changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration and to the occurrence of chlorosis. Basal stalks of mature sugarcanes contained up to 564.36 mg·kg-1 DW Mn. Excess Mn in the parent stalks resulted in a depress of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of sugarcanes as indicated by lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of plantlets emerged from basal stalks. Ratoon sugarcane plantlets were susceptible to chlorosis due to high Mn accumulation in their leaves (456.90–1626.95 mg·kg-1 DW), while in planted canes chlorosis did not occur because of low Mn accumulation (94.64–313.41mg·kg-1 DW). On the other hand, active Fe content in chlorotic plantlets (3.39 mg kg-1 FW) was only equivalent to 28.2% of the concentration found in the control. These results indicate that chlorosis in ratoon sugarcane plantlets results from excessive Mn accumulated in parent stalks of planted cane sugarcanes grown on excessive Mn acidic soils, while active Fe deficiency in plantlets may play a secondary role in the chlorosis. PMID:27023702

  4. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  5. Screening for Resistance to Brown Rust of Sugarcane: Use of Bru1 resistance gene prospects and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rust of sugarcane caused by, Puccinia melanocephala, is a serious problem in the US sugarcane industry. A major resistance gene, Bru1 was identified and methodology for detecting it was developed by French scientists at CIRAD. The majority of the research resulting in the discovery of Bru1 res...

  6. Whole-genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. strain SST3, an endophyte isolated from Jamaican sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) stalk tissue.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J; Savka, Michael A; Hudson, André O

    2012-11-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter.

  7. Using microsatellite DNA markers to determine the genetic identity of parental clones used in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane propagates asexually through vegetative cuttings. To validate the genetic identity of sugarcane clones during shipping and handling, we produced molecular fingerprints based on 21 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers for 116 Louisiana parental clones that were included in the crossing program...

  8. Host plant defense against sugarcane aphid in sorghum and genetic mechanism of resistance to the new pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari (Zerhntner), is typically known as a key pest to sorghum and sugarcane in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. In 2013, this new invasive pest was found on grain sorghum plants in South and East Texas, and now it has already spread over 17 st...

  9. Influence of foliar copper and nickel applications on sugarcane yields in brown rust infested fields in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane fields with severe brown rust infections have been documented to show a decrease in sugar per hectare yields of up to 1680 kg/ha ($170/ha). Currently, control of this disease is accomplished with multiple fungicide applications. This is a costly practice for sugarcane producers who are alr...

  10. Growth, Yield, and Physiology of Sugarcane as Affected by Soil and Foliar Application of Silicon on Organic and Mineral Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), a Si accumulator plant, responds positively to application of Si in terms of cane and sucrose yield. However, data is limited on the response of sugarcane leaf physiology to Si application. Moreover, most of the published studies focused on soil (root) application with li...

  11. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  12. Surface polysaccharides and quorum sensing are involved in the attachment and survival of Xanthomonas albilineans on sugarcane leaves.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Imene; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Pieretti, Isabelle; Gargani, Daniel; Fleites, Laura A; Noell, Julie; Bonnot, Francois; Gabriel, Dean W; Rott, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugarcane leaf scald, is a bacterial plant pathogen that is mainly spread by infected cuttings and contaminated harvesting tools. However, some strains of this pathogen are known to be spread by aerial means and are able to colonize the phyllosphere of sugarcane before entering the host plant and causing disease. The objective of this study was to identify the molecular factors involved in the survival or growth of X. albilineans on sugarcane leaves. We developed a bioassay to test for the attachment of X. albilineans on sugarcane leaves using tissue-cultured plantlets grown in vitro. Six mutants of strain XaFL07-1 affected in surface polysaccharide production completely lost their capacity to survive on the sugarcane leaf surface. These mutants produced more biofilm in vitro and accumulated more cellular poly-β-hydroxybutyrate than the wild-type strain. A mutant affected in the production of small molecules (including potential biosurfactants) synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) attached to the sugarcane leaves as well as the wild-type strain. Surprisingly, the attachment of bacteria on sugarcane leaves varied among mutants of the rpf gene cluster involved in bacterial quorum sensing. Therefore, quorum sensing may affect polysaccharide production, or both polysaccharides and quorum sensing may be involved in the survival or growth of X. albilineans on sugarcane leaves.

  13. Phenotypic evaluation of a diversity panel selected from the World Collection of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and Related Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term improvement of sugarcane and energy cane (complex hybrids of Saccharum spp.) cultivars can be enhanced by breeding with the type of diverse germplasm available at the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) maintained in Miami, Florida. To evaluate germplasm in the WCSRG ...

  14. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  15. Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

  16. Characterizing a shallow groundwater system beneath irrigated sugarcane with electrical resistivity and radon (Rn-222), Puunene, Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we use a combination of electrical resistivity profiling and radon (222Rn) measurements to characterize a shallow groundwater system beneath the last remaining, large-scale sugarcane plantation on Maui, Hawaii. Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company has continuously operated a sugarcane...

  17. In planta production and characterization of a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yoon; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D; Gallo, Maria; Preston, James F; Altpeter, Fredy

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is one of the most efficient and sustainable feedstocks for commercial production of fuel ethanol. Recent efforts focus on the integration of first and second generation bioethanol conversion technologies for sugarcane to increase biofuel yields. This integrated process will utilize both the cell wall bound sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic sugarcane residues in addition to the sucrose from stem internodes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into its component sugars requires significant amounts of cell wall degrading enzymes. In planta production of xylanases has the potential to reduce costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis but has been reported to compromise plant growth and development. To address this problem, we expressed a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase, xyl10B in transgenic sugarcane which displays optimal catalytic activity at 105 °C and only residual catalytic activity at temperatures below 70 °C. Transgene integration and expression in sugarcane were confirmed by Southern blot, RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot following biolistic co-transfer of minimal expression cassettes of xyl10B and the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase II. Xylanase activity was detected in 17 transgenic lines with a fluorogenic xylanase activity assay. Up to 1.2% of the total soluble protein fraction of vegetative progenies with integration of chloroplast targeted expression represented the recombinant Xyl10B protein. Xyl10B activity was stable in vegetative progenies. Tissues retained 75% of the xylanase activity after drying of leaves at 35 °C and a 2 month storage period. Transgenic sugarcane plants producing Xyl10B did not differ from non-transgenic sugarcane in growth and development under greenhouse conditions. Sugarcane xylan and bagasse were used as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis with the in planta produced Xyl10B. TLC and HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products confirmed the superior catalytic activity

  18. Runoff generation and soil detachment in a small sugarcane watershed of Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, T. F.; Costa Silva, R. W.; Moraes, J. M.; Mazzi, E. A.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil is the world largest sugarcane producer, with a cropped area of approximately 10 million hectares. Soil erosion and its implications are some of the neglected environmental problems in sugarcane fields. In this study a plot of 6 hectares cropped with sugarcane, encompassing a 30 meters of riparian forest bordering a stream was chosen. Two pluviometers were installed in an open area in order to measure the amount and intensity of rain during the rainy season. Surface runoff generation and soil detachment were estimated by plots installed in cultivated and riparian areas. Bathymetry was carried out in the stream channel to estimate the soil mass settled on the stream bed. The sources of organic matter was investigated by carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopic compositions. In the earlier stages of the crop, the rain intensity strongly influenced runoff generation and soil detachment; that were minimized with the plant growth. In riparian areas, runoff and soil detachment occurred only during intense events. The total rainfall was approximately 1300 mm, in one slope of the sugarcane field, approximately 5% of this rainfall drained from the watershed as surface runoff; in the other slope this proportion increased to approximately 11%, and in the riparian forest decreased to less than 2%. The soil detachment was approximately 1,000 g.m-2 in one sugarcane slope, and increased to approximately 4,800 g m-2 in the other slope, decreasing in the riparian forest to only 50 g m-2. The difference in runoff and soil detachment observed between the two sugarcane slopes was due to the sugarcane growth stage and soil properties. Using the bathymetry conducted in the stream channel, we estimated that 3.6 Mg of sediment per hectare were settled on the stream bed during the rainy season (0.6 Mg.ha-1 per month). The averages δ13C and δ15N of soil from forest areas were -27.6 ± 0.2 ‰ and 4.3 ± 0.4 ‰, respectively. In the sugarcane areas, the averages δ13C

  19. Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rafaela Ribeiro; da Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito; Martins, Polyana Kelly; Martins, Maria Thereza Bazzo; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Chalfun, Antônio; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Qin, Feng; Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Carvalho, Josirley de Fátima Corrêa; de Sousa, Carlos Antônio Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

    2014-05-01

    Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (ΨL), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ΨL over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty.

  20. Identifying Sugarcane Plantation using LANDSAT-8 Images with Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyono, Sidik; Nadirah

    2016-11-01

    The use of remote sensing has been highly beneficial in the identification and also mapping and monitoring of plantations. The identification of plantations includes the physiology, disease, environmental conditions, and also the production and time of harvesting. It can be done by doing satellite imagery classification. However, to reach the final result of identification, it could be carried out by getting the solid ground truth information. This paper will discuss about detection of sugarcane plantation in Magetan district of East Java province area by using LANDSAT-8 image with specific approach of phenology profile using EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) value from satellite data, as an alternative vegetation index to address some of the limitation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Method of classification used for detecting sugarcane plantation is Support Vector machines (SVM), which is a promising machine learning methodology. It has the ability to generalize well even with limited training samples and complex data. A number of samples of phenology profile for training purpose using SVMs are obtained from the area that identified as sugarcane plantation during field campaign in 2015. The same manner is also done for the objects instead of sugarcane plantation with relatively the same number of samples. The result of the research shows that Remote Sensing is able to detect the sugarcane plantation cross the district with good accuracy.

  1. Raoultella sp. strain L03 fixes N2 in association with micropropagated sugarcane plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Ou-Yang, Xue-Qing; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui; Song, Xiu-Peng; Zhang, Ge-Min; Gao, Yi-Jing; Duan, Wei-Xing; An, Qianli

    2016-08-01

    N2 -fixing bacteria belonging to the genus Raoultella of the family Enterobacteriaceae are widely associated with plants. Raoultella sp. strain L03 was isolated from surface-sterilized sugarcane roots. In this study, we inoculated the strain L03 to microbe-free micropropagated plantlets of the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 grown in Guangxi, China and determined N2 -fixation and association between strain L03 and sugarcane plants. Inoculation of strain L03 increased plant biomass, total N, N concentration and chlorophyll, and relieved N-deficiency symptoms of plants under an N-limiting condition. An (15) N isotope dilution assay revealed (15) N isotope dilution in the inoculated sugarcane plants and incorporation of the fixed (14) N from air into chlorophyll. Moreover, a gfp-tagged and antibiotic-resistant L03 strain was reisolated from surface-sterilized sugarcane plants and was detected in plant tissues by fluorescent microscopy. This study for the first time demonstrates that a Raoultella bacterium is able to fix N2 in association with the plant host.

  2. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26489689

  3. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-22

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

  4. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, Maria Leticia de Souza; Gouveia, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  5. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    PubMed

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  6. Glycoproteins from sugarcane plants regulate cell polarity of Ustilago scitaminea teliospores.

    PubMed

    Millanes, Ana-María; Fontaniella, Blanca; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    Saccharum officinarum, cv. Mayarí, is a variety of sugarcane resistant to smut disease caused by Ustilago scitaminea. Sugarcane naturally produces glycoproteins that accumulate in the parenchymatous cells of stalks. These glycoproteins contain a heterofructan as polysaccharide moiety. The concentration of these glycoproteins clearly increases after inoculation of sugarcane plants with smut teliospores, although major symptoms of disease are not observed. These glycoproteins induce homotypic adhesion and inhibit teliospore germination. When glycoproteins from healthy, non-inoculated plants are fractionated, they inhibit actin capping, which occurs before teliospore germination. However, inoculation of smut teliospores induce glycoprotein fractions that promote teliospore polarity and are different from those obtained from healthy plants. These fractions exhibit arginase activity, which is strongly enhanced in inoculated plants. Arginase from healthy plants binds to cell wall teliospores and it is completely desorpted by sucrose, but only 50% of arginase activity from inoculated plants is desorpted by the disaccharide. The data presented herein are consistent with a model of excess arginase entry into teliospores. Arginase synthesized by sugarcane plants as a response to the experimental infection would increase the synthesis of putrescine, which impedes polarization at concentration values higher than 0.05 mM. However, smut teliospores seem to be able to change the pattern of glycoprotein production by sugarcane, thereby promoting the synthesis of different glycoproteins that activate polarization after binding to their cell wall ligand.

  7. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  8. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F.; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs. PMID:27936012

  9. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  10. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  11. Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) overexpression increases drought and salinity tolerance in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid).

    PubMed

    Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Narayan, J Ashwin; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Appunu, C; Chakravarthi, M; Ravichandran, V; Subramonian, N

    2015-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have a major role in stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Our studies have shown that the expression of HSP70 is enhanced under water stress in Erianthus arundinaceus. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of overexpression of EaHSP70 driven by Port Ubi 2.3 promoter in sugarcane. The transgenic events exhibit significantly higher gene expression, cell membrane thermostability, relative water content, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency. The overexpression of EaHSP70 transgenic sugarcane led to the upregulation of stress-related genes. The transformed sugarcane plants had better chlorophyll retention and higher germination ability than control plants under salinity stress. Our results suggest that EaHSP70 plays an important role in sugarcane acclimation to drought and salinity stresses and its potential for genetic engineering of sugarcane for drought and salt tolerance.

  12. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  13. Species-Specific Detection and Identification of Fusarium Species Complex, the Causal Agent of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng in China

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Wang, Jihua; Comstock, Jack C.; Wei, Jinjin; McCord, Per H.; Chen, Baoshan; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. Methods A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. Result Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum) that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng. PMID:25141192

  14. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops for improved enzymatic release of sugars.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Preeti, Varghese Elizabeth; Vani, Sankar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Binod, Parameswaran

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops as well as to optimize the effect of various operational parameters on pretreatment and hydrolysis. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment was developed which could effectively remove hemicelluloses and lignin and improve the reducing sugar yield from sugarcane tops. Operational parameters for pretreatment and hydrolysis were studied and optimized. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, 0.661 g of reducing sugar was produced per gram of pretreated biomass. The structural changes of native and pretreated biomass were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR). The results indicate that surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreated sugarcane tops can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  16. Subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and its enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigated the effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at different CO2 pressure, pretreatment time, and temperature with relative high-solid concentration (15% w/v) to the composition of prehydrolyzate and the enzymatic hydrolysis. The results indicated that the maximum xylose yields in prehydrolyzate liquid were 15.78 g (combined 3.16 g xylose and 12.62 g xylo-oligosaccharides per 100g raw material). Due to the effective removal of hemicellulose, the maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 37.99 g per 100g raw material, representing 91.87% of glucose in the sugarcane bagasse. The maximal total sugars yield (combined xylose and glucose both in prehydrolyzate and enzymatic hydrolyzate) were 52.95 g based on 100g raw material. These results indicated that subcritical CO2 pretreatment can effectively improve the enzymatic hydrolysis, so it could be successfully applied to sugarcane bagasse.

  17. [Morphological and molecular characterization of isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina associated with sugarcane in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Velázquez-Martínez, Guadalupe C; Tlapal-Bolaños, Bertha; Tovar-Pedraza, Juan M; Rosas-Saito, Greta H; Alvarado-Gómez, Omar G

    2015-01-01

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is an important disease of sugarcane in Mexico. This study was carried out to characterize isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane by the combination of morphological and molecular analyses. The morphological characterization of 10 isolates was performed using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. To confirm the morphological identification, rDNA from two representative isolates was extracted, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using specific primers MpKF1 and MpKR1. Based on their morphological characteristics, all isolates were identified as M. phaseolina. Moreover, the analysis of two ITS sequences showed 100% similarity with the M. phaseolina sequences deposited in the GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world aimed at characterizing isolates of M. phaseolina obtained from sugarcane.

  18. Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

    2012-06-30

    This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way.

  19. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  20. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    PubMed

    Hector, Stanton; Willard, Kyle; Bauer, Rolene; Mulako, Inonge; Slabbert, Etienne; Kossmann, Jens; George, Gavin M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans), while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  1. Serinol Phosphate as an Intermediate in Serinol Formation in Sugarcane 1

    PubMed Central

    Babczinski, Peter; Matern, Ulrich; Strobel, Gary A.

    1978-01-01

    A novel compound, serinol phosphate, was identified in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) clone 51NG97. It was produced by an enzyme-mediated transamination of dihydroxyacetone phosphate with either alanine, glutamate, aspartate, or glutamine serving equally well as an amino donor. Some detectable phosphatase activity was present in crude leaf enzyme preparation that hydrolyzed serinol phosphate. A proposal for a pathway of the biosynthesis of serinol in sugarcane was formulated. Serinol can serve as an “activator” of toxin production in attenuated cultures of the sugarcane pathogen Helminthosporium sacchari and it is present in susceptible clone 51NG97. Resistant clone H50-7209 does not possess serinol and likewise no dihydroxyacetone phosphate transaminase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme preparations of this clone. The concept of toxin activation in attenuated fungus cultures is briefly discussed relative to disease resistance and susceptibility. PMID:16660234

  2. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes on sugarcane in louisiana and efficacy of nematicides.

    PubMed

    Bond, J P; McGawley, E C; Hoy, J W

    2000-12-01

    A survey conducted from May 1995 through August 1998 revealed diverse nematode communities in Louisiana sugarcane fields. High populations of Mesocriconema, Paratrichodorus, Pratylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus were widespread in nine sugarcane production parishes. Comparisons of plant cane and ratoon sugarcane crops indicated that nematode community levels increase significantly in successive ratoon crops. Nematicide trials evaluated the efficacy of aldicarb, ethoprop, and phorate against indigenous nematode populations. Aldicarb consistently increased the number of millable stalks, cane tonnage, and yield of sucrose in soils with a high sand content. Yield increases were concomitant with reductions in the density of the nematode community shortly after planting and at harvest. In soils with a higher clay content, the chemicals were less effective in controlling nematode populations and, as a result, yield increases were minimal.

  3. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-04-01

    Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (<10 wt.%). Subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses.

  4. Green Care Farms

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Simone R.; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C. M.; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J. W. M.; Baan, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable. PMID:28138469

  5. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  6. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  7. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  8. Dairying. People on the Farm. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of two dairy farm families, the Schwartzbecks and the Bealls of Maryland. Beginning with early morning milking, the booklet traces the farm families through their daily work and community activities, explaining how a modern dairy farm is run. Although this booklet…

  9. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  10. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  11. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  12. Disentangling the influence of earthworms in sugarcane rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Lucas P. P.; Yoshiura, Caio A.; Borges, Clovis D.; Horn, Marcus A.; Brown, George G.; Drake, Harold L.; Tsai, Siu M.

    2016-01-01

    For the last 150 years many studies have shown the importance of earthworms for plant growth, but the exact mechanisms involved in the process are still poorly understood. Many important functions required for plant growth can be performed by soil microbes in the rhizosphere. To investigate earthworm influence on the rhizosphere microbial community, we performed a macrocosm experiment with and without Pontoscolex corethrurus (EW+ and EW−, respectively) and followed various soil and rhizosphere processes for 217 days with sugarcane. In EW+ treatments, N2O concentrations belowground (15 cm depth) and relative abundances of nitrous oxide genes (nosZ) were higher in bulk soil and rhizosphere, suggesting that soil microbes were able to consume earthworm-induced N2O. Shotgun sequencing (total DNA) revealed that around 70 microbial functions in bulk soil and rhizosphere differed between EW+ and EW− treatments. Overall, genes indicative of biosynthetic pathways and cell proliferation processes were enriched in EW+ treatments, suggesting a positive influence of worms. In EW+ rhizosphere, functions associated with plant-microbe symbiosis were enriched relative to EW− rhizosphere. Ecological networks inferred from the datasets revealed decreased niche diversification and increased keystone functions as an earthworm-derived effect. Plant biomass was improved in EW+ and worm population proliferated. PMID:27976685

  13. Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2010-02-01

    In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24.

  14. Unlocking the bacterial and fungal communities assemblages of sugarcane microbiome

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; Jorrín, Beatriz; Lozano, Núria; da Silva, Márcio José; González-Guerrero, Manuel; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Verza, Natália Cristina; Bagheri, Homayoun Chaichian; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes. PMID:27358031

  15. Carbon Partitioning during Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, A.; Botha, F. C.

    1997-12-01

    The temporal relationship between sucrose (Suc) accumulation and carbon partitioning was investigated in developing sugarcane internodes. Radiolabeling studies on tissue slices, which contained Suc concentrations ranging from 14 to 42% of the dry mass, indicated that maturation coincided with a redirection of carbon from water-insoluble matter, respiration, amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated intermediates into Suc. It is evident that a cycle of Suc synthesis and degradation exists in all of the internodes. The decreased allocation of carbon to respiration coincides with a decreased flux from the hexose pool. Both the glucose and fructose (Fru) concentrations significantly decrease during maturation. The phosphoenolpyruvate, Fru-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), and Fru-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2, 6-P2) concentrations decrease between the young and older internodal tissue, whereas the inorganic phosphate concentration increases. The calculated mass-action ratios indicate that the ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and Fru-1,6-bisphosphatase reactions are tightly regulated in all of the internodes, and no evidence was found that major changes in the regulation of any of these enzymes occur. The pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase reaction is in apparent equilibrium in all the internodes. Substrate availability might be one of the prime factors contributing to the observed decrease in respiration.

  16. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w).

  17. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  18. Wind Farms and Weather Modification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, D. B.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    Electrical generation by wind turbines is increasing rapidly, and has been projected to satisfy 15 percent of world electric demand by 2030. The extensive installation of wind farms would alter surface roughness and significantly impact the atmospheric circulation. This forcing could be changed deliberately by adjusting the attitude of the turbine blades with respect to the wind. Using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, we model the impact of time-dependent surface roughness changes due to manipulation of a continent-scale wind farm. We show that initial disturbances caused by a step change in roughness grow within four days such that the flow is altered at synoptic scales. The growth rate of the induced perturbations is largest in regions of high atmospheric instability. For a roughness change imposed over North America, the induced perturbations involve substantial changes in the track and development of cyclones over the North Atlantic. For example, in some cases, weather over the British Isles changes from cloudy to clear, depending on whether wind turbines in the American Midwest are "on" or "off" three days beforehand. We explore the dependence of the downstream effects on the size and roughness of the wind farm installation, showing that as the size of individual wind farms and turbines grows, the scale of atmospheric impacts increases in extent and magnitude. We also look at the dependence of the wind farm impacts on the initial state of the atmosphere, confirming that the impacts are largest when the wind farm perturbation projects onto growing error modes in the atmosphere. In particular, rapid growth occurs when the initial disturbance is carried into regions of high baroclinic instability such as the North Atlantic. By running ensemble experiments, we estimate the robustness of the wind farm impacts with respect to realistic uncertainty in the initial conditions. Our results suggest the possibility of a method for weather modification that in some

  19. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose hydrolysate produced after hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse in UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fernanda Resende; Passos, Fabiana; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; de Aquino, Sérgio Francisco

    2017-04-15

    In the context of a sugarcane biorefinery, sugarcane bagasse produced may be pretreated generating a solid and liquid fraction. The solid fraction may be used for 2G bioethanol production, while the liquid fraction may be used to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion. The aim of this study consisted in evaluating the anaerobic digestion performance of hemicellulose hydrolysate produced after hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. For this, hydrothermal pretreatment was assessed in a continuous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18.4h. Process performance was investigated by varying the dilution of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate with a solution containing xylose and the inlet organic loading rate (OLR). Experimental data showed that an increase in the proportion of hydrolysate in the feed resulted in better process performance for steps using 50% and 100% of real substrate. The best performance condition was achieved when increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 1.2 to 2.4gCOD/L·d, with an organic matter removal of 85.7%. During this period, the methane yield estimated by the COD removal would be 270LCH4/kg COD. Nonetheless, when further increasing the OLR to 4.8gCOD/L·d, the COD removal decreased to 74%, together with an increase in effluent concentrations of VFA (0.80gCOD/L) and furans (115.3mg/L), which might have inhibited the process performance. On the whole, the results showed that anaerobic digestion of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was feasible and may improve the net energy generation in a bioethanol plant, while enabling utilization of the surplus sugarcane bagasse in a sustainable manner.

  20. Mining the enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Kurama, Eiko E; Fenille, Roseli C; Rosa, Vicente E; Rosa, Daniel D; Ulian, Eugenio C

    2002-07-01

    Summary Adopting the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of a sugarcane database derived from libraries induced and not induced by pathogens, we identified EST clusters homologous to genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The predicted amino acids of these enzymes are superoxide dismutases (SODs), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalases. Three MnSOD mitochondrial precursors and 10 CuZnSOD were identified in sugarcane: the MnSOD mitochondrial precursor is 96% similar to the maize MnSOD mitochondrial precursor and, of the 10 CuZnSOD identified, seven were 98% identical to maize cytosolic CuZnSOD4 and one was 67% identical to putative peroxisomal CuZnSOD from Arabidopsis. Three homologues to class Phi GST were 87-88% identical to GST III from maize. Five GPX homologues were identified: three were homologous to cytosolic GPX from barley, one was 88% identical to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) from rice, and the last was 71% identical to GPX from A. thaliana. Three enzymes similar to maize catalase were identified in sugarcane: two were similar to catalase isozyme 3 and catalase chain 3 from maize, which are mitochondrial, and one was similar to catalase isozyme 1 from maize, whose location is peroxisomal subcellular. All enzymes were induced in all sugarcane libraries (flower, seed, root, callus, leaves) and also in the pathogen-induced libraries, except for CuZnSOD whose cDNA was detected in none of the libraries induced by pathogens (Acetobacter diazotroficans and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans). The expression of the enzymes SOD, GST, GPX, and catalases involved in the detoxification was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cDNA from leaves of sugarcane under biotic stress conditions, inoculated with Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of sugarcane rust disease.

  1. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  2. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  3. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  4. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  5. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  6. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  7. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Flávia R; Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Vicentini, Renato; Duarte, Rodrigo DC; de Rosa, Vicente E; Vinagre, Fabiano; Barsalobres, Carla; Medeiros, Ane H; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Ulian, Eugênio C; Zingaretti, Sônia M; Galbiatti, João A; Almeida, Raul S; Figueira, Antonio VO; Hemerly, Adriana S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Gláucia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified. Additionally, the protein kinases

