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Sample records for nickel 51

  1. Nickel.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    Nickel is an essential element for at least several animal species. These animal studies associate nickel deprivation with depressed growth, reduced reproductive rates, and alterations of serum lipids and glucose. Although there is substantial evidence of an essential status for nickel in animals, a deficiency state in humans has not been clearly defined. Nickel is a silver-white metal with siderophilic properties that facilitate the formation of nickel-iron alloys. In contrast to the soluble nickel salts (chloride, nitrate, sulfate), metallic nickel, nickel sulfides, and nickel oxides are poorly water-soluble. Nickel carbonyl is a volatile liquid at room temperature that decomposes rapidly into carbon monoxide and nickel. Drinking water and food are the main sources of exposure for the general population with the average American diet containing about 300 micrograms Ni/d. Nickel is highly mobile in soil, particularly in acid soils. There is little evidence that nickel compounds accumulate in the food chain. Nickel is not a cumulative toxin in animals or in humans. Almost all cases of acute nickel toxicity result from exposure to nickel carbonyl. The initial effects involve irritation of the respiratory tract and nonspecific symptoms. Patients with severe poisoning develop intense pulmonary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and cerebral edema are the main cause of death. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is an investigational drug used to chelate nickel following exposure to nickel carbonyl. Nickel is a common sensitizing agent with a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel and nickel compounds are well-recognized carcinogens. However, the identity of the nickel compound or compounds, which cause the increased risk of cancer, remains unclear. Currently, there are little epidemiological data to indicate that exposure to metallic nickel increases the risk of cancer, or that exposure to the carcinogenic forms of nickel causes

  2. Nickel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  3. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  4. Nickel Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... content of the products for sale. Use substitute materials Look for safer substitutes for common nickel-containing ... opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  5. Nickel nanofibers synthesized by the electrospinning method

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Yi; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhu, Yajun; Li, Bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingcheng; Feng, Yi

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► The nickel nanofibers have been obtained by electrospinning method. ► The nickel nanofibers had rough surface which was consisted of mass nanoparticles. ► The average diameter of nickel nanofibers is about 135 nm and high degree of crystallization. ► The Hc, Ms, and Mr were estimated to be 185 Oe, 51.9 and 16.9 emu/g respectively. - Abstract: In this paper, nickel nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol/nickel nitrate precursor solution followed by high temperature calcination in air and deoxidation in hydrogen atmosphere. The thermal stability of the as-electrospun PVA/Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} composite nanofibers were characterized by TG–DSC. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electronmicroscope (FE-SEM) and field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The hysteresis loops (M–H loops) were measured by Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The results indicate that: the PVA and the nickel nitrate were almost completely decomposed at 460 °C and the products were pure nickel nanofibers with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared nickel nanofibers had a continuous structure with rough surface and high degree of crystallization. The average diameter of nickel nanofibers was about 135 nm. The nanofibers showed a stronger coercivity of 185 Oe than value of bulk nickel.

  6. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  9. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  10. Calcination of Nickel Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klačanská, Michaela; Kobetičová, Hana; Soldán, Maroš; Haršáni, Marián; Kuracina, Marcel

    2017-06-01

    Different characterizations were carried out on uncalcinated nickel mud and samples calcined in the temperature range of 200-600 °C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structure transition of the nickel mud heated from room temperature are indicated by SEM, EDX analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samples of nickel mud were collected in Sereď, where nickel was produced from Albanian iron-nickel ore. It was found that calcination has effect on the structure and composition of nickel mud. The obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of nickel mud.

  11. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  12. 22 CFR 51.51 - Passport fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passport fees. 51.51 Section 51.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.51 Passport fees. The Department collects the following passport fees in the amounts prescribed in the Schedule of Fees for Consular...

  13. 22 CFR 51.51 - Passport fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passport fees. 51.51 Section 51.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.51 Passport fees. The Department collects the following passport fees in the amounts prescribed in the Schedule of Fees for Consular...

  14. 22 CFR 51.51 - Passport fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Passport fees. 51.51 Section 51.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.51 Passport fees. The Department collects the following passport fees in the amounts prescribed in the Schedule of Fees for Consular...

  15. 22 CFR 51.51 - Passport fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passport fees. 51.51 Section 51.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.51 Passport fees. The Department collects the following passport fees in the amounts prescribed in the Schedule of Fees for Consular...

  16. 22 CFR 51.51 - Passport fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passport fees. 51.51 Section 51.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.51 Passport fees. The Department collects the following passport fees in the amounts prescribed in the Schedule of Fees for Consular...

  17. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  18. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  19. Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Mazin, Alexander V.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Chen, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3. To further characterize a subset of these proteins, recombinant Rad51, Rad51B-(His)(6), and Rad51C proteins were individually expressed employing the baculovirus system, and each was purified from Sf9 insect cells. Evidence from nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid pull-down experiments demonstrates a highly stable Rad51B.Rad51C heterodimer, which interacts weakly with Rad51. Rad51B and Rad51C proteins were found to bind single- and double-stranded DNA and to preferentially bind 3'-end-tailed double-stranded DNA. The ability to bind DNA was elevated with mixed Rad51 and Rad51C, as well as with mixed Rad51B and Rad51C, compared with that of the individual protein. In addition, both Rad51B and Rad51C exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Rad51C displays an ATP-independent apparent DNA strand exchange activity, whereas Rad51B shows no such activity; this apparent strand exchange ability results actually from a duplex DNA destabilization capability of Rad51C. By analogy to the yeast Rad55 and Rad57, our results suggest that Rad51B and Rad51C function through interactions with the human Rad51 recombinase and play a crucial role in the homologous recombinational repair pathway.

  20. Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Mazin, Alexander V.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Chen, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3. To further characterize a subset of these proteins, recombinant Rad51, Rad51B-(His)(6), and Rad51C proteins were individually expressed employing the baculovirus system, and each was purified from Sf9 insect cells. Evidence from nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid pull-down experiments demonstrates a highly stable Rad51B.Rad51C heterodimer, which interacts weakly with Rad51. Rad51B and Rad51C proteins were found to bind single- and double-stranded DNA and to preferentially bind 3'-end-tailed double-stranded DNA. The ability to bind DNA was elevated with mixed Rad51 and Rad51C, as well as with mixed Rad51B and Rad51C, compared with that of the individual protein. In addition, both Rad51B and Rad51C exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Rad51C displays an ATP-independent apparent DNA strand exchange activity, whereas Rad51B shows no such activity; this apparent strand exchange ability results actually from a duplex DNA destabilization capability of Rad51C. By analogy to the yeast Rad55 and Rad57, our results suggest that Rad51B and Rad51C function through interactions with the human Rad51 recombinase and play a crucial role in the homologous recombinational repair pathway.

  1. Nickel transfer by fingers.

    PubMed

    Isnardo, D; Vidal, J; Panyella, D; Vilaplana, J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated fingers as a potential source of nickel transfer to the face in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and a history of facial dermatitis. Samples were collected from the fingers and cheeks of volunteers using the stripping method with standard adhesive tape, and nickel levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. Fingers and cheeks of individuals who had handled coins were both positive for nickel, with levels ranