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Sample records for nicaraguan sugarcane farm

  1. Changes in kidney function among Nicaraguan sugarcane workers

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rebecca L; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan José; Weiner, Daniel E; Kaufman, James S; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Riefkohl, Alejandro; Scammell, Madeleine K; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Sánchez, José Marcel; Parikh, Chirag R; McClean, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology in Central American workers. Objectives: To investigate changes and job-specific differences in kidney function over a 6-month sugarcane harvest season, explore the potential role of hydration, and measure proteinuria. Methods: We recruited 284 Nicaraguan sugarcane workers performing seven distinct tasks. We measured urine albumin and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: eGFR varied by job and decreased during the harvest in seed cutters (−8.6 ml/min/1.73 m2), irrigators (−7.4 ml/min/1.73 m2), and cane cutters (−5.0 ml/min/1.73 m2), as compared to factory workers. The number of years employed at the company was negatively associated with eGFR. Fewer than 5% of workers had albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g. Conclusions: The decline in kidney function during the harvest and the differences by job category and employment duration provide evidence that one or more risk factors of CKD are occupational. PMID:25631575

  2. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  3. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  4. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

  5. SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first successful report of transgenic sugarcane less than 20 years ago, this technology has advanced rapidly and been adopted by sugar industries and research organizations worldwide. Research into a range of input traits such as pest and disease resistance, sugar quality, and shoot archit...

  6. Diversifying crops: the Nicaraguan experiment.

    PubMed

    Meyrat, A

    1992-01-01

    Over 1/2 of Nicaragua's population lives in the Pacific Plains where cotton has been grown intensively for 40 years. This single-crop economy has led to massive deforestation, wind and water erosion has affected the soil, and extensive use of pesticides has deposited excessive amounts of DDT in the breast milk of nursing mothers. After the downfall of the Somoza dictatorship the subsequent agrarian reform has been hampered by lack of information and training on sustainable methods of farming. The Pikin Guerrero project is a sustainable development experiment involving 2200 peasant families jointly run by the Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and the Environment (IRENA) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The farmers grow corn and beans while exhausting the area's natural resources through forest clearing with the result of spreading erosion of fragile soils. 400 farmers have reshaped their production systems with the help of experts. Annual crops have become more diverse: yucca, 10 varieties of bean, 3 of pineapple, and 4 of corn, plus coffee, mango, bananas, and avocado. Soil conservation practices have been introduced, and farmers have built terraces. The initial pilot project comprised 5000 hectares, it is being expanded to cover another 10,000 hectares. The introduction of family planning to the local people is the next undertaking. PMID:12317702

  7. The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes the scope and content of the Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade of 1980, its organization, workings, and outcomes. Special attention is given to those aspects of the crusade that relate to the goals of integrating previously excluded groups and transforming the political culture of the country. (Author)

  8. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  13. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development. PMID:9843123

  14. Nicaraguan Sign Language and Theory of Mind: The Issue of Critical Periods and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gary; Kegl, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in the literature report that deaf individuals who experience late access to language perform poorly on false belief tests of Theory of Mind (ToM) compared with age-matched deaf and hearing controls exposed to language early. Methods: A group of 22 deaf Nicaraguans (aged 7 to 39 years) who learned Nicaraguan Sign…

  15. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  16. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  17. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Jennifer H; Massey, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are 'political' or 'economic' migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family's migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here - which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends - enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  18. Exploiting sugarcane for energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energycane can be described as sugarcane varieties with fiber content that is higher than the level seen in sugarcane varieties used for commercial sugar production. This fiber content is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of sugarcane is cel...

  19. Sugarcane ripener update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical sugarcane ripeners glyphosate and trinexapac-ethyl play an important role in the Louisiana sugarcane industry. Their use allows for earlier starts to the sugarcane harvest season, increase recoverable sucrose (TRS) at the mill, and increases harvest efficiency. Response to ripeners oft...

  20. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  1. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  2. The emergence of temporal language in Nicaraguan Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Kocab, Annemarie; Senghas, Ann; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers. Experiment 1 showed that while all three cohorts of signers could communicate about linearly ordered discrete events, only the second and third generations of signers successfully communicated information about events with more complex temporal structure. Experiment 2 showed that signers could discriminate between the types of temporal events in a nonverbal task. Finally, Experiment 3 investigated the ordinal use of numbers (e.g., first, second) in NSL signers, indicating that one strategy younger signers might have for accurately describing events in time might be to use ordinal numbers to mark each event. While the capacity for representing temporal concepts appears to be present in the human mind from the onset of language creation, the linguistic devices to convey temporality do not appear immediately. Evidently, temporal language emerges over generations of language transmission, as a product of individual minds interacting within a community of users. PMID:27591549

  3. Concepts of anemia among low income Nicaraguan women.

    PubMed

    Ailinger, Rita L; Moore, Jean B; Pawloski, Lisa; Cortés, Lidya Ruth Zamora

    2009-01-01

    Anemia is a common health problem among women throughout the world, however, there has been minimal research on women's concepts of anemia. The purpose of this study was to examine concepts of anemia in low income Nicaraguan women. A qualitative design was used. Audio-taped open-ended interviews in Spanish with 14 women were used to obtain data. Tapes were transcribed and content analyzed. The findings indicate that few of the women had biomedically accurate concepts of anemia, such as that it was due to lack of iron from poor eating. Others held folk medical beliefs including home remedies, for example drinking the milk of a mare or beet juice and eating certain foods such as bean soup. Most of the women did not know any symptoms of anemia and a few reported that it can develop into leukemia. These concepts of anemia are instructive for nurses working with patients from Nicaragua and will be useful in developing nursing interventions to alleviate this public health problem. PMID:19551265

  4. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical ripening of sugarcane is an important component to profitable sugar production in the U.S. as well as other sugarcane industries throughout the world. Harvesting of sugarcane often begins before the sugarcane reaches a desirable level of maturity. This is especially true in the Louisiana ...

  5. Sugarcane Rusts in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust symptoms were first observed in Florida in June 2007 on cultivar CP 80-1743. The causal agent, Puccinia kuehnii, was subsequently verified morphologically and molecularly constituting the first confirmed report of sugarcane orange rust in the Western Hemisphere. Orange rust was...

  6. Sugarcane and Energycane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

  7. Sugarcane insect update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect are an important group of pests affecting sugarcane production. Agricultural consultants play an important role is assisting sugarcane farmers to choose the most appropriated means of managing damaging infestations of insects in their crop. In this presentation, information will be presented ...

  8. Char from sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unused sugarcane bagasse represents an underutilized resource in sugarcane growing regions of the world. This is a renewable resource that can be used in a thermochemical process to create chars, which could be incorporated back into agricultural activities. The practice is likely to improve soil ...

  9. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in the U.S. is chiefly colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava, which vector economically important viruses of the crop. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to categorize commercial sugarcane cultivars for the...

  10. Categorizing Sugarcane Cultivar Resistance to the Sugarcane Aphid and Yellow Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...

  11. English for What? Rural Nicaraguan Teachers' Local Responses to National Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Fabio Oliveira; Henze, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes how rural Nicaraguan teachers and NGO leaders are working with a US university-based team to develop a locally responsive, critical, and inquiry-based approach to the Ministry of Education requirement for English in secondary school. This requirement has placed a new and challenging expectation upon rural…

  12. Cross-Network Microseismic Relocations of Some Aftershocks From the 1992 Nicaraguan Tsunami Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G. T.; Newman, A. V.; Ghosh, A.; Thomas, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    Using earthquake phase information from discrete earthquake catalogs in Central America (Nicaragua and Costa Rica) we are determining precise earthquake locations for improving our understanding of the Middle America Trench (MAT) seismogenic interface near the southern terminus of the 1992 Nicaraguan "tsunami earthquake" (TsE). The Nicaraguan event, like other such TsEs, is unique in its slow rupture and increased tsunami potential, possibly due to reduced elastic strength in the shallow subduction environment [e.g., Masayuki and Kanamori, 1995]. The CRSEIZE network, which consisted of 20 on-land and 14 offshore broadband and short-period stations, ran from December 1999 through July 2001, and recorded ~10,000 events. The Nicaraguan network, consisting of numerous short-period on-land stations and running for over 20 years, is well equipped to record continental seismicity, however it is unable to adequately resolve hypocenters offshore and along the MAT interface. Overall, the Nicaraguan catalog has about 30,000 earthquakes, of which over 3,000 events overlap with the CRSEIZE deployment and can be used for direct cross-network relocations using a 3D V_P, V_P/V_S velocity model for the region [DeShon et al., 2005]. With these revised locations, we can perform relative relocations of nearby earlier Nicaraguan activity while holding the newer events fixed. The combination of phase data for precision event location from both networks are useful for determining the geometry of the shallow subduction environment, identifying possible unique characteristics of the TsE region, and inferring spatial variability in interface locking capable of rupturing in future large events.

  13. Early origins of the Caribbean plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger Caribbean plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous Caribbean ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in southern Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of Caribbean arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the Caribbean plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding

  14. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

  15. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  16. Determining seed transmission of sugarcane mosaic virus and sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importation of sugarcane germplasm is essential to diversify sugarcane germplasm used in United States breeding programs. Foreign germplasm is received primarily as vegetative cuttings. Current permit requirements for importing sugarcane seed into the United States are impractical and limit the ...

  17. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar.

    PubMed

    Senghas, A; Coppola, M

    2001-07-01

    It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language. PMID:11476100

  18. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  19. Sugarcane Rust Inoculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane rusts, brown (caused by Puccinia melanocephala) and orange (caused by P. kuehnii), are agronomically important diseases in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of managing these diseases. Unfortunately, natural infection of brown rust is not always efficient in determining resist...

  20. Herbicide effects on sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of all the areas of the world where sugarcane is grown, Louisiana lies furthest from the Equator. As such, its growing season is the shortest as it is affected by frost in the late–winter (February/March) at the start of the growing season and the fear of freezing temperatures during the harvest se...

  1. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  2. Unique cover crops for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane production practices provide a tremendous opportunity for the use of cover crops following the final sugarcane harvest in the fall of one year and prior to replanting sugarcane during the summer of the next year. A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years...

  3. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  4. Breeding sugarcane for cold climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit’s variety development program provides the local sugarcane industry with early maturing varieties containing the “Ho” designations that are adapted to the temperate climate of the region. In recent studies, we have used a growth chamber to expose diverse wild va...

  5. Sugarcane smut and its control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

  6. Registration of "CPSG-3481 Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPSG-3481’ (Reg. No. , PI 676023) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was a new cultivar developed through cooperative research conducted by the Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute in Pakistan and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station in USA, and released to growers for loam soils...

  7. Sugarcane Diseases: Futuristic Management Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane pathology and disease control practices are changing due to social, economic and technological events. Sugarcane is becoming more important economically because of the increasing price and demand for sugar and its use for bio-energy. These pressures make the control of diseases more import...

  8. "Pensando mucho" ("thinking too much"): embodied distress among grandmothers in Nicaraguan transnational families.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Kristin Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, I describe an embodied form of emotional distress expressed by Nicaraguan grandmothers caring for children of migrant mothers, "pensando mucho" ("thinking too much"). I draw on ethnographic fieldwork and semi-structured exploratory interviews about pensando mucho conducted with grandmother heads-of-household to show the cultural significance of this complaint within the context of women's social roles as caregivers in transnational families. Adopting an interpretive and meaning-centered approach, I analyze the cultural significance of pensando mucho as expressed through women's narratives about the impacts of mother outmigration on their personal and family lives. I show how women use pensando mucho to express the moral ambivalence of economic remittances and the uncertainty surrounding migration, particularly given cultural values for "unity" and "solidarity" in Nicaraguan family life. I also discuss the relationship between pensando mucho and dolor de cerebro ("brainache") as a way of documenting the relationship between body/mind, emotional distress, and somatic suffering. The findings presented here suggest that further research on "thinking too much" is needed to assess whether this idiom is used by women of the grandmother generation in other cultural contexts to express embodied distress in relation to broader social transformations. PMID:24973009

  9. Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-in-law who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in…

  10. First report of orange rust caused by Puccinia kuehnii in sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2012, lesions typical of rust disease were observed on sugarcane cultivar Ho 05-961 (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) on a farm near Schriever, Louisiana. Incidence and severity of disease symptoms were low. Two types of pustules were observed on leaves of the infected plants: uredi...

  11. Sugarcane as a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.A.; Edye, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown, generally as a perennial crop, in tropical and subtropical areas; some 750 million tonnes are produced each year. Food, feed and energy are the major products of the sugarcane plant; sugarcane fiber, bagasse, fuels the cane processing plants and provides electricity to local grids through cogeneration. A range of chemicals and polymers is available from process streams and sugars. Microbial products are discussed in the comparison paper on sugarbeet. Chemical transformations reviewed herein include production of sucrose mono-, di- and poly-esters, polyurethanes, carboxylic acid derivatives, and thermally stable polymers. Processes and product will be reviewed.

  12. Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

  13. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  14. Current and future heat stress in Nicaraguan work places under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Perry E; Herrera, Juan Gabriel Ruiz; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord; Romero, Luis E Blanco

    2013-01-01

    While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nicaraguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75. By 2050, that percentage of "over-heated" days is projected to increase to over 15%. These findings support the idea that common working conditions in Nicaragua already represent a threat to the health and safety of the workers and that climate change driven trends could mean either a necessary curbing of economic productivity or an increased threat to worker health and safety. PMID:23411762

  15. A Combined MCS and Refraction Study of the Convergent Nicaraguan Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhorst, A.; Flueh, E. R.; McIntosh, K.; Ranero, C. R.; Walther, C. H.; Dole, J.