  8. Sugarcane Initial Growth with Vinasse Application in Latosol under Gradual Aluminum Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Viglio, Larissa; Leal Varanda, Leticia; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Casagrande, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    One of the strategies for overcoming the high acidity of soils and the consequent toxicity of aluminum (Al) is based on the use of varieties adapted to these conditions. In Brazil, the application of vinasse is routine practice in the cultivation of sugarcane due to its fertilizing effect, mainly because of high potassium content. However, the vinasse may also attenuate the toxic effects of Al in the soil by forming complexes with low molecular weight organic acids providing greater depth of the root of sugarcane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the initial growth of three cultivars of sugarcane (RB855453, RB966928 and RB867515), as well as its influence on root depth in a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox) with gradient of saturation by Al. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in totally randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Seedlings of sugarcane were transplanted to PVC columns 0.8 m high, built by stacking four rings (0.2 m high), filled with soil samples, which offered an increasing gradient of saturation by Al (m%) at depth (0-0.2 m (m% = 0,7); 0.2-0.4 m (m% = 7,9); 0.4-0.6 m (m %= 40.8); 0.6-0.8 m (m%= 62.6)). The collection of the experiment was conducted 120 days after planting, with the determination of the stalk diameter (DC), plant height (ALT), leaf nutrient content, dry matter of the aerial part (MSPA) and dry matter of the root system (MSSR). Cultivars of sugarcane and the application of vinasse had effect on DC and the MSSR. Cultivar RB867515 showed higher DC than in other cultivars, with 20.8 mm. The increase of MSSR by sugarcane cultivars varied due to depth. There were no effects of sugarcane cultivars and vinasse application in MSPA. The vinasse application resulted in plants with higher ALT. With the exception of the foliar content of Fe, the N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content were below those considered appropriate for sugarcane. Unlike other cultivars, the application

  9. Isolation and characterization of acetylated glucuronoarabinoxylan from sugarcane bagasse and straw.

    PubMed

    Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Lindström, Mikael E; Vilaplana, Francisco; Sevastyanova, Olena

    2017-01-20

    Sugarcane bagasse and straw are generated in large volumes as by-products of agro-industrial production. They are an emerging valuable resource for the generation of hemicellulose-based materials and products, since they contain significant quantities of xylans (often twice as much as in hardwoods). Heteroxylans (yields of ca 20% based on xylose content in sugarcane bagasse and straw) were successfully isolated and purified using mild delignification followed by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extraction. Delignification with peracetic acid (PAA) was more efficient than traditional sodium chlorite (NaClO2) delignification for xylan extraction from both biomasses, resulting in higher extraction yields and purity. We have shown that the heteroxylans isolated from sugarcane bagasse and straw are acetylated glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX), with distinct molecular structures. Bagasse GAX had a slightly lower glycosyl substitution molar ratio of Araf to Xylp to (0.5:10) and (4-O-Me)GlpA to Xylp (0.1:10) than GAX from straw (0.8:10 and 0.1:10 respectively), but a higher degree of acetylation (0.33 and 0.10, respectively). A higher frequency of acetyl groups substitution at position α-(1→3) (Xyl-3Ac) than at position α-(1→2) (Xyl-2Ac) was confirmed for both bagasse and straw GAX, with a minor ratio of diacetylation (Xyl-2,3Ac). The size and molecular weight distributions for the acetylated GAX extracted from the sugarcane bagasse and straw were analyzed using multiple-detection size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-DRI-MALLS). Light scattering data provided absolute molar mass values for acetylated GAX with higher average values than did standard calibration. Moreover, the data highlighted differences in the molar mass distributions between the two isolation methods for both types of sugarcane GAX, which can be correlated with the different Araf and acetyl substitution patterns. We have developed an empirical model for the molecular structure of acetylated GAX extracted from

  10. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  11. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  12. Lignification in sugarcane: biochemical characterization, gene discovery, and expression analysis in two genotypes contrasting for lignin content.

    PubMed

    Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Santos, Adriana Brombini dos; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Anjos, Ivan Antonio dos; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes.

  13. The sugarcane defense protein SUGARWIN2 causes cell death in Colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Franco, Flávia P; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN) have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens.

  14. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed.

  15. Lignification in Sugarcane: Biochemical Characterization, Gene Discovery, and Expression Analysis in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Brombini dos Santos, Adriana; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Antonio dos Anjos, Ivan; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

  16. Towards more spatially explicit assessments of virtual water flows: linking local water use and scarcity to global demand of Brazilian farming commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flach, Rafaela; Ran, Ylva; Godar, Javier; Karlberg, Louise; Suavet, Clement

    2016-07-01

    Global consumption of farming commodities is an important driver of water demand in regions of production. This is the case in Brazil, which has emerged as one of the main producers of globally traded farming commodities. Traditional methods to assess environmental implications of this demand rely on international trade material flows at country resolution; we argue for the need of finer scales that capture spatial heterogeneity in environmental variables in the regions of production, and that account for differential sourcing within the borders of a country of production. To illustrate this, we obtain virtual water flows from Brazilian municipalities to countries of consumption, by allocating high-resolution water footprints of sugarcane and soy production to spatially-explicit material trade flows. We found that this approach results in differences of virtual water use estimations of over 20% when compared to approaches that disregard spatial heterogeneity in sourcing patterns, for three of the main consumers of the analysed crops. This discrepancy against methods using national resolution in trade flows is determined by national heterogeneity in water resources, and differential sourcing. To illustrate the practical implications of this approach, we relate virtual water flows to water stress, identifying where global demand for water coincides with high levels of water stress. For instance, the virtual water flows for Brazilian sugarcane sourced by China were disproportionally less associated to areas with higher water stress when compared to those of the EU, due to EU’s much higher reliance on sugarcane from water scarce areas in Northeast Brazil. Our findings indicate that the policy relevance of current assessments of virtual water flows that rely on trade data aggregated at the national level may be hampered, as they do not capture the spatial heterogeneity in water resources, water use and water management options.