    2001-12-01

    The presented seismic profile is part of an extensive MCS and wide-angle survey. The seismic measurements were carried out using a 6 km long streamer, 14 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) and 12 landstations recording marine airgun shots. One important objective of this study is the imaging of the subduction zone from the trench to the coast and the determination of the margin P-wave velocity structure. The image of the upper seismogenic plate boundary zone beneath the shelf should improve the knowledge of the seismogenic character and the evolution of this convergent margin. The profile was acquired during a cruise with the R/V Maurice Ewing as part of the MARGINS program. The purpose of this seismic investigation was to improve the scarce knowledge about the structure of the Nicaraguan margin, which is located between the intensively studied margins of Guatemala to the north and Costa Rica to the south.

  16. Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

  17. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  18. Sugarcane Genotype Tolerance to Wireworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide at planting to limit wireworm (Melanotus communis Gyllenhall) damage to seed cane (vegetative plantings of stalks). The objective of this study was to measure the tolerance of eight commercial su...

  19. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  20. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  1. Halimeda bioherms along an open seaway: Miskito Channel, Nicaraguan Rise, SW Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, A. C.; Hallock, Pamela; Harris, M. W.; Mullins, H. T.; Belknap, D. F.; Jaap, W. C.

    1988-03-01

    A recent research cruise to examine small, detached carbonate platforms situated on the Nicaraguan Rise in the SW Caribbean Sea has revealed the presence of numerous Halimeda bioherms. Based upon interpretations from seismic reflection data some exceed 140 m in relief. This is the first documented occurrence of these green-algal buildups in the Caribbean/Bahama Bank region. The Halimeda bioherms form a nearly continuous band that borders the margins of the Miskito Channel—a shallow, open, 125 km long seaway. This 220 m deep channel bisects the Miskito Bank which is a major carbonate shelf. In seismic profile the bioherms appear acoustically “soft” and reveal a local relief of 20 30 m. Tops of these features lie in about 40 50 m of water. Samples from dredge hauls are coarse, poorly cemented packstones/grainstones which are dominated by largely unbroken, disarticulated Halimeda segments set in a poorly sorted sandy matrix. Exposed surfaces were stained brown. Very little living material was brought up in the dredges. The significance of these bioherms and their full extent in the Caribbean are not understood. Undoubtedly, further study will provide important answers concerning their role in the geologic development of Caribbean carbonate platforms.

  2. Gut Microbiome Composition in Young Nicaraguan Children During Diarrhea Episodes and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Allali, Imane; Monteagudo, Andrea; Vilchez, Samuel; Hudgens, Michael G; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Carroll, Ian M; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Espinoza, Felix; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how the gut microbiota is affected by diarrhea episodes may help explain alterations in intestinal function among children in low-income settings. This study examined the composition of the gut microbiome of Nicaraguan children both during diarrhea episodes and while free of diarrhea for at least 2 months. Relative abundances of bacterial taxa, phylogenetic diversity, and species richness were determined by 16S amplicon sequencing and compared between paired diarrhea and recovery samples. A total of 66 stools were provided by 25 children enrolled in a 1-year cohort study of diarrhea etiologies. Children in our cohort had a mean age of 21.9 months; 64% were breast-fed, and 10% had received an antibiotic during the diarrhea episode. Overall, phylogenetic diversity and species richness did not differ significantly between diarrhea and recovery stools. However, of children who had a bacterial enteropathogen detected in any diarrhea stool, none experienced an increase in phylogenetic diversity in recovery, whereas of those in whom no bacterial enteropathogens were detected in their diarrhea stool(s), 59% experienced an increase in phylogenetic diversity in recovery (P = 0.008). This preliminary study suggests that recovery of the gut microbiota after a diarrhea episode may take longer time than previously thought and may be pathogen specific. PMID:26350452

  3. Impact of a cleaner-burning cookstove intervention on blood pressure in Nicaraguan women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Bachand, Annette M.; Heiderscheidt, Judy M.; Yoder, Sarah A.; Luna, Bevin; Volckens, John; Koehler, Kirsten A.; Conway, Stuart; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Peel, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular-related effects of indoor biomass burning or the role of characteristics such as age and obesity status, in this relationship. We examined the impact of a cleaner-burning cookstove intervention on blood pressure among Nicaraguan women using an open fire at baseline; we also evaluated heterogeneity of the impact by subgroups of the population. We evaluated changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to post-intervention (range: 273–383 days) among 74 female cooks. We measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5; n=25), indoor carbon monoxide (CO; n=32), and personal CO (n=30) concentrations. Large mean reductions in pollutant concentrations were observed for all pollutants; for example, indoor PM2.5 was reduced 77% following the intervention. However, pollution distributions (baseline and post-intervention) were wide and overlapping. Although substantial reductions in blood pressure were not observed among the entire population, a 5.9 mmHg reduction (95% confidence interval [CI]: −11.3, −0.4) in systolic blood pressure was observed among women 40 or more years of age and a 4.6 mmHg reduction (95% CI: −10.0, 0.8) was observed among obese women. Results from this study provide an indication that certain subgroups may be more likely to experience improvements in blood pressure following a cookstove intervention. PMID:22913364

  4. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  5. Effect of Sugarcane Mosaic caused by Sorghum mosaic virus on sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic is caused by two viruses, Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCVM) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV). In Louisiana, SrMV is the predominant mosaic pathogen affecting sugarcane. In a field experiment established in 2012, plots were planted with seed cane with or without mosaic symptoms. The mosaic...

  6. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  7. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  8. Integrating traditional indigenous medicine and western biomedicine into health systems: a review of Nicaraguan health policies and miskitu health services.

    PubMed

    Carrie, Heather; Mackey, Tim K; Laird, Sloane N

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, indigenous peoples have advocated for the right to retain their cultural beliefs and traditional medicine practices. In 2007, the more than 370 million people representing 5000 distinct groups throughout the world received global recognition with the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). UNDRIP Article 24 affirms the rights of indigenous peoples to their traditional medicines and health practices, and to all social and health services. Although not a legally binding agreement, UNDRIP encourages nation states to comply and implement measures to support and uphold its provisions. Within the context of indigenous health and human rights, Nicaragua serves as a unique case study for examining implementation of UNDRIP Article 24 provisions due to the changes in the Nicaraguan Constitution that strive for the overarching goal of affirming an equal right to health for all Nicaraguans and supporting the integration of traditional medicine and biomedicine at a national and regional level. To explore this subject further, we conducted a review of the policy impact of UNDRIP on health services accessible to the Miskitu indigenous peoples of the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN). We found that although measures to create therapeutic cooperation are woven into Nicaraguan health plans at the national and regional level, in practice, the delivery of integrated health services has been implemented with varying results. Our review suggests that the method of policy implementation and efforts to foster intercultural collaborative approaches involving respectful community engagement are important factors when attempting to assess the effectiveness of UNDRIP implementation into national health policy and promoting traditional medicine access. In response, more study and close monitoring of legislation that acts to implement or align with UNDRIP Article 24 is necessary to ensure adequate promotion and access

  9. Impact of a novel, resource appropriate resuscitation curriculum on Nicaraguan resident physician’s management of cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Project Strengthening Emergency Medicine, Investing in Learners in Latin America (SEMILLA) created a novel, language and resource appropriate course for the resuscitation of cardiac arrest for Nicaraguan resident physicians. We hypothesized that participation in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation program would significantly improve the physician’s management of simulated code scenarios. Methods: Thirteen Nicaraguan resident physicians were evaluated while managing simulated cardiac arrest scenarios before, immediately, and at 6 months after participating in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation program. This project was completed in 2014 in Leon, Nicaragua. The Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest), a validated scoring system, was used to evaluate performance on a standardized simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Mixed effect logistic regression models were constructed to assess outcomes. Results: On the pre-course simulation exam, only 7.7% of subjects passed the test. Immediately post-course, the subjects achieved a 30.8% pass rate and at 6 months after the course, the pass rate was 46.2%. Compared with pre-test scores, the odds of passing the CASTest at 6 months after the course were 21.7 times higher (95% CI 4.2 to 112.8, P<0.001). Statistically significant improvement was also seen on the number of critical items completed (OR=3.75, 95% CI 2.71-5.19), total items completed (OR=4.55, 95% CI 3.4-6.11), and number of “excellent” scores on a Likert scale (OR=2.66, 95% CI 1.85-3.81). Conclusions: Nicaraguan resident physicians demonstrate improved ability to manage simulated cardiac arrest scenarios after participation in the Project SEMILLA resuscitation course and retain these skills. PMID:27378010

  10. Mode of childbirth in low-risk pregnancies: Nicaraguan physicians' viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Colomar, Mercedes; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Aleman, Alicia; Castellano, Graciela; Elorrio, Ezequiel Garcia; Althabe, Fernando; Engelbrecht, Susheela

    2014-12-01

    To explore attitudes of physicians attending births in the public and private sectors and at the managerial level toward cesarean birth in Nicaragua. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of four focus groups with 17 physicians and nine in-depth interviews with decision-makers. Although study participants listed many advantages of vaginal birth and disadvantages of cesarean birth, they perceived that the increase in the cesarean birth rate in Nicaragua has resulted in a reduction in perinatal morbidity and mortality. They ascribed high cesarean birth rates to a web of interrelated provider, patient, and health system factors. They identified five actions that would facilitate a reduction in the number of unnecessary cesarean operations: establishing standards and protocols; preparing women and their families for labor and childbirth; incorporating cesarean birth rate monitoring and audit systems into quality assurance activities at the facility level; strengthening the movement to humanize birth; and promoting community-based interventions to educate women and families about the benefits of vaginal birth. Study participants believe that by performing cesarean operations they are providing the best quality of care feasible within their context. They do not perceive problems with their current practice. The identified causes of unnecessary cesarean operations in Nicaragua are multifactorial, so it appears that a multi-layered strategy is needed to safely reduce cesarean birth rates. The recent Nicaraguan Ministry of Health guidance to promote parto humanizado ("humanization of childbirth") could serve as the basis for a collaborative effort among health care professionals, government, and consumer advocates to reduce the number of unnecessary cesarean births in Nicaragua. PMID:24740720

  11. Referential shift in Nicaraguan Sign Language: a transition from lexical to spatial devices

    PubMed Central

    Kocab, Annemarie; Pyers, Jennie; Senghas, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Even the simplest narratives combine multiple strands of information, integrating different characters and their actions by expressing multiple perspectives of events. We examined the emergence of referential shift devices, which indicate changes among these perspectives, in Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL). Sign languages, like spoken languages, mark referential shift grammatically with a shift in deictic perspective. In addition, sign languages can mark the shift with a point or a movement of the body to a specified spatial location in the three-dimensional space in front of the signer, capitalizing on the spatial affordances of the manual modality. We asked whether the use of space to mark referential shift emerges early in a new sign language by comparing the first two age cohorts of deaf signers of NSL. Eight first-cohort signers and 10 second-cohort signers watched video vignettes and described them in NSL. Narratives were coded for lexical (use of words) and spatial (use of signing space) devices. Although the cohorts did not differ significantly in the number of perspectives represented, second-cohort signers used referential shift devices to explicitly mark a shift in perspective in more of their narratives. Furthermore, while there was no significant difference between cohorts in the use of non-spatial, lexical devices, there was a difference in spatial devices, with second-cohort signers using them in significantly more of their narratives. This suggests that spatial devices have only recently increased as systematic markers of referential shift. Spatial referential shift devices may have emerged more slowly because they depend on the establishment of fundamental spatial conventions in the language. While the modality of sign languages can ultimately engender the syntactic use of three-dimensional space, we propose that a language must first develop systematic spatial distinctions before harnessing space for grammatical functions. PMID:25713541

  12. The role of bend faults on slab serpentinization at the Nicaraguan convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal state and the degree of hydration of the incoming oceanic plate influences many of the processes occurring in subduction zone settings. A range of geophysical evidence suggests extensional faults can be generated due to the bending of the down-going plate prior to subduction. Such faults can penetrate into the upper part of the oceanic lithospheric mantle, therefore providing downward pathways for fluids. If the P-T conditions in the upper oceanic mantle are right, olivine will react with water to form serpentinite. As serpentinite can contain up to 13 wt.% water it could be an important carrier of water beneath the volcanic arc and ultimately into deeper parts of the mantle. The influx of fluids due to bend faulting may account for deficits in observed heat flow in the trench outer rise. This has been identified as an important process in the Cocos plate being subducted beneath Nicaragua, which exhibits an average heat flow anomaly of -83 mW/m2. Here, we investigate the degree of hydration of the incoming mantle by bend faulting using a 1D model of water influx based on heat flow deficit. Assuming that all the water brought down into the upper mantle results in serpentinization, our modelling suggest 20 - 50 % of the upper 6 km of oceanic lithospheric mantle is serpentinised prior to subduction, in good agreement with evidence from seismology (~30%). The slab geotherm suggests that serpentinite present in the oceanic mantle starts dehydrating at subarc depths (~120 km). Our estimates suggest that the serpentinized oceanic mantle contributes a significant amount of water to Nicaraguan arc magmas. Therefore, the results indicate that the incoming mantle serpentinized by bend faulting is a key reservoir of subducted water.

  13. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  14. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  15. A report on the transmissibility of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus through seed in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, exotic germplasm of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is mainly received as vegetative cuttings because the extensive actions required to meet existing APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) permit conditions make the importation of sugarcane seed impractical. While taking...

  16. Sugarcane bagasse ash as a seedling growth media component

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 153,783 ha and 11.6 million mt of milable sugarcane, producing 1.3 million mt of raw sugar, and an estimated 2.7 million mt bagasse. Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel producing over 20,411 mt of sugarc...

  17. Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

  18. Evaluation of aphid resistance among sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane, interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). Five sugarcane cultivars, LCP 85-384, HoCP 91-555, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540, and L 97-128, rep...

  19. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  20. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  1. Herbicide options for suppressing bermudagrass in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is a problematic weed in Louisiana sugarcane. The most effective herbicide options are limited to the fallow period prior to planting. Frequently, efforts to eliminate bermudagrass from fields during the fallow season are unsuccessful. This subjects newly planted sugarcane to competitio...

  2. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  3. Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

  4. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  5. Registration of 'CP 98-1029' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  6. Exploring Broad Genetic Resources Available to Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used for sugar and energy. It has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is one of the most productive crops globally. Breeders of energycane and sugarcane have overlapping goals in creating cultivars that resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The World Collection of Sugarc...

  7. Registration of 'CP 94-1100' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  8. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  9. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  10. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  11. The epidemiology of moderate and severe injuries in a Nicaraguan community: a household-based survey.

    PubMed

    Tercero, F; Andersson, R; Peña, R; Rocha, J; Castro, N

    2006-02-01

    Although injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide, the magnitude and nature of this problem is difficult to establish in low-income settings due to the lack of valid and representative data. In Nicaragua, several parallel studies have been carried out attempting to assess levels and patterns of injury using various sources of information. The objective of this study was to describe the magnitude and profile of moderate and severe injuries in a well-defined community in Nicaragua. The study was conducted using a household-based survey design. Randomized cluster sampling provided information from 10,797 households (63,886 inhabitants). The outcomes included fatal and non-fatal injuries registered during a recall period of 6 weeks. Seven percent of all injuries were classified as moderate or severe. The estimated annual incidence rate of moderate/severe injuries was 27.6 per 1000 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 26.4-29.2], while the mortality and impairment rates were 108.9 (95% CI: 83.5-134.4) and 95.3 (95% CI: 71.4-119.2) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Home and traffic areas were the main environments associated with injury occurrence. The most affected groups were the elderly, children and males. No differences were found between urban and rural areas. Only 9% of all cases, including minor injuries, sought hospital treatment. The main causes of non-fatal injuries were falls, traffic and cuts, whereas fatalities were largely associated with intentional injuries. For every death due to injury, there was one permanent disability, 25 moderate/severe injuries and 354 minor injuries. This study provides a broad description of injury magnitudes and patterns in a defined Nicaraguan community, and demonstrates the aggregate injury pyramid of the same community. It also identifies the issue of severity and concludes with a recommendation to apply different criteria of severity. Our results support the call for a careful evaluation of injury data

  12. Integration is not enough: gender inequality and empowerment in Nicaraguan agricultural co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Mayoux, L

    1993-03-01

    Cooperatives have been seen as a means of increasing the productivity of the poor, increasing their income, and providing them with more political power. The aim of this article is to discuss the experiences of women in agricultural cooperatives in Matagalpa and Esteli Regions in Nicaragua under the Sandinistas at the end of 1988. Since the Revolution in 1979, women had been encouraged to participate in agricultural cooperatives, although gender issues were ignored in the wider cooperative policy. Discussion is directed to gender conflicts of interest, the effects of policy change on women's participation, the limits of integration, 4 case studies of integration, some problems, inadequate policy and the implications for feminist participatory strategy. The Nicaraguan experience suggests that the nature of empowerment of women is an important consideration; the extent of empowerment or whether all eligible women can be reached is debatable. Women and men have different needs and priorities in cooperatives because of the division of labor and power structures, both within the family and within society. Cooperative structures need to change in a way that deals with inequalities within and between families and with reproductive issues. Cooperatives were formed in the context of competing interests. There is dispute over whether current structures empower rural producers or are an imposition by the state in order to control production. The history of policy changes affecting the formation and extent of formation of different types of cooperatives are described. The Cooperative Law of 1981 formed the basis for women's right to equal involvement in cooperative organization and management. The Agrarian Reform Act of 1981 gave women equal access to land; land was not redistributed until 1983. The Labor Law of 1979 meant wages were paid directly to workers. Practices, however, changed little. The case studies show the extent of discrimination against women members. Women

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  14. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  15. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    PubMed

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  16. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  17. PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

  18. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  19. Sugarcane yield response to soybean double-cropping in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interruption of continuous sugarcane plantings with a soybean (Glycine max) crop during the spring/summer fallow period between sugarcane plantings represents an economical opportunity for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. The objective of the experiment was to determine if soybeans grown in the u...

  20. Constitutive expression of viral suppressors of PTGS in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our experience, transgenes are silenced by sugarcane at a high frequency. In many cases the silencing is via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). To understand more about PTGS in sugarcane we are studying the P0 protein of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) which acts to suppress PTGS. One...

  1. Clarification Properties of Trash and Stalk Tissues from Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the U.S. and world-wide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane harvesting on processing, and the use of sugarcane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugarcane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon crop of five commercial, Louisian...

  2. Estimation of sugarcane sucrose and biomass with remote sensing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing techniques were used to predict sucrose levels (TRS) and gross cane yield in field-grown sugarcane. To estimate sucrose levels, leaves were collected from plant-cane and first-ratoon sugarcane plants from the variety maturity studies conducted at the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research...

  3. Registration of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  4. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  5. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-process by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 2.7 mt of bagasse each year. In ...

  6. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

  7. Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

  8. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  9. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  10. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  11. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  12. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004 and succeeding crop years are as...

  13. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-processed by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse each...

  14. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  15. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  16. Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  17. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...

  18. Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

  19. Detecting sugarcane yellow leaf virus in asymptomatic sugarcane leaves with hyperspectral remote sensing and associated leaf pigment changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) does not produce visual symptoms in most susceptible sugarcane plants until late in the growing season. High-resolution, hyperspectral reflectance data from SCYLV-infected and non-infected leaves of two cultivars, LCP 85-384 and Ho...

  20. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  1. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  2. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  3. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  4. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  5. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  6. Emissions of PAHs derived from sugarcane burning and processing in Chiapas and Morelos México.

    PubMed

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Santiago-de la Rosa, Naxieli; Figueroa-Lara, Jesús; Flores-Rodríguez, Julio; Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel; Magaña-Reyes, Miguel

    2015-09-15

    Sugarcane burning is an agricultural practice implemented to ease farm worker duties; nevertheless, as a consequence, tons of particles are emitted to the atmosphere. Additionally, during harvesting the sugar-mills operate the whole day emitting hundreds of tons of pollutants. Therefore, health risks to neighboring population should be a major governmental concern, leading first to identification and quantification of toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to establish the magnitude of the problem, four sampling campaigns of PM10 and PM2.5 were carried out in this study, during harvesting and no-harvesting seasons in two municipalities of México, with different climatic and social conditions. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and organic compounds were determined daily, followed by extraction, identification and quantification of the 17 EPA-established PAHs from all samples. The results showed that during harvest, the PM10 mass increased lightly in Chiapas, but approximately twice in Morelos, whereas total PAH concentrations increased twice and six times, respectively. The most abundant PAHs, namely: indene [1,2,3cd] pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo [a,h] anthracene are composed of 5 or more aromatic rings. Of the total PAHs quantified, 44% to 52% corresponded to carcinogenic compounds, consequently, the overall carcinogenic potential increased twice or three times. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was applied to source apportionment at each site, suggesting three different sources during harvesting: the combustion process in the sugar mill, sugarcane burning and vehicular emissions. The combustion markers for sugar mill are, BAA, BBF, BKF, BAP, IND and BGP, whereas for sugarcane burning were ANT, PHE, FLT and PYR. The results obtained indicate that processing and burning sugarcane are the main sources of the PAH levels measured, proving that the health risks are boosted during harvesting

  7. Effects of Johnsongrass Density and Pre-Harvest Burning on Sugarcane Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johnsongrass interference with sugarcane results in substantial yield losses. However, light infestations are sometimes overlooked due to the cost and difficulty of controlling rhizomatous johnsongrass in sugarcane. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of johnsongrass density and sugarcane h...

  8. Sugarcane internode composition during crop development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol or other biofuel requires a better understanding of its composition. Two experiments were designed to better understand how cell wall composition changes over with development over time and with season in s...

  9. Wide row spacing in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in the Louisiana sugarcane industry for a wider 8 foot row spacing than the conventional 6 foot row spacing. The wide row provides room for two drills of cane about 30 inches apart on each row. This type of wide row spacing lowers acre-feet from 7260 to 5445, thus reducing ...

  10. Registration of 'UFCP 74-1010' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 74-1010 (Reg. no. ) was released by the University of Florida (UF) and the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP 74-1010, a cross between sugarcane varieties CP 66-56-4 a...

  11. Economically important sugarcane diseases in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major diseases with potential to cause economic losses in the Louisiana sugarcane industry include ratoon stunt and leaf scald caused by bacterial pathogens, mosaic and yellow leaf caused by virus pathogens, and brown and orange rusts and smut caused by fungal pathogens. The most efficient method o...

  12. Registration of 'UFCP 87-0053' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 87-0053 (Reg. No.; PI xxxx) was released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP), Florida, and the University of Florida (UF) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP UFCP 87-0053 is a high fiber sugarcane (S...

  13. Registration of 'UFCP 84-1047' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 84-1047 (Reg. No.; PI xxxx) was released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP), Florida, and the University of Florida (UF) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP 84-1047 is a high fiber sugarcane (Saccha...

  14. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  15. Efficient Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with many crops, chlorophyll fluorescence emission is a promising tool for measuring responses of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) to biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be easily measured using portable fluorometers. However, several factors should be considered in order to op...

  16. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  17. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millable stalks of a forty-ton sugarcane crop contain up to 75 pounds of N. Total above and below ground biomass to achieve that yield level, of course, requires appreciably more N. Knowing the crop requirements for N, however, is not the same as knowing how much fertilizer N to apply. Nitrogen fert...

  18. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen rate recommendations for sugarcane in Louisiana take into account crop age (plant cane or stubble) and soil texture (light or heavy). Recommended rates in the 1950s ranged from 40 pounds N/A for plant cane on light-textured soil to 100 pounds of N/A for stubble cane on heavy-textured soil a...

  19. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  20. Minimizing the effects of poor sugarcane stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane stand establishment is crucial to produce profitable yields throughout the crop cycle. In this article, we will review some reasons for stand problems, discuss sugarcane’s ability to compensate for these problems, and describe cultural practices that may increase yields where stands are no...

  1. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  2. Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

  3. Strongly contrasting modes of slope failure and erosion along the carbonate margins of three open seaways; northwest Nicaraguan rise

    SciTech Connect

    Hine, A.C.; Locker, S.D.; Hallock, P. ); Mullins, H.T. )

    1991-03-01

    Single channel seismic lines and dredge hauls from three subparallel, closely spaced, open seaways segmenting four carbonate platforms along the northwest Nicaraguan Rise in the Caribbean Sea reveal that each linear basin has a distinct style of slope erosion and basin infill. These roughly north-south trending open seaways are each about 125 km long, but vary in width (9-20 km) and depth (200-800 m). The westernmost seaway is undergoing complex infilling involving the displacement of large (100 m in diameter) shelf-margin/slope blocks and the establishment of Halimeda bioherms on the tops of these features. The basin and lower slopes of this seaway are also fed by relatively small debris flows and coarse turbidites. The center seaway contains enormous mass-flow megabreccias that may extend to the base of the opposing channel slope. Individual mass-flow megabreccias extend 16 km downslope, 28 km alongslope, and are up to 100 m thick. These deposits contain individual blocks measured to be 400 m across and stand greater than 100 m high. The easternmost seaway has the greatest relief (350-800 m), yet has the fewest mass-wasting deposits. Slope facies are relatively thin and lie unconformably upon horizontal reflections interpreted to be shallow-water carbonates. This stratigraphic relationship suggests an early, enormous removal/loss of carbonate-platform margin rocks and sediments. The authors do not yet fully understand why the slopes along these three seaways have behaved so differently. Undoubtedly, varying combinations of different structural history, sediment type, sediment production and transport, cementation, and current strength have played a role.

  4. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals) covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites). We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old) and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s) of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more) recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The genetic differentiation

  5. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  6. Farm Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  7. Selection in sugarcane based on inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo, A A C; Bhering, L L; Brasileiro, B P; Cruz, C D; Barbosa, M H P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gene action associated with yield-related traits, including mean stalk weight (MSW), tons of sugarcane per hectare (TCH), and fiber content (FIB) in sugarcane. Moreover, the viability of individual reciprocal recurrent selection (RRSI-S1) was verified, and the effect of inbreeding depression on progenies was checked. The results were also used to select promising genotypes in S1 progenies. Eight clones (RB925345, RB867515, RB739359, SP80-1816, RB928064, RB865230, RB855536, and RB943365) and their respective progenies, derived from selfing (S1), were evaluated. Several traits, including the number of stalks, MSW, soluble solids content determined in the field, stalk height, stalk diameter, TCH, soluble solids content determined in the laboratory, sucrose content, and FIB were evaluated in a randomized block design with hierarchical classification. The results showed that the traits with predominant gene action associated with the dominance variance of MSW and TCH were most affected by inbreeding depression. The FIB, with predominant additive control, was not affected by selfing of the clones, and the RB867515⊗, RB928064⊗, RB739359⊗ and RB925345⊗ progenies performed best. Therefore, the use of S1 progenies for RRSI-S1 in sugarcane breeding programs is promising, and it should be explored for the future breeding of clones with high FIB levels. PMID:27323098

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first reported in China in 2006. In order to determine the distribution existence of SCYLV in major sugarcane-growing provinces in China, leaf samples were collected from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum ...

  9. Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

  10. Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

  11. Registration of ‘CPCL 97-2730’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  12. Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

  13. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  14. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

  15. DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

  16. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms consistent with sugarcane orange rust were first observed in Florida in June 2007, these were subsequently confirmed morphologically and molecularly as being caused by Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust. This was the first documented occurrence of sugarcane orange rust in the...

  17. Seeking Traits that Identify Productive Sugarcane Varieties for Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objective of this study is to determine if there are easily measured traits of sugarcane that can help determine if a genotype will be productive on...

  18. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  19. Registration of ‘CP 01-1372’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purposes of this research were to ...

  20. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  1. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  2. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  3. Variable rate lime application in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...

  4. Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

  5. Low tech use of post-harvest/processed sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 2.7 million mt of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaini...

  6. Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

  7. Sugarcane postharvest residue management in a temperate climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue often reduces subsequent ratoon crop yields in Louisiana. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different removal methods and removal timings on sugarcane growth and yield and to determine if...