  17. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  18. Labor Used on U.S. Farms, 1964-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Such factors as type of farm, farm production region, and farm size affect the percentage of farms hiring workers, the number of hours worked by hired workers, the length of the farm workweek, and the hours of labor used per $100 of sales. Labor costs and shortages most directly affected farms that sold $20,000 or more of farm products in 1964 and…

  19. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  20. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  1. Ecotoxicological characterization of sugarcane vinasses when applied to tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2015-09-01

    The impact of sugarcane vinasse on soil invertebrates was assessed through ecotoxicological assays. Increasing concentrations of two vinasses from different distillery plants (VA and VB), and a vinasse from a laboratory production (VC), were amended on two natural tropical Oxisols (LV and LVA) and a tropical artificial soil (TAS) to characterize the effects of the vinasses on earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and collembolans (Folsomia candida). The highest concentrations of VA and VB were avoided by earthworms in all soils and by collembolans especially in the natural soils. The presence of VC in all of the tested soils did not cause avoidance behavior in these species. The reproduction of earthworms, enchytraeids and collembolans was decreased in the highest concentrations of VA and VB in the natural soils. In TAS, VB reduced the reproduction of all test species, whereas VA was toxic exclusively to E. andrei and E. crypticus. The vinasse VC only reduced the number of earthworms in TAS and enchytraeids in LVA. The reproduction of mites was reduced by VB in TAS. Vinasses from distillery plants were more toxic than the vinasse produced in laboratory. The vinasse toxicities were influenced by soil type, although this result was most likely because of the way the organisms are exposed to the contaminants in the soils. Toxicity was attributed to the vinasses' high salt content and especially the high potassium concentrations. Data obtained in this study highlights the potential risk of vinasse disposal on tropical soils to soil biota. The toxic values estimated are even more relevant when considering the usual continuous use of vinasses in crop productions.

  2. Sugarcane and pinewood biochar effects on activity and aerobic soil dissipation of metribuzin and pendimethalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars were produced by pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (350°C and 700°C) and pine wood (400°C) and are abbreviated BC350, BC700, and WC400, respectively. Metribuzin adsorption by batch equilibrium showed that BC700 had the greatest adsorption capacity followed by BC350 and WC400. The bagasse bioch...

  3. Assessment of sugarcane yield potential across large numbers of genotypes using canopy reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy reflectance indices have been used to monitor plant growth and estimate yields in many field crops. Little is known if canopy reflectance of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) can be used to estimate growth and yield potential across large numbers of genotypes (clones) in the earl...

  4. Vinasse and Its Influence on Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in Sugarcane Crops.

    PubMed

    Saad, L P; Souza-Campana, D R; Bueno, O C; Morini, M S C

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop within the Brazilian socioeconomic landscape. There is a constant need for approaches to increase sustainability at all steps of the production chain. Irrigating sugarcane crops with vinasse is one of these approaches, because vinasse is a residue of sugarcane processing that can be used to fertilize these same crops. However, due to its chemical properties, vinasse may be harmful to soil fauna. Analyzing the structure and functional organization of ant communities is a fast and practical way to monitor sites affected by the addition of chemicals. This study compared the structure of soil ant communities in vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops to those in secondary forests adjacent to the crops. In total, 32 genera and 107 species of ants were observed; of these, 30 species foraged in crop fields and 102 foraged in forests. Twenty-five percent of the species were present in both crops and forests. Ant communities in crop soil had poorer taxonomic composition and lower richness in each functional group compared to communities in forest remnants. However, regardless of vegetation type, epigeic ants were more diverse, and Dorymyrmex brunneus (crop) and Pachycondyla striata (forest) were very frequent. Vinasse did not increase the diversity of epigeic and hypogeic ants, but it may affect the community composition.

  5. Screening of sorghum lines for resistance against sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) has emerged as the most significant threat to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production in the United States. Since 2013, discovery of aphid resistant germplasm has been a priority all stakeholders involved. We screened twenty three differen...

  6. A Relative Resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake E; VanWeelden, Matthew T; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E; Way, Michael O; White, William H; Wilson, Lloyd T; Showler, Allan T

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana and Texas. Resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in 51 commercial and experimental cultivars of sugarcane, energycane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and hybrids of Sorghum spp.] in four replicated small plot field experiments from 2009 to 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed to compare levels of susceptibility among cultivars based on the percentage of bored internodes and survival to adulthood. This index was able to separate cultivars into five resistance categories and provides a new method for comparing levels of resistance among cultivars. E. loftini pest pressure in 2009 was among the highest recorded with injury ranging from 55 to 88% bored internodes. Commercial sugarcane cultivar HoCP 85-845 was identified as resistant in three of four experiments, whereas HoCP 04-838 was identified as susceptible in all experiments. Of the five sugarcane cultivars in commercial production in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, only TCP 87-3388 was categorized as resistant. Of the cultivars with potential for bioenergy production, all of the energycane cultivars demonstrated higher levels of resistance than high-biomass and sweet sorghum cultivars. Continued evaluation of cultivar resistance to E. loftini is important to development of effective integrated pest management strategies for this pest.

  7. Phenolic profile, antioxidant potential and DNA damage protecting activity of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Rizwan; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Ahmad, Syed Dilnawaz; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2014-03-15

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and phenolic composition of sugarcane. The leaves and juices of thirteen varieties of sugarcane were studied for their antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA damage. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay was used to determine the radical scavenging activities in leaves and juices. Different varieties of sugarcane showed good antioxidant properties, IC50 values ranged from 20.82 to 27.47 μg/ml for leaves and from 63.95 to higher than 200 μg/ml for juice. The leaves and juice possess strong ability to protect against DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radical generated in Fenton reaction. The major phenolic acids, some flavonoid aglycone and glycosides were identified in leaves by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid (14.63 ± 0.03 mg/g), cumaric acid (11.65 ± 0.03 mg/g), quercetrin (10.96 ± 0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (9.16 ± 0.01 mg/g) and ellagic acid (9.03 ± 0.02 mg/g) were prédominant in infusion of sugarcane.