  8. Low tech use of post-harvest, processed sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons (11.6 million mt) of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons (1.36 million mt) of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons (2.7 million...

  9. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  10. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product. PMID:26009693

  11. Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

  12. Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

  13. Results from the 2013 sugarcane borer yield reduction study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) is the key pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. As the key pest, some insecticide is required every year to avoid economic damage by this insect. The current economic damage threshold is 10% bored internodes at harvest time (beginning the first of October). To...

  14. Sugarcane aphid resistance in sorghum and a host range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, has been present in the United States primarily on sugarcane in Florida, Hawaii, and Louisiana until 2013 where it was found on grain sorghum near Beaumont, Texas. Since 2013, the SCA has been rapidly spreading and overwintering. Depending on the plant...

  15. Sugarcane Post-Harvest Residue Management in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure to remove sugarcane post-harvest residue often reduces ratoon crop yields in temperate climates. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effects of various residue management practices on sugarcane yield. For the first experiment, timing of post-harvest residue was based on th...

  16. Soil health for increasing sugarcane yield and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of the soil to continually produce high yields of sugarcane. Soil organic matter, native fertility, adequate moisture and drainage, soil workability, and high levels of beneficial microorganisms all contribute to soil health. Sugarcane growers in Louisiana ...

  17. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  18. Morphological responses of sugarcane to long-term flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to intense summer rainfall or tropical storm events. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adapta...

  19. Doveweed Control with Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides in Fallowed Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doveweed infestation of fallowed sugarcane is becoming a management concern for Louisiana’s sugarcane growers. Doveweed is poorly controlled with glyphosate and this allows it to establish dense infestations across formed rows which can impede planting practices. The objectives of this research were...

  20. Preliminary observations of sugarcane trash degradation for repurposing as mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential use for sugarcane trash is to convert it to mulch. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a compost enhancer or nitrogen would accelerate degradation of leaf trash. Trash was obtained from a sugarcane grower, and was treated with water only, a commercial compost starter composed o...

  1. Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of high yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotypes for organic (muck) soils in Florida has been more successful than for sand soils. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of 31 sugarcane genotypes on sand soils with and without mill mud added at the rate of 1510 cubic...

  2. Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

  3. NDVI to detect sugarcane aphid injury to grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. The purpose of this report is to describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants i...

  4. Dealing with plant stress in Louisiana sugarcane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the early part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the area of crop stress physiology and in particular in the area of residue removal in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcan...

  5. Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

  6. Bagasse-assisted bioremediation of ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Parimala, V; Gupta, B P; Azad, I S; Meng, Xiaoguang; Abraham, M

    2006-09-01

    Development of new economically feasible ecofriendly products from agricultural wastes or byproducts for shrimp farm wastewater treatment is the objective of our continued research. Ammonia is a nitrogenous toxicant, which is commonly found in wastewater from shrimp farms. In the present study, we explored the possibility of the use of simply and inexpensively prepared bagasse products so that this abundant crop byproduct could be used to remove ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater. Bagasse, a natural highly fibrous lignocellulosic byproduct of sugarcane, was converted into five different products. Experimental results have shown that ammonia is efficiently removed from wastewater by four bagasse products with a dose of 1 to 6 g/L within 24 hours. The effect of bagasse products on other water quality parameters and growth kinetics of biofilm bacteria onto bagasse fiber have also been studied. Efficacies of products were compared by using statistical analysis. Products developed from bagasse are useful and economical. PMID:17120454

  7. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  8. A multi-disciplinary approach to sugarcane research at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mission of the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) is to provide research-based solutions that enhance the viability of domestic sugarcane industry. To accomplish this mission, SRU uses a multidisciplinary approach to develop improved varieties and environmentally friendly production strategies. Cons...

  9. Field Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for First Clonal Stage of the CP Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a big challenge for the suga...

  10. Effect of Post-Harvest Residue on Ratoon Crops of Sugarcane Infected with Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a luteovirus that causes yellow leaf of sugarcane. Previous studies in Louisiana focusing on the effect of post-harvest residue found that retention of the residue often reduces yield of subsequent ratoon crops. A field experiment to determine the potential in...

  11. SUGARCANE BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) MANAGEMENT THRESHOLD ASSESSMENT ON FOUR SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Judicious application of insecticides is an important component of integrated pest management of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Louisiana. Timing of these applications if critical for effective control and applications of insecticides has been traditionally set at a 5% infested st...

  12. The latest progress in sugarcane molecular genetics research at the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, two sugar molecular genetics tools were developed in the USDA-ARS, Southeast Area, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, LA. One is the high throughput fluorescence- and capillary electrophoregrams (CE)-based SSR genotyping tool and the other is single pollen collection and SSR genotyping...

  13. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  14. Agronomic performance and genetic characterization of sugarcane transformed for resistance to sugarcane yellow leaf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sugar Cane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) is widespread in Florida, and SCYLV resistance in the Canal Point (CP) sugarcane population is limited. The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the agronomic performance of two transgenic lines transformed for SCYLV resistance (6-1, 6-2) compared to ...

  15. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

  16. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  17. Land, Life, and Security: An Interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine K; Gonzalez, Marvin

    2016-08-01

    This is an interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua and Oscar Berríos from the Nicaraguan National Engineering University. The interview was conducted in Nicaragua in October 2013. Garcia and Berríos address the importance of organizing among formal workers and informal workers, and the shared conditions of both in Nicaragua. They highlight the history and context of the agricultural workers who began organizing during the national armed revolutionary war, the role of government to create conditions for healthy and safe work, and the need for workers to organize and advocate for themselves. Finally, they highlight the importance of solidarity among workers and the need for alliances with unions and technical assistance providers around the world. PMID:27406112

  18. Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

  19. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

  20. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-12-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.

  1. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    PubMed

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  2. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  3. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  4. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  5. Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

  6. Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

    2013-10-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

  7. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  8. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  9. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  10. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  11. Coping with climate variability and long-term climate trends for Nicaraguan maize-bean farmers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S.; Zelaya Martinez, C.; Martinez Valle, A.; Mejia, O.; Laderach, P.; Lobell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate variability and change impact farmers at different timescales, but both are of concern for livelihoods and long-term viability of small farms in tropical, rain-fed agricultural systems. This study uses a historical dataset to analyze the impact of 40-year climate trends in Nicaragua on bean production, a staple crop that is an important source of calories and protein in the local diet, particularly in rural areas and in lower income classes. Bean yields are sensitive to rising temperatures, but also frequently limited by seasonal drought and low soil fertility. We use an empirical model to relate department-level yields to spatial variation and inter-annual fluctuations in historical precipitation, temperature and extreme rain events. We then use this model to quantify the impact on yields of long-term observed warming in day and night temperatures, increases in rainfall intensity, longer gaps between rain events, a shorter rainy season and overall drying in certain regions of the country. Preliminary results confirm the negative impacts of warming night temperatures, higher vapor pressure deficits, and longer gaps between rain events on bean yields, although some drying at harvest time has helped to reduce rotting. Across all bean-growing areas, these climate trends have led to a ~10% yield decline per decade relative to a stationary climate and production system, with this decline reaching up to ~20% in the dry northern highlands. In regions that have been particularly impacted by these trends, we look for evidence of farm abandonment, increases in off-farm employment, or on-farm adaptation solutions through crop diversification, use of drought or heat-tolerant seed, and adoption of rainwater harvesting. We will also repeat the modeling exercise for maize, another staple crop providing ~25% of daily calories at the national scale, but which is projected to be more resilient to climate trends.

  12. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  13. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  14. A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  15. Sugarcane Response to Water-Deficit Stress during Early Growth on Organic and Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on sand soils in south Florida, USA. Sugarcane yields in the region linearly increased in last 33 years on organic (muck) soils, but not on sand soils. Water deficit during the formative growth phase on sand soils probably limits sugarcane yie...

  16. Physiological and Growth Responses of Sugarcane Genotypes to N Rate on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida are lower on sand soils than on organic (muck) soils. Nitrogen supply may limit sugarcane growth and yields on these sand soils. A 2-yr pot study was conducted to determine sugarcane genotype variation in response to N rate on a sand soil in Florida. T...

  17. Physiological and growth responses of sugarcane genotypes to nitrogen rate on a sand soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in Florida, USA are lower on sand soils than on organic (muck) soils. Nitrogen (N) supply may limit sugarcane growth and yields on these sand soils. A 2-year pot study was conducted to determine sugarcane genotypic variation in response to N r...

  18. Assessment of Sugarcane Growth and Yield across Genotypes Using Canopy Reflectance Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical for sustainable sugarcane production. Estimation of sugarcane yield potential based on growth and physiological traits during early growth sta...

  19. Growth and Yield Performances of Two Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane in Florida grows on sand soils. Water deficit during the sugarcane formative growth phase may limit growth and yield on the sand soils. Identification of useful physiological and growth traits may help scientists select sugarcane genotypes with stress tolerance and imp...

  20. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  1. ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...

  2. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  3. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  4. Recurrent selection for sucrose has altered assimilate partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose yield in sugarcane is a function of sucrose content of the cane and cane yield. Selection for sucrose content is a high priority in sugarcane breeding programs. Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used a modified recurrent selection program whereby genotypes with high sucrose content ...

  5. Comparison of unburned and burned sugarcane harvesting in Florida - an energy viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel consumption and performance characteristics of four sugarcane harvesting systems were measured in unburned and burned sugarcane. Unburned sugarcane harvesting operations had significantly higher field losses, required twice as much fuel, and had lower production rates than in burned cane harvesting.

  6. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

  7. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  8. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entire set of 221 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers from the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium for their utility on molecular characterization of elite U.S. germplasm. Five elite U.S. sugarcane clones were tested, including two cu...

  9. A review of sugarcane deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  10. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three sugarcane genotypes. ...

  11. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  12. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  13. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  14. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  15. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  16. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  17. Expression and variability of molecular chaperones in the sugarcane expressome.

    PubMed

    Borges, Júlio C; Cagliari, Thiago C; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2007-04-01

    Molecular chaperones perform folding assistance in newly synthesized polypeptides preventing aggregation processes, recovering proteins from aggregates, among other important cellular functions. Thus their study presents great biotechnological importance. The present work discusses the mining for chaperone-related sequences within the sugarcane EST genome project database, which resulted in approximately 300 different sequences. Since molecular chaperones are highly conserved in most organisms studied so far, the number of sequences related to these proteins in sugarcane was very similar to the number found in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The Hsp70 family was the main molecular chaperone system present in the sugarcane expressome. However, many other relevant molecular chaperones systems were also present. A digital RNA blot analysis showed that 5'ESTs from all molecular chaperones were found in every sugarcane library, despite their heterogeneous expression profiles. The results presented here suggest the importance of molecular chaperones to polypeptide metabolism in sugarcane cells, based on their abundance and variability. Finally, these data have being used to guide more in deep analysis, permitting the choice of specific targets to study. PMID:16687190

  18. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    PubMed Central

    Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

  19. AmeriFlux US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. First cycle of observations were from July 2011 to November 2012. Second cycle was from April 2013 to December 2013. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and meteorology.

  20. Deep-crustal magma reservoirs beneath the Nicaraguan volcanic arc, revealed by 2-D and semi 3-D inversion of magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasse, Heinrich; Schäfer, Anja; Díaz, Daniel; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Muñoz, Angélica; Mütschard, Lutz

    2015-11-01

    A long-period magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted in early 2009 in western Nicaragua to study the electrical resistivity and thus fluid/melt distribution at the Central American continental margin where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. Strike analysis yields a preference direction perpendicular to the profile, with moderate deviation from two-dimensionality, however. Two-dimensional modeling maps the sediments of the Nicaraguan Depression and a high-conductivity zone in the mid-crust, slightly offset from the arc. Further conductors are modeled in the backarc. However, these features are probably artifacts when a 2-D program is applied to data which show moderate 3-D characteristics. 3-D inversion clarifies the situation, and the major remaining conductive structure is now quasi directly beneath the volcanic chain and interpreted as a deep-seated magma deposit. Conductivity in the backarc is also relatively high and may either be caused by still existing partial melts beneath the Paleocene to Miocene volcanic arcs or by related metallic deposits in the aureoles of hydrothermal alteration.

  1. Sugarcane Serine Peptidase Inhibitors, Serine Peptidases, and Clp Protease System Subunits Associated with Sugarcane Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) Herbivory and Wounding.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ane H; Mingossi, Fabiana B; Dias, Renata O; Franco, Flávia P; Vicentini, Renato; Mello, Marcia O; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane's (Saccharum spp.) response to Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: (Crambidae) herbivory was investigated using a macroarray spotted with 248 sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) encoding serine peptidase inhibitors, serine peptidases. and Clp protease system subunits. Our results showed that after nine hours of herbivory, 13 sugarcane genes were upregulated and nine were downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, nine were similar to serine peptidase inhibitors and four were similar to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences belong to a phylogenetic group of sugarcane BBIs that are potentially involved in plant defense against insect predation. The remaining four upregulated genes included serine peptidases and one homolog to the Arabidopsis AAA+ chaperone subunit ClpD, which is a member of the Clp protease system. Among the downregulated genes, five were homologous to serine peptidases and four were homologous to Arabidopsis Clp subunits (three homologous to Clp AAA+ chaperones and one to a ClpP-related ClpR subunit). Although the roles of serine peptidase inhibitors in plant defenses against herbivory have been extensively investigated, the roles of plant serine peptidases and the Clp protease system represent a new and underexplored field of study. The up- and downregulated D. saccharalis genes presented in this study may be candidate genes for the further investigation of the sugarcane response to herbivory. PMID:27598134

  2. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Daniela; de Godoy, Fabiana; Hamaji, Thais Alves; Blanco, Silvia Regina; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Rossi, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%–80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis. PMID:23055803

  3. [Absenteeism due to occupational diseases among sugarcane workers].

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Aline Duarte Ferreira; Carvalho Junior, Luiz Carlos Soares de; Cuissi, Rafaela Campos; Monteschi, Mariane; Oliveira, Nayara Galvão; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of work-related sick leave in sugarcane workers. A total of 1,230 medical excuses for 400 sugarcane workers were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The following items were analyzed: diagnosis, sex, and length and season of sick leave. In all the seasons, musculoskeletal diseases showed the highest sick leave rate, following by respiratory diseases (p < 0.05). Sick leave due to musculoskeletal diseases was more frequent at the end of the sugarcane harvest than during the intercrop season (p < 0.05). Seventy-five percent of medical excuses were for one day. The longest sick leaves were for diseases of the genitourinary tract (p < 0.001). It is thus essential to have a multidisciplinary health team focused on the development of ergonomic activities, personal protective equipment, and health orientation specifically targeting this group's needs. PMID:25388319

  4. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion. PMID:19000863

  5. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  6. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  7. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  8. Nitrate paradigm does not hold up for sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  9. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  10. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  11. Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

  12. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam V; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  13. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  14. Comparative mapping in the Poaceae family reveals translocations in the complex polyploid genome of sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The understanding of sugarcane genetics has lagged behind that of other members of the Poaceae family such as wheat, rice, barley and sorghum mainly due to the complexity, size and polyploidization of the genome. We have used the genetic map of a sugarcane cultivar to generate a consensus genetic map to increase genome coverage for comparison to the sorghum genome. We have utilized the recently developed sugarcane DArT array to increase the marker density within the genetic map. The sequence of these DArT markers plus SNP and EST-SSR markers was then used to form a bridge to the sorghum genomic sequence by BLAST alignment to start to unravel the complex genomic architecture of sugarcane. Results Comparative mapping revealed that certain sugarcane chromosomes show greater levels of synteny to sorghum than others. On a macrosyntenic level a good collinearity was observed between sugarcane and sorghum for 4 of the 8 homology groups (HGs). These 4 HGs were syntenic to four sorghum chromosomes with from 98% to 100% of these chromosomes covered by these linked markers. Four major chromosome rearrangements were identified between the other four sugarcane HGs and sorghum, two of which were condensations of chromosomes reducing the basic chromosome number of sugarcane from x = 10 to x = 8. This macro level of synteny was transferred to other members within the Poaceae family such as maize to uncover the important evolutionary relationships that exist between sugarcane and these species. Conclusions Comparative mapping of sugarcane to the sorghum genome has revealed new information on the genome structure of sugarcane which will help guide identification of important genes for use in sugarcane breeding. Furthermore of the four major chromosome rearrangements identified in this study, three were common to maize providing some evidence that chromosome reduction from a common paleo-ancestor of both maize and sugarcane was driven by the same translocation

  15. Response of Louisiana ratoon sugarcane to phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of phosphorus fertilizer on sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum Spp. cv. 'LCP 85-384') yield components and soil properties were evaluated at seven locations in Louisiana. Five rates of phosphorus fertilizer (0 - 84 kg P2O5 ha-1) were applied to first-, second- and third-ratoo...

  16. Evaluation of fungicides for control of orange rust on sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, was initially reported in the Western Hemisphere in 2007, when it was first observed in Florida. Since that time, it has affected several commercially important cultivars, notably CP 80-1743, CP 72-2086, CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, and CP 78-1628. Durin...

  17. Response of sugarcane to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP72-2086, CP73-1547, CP88-1508, and CP80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air, respectively. Each TGG maintained temperatures in four zones at Base temperature wit...

  18. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers have been extensively used in sugarcane breeding research, little is known about how SSR markers are being transmitted into reproductive and zygotic cells. To illustrate this, a high-throughput molecular genotyping experiment was conducted on 964 individ...

  19. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-6848’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of 'CPCL 02-6848' (Reg. No. 667596; PI), sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by collaborative research of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. The female paren...

  20. Processing sweet sorghum in sugarcane factories for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum is an attractive biofuel crop for many reasons. It is widely adaptable, grows fast, and stores sugar in its stalk like sugarcane. Its short maturity time, 90 to 140 days, and ability to re-grow for a second crop in some areas increase the sugar yield from sweet sorghum on an annual ba...

  1. Registration of ‘CP 04-1566’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CP 04-1566’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida on 30 Sept. 2011. CP 04-1566 was selected from the cross X01-024...

  2. Databasing Molecular Identities of Louisiana, Florida, and Texas Sugarcane Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) clones (cultivars and superior breeding lines) are routinely exchanged across geographic locations for field-testing or crossing. It is crucial to maintain the genetic identity of these clones during field collection, shipping, and quarantine. Traditionally, suga...

  3. Screening for Brown Rust Resistance in Sugarcane by Whorl Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an agronomically important disease of sugarcane in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of managing the disease. Unfortunately, natural infection is not always efficient in determining resistant cultivars and a more reliable screening method...

  4. Sugarcane Stemborers and their parasites in southern Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 40,000 stemborer larvae, pupae, and parasite cocoons were collected during 1982-1995 from commercial sugarcane fields and allowed to complete development under laboratory conditions. Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F) comprised 92.4% (36,897/39,945) and 5.2% (2,057/...

  5. Cover crop options and pros and cons in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of sugarcane in Louisiana usually involves planting seed and waiting 18 months before the harvest of the plant-cane crop. Additional stubble crops are harvested each year between Oct. and Jan. until the stubble is broken out to make the way for a new seed crop the following year. Typical...

  6. PROSPECTS OF BREEDING FOR LOW STARCH CONTENT IN SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of starch in sugarcane juice adversely affect the processing quality of raw and refined sugar. Despite reports of differences among cultivars for starch content, most research has focused on processing aids to minimize the negative processing effects of starch. Deploying cultivars ...

  7. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  8. Composition of Residue from Sugarcane and Related Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Louisiana, a facility near Jennings will produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) bagasse and “energy canes”. This study was done to obtain basic information on the composition of the cell wall residue left after expressing the juice in different Saccharum genotypes. Fou...

  9. Sugarcane Fertilizer Recommendations for the 2008 Crop Year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face challenges as they attempt to maximize profits and increase production efficiency. This year yet another challenge has been added through the significant increase in the cost of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. Due to these i...

  10. Registration of ‘CP 88-1165’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. A cooperative program among the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. located at an ARS facility in Canal Poi...

  11. Early harvest affects sugarcane ratooning ability in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of sugarcane processors in Louisiana has decreased over time forcing growers to begin the harvest season earlier for fear of complete cane loss at the end of the harvest period due to freezing temperatures during this period of late winter. Experiments were conducted to investigate effec...

  12. Registration of ‘CP 03-1912’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 03-1912’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in April 2011. CP 03-1912 was selected fr...

  13. Improving efficiency of sugarcane genotype selection in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Canal Point (CP) sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding program has consistently developed high yielding cultivars for the organic (muck) soils of South Florida, but cultivar development has not been as successful for sand soils in this region. The objective of this study was to improve this progra...

  14. Genetic improvement of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as an energy crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a large-stature perennial grass that is cultivated in approximately 80 nations in tropical, semi-tropical, and subtropical regions of the world primarily for its ability to store high concentrations of sucrose in the stem. About 70% of the world’s sugar supply in the f...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  16. Sugarcane Response to High Water Tables and Intermittent Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production has engendered environmental concerns of nutrient transfer to neighboring ecosystems and subsidence of organic soils on which the crop is often grown. These environmental issues might be ameliorated if water was retained on the fields to minimize nutrient trans...

  17. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-0926’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPCL 02-0926’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-0926 was released to growers in Fl...

  18. Registration of ‘CP 04-1935’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CP 04-1935 is sugarcane variety that was developed by a cooperative research involving the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sep. 2011. CP 04-1935 was selected from the cross between CP 94-2059 and CP 84-1322 made...

  19. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-1295’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to develop ‘CPCL 02-1295’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-1295 was released to growers in Flori...

  20. DNA Based Genetic Variation for Red Rot Resistance in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic difference between twelve red rot resistant and five susceptible genotypes of sugarcane cultivated in Pakistan were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initial screening was done using 300 markers and four genotypes (two resistant and two susceptible for red rot). ...

  1. Development of orange rust of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed for the first time in the Americas in 2007 in Florida. Urediniospores of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust, were collected in aerial traps located in Louisiana in 2010; however, the first observation of disease symptoms in the state was not made ...

  2. Registration of ‘CP 04-1844’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 04-1844’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sept. 2011. CP 04-1844 was selected from the cross X01-03...

  3. Variable-Rate Lime Application for Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. Variable rate (VR) application of lime and fertilizers is one area in which significant advantages may be realized. A seri...

  4. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks of different Hawaiian sugarcane cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investi...

  5. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  6. Registration of ‘CP 00-2180’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: ‘CP 00-2180’ (Reg. No. , PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in September 2007. CP 00-...

  7. Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Orange Rust on Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane, incited by Puccinia kuehnii, was first observed in Florida during June 2007 on one of the industry’s most important commercial cultivars, CP80-1743. This was the first report of this disease in the Western Hemisphere. It has since been reported in several other Central Amer...

  8. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  9. TEMPORAL CHANGES OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SUGARCANE BREEDING POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about decline of genetic diversity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs need be addressed to define better breeding strategies aimed at achieving greater genetic gains. The objectives of this study were to reconstruct the divergence in the Canal Point breeding populations as temp...

  10. The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...

  11. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  12. Registration of ‘CP 05-1526’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 05-1526’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic and sand soils in Florida in October 2012. CP 05-1526 was selected...

  13. Improving Sugarcane for Biofuel: Engineering for an even better feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is a proven biofuel feedstock and accounts for about half the biofuel production worldwide. It has a more favorable energy input/output ratio than that of corn, the other major biofuel feedstock. The rich resource of genetic diversity and the plasticity of autopolyploid genomes offer a wea...

  14. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers have been extensively used in sugarcane breeding research, little is known about its inheritance mechanism. To address this problem, a high throughput molecular genotyping experiment was conducted on 964 single pollen grains and a 288-self progeny S1 map...

  15. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease.

    PubMed

    Schaker, Patricia D C; Palhares, Alessandra C; Taniguti, Lucas M; Peters, Leila P; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P; Vieira, Maria L C; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression. PMID:27583836

  16. Biomass production of sugarcane on narrow-rows in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cayton, J.E.; Eiland, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sugarcane production for biomass was examined on three narrow-row patterns in Florida. Equipment and production methods were modified for planting, spraying and harvesting the narrow-row patterns. No large increases in yields of vigorous varieties were found when compared to those from conventional rows. Some increases were observed in varieties which have low stalk populations. 4 refs.

  17. Sugarcane aphid in Oklahoma: Responding to a new pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA) was first found in Oklahoma in 2013, and quickly became a major threat to grain sorghum production. Scientists at Oklahoma State University and the USDA's Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Lab in Stillwater, working with cooperators in other sorghum producing st...

  18. Biomass production from sugarcane and sweet sorghum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a field study on growing sugarcane and sweet sorghum in the Lake Okeechobee area of Florida are reported. Two experiments were conducted on row-spacing of sugarcane and one on row-spacing of sorghum. There were no surprises in the data obtained in this year's sugarcane experiments. High biomass, sugar and fiber were produced both on sand and muck soils in south Florida. Yields were, as in previous years, higher for the narrow row spacing where solar radiation was better than in plant cane. Likewise it is greater for a second ratoon than for a first ratoon. Sweet sorghum produced well but not as well as last year due to a planting data which was 1 to 2 months late and to the wider spacings used to facilitate the trial of sugarcane harvesting equipment. Moisture is much more critical for sorghum than for cane. One experiment on muck suffered due to wet conditions. A second experiment on sand was lost due to lack of moisture.

  19. Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

  20. Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...

  1. Sugarcane Response to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help redu...

  2. Nitrogen management research in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in sugarcane production and is considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer remained expensive after a drastic price increase in 2008. The average cost of a ton of N as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution from 2003 to 2007 wa...

  3. Sweet sorghum production on fallow sugarcane fields in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum has been grown as a minor crop for syrup production for generations. Its potential as a biofuel feedstock, both through sugar and fiber production, has created interest in utilizing sweet sorghum as a crop that could be grown during the fallow year in the sugarcane cropping cycle in so...

  4. Sugarcane soil fertility research: New data and current recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Potassium (K) has been associated with plant water use and may aid in drought tolerance and disease resistance, phosphorus (P) is important for...

  5. Registration of "HoCP 00-950" Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoCP 00-950 sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross HoCP 93-750 x HoCP 92-676 made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 00-950 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Stati...

  6. 50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

  7. Sustainability of the Sugar Industry: Future Value Addition from Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With changing sugar markets in the U.S. and around the world, innovation and environmental protection through value-addition and diversification will be crucial for the sustainability of the sugarcane industry. Commercial sucrose has very high purity (>99.9%) making it the purest organic substance ...

  8. Registration of ‘CP 07-2137’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 07-2137’ (Reg. No.__; PI__) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was released in September 2014 to be cultivated on sandy (mineral) soils in Florida. CP 07-2137 was developed through a collaborative cultivar development program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florid...

  9. Phylogenetic diversity of Brazilian Metarhizium associated with sugarcane agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of spittlebug with Metarhizium in sugarcane is an example of the successful application of sustainable pest management in Brazil. However little is known about the richness, distribution and ecology of Metarhizium species in the agroecosystems and natural environments of Brazil. W...

  10. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Sugarcane rust diseases, brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala, and orange rust caused by P. kuehnii, are agronomically important diseases in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of controlling these diseases. Natural infection has been the primary means of asses...

  11. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has increased by about 30% since the mid-18th century. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change clearly result in the increase ...

  12. Breeding for resistance to the sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari] (SCA) was first reported to damage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the United States in Louisiana and Texas in 2013, and was subsequently detected in Oklahoma and the Mississippi Delta. In 2014, the aphid spread and was eventually reported in state...

  13. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1102’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPCL 05-1102’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 05-1102 was released to growers in Fl...

  14. Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI 670018) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Fl...

  15. Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI ____) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Florida in October 2013. ...