  8. Historical use of cultivars as parents in Florida and Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum L. spp. hybrids) growers depend on breeding programs for new, high-yielding cultivars that have resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, so breeders continually seek out widely adapted, high yielding germplasm to be used as parents for their programs. Cultivars are sometimes u...

  9. Cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Zhaonian; Deng, Zuhu; Chen, Rukai; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  10. Abstract:Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multienvironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of the location with a sand soil in the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarca...

  11. Biochemical composition of symplastic sap from sugarcane genetically modified to overproduce proline.

    PubMed

    Balestro, Graciele Carraro; Higashi, Bruna; Lopes, Sheila Mara Sanches; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia

    2017-04-01

    Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years because of its economic impact on sustainable energy production. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in the concentrations of total sugars, amino acids, free proline, and total proteins by colorimetric analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform a metabolic profiling of a water-soluble fraction of symplastic sap in response to the constitutive expression of a mutant Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene from Vigna aconitifolia. However, there was not a significant increase in the free proline content in the sap of transgenic plants compared to the non-transformed control plants. The most noticeable difference between the two genotypes was an almost two-fold increase in the accumulation of sucrose in the stem internodes of P5CS transgenic sugarcane plants. The results presented in this work showed that transgenic sugarcane plants with increased levels of free proline accumulates high soluble sugar content and, therefore, may represent a novel genotype for improving sugarcane cultivars.

  12. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, at Masagua, Escuintla Department, Guatemala , uredial lesions were observed on a sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar (CP 72-2086) considered resistant to brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. that appeared different from those of bro...

  13. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  14. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  15. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1).

  16. Molecular variability and genetic relationship among Brazilian strains of the sugarcane smut fungus.

    PubMed

    Benevenuto, Juliana; Longatto, Daniel P; Reis, Gislaine V; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Palhares, Alessandra C; Carvalho, Giselle; Saito, Suzane; Quecine, Maria C; Sanguino, Alvaro; Vieira, Maria Lucia C; Camargo, Luis Eduardo A; Creste, Silvana; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B

    2016-12-01

    Sporisorium scitamineum is the fungus that causes sugarcane smut disease. Despite of the importance of sugarcane for Brazilian agribusiness and the persistence of the pathogen in most cropping areas, genetic variation studies are still missing for Brazilian isolates. In this study, sets of isolates were analyzed using two molecular markers (AFLP and telRFLP) and ITS sequencing. Twenty-two whips were collected from symptomatic plants in cultivated sugarcane fields of Brazil. A total of 41 haploid strains of compatible mating types were selected from individual teliospores and used for molecular genetic analyses. telRFLP and ITS analyses were expanded to six Argentine isolates, where the sugarcane smut was first recorded in America. Genetic relationship among strains suggests the human-mediated dispersal of S. scitamineum within the Brazilian territory and between the two neighboring countries. Two genetically distinct groups were defined by the combined analysis of AFLP and telRFLP. The opposite mating-type strains derived from single teliospores were clustered together into these main groups, but had not always identical haplotypes. telRFLP markers analyzed over two generations of selfing and controlled outcrossing confirmed the potential for emergence of new variants and occurrence of recombination, which are relevant events for evolution of virulence and environmental adaptation.

  17. Registration of 'UFCP 87-0053' sugarcane for use as a biofuel feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 87-0053 (Reg. No.; PI xxxx) was released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP), Florida, and the University of Florida (UF) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP UFCP 87-0053 is a high fiber sugarcane (S...

  18. Breeding Resistant Sugarcane for Managing the Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis: Progress and Prospects for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an important insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Growing resistant varieties is a component of the Integrated Pest Management Program as practiced in Louisiana for managing this insect; however, the release of stem borer resistant varieties is intermi...

  19. Relationship of acid invertase activities to sugar content in sugarcane internodes during ripening and after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that soluble acid invertase (SAI) and insoluble (cell wall) acid invertase (CWI) influence sucrose accumulation in sugarcane during ripening, and also postharvest deterioration. The activities of SAI and CWI were determined in selected immature and mature internodes during r...

  20. Vinasse and Its Influence on Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in Sugarcane Crops

    PubMed Central

    Saad, L. P.; Souza-Campana, D. R.; Bueno, O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop within the Brazilian socioeconomic landscape. There is a constant need for approaches to increase sustainability at all steps of the production chain. Irrigating sugarcane crops with vinasse is one of these approaches, because vinasse is a residue of sugarcane processing that can be used to fertilize these same crops. However, due to its chemical properties, vinasse may be harmful to soil fauna. Analyzing the structure and functional organization of ant communities is a fast and practical way to monitor sites affected by the addition of chemicals. This study compared the structure of soil ant communities in vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops to those in secondary forests adjacent to the crops. In total, 32 genera and 107 species of ants were observed; of these, 30 species foraged in crop fields and 102 foraged in forests. Twenty-five percent of the species were present in both crops and forests. Ant communities in crop soil had poorer taxonomic composition and lower richness in each functional group compared to communities in forest remnants. However, regardless of vegetation type, epigeic ants were more diverse, and Dorymyrmex brunneus (crop) and Pachycondyla striata (forest) were very frequent. Vinasse did not increase the diversity of epigeic and hypogeic ants, but it may affect the community composition. PMID:28130455