  16. SELECTION OF INTERSPECIFIC SUGARCANE HYBRIDS USING MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three types of species-specific DNA markers, namely, PCR, RAPD, and microsatellites, have been recently developed at the USDA-ARS, SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit, Houma, Louisiana. Of these, the microsatellite markers are the most polymorphic and can produce distinctive fingerprints (or molecular al...

  17. Developing a sugarcane molecular identity database for use in breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane geneticists routinely exchange and move a large number of clones by vegetative propagation across locations. They rely on morphological keys developed by the originating location to distinguish these clones. Since environments can influence these traits, genetically distinct clones, in p...

  18. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  19. Registration of ‘CP 00-1446’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: ‘CP 00-1446’ (Reg. No. , PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in September 2007. CP 00-...

  20. Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been excellent, long-term results in identifying high yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) varieties for organic (muck) soils in Florida. However, newer varieties for sand soils in Florida have not had yield improvements during a recent 33-year period. The purpose of this study was to comp...

  1. AN ASSESSMENT OF COLD/FREEZE TOLERANCE IN SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complexity of tolerance mechanisms of crops to environmental stresses requires a multipronged approach to decipher the genetics of and breed for stress resistance. Field tests and a proteomics analysis were carried out on sugarcane genotypes to assess the time-course deterioration of sucrose in ...

  2. Identification, Phylogeny, and Transcript of Chitinase Family Genes in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Zhuqing; Yang, Yuting; Chen, Yun; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Chitinases are pathogensis-related proteins, which play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. The role of the sugarcane chitinase family genes remains unclear due to the highly heterozygous and aneuploidy chromosome genetic background of sugarcane. Ten differentially expressed chitinase genes (belonging to class I~VII) were obtained from RNA-seq analysis of both incompatible and compatible sugarcane genotypes during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge. Their structural properties and expression patterns were analyzed. Seven chitinases (ScChiI1, ScChiI2, ScChiI3, ScChiIII1, ScChiIII2, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVI1) showed more positive with early response and maintained increased transcripts in the incompatible interaction than those in the compatible one. Three (ScChiII1, ScChiV1 and ScChiVII1) seemed to have no significant difference in expression patterns between incompatible and compatible interactions. The ten chitinases were expressed differentially in response to hormone treatment as well as having distinct tissue specificity. ScChiI1, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVII1 were induced by various abiotic stresses (NaCl, CuCl2, PEG and 4 °C) and their involvement in plant immunity was demonstrated by over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The results suggest that sugarcane chitinase family exhibit differential responses to biotic and abiotic stress, providing new insights into their function. PMID:26035173

  3. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  4. Cross-resistance between the Mexican Rice Borer and the Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A Case Study Using Sugarcane Breeding Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB) (Diatraea saccharalis) and Mexican rice borer (MRB) (Eoreuma loftini) are two economically important pests of sugarcane in the USA. Because of similarities in larval feeding behavior, selecting for resistance to one species could provide resistance to the other, a phenomeno...

  5. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  6. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_value<0.1). These gauges are located in specific regions with the highest sugarcane production. Also, the October totals showed significant and negative trends (p_value<0.1) for more than 95% of precipitation gauges. These results are strongly indicating a longer dry season in the last twenty years. These changes in the precipitation variability can be related with the instability of the sugarcane market in Brazil in the last years.

  7. Nitrogen fertilizer trials with sugarcane in Louisiana (Re-evaluation leads to lower recommended nitrogen fertilizer rates for Sugarcane)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is considered the nutrient, which most often limits crop production, yet its optimal management remains a somewhat elusive goal. Sugarcane, a high biomass crop that demands high N inputs, is particularly difficult to manage for efficient N utilization. Excessive N can delay maturity, in...

  8. Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

    2014-09-01

    The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

  9. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Bonnett, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  10. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  11. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  12. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  13. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  14. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. PMID:25477936

  15. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. PMID:25477936

  16. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  17. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  18. Farming for Net Profit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors can influence farm management decisions. One important factor is economic returns. Staying in farming requires dealing with a wide range of changing conditions. Given these changing conditions, it is particularly important to “get the big decisions right”. This requires evaluating impac...

  19. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  20. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  1. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  2. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  3. Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Gail

    2010-01-01

    New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution. PMID:20873028

  4. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs. PMID:27115746

  5. Host Plant Specialization in the Sugarcane Aphid Melanaphis sacchari

    PubMed Central

    Nibouche, Samuel; Mississipi, Stelly; Fartek, Benjamin; Delatte, Hélène; Reynaud, Bernard; Costet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Most aphids are highly specialized on one or two related plant species and generalist species often include sympatric populations adapted to different host plants. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of host specialized lineages of the aphid Melanaphis sacchari in Reunion Island. To this end, we investigated the genetic diversity of the aphid and its association with host plants by analyzing the effect of wild sorghum Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum or sugarcane as host plants on the genetic structuring of populations and by performing laboratory host transfer experiments to detect trade-offs in host use. Genotyping of 31 samples with 10 microsatellite loci enabled identification of 13 multilocus genotypes (MLG). Three of these, Ms11, Ms16 and Ms15, were the most frequent ones. The genetic structure of the populations was linked to the host plants. Ms11 and Ms16 were significantly more frequently observed on sugarcane, while Ms15 was almost exclusively collected in colonies on wild sorghum. Laboratory transfer experiments demonstrated the existence of fitness trade-offs. An Ms11 isofemale lineage performed better on sugarcane than on sorghum, whereas an Ms15 lineage developed very poorly on sugarcane, and two Ms16 lineages showed no significant difference in performances between both hosts. Both field and laboratory results support the existence of host plant specialization in M. sacchari in Reunion Island, despite low genetic differentiation. This study illustrates the ability of asexual aphid lineages to rapidly undergo adaptive changes including shifting from one host plant to another. PMID:26600253

  6. Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

    1985-02-01

    A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

  7. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  8. Genetic variability among the chloroplast genomes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and its wild progenitor species S. spontaneum L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A striking characteristic of modern sugarcane is that all sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp.) share a common cytoplasm from S. officinarum. To explore the potential value of S. spontaneum cytoplasm, new Saccharum hybrids with a S. spontaneum cytoplasm were developed at the USDA-ARS, sugarcane resea...

  9. Genetic variability among the chloroplast genomes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and its wild progenitor species Saccharum spontaneum L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A striking characteristic of modern sugarcane is that all sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp.) share a common cytoplasm from S. officinarum. To explore the potential value of S. spontaneum cytoplasm, new Saccharum hybrids with a S. spontaneum cytoplasm were developed at the USDA-ARS, sugarcane resea...

  10. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  11. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  12. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties were characterised, and their responses to different yeast extract concentrations were investigated. Three different responses in nitrogenase activity were observed. Isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1 exhibited major increases with the addition of 0.005% yeast extract, C34MR1 exhibited no response, and UT3R1 exhibited a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity with 0.005% yeast extract. In all the isolates, nitrogenase activity decreased with further increase of the yeast extract to 0.05%. The highest nitrogenase activity was observed in isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1, which had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were closely related to Novosphingobium sediminicola and Ochrobactrum intermedium, respectively. PMID:26868592

  13. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

  14. Differentiation of Aerobacter-Klebsiella isolated from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Nunez, W J; Colmer, A R

    1968-12-01

    Three hundred and eighty-four isolates were obtained in the completed test portion of the most probable number determinations of coliforms in sugarcane sources. Of these isolates, 88% were of the (- - + +) indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) type and were identified as Aerobacter aerogenes according to the protocol of the American Public Health Association (1). Employing 359 of these cultures, a comparative biochemical, serological, and pathogenicity study was carried out with Klebsiella pneumoniae CDC no. 2211-66 type 9. More than 86% of the organisms tested gave biochemical reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. Of the other isolates, 2% were Enterobacter aerogenes, and the remaining 12% were identified as atypical, nonmotile IMViC types. Comparable agglutination titers were also observed between A. aerogenes and the CDC strain of K. pneumoniae when several randomly selected sugarcane strains were reacted with prepared K. pneumoniae whole cell antiserum. Neither the K. pneumoniae reference organism nor selected sugarcane isolates displayed pathogenicity for mice. On the basis of all the analyses performed, it was suggested that such organisms be classified as K. pneumoniae. PMID:5726159

  15. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  16. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  17. Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

  18. Carbon accumulation in a two year sugarcane rotation in Hawai’i, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been examined as a bioenergy feedstock for producing aviation fuel in the Pacific Basin. Hawaii has been a major producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the Pacific, with its typical two-year production cycle having some of the highest reported rates of sugar production in...

  19. Breeding for Resistance to Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused Puccinia kuehnii is an economically important disease in many parts of the world. Orange rust was first reported in Florida in 2007. A 2009 survey showed that over 80% of the commercial sugarcane acreage is moderately susceptible or highly susceptible to the disease r...

  20. Application of RAD LongRead sequencing for SNP discovery in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane (hybrid Saccharum spp.) genome presents a difficult challenge for SNP discovery and analysis due to its complex polyploid nature. This is compounded further due to the absence of a reference genome sequence. We report the discovery of SNPs in sugarcane through reductive sequencing and ...

  1. A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

  2. Detection of sugarcane yellow leaf virus by direct antigen coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The L9 (34) orthogonal diagram was applied to optimize detection conditions of direct antigen coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) for Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) in sugarcane. Statistic analyses indicated that 150 µL of SCYLV in juice and leaf crude extract antigens was the ...

  3. Cellulosic energy cropping systems – Chapter 5: Sugarcane and energy cane, and Napiergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates that 16 billion of the targeted 36 billion gallons of biofuels must be derived from cellulosic sources. Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) as a biofuel feedstock has the tremendous potential as a source of this biofuel. Sugarcane is a major agronomi...

  4. Seasonal Fiber Content of Three Sugarcane Cultivars in Three Crop Cycles on Sand and Muck Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate seasonal estimates of fiber are needed to maximize profits whether producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for sucrose or ethanol. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample date and crop cycle on fiber content of three sugarcane cultivars growing on sand and organic...

  5. Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...

  6. Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  7. A rapid biochemical test to assess postharvest deterioration of sugarcane and milled juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  8. Allelic divergence in sugarcane cultivars revealed through capillary electrophoregrams of fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electerophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 eac...

  9. Outbreak of sorghum/sugarcane aphid on sorghum: First detections, distribution, and notes on management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...

  10. Cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Area Trials were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Cultivar FN38 produced a high an...

  11. Pyraclostrobin wash-off from sugarcane leaves and aerobic dissipation in agricultural soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to mitigate damage from the fungal sugarcane pathogen brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), a Section 18 Emergency Use Label was put in place by the EPA for the application of pyraclostrobin (trade name Headline® SC; produced by BASF) on sugarcane in 2008. In order to assess the dynamics of ...

  12. Sugarcane Green and Brown, Dried Trash Effects on Processing: A Preliminary Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is a dramatic shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many other countries, even more unburnt sugarcane with extra impurities (t...

  13. Sugarcane growth and physiological responses to water deficit stress on organic and sand soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection has been more successful for organic (muck) than sand soils in Florida, perhaps due to differences in water availability. A greenhouse study was conducted at Canal Point, Florida to compare sugarcane physiological responses to water deficit stress during...

  14. Effect of Recurrent Selection for Sucrose on Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920’s, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used modified recurrent selection...

  15. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  16. Development of Leaf Spectral Models for Evaluating Large Numbers of Sugarcane Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf reflectance has been used to estimate crop leaf chemical and physiological characters. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) leaf N, C, and chlorophyll levels are important traits for high yields and perhaps useful for genotype evaluation. The objectives of this study were to identify sugarcane genotypic ...

  17. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  18. Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

  19. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop loop-mediated isothermal...

  20. Sugarcane response to mill mud, fertilizer, and soybean nutrient sources on a sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production. A 3-year field trial was established in 2004 on a sandy soil in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on sugarcane production. Th...

  1. Control of rhizome johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in sugarcane with trifloxysulfuron and asulam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johnsongrass, in its perennial form, is a difficult weed problem for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. Studies were conducted to determine the benefit, if any, of the addition of trifloxysulfuron to postemergence (POST) applications of asulam for the selective control of johnsongrass in sugarcane. A...

  2. The Role of Sugarcane Breeding and Selection in the Development of Bioenergy Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for renewable transportation fuel as well as food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is geared to developing high biomass (sugar and ce...

  3. Soil carbon stock and total nitrogen in Hawaiian sugarcane commercial plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in Hawaiian sugarcane as a biofuel feedstock. However, there is little information on how much soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) is stored in Hawaiian sugarcane fields under normal, monoculture operations. Soil C and N data are needed to assess the life cycl...

  4. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  5. Silicon Fertilizer Effects on Electrolyte Leakage from Sugarcane Leaf Cells after Exposure to Freezing Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in subtropical regions often sustains damage from freezing temperatures. Some sugarcane growers have reported that commercial fields fertilized with silicon had less freeze damage than non-silicon fertilized fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if fertilizer silicon red...

  6. Prediction of sugarcane sucrose content with high resolution, hyperspectral leaf reflectance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine if leaf reflectance measurements could be used to predict theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) levels in sugarcane prior to harvest. Leaf and stalk samples were collected from multi-variety first-ratoon (FR) sugarcane maturity studies in 2005 at three sample ...

  7. Impact of pathogen genetics on breeding for resistance to sugarcane diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are limiting factors of sugarcane production and breeding for resistance to diseases is a major goal in sugarcane variety improvement. Diseases result from complex interactions between plants, pathogens and environment, including humans and insect vectors of pathogens. History has shown tha...

  8. Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

  9. Genetic analysis of resistance gene analogues from a sugarcane cultivar resistant to red rot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the important approaches for disease control in sugarcane is to develop a disease resistant variety; this may be accomplished through identification of resistance genes in sugarcane. In this study, PCR primers targeting the conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) class and kinas...

  10. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  11. Sugarcane Leaf Photosynthesis and Growth Characters during Development of Water-Deficit Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield and profitability of sugarcane grown on sand soils are much lower than on organic soils in Florida due to biotic and abiotic stresses. A greenhouse study was conducted using a sand soil to identify effects of water deficit stress (WS) during sugarcane early growth on leaf photosynthetic compon...

  12. Phenotypic evaluation of the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants related to sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) produce biomass efficiently and rapidly and therefore may contain useful genes for biofuels. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses is located at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station in Miami, FL and presumably ...

  13. SCYLV P0: function and potential use to control transgene silencing in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we tested the feasibility of using sugarcane for the production of high-value proteins. Expression of a human cytokine, GM-CSF, in sugarcane resulted in the accumulation, under lab and field conditions, of recombinant protein that demonstrated essentially 100% native activity in a human ...

  14. Identification of Physiological Traits for Early Detecting Water Deficit Stress in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection has been more successful for organic (muck) than sand soils in Florida. Water deficit stress during its formative growth phase may limit sugarcane growth and yields on Florida sand soils. Therefore, identifying proper physiological traits will help scien...

  15. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three ...

  16. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  17. Introduction of orange rust caused by Puccinia kuehnii into the Louisiana sugarcane industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first observation of orange rust infecting sugarcane, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, in the Americas was in Florida in 2007. To monitor for the possible introduction of orange rust into Louisiana, visual surveys were initiated throughout the Louisiana sugarcane industry among plantings of cultivar...

  18. Utilization of Leaf Reflectance Measurements in Louisiana Sugarcane Disease, Variety, and Harvest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were initiated in 2005 to determine if visible and near-infrared leaf reflectance measurements could be used to predict sugarcane disease incidence, identify varieties, and estimate sucrose content. Leaf samples were collected from: sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SCYLD) and mosaic test plots; ...

  19. Oligomerization, membrane association and in vivo phosphorylation of sugarcane UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is a C4 plant that accumulates sucrose to levels of up to 50% of dry weight in the stalk. The mechanisms involved in sucrose accumulation in sugarcane are not well understood and little is known with regard to factors that control the extent of sucrose storage in stalks. UDP-glucose pyroph...

  20. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  1. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Sugarcane Roots in Response to Low Potassium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiaoying; Ling, Qiuping; Fan, Lina; Li, Yu; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jianwen; Huang, Zhenrui; Deng, Haihua

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important crop for supplying sugar. Due to its high biomass, sugarcane needs to absorb a large amount of potassium (K) throughout its lifecycle. In South China, a deficiency of K available in soil restricts the production of sugarcane. Increasing the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K will be an effective approach for improving survival of the crop in this area. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of tolerance to low-K stress in sugarcane. In this study, a customized microarray was used to analyze the changes in the level of transcripts of sugarcane genes 8 h, 24 h and 72 h after exposure to low-K conditions. We identified a total of 4153 genes that were differentially expressed in at least one of the three time points. The number of genes responding to low-K stress at 72 h was almost 2-fold more than the numbers at 8 h and 24 h. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that many genes involved in metabolic, developmental and biological regulatory processes displayed changes in the level of transcripts in response to low-K stress. Additionally, we detected differential expression of transcription factors, transporters, kinases, oxidative stress-related genes and genes in Ca+ and ethylene signaling pathways; these proteins might play crucial roles in improving the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K stress. The results of this study will help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane tolerance to low-K. PMID:25955765

  3. Influence of potential evapotranspiration on the water balance of sugarcane fields in Maui, Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The year-long warm temperatures and other climatic characteristics of the Pacific Ocean Islands have made Hawaii an optimum place for growing sugarcane; however, irrigation is essential to satisfy the large water demand of sugarcane. Under the Hawaiian tropical weather, actual evapotranspiration (A...

  4. Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...

  5. Discovery of uncharacterized sugarcane viruses by next generation sequencing technology: the case of Ramu stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  6. Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...

  7. Transcriptome profiling of sugarcane roots in response to low potassium stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiaoying; Ling, Qiuping; Fan, Lina; Li, Yu; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jianwen; Huang, Zhenrui; Deng, Haihua; Li, Qiwei; Qi, Yongwen

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important crop for supplying sugar. Due to its high biomass, sugarcane needs to absorb a large amount of potassium (K) throughout its lifecycle. In South China, a deficiency of K available in soil restricts the production of sugarcane. Increasing the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K will be an effective approach for improving survival of the crop in this area. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of tolerance to low-K stress in sugarcane. In this study, a customized microarray was used to analyze the changes in the level of transcripts of sugarcane genes 8 h, 24 h and 72 h after exposure to low-K conditions. We identified a total of 4153 genes that were differentially expressed in at least one of the three time points. The number of genes responding to low-K stress at 72 h was almost 2-fold more than the numbers at 8 h and 24 h. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that many genes involved in metabolic, developmental and biological regulatory processes displayed changes in the level of transcripts in response to low-K stress. Additionally, we detected differential expression of transcription factors, transporters, kinases, oxidative stress-related genes and genes in Ca+ and ethylene signaling pathways; these proteins might play crucial roles in improving the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K stress. The results of this study will help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane tolerance to low-K. PMID:25955765

  8. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among sugarcane and related species determined from microsatellite DNA data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were assessed among 105 clones of commercial sugarcane hybrids and related Saccharum species using 22 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers. These included 17 sugarcane cultivars from the U.S. mainland, 23 S. officinarum clones, 16 S. robustum clones, 15 ...

  9. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  10. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  11. World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses: Utilizing a Vast Genetic Resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that may exist in the Saccharum germplasm. Two collections of genetic material potentially useful to sugarcane br...

  12. Yield Performance of 14 Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stresses on sand soils in Florida limit sugarcane yields. In addition to improved fertilizer and irrigation management, identification and selection of stress-tolerant genotypes may improve sugarcane productivity on sand soils. Objectives of this study were to improve understandin...

  13. Sugarcane Cultivar Response to High Summer Water Tables in the Everglades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) in Florida is frequently subjected to periods of higher than desired (wetter) water levels. This study was conducted to evaluate yields of nine sugarcane cultivars subjected to the wet conditions of two hig...

  14. Flood Duration and Time of Flood Onset Effects on Recently Planted Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periodically flooding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida improves soil conservation and reduces P discharge to the Everglades, but farmers are concerned that flooding recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane reduces yields. The purpose of this stud...

  15. Orange Rust Effects on Leaf Photosynthesis and Related Characters of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is a relatively new disease in the Western Hemisphere that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological mechanisms...

  16. Spatial variability of sugarcane yields in relation to soil salinity in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High soil salinity levels have been documented to negatively impact sugarcane yields. Tests were conducted in commercial sugarcane fields in South Louisiana in 2009-2010 to determine if elevated soil salinity levels resulting from salt water intrusion from several recent hurricanes was having a neg...

  17. Determination of Yield and Soil Variability in Louisiana Sugarcane Using Selected Tools of Precision Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a production strategy that may help sugarcane producers decrease input costs, maximize profits, and minimize any negative environmental impact through better management of soil and crop variability. To determine the extent of variability present in commercial sugarcane fiel...

  18. CP-Sugarcane Research in Florida: Past Achievements and Future Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An economically important disease in Florida is Sugarcane orange rust. This disease has caused yield losses in the major cultivar, CP 80-1743 since it was introduced in 2007. Sugarcane orange rust is causing yield losses and has also caused susceptible cultivars to be discarded from the CP-cultivar ...

  19. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  20. Relationships between sugarcane leaf hyperspectral reflectance, leaf nitrogen content, and yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf spectral reflectance has been used to estimate crop leaf chemical composition and other physiological characters. Leaf reflectance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) may be of use in evaluating genotypes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify sugarcane genotypic variation in leaf hypers...

  1. Varietal susceptibility to the corn wireworm Melanotus Communis (Coleoptera:>Elateridae) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms (larval Elateridae) reduce the stand of newly planted sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) directly by damaging growing points and indirectly by facilitating disease introduction. No research has evaluated resistance or tolerance of sugarcane genotypes grown in Florida. Eleven ge...

  2. Sugarcane Leaf Spectra and Photosynthesis Responses to Millmud Application on a Sand Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yields on sand soils in Florida are much lower than on organic soils and have no improvements during a recent 33-year period. A current study suggested that the sand soil with addition of millmud, a by-product from the sugarcane milling process, significantly improved suga...

  3. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility. PMID:26898688

  4. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  5. Proteomic analysis of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and Sporisorium scitamineum.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ashwin, N M R; Kaverinathan, K; Trentin, Anna Rita; Pivato, Micaela; Sundar, A Ramesh; Malathi, P; Viswanathan, R; Rosana, O B; Neethukrishna, K; Carletti, Paolo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2016-04-01

    Smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is one of the important diseases of sugarcane with global significance. Despite the intriguing nature of sugarcane, S. scitamineum interaction, several pertinent aspects remain unexplored. This study investigates the proteome level alterations occurring in the meristem of a S. scitamineum infected susceptible sugarcane cultivar at whip emergence stage. Differentially abundant proteins were identified by 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Comprehensively, 53 sugarcane proteins identified were related to defence, stress, metabolism, protein folding, energy, and cell division; in addition, a putative effector of S. scitamineum, chorismate mutase, was identified. Transcript expression vis-à-vis the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was relatively higher in the infected meristem. Abundance of seven candidate proteins in 2D gel profiles was in correlation with its corresponding transcript expression levels as validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, this study has opened up new perspectives on the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum. PMID:26857420

  6. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. PMID:25053042

  7. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  8. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  9. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  10. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research Lab Research Compliance Research Integrity & ...

  11. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

  12. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  13. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  14. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  15. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

  16. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

  17. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  18. A global view of transcriptome dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge in sugarcane by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and "ROC"22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24-48 h) occurred earlier than those in "ROC"22 (48-120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion

  19. A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24–48 h) occurred earlier than those in “ROC”22 (48–120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In

  20. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  1. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  2. Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

  3. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  4. Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

  5. Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

    1990-01-01

    This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

  6. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  7. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  8. Flow cytometry reliability analysis and variations in sugarcane DNA content.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A C L; Pasqual, M; Bruzi, A T; Pio, L A S; Mendonça, P M S; Soares, J D R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of flow cytometry analysis and the use of this technique to differentiate species and varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) according to their relative DNA content. We analyzed 16 varieties and three species belonging to this genus. To determine a reliable protocol, we evaluated three extraction buffers (LB01, Marie, and Tris·MgCl2), the presence and absence of RNase, six doses of propidium iodide (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 μg), four periods of exposure to propidium iodide (0, 5, 10, and 20 min), and seven external reference standards (peas, beans, corn, radish, rye, soybean, and tomato) with reference to the coefficient of variation and the DNA content. For statistical analyses, we used the programs Sisvar(®) and Xlstat(®). We recommend using the Marie extraction buffer and at least 15 μg propidium iodide. The samples should not be analyzed immediately after the addition of propidium iodide. The use of RNase is optional, and tomato should be used as an external reference standard. The results show that sugarcane has a variable genome size (8.42 to 12.12 pg/2C) and the individuals analyzed could be separated into four groups according to their DNA content with relative equality in the genome sizes of the commercial varieties. PMID:26125928

  9. ON-FARM ANALYSIS OF PRECISION FARMING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming technologies are becoming increasingly popular. However, few studies have addressed the whole farm and per acre expense of these technologies. A 33-acre farm example is used to establish baseline cost estimates of these technologies. Findings suggest that per acre expense is relati...

  10. Who Becomes Established in Farming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T.; Martinson, Virgil O.

    1971-01-01

    Reports a study of the similarities and differences between individuals presently farming and those who have left farming in Wisconsin. Study is based on Virgil Martinson's 1970 Ph.D. dissertation. (SB)

  11. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

  12. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  13. Down on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a farm program might assist any camp to offer experiential educational opportunities, improve attitudes toward food/nutrition, expand interpersonal relationships, develop work values and responsibility, teach history of food production/hunger. Details program goals, seasonal agricultural work, staffing, tools/equipment, daily…

  14. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  15. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  16. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  17. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  18. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  19. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  20. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  1. Utilization of sugarcane industrial residues as animal food and probiotic medium.

    PubMed

    Apás, Ana Lidia; Arena, Mario Eduardo; Draksler, Diana; González, Silvia Nelina

    2008-10-01

    Sugar production from sugarcane generates residual products, currently, many of which are waste products. At the same time, introduction of probiotic bacteria to food animals needs an economical production medium. Fermentation of sugarcane blunting, an industrial residue, inoculated with ruminant probiotic bacteria was investigated. Fermentation was carried out using native flora (NF) alone, NF plus a goat probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB), and NF plus goat probiotic co-inoculated with two LAB isolated from sugarcane. Survival of microorganisms and metabolite produce were monitored. In the inoculated samples, pH was lower, dry matter was >30%, and Enterobacteriaceae and fungus decreased when compared to natural fermentation. The LAB inoculated grew and multiplied during fermentation. All beneficial changes were more quickly in the co-inoculated samples. The results presented indicate that sugarcane blunting can be used as a medium for introduction of ruminant probiotic bacteria. Fermentation of blunting can prolong shelf life and increase microbiological safety. PMID:19000612

  2. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Sugarcane Genotypes and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel D; Baker, John M; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Creste, Silvana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J

    2016-06-01

    Sugarcane is an important agricultural crop in the economy of tropical regions, and Brazil has the largest cultivated acreage in the world. Sugarcane accumulates high levels of sucrose in its stalks. Other compounds produced by sugarcane are currently not of economic importance. To explore potential coproducts, we have studied the chemical diversity of sugarcane genotypes, via metabolite profiling of leaves by NMR and LC-DAD-MS. Metabolites were identified via in-house and public databases. From the analysis of 60 HPLC-fractionated extracts, LC-DAD-MS detected 144 metabolites, of which 56 were identified (MS-MS and (1)H NMR), including 19 phenolics and 25 flavones, with a predominance of isomeric flavone C-glycosides. Multivariate analysis of the profiles from genotypes utilized in Brazilian breeding programs revealed clustering according to sugar, phenolic acid, and flavone contents. PMID:27152527

  4. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

  5. Current knowledge and practices related to seed transmission of sugarcane pathogens and movement of seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeding programs benefit from sharing genetic resources. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by exchanging vegetative planting material of clones of interest. Diseases can spread during this process, and quarantines were established to enable continued sharing of germplasm while min...

  6. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included. PMID:22019267

  7. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  8. Dilute-acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse with fungal treatment and fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recovering fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification. During pretreatment inhibitory compounds are often formed that impede fermenting microorganisms. Biological detoxification has been identified as a potential method to prepare biomass...

  9. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). PMID:26210150

  10. Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Helma V.; dos Santos, Samuel T.; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Kátia R. dos S.; Reis, Veronica M.; Baldani, José I.

    2008-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA–RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24031296

  11. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  12. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Franco, André L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Pavinato, Paulo S; Cerri, Carlos E P; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central-Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1). These findings added to decreases in (15)N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1) totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased (15)N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO₂ balance of sugarcane ethanol. PMID:25688522

  13. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  14. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W. Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Neto, Adhemar Zerlotini; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes, which hampers sequencing of their genome by standard methods such as WGS. Large tracts of methylated repeats occur at plant genomes interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene enrichment strategies based on methylation profile offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration (MF) with McrBC digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions of sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of MF and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using MF and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The MF allowed the achievement of a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5 times more scaffolds and 1.7 times more assembled Mb compared to unfiltered scaffolds. The coverage of sorghum CDS by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134X the coverage of genic regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds covering all genes at sugarcane BACs, 97.2% of sugarcane ESTs, 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds encoding enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 SNPs in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes were also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  16. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  17. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  18. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. PMID:26470168

  19. Natural aflatoxin uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinaurum L.) and its persistence in jaggery.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, P; Vipin, A V; Karuna, S; Raksha, R K; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-04-01

    The present study focused on aflatoxin (AF) uptake by sugarcanes from contaminated soils, and its persistence in jaggery. Analysis of 25 agricultural soil samples from sugarcane growing fields revealed that 80% were found contaminated with AF ranging from 0.5 to 22 ppb and all samples harbored aflatoxigenic fungi. Forty percent of the juices extracted from sugarcane grown in contaminated soil recorded AF ranging from 1.0 to 9.5 ppb. Conversely, jaggery prepared from those samples was almost free from AF. Further, greenhouse experiment confirms the AF uptake ability of sugarcane plants. Analysis of sugarcane juice and jaggery collected from local vendor showed 21% (0.5 to 6.5 ppb) and 5.6% (0.5-1.0 ppb) of AF contamination, respectively. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain was evaluated for their ability to grow and produce AF on jaggery medium. At 14th day after inoculation, decreased concentration of AF was recorded in jaggery medium ranging from 0 to 120 mg jaggery/ml, above which AF was absent though the fungal growth was noted. From the results, it could be concluded that sugarcane plants have the ability to uptake AF from contaminated soil, but AF was reduced during jaggery preparation. Also, higher concentration of jaggery was inhibitory to AF production. PMID:25408078

  20. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Renato; Bottcher, Alexandra; Brito, Michael dos Santos; dos Santos, Adriana Brombini; Creste, Silvana; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome. PMID:26241317

  1. [Trait stability and test site representativeness of sugarcane varieties based on GGE-biplot analysis].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Deng, Zu-Hu; Que, You-Xiong

    2012-05-01

    Arithmetic mean method is commonly used to evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties, and variance analysis is applied to estimate the errors in regional trials. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the varieties due to the discrepancies across test sites and years. In this paper, GGE-biplot method was adopted to analyze the data from the regional trials with seven sugarcane varieties at five sites from 2008 to 2009, aimed to objectively evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties in China. Among the test sugarcane varieties, Funong No. 30 had higher cane yield and better yield stability, Yuegan No. 18 had higher sugar content and better trait stability, Funong No. 28 and Yunzhe 99-91 had high sucrose content and trait stability, while Yuegan No. 16 had the highest cane yield and sugar content but ordinary stability. In the test sites, Zhangzhou City in Fujian Province and Suixi City in Guangdong Province had the best representativeness and discrimination. This study showed that GGE-biplot analysis provided a simple and effective method to analyze the high yield and stability of sugarcane varieties in regional trials, and supplied the basis for the approval and extension of new sugarcane varieties. PMID:22919843

  2. Endophytic Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates from sugarcane obtained through different culture strategies.

    PubMed

    Rouws, Luc Felicianus Marie; Leite, Jakson; de Matos, Gustavo Feitosa; Zilli, Jerri Edson; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Reis, Verônica Massena; Baldani, José Ivo

    2014-08-01

    Brazilian sugarcane has been shown to obtain part of its nitrogen via biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Recent reports, based on the culture independent sequencing of bacterial nifH complementary DNA (cDNA) from sugarcane tissues, have suggested that members of the Bradyrhizobium genus could play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF. Here we report on the isolation of Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates and a few other species from roots of sugarcane cultivar RB867515 by two cultivation strategies: direct isolation on culture media and capture of Bradyrhizobium spp. using the promiscuous legume Vigna unguiculata as trap-plant. Both strategies permitted the isolation of genetically diverse Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, as concluded from enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA, nifH and nodC sequence analyses. Several isolates presented nifH phylotypes highly similar to nifH cDNA phylotypes detected in field-grown sugarcane by a culture-independent approach. Four isolates obtained by direct plate cultivation were unable to nodulate V. unguiculata and, based on PCR analysis, lacked a nodC gene homologue. Acetylene reduction assay showed in vitro nitrogenase activity for some Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, suggesting that these bacteria do not require a nodule environment for BNF. Therefore, this study brings further evidence that Bradyrhizobium spp. may play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF under field conditions. PMID:24992534

  3. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  4. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  5. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  6. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  7. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  8. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  9. Farm Work-Related Asthma Among US Primary Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; White, Gretchen E.; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%–68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%–45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention. PMID:25635741

  10. Limited Genetic Diversity in the Endophytic Sugarcane Bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

    1994-01-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus isolates that originated from different sugarcane cultivars growing in diverse geographic regions of Mexico and Brazil were shown to have limited genetic diversity. Measurements of polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobilities of metabolic enzymes revealed that the mean genetic diversity per enzyme locus (among the four electrophoretic types distinguished) was 0.064. The results of the genetic analysis indicate that the genetic structure of A. diazotrophicus is clonal, with one largely predominant clone. Plasmids were present in 20 of 24 isolates, and the molecular sizes of the plasmids ranged from 2.0 to 170 kb. Two plasmids (a 20- to 24-kb plasmid detected in all 20 plasmid-containing isolates and a 170-kb plasmid observed in 14 isolates) were highly conserved among the isolates examined. Regardless of the presence of plasmids, all of the isolates shared a common pattern of nif structural gene organization on the chromosome. Images PMID:16349254

  11. Tissue-specific cell wall hydration in sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Priscila; Jong, Jennifer; Mendes, Fernanda M; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Eder, Michaela; Driemeier, Carlos

    2013-06-19

    Plant cell walls contain water, especially under biological and wet processing conditions. The present work characterizes this water in tissues of sugarcane stalks. Environmental scanning electron microscopy shows tissue deformation upon drying. Dynamic vapor sorption determines the equilibrium and kinetics of moisture uptake. Thermoporometry by differential scanning calorimetry quantifies water in nanoscale pores. Results show that cell walls from top internodes of stalks are more deformable, slightly more sorptive to moisture, and substantially more porous. These differences of top internode are attributed to less lignified walls, which is confirmed by lower infrared spectral signal from aromatics. Furthermore, cell wall nanoscale porosity, an architectural and not directly compositional characteristic, is shown to be tissue-specific. Nanoscale porosities are ranked as follows: pith parenchyma > pith vascular bundles > rind. This ranking coincides with wall reactivity and digestibility in grasses, suggesting that nanoscale porosity is a major determinant of wall recalcitrance. PMID:23738592

  12. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  13. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. PMID:24463731

  14. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  15. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Zhou, H; Pan, Y-B; Chen, C Y; Zhu, J R; Chen, P H; Li, Y-R; Cai, Q; Chen, R K

    2015-01-01

    No information is available on segregation analysis of DNA markers involving both pollen and self-progeny. Therefore, we used capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-based DNA fingerprinting together with single pollen collection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker segregation among 964 single pollens and 288 self-progenies (S1) of sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384. Twenty SSR DNA fragments (alleles) were amplified by five polymorphic SSR markers. Only one non-parental SSR allele was observed in 2392 PCRs. SSR allele inheritance was in accordance with Mendelian laws of segregation and independent assortment. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found between frequencies of observed and expected genotypes in pollen and S1 populations. Within the S1 population, the most frequent genotype of each SSR marker was the parental genotype of the same marker. The number of genotypes was higher in pollen than S1 population. PIC values of the five SSR markers were greater in pollen than S1 populations. Eleven of 20 SSR alleles (55%) were segregated in accordance with Mendelian segregation ratios expected from pollen and S1 populations of a 2n = 10x polyploid. Six of 20 SSR alleles were segregated in a 3:1 (presence:absence) ratio and were simplex markers. Four and one alleles were segregated in 77:4 and 143:1 ratios and considered duplex and triplex markers, respectively. Segregation ratios of remaining alleles were unexplainable. The results provide information about selection of crossing parents, estimation of seedling population optimal size, and promotion of efficient selection, which may be valuable for sugarcane breeders. PMID:26782486

  16. Dissolved Organic Carbon in Groundwater Overlain by Irrigated Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Thayalakumaran, Thabo; Lenahan, Matthew J; Bristow, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been detected in groundwater beneath irrigated sugarcane on the Burdekin coastal plain of tropical northeast Australia. The maximum value of 82 mg/L is to our knowledge the highest DOC reported for groundwater beneath irrigated cropping systems. More than half of the groundwater sampled in January 2004 (n = 46) exhibited DOC concentrations greater than 30 mg/L. DOC was progressively lower in October 2004 and January 2005, with a total decrease greater than 90% indicating varying load(s) to the aquifer. It was hypothesized that the elevated DOC found in this groundwater system is sourced at or near the soil surface and supplied to the aquifer via vertical recharge following above average rainfall. Possible sources of DOC include organic-rich sugar mill by-products applied as fertilizer and/or sugarcane sap released during harvest. CFC-12 vertical flow rates supported the hypothesis that elevated DOC (>40 mg/L) in the groundwater results from recharge events in which annual precipitation exceeds 1500 mm/year (average = 960 mm/year). Occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations, absence of electron acceptors (O2 and NO3 (-) ) and both Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) greater than 1 mg/L in shallow groundwater suggest that the DOC compounds are chemically labile. The consequence of high concentrations of labile DOC may be positive (e.g., denitrification) or negative (e.g., enhanced metal mobility and biofouling), and highlights the need to account for a wider range of water quality parameters when considering the impacts of land use on the ecology of receiving waters and/or suitability of groundwater for irrigated agriculture. PMID:25213667

  17. Kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in maturing sugarcane culm tissue.

    PubMed

    Uys, Lafras; Botha, Frederik C; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S; Rohwer, Johann M

    2007-01-01

    Biochemically, it is not completely understood why or how commercial varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are able to accumulate sucrose in high concentrations. Such concentrations are obtained despite the presence of sucrose synthesis/breakdown cycles (futile cycling) in the culm of the storage parenchyma. Given the complexity of the process, kinetic modelling may help to elucidate the factors governing sucrose accumulation or direct the design of experimental optimisation strategies. This paper describes the extension of an existing model of sucrose accumulation (Rohwer, J.M., Botha, F.C., 2001. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data. Biochem. J. 358, 437-445) to account for isoforms of sucrose synthase and fructokinase, carbon partitioning towards fibre formation, and the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyrophosphate-dependent PFK and aldolase. Moreover, by including data on the maximal activity of the enzymes as measured in different internodes, a growth model was constructed that describes the metabolic behaviour as sugarcane parenchymal tissue matures from internodes 3-10. While there was some discrepancy between modelled and experimentally determined steady-state sucrose concentrations in the cytoplasm, steady-state fluxes showed a better fit. The model supports a hypothesis of vacuolar sucrose accumulation against a concentration gradient. A detailed metabolic control analysis of sucrose synthase showed that each isoform has a unique control profile. Fructose uptake by the cell and sucrose uptake by the vacuole had a negative control on the futile cycling of sucrose and a positive control on sucrose accumulation, while the control profile for neutral invertase was reversed. When the activities of these three enzymes were changed from their reference values, the effects on futile cycling and sucrose accumulation were amplified. The model can be run online at the JWS Online

  18. Acoustic detection of melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Samson, P R; Chandler, K J

    2009-08-01

    Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and management of root-feeding white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in Queensland, Australia, sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), based partly on manual inspection of soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were conducted to detect the major pests Dermolepida albohirtum (Waterhouse) near Mackay, and Antitrogus parvulus Britton near Bundaberg. Computer analyses were developed to identify distinctive scrapes and other sounds produced by D. albohirtum and Antitrogus species and to distinguish them from sounds of nondamaging white grubs (Rutelinae, Dynastinae), as well as from extraneous, wind-induced tapping signals. Procedures were considered for incorporating acoustic methods into surveys and sequential sampling plans. Digging up and inspecting sugarcane root systems requires 10-12 min per sample, but acoustic assessments can be obtained in 3-5 min, so labor and time could be reduced by beginning the surveys with acoustic sampling. In a typical survey conducted in a field with low population densities, sampling might terminate quickly after five negative acoustic samples, establishing a desired precision level of 0.25 but avoiding the effort of excavating and inspecting empty samples. With a high population density, sampling might terminate also if signals were detected in five samples, in which case it would be beneficial to excavate the samples and count the white grubs. In intermediate populations, it might be necessary to collect up to 20 samples to achieve desired precision, and acoustic methods could help determine which samples would be best to excavate. PMID:19736765

  19. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  20. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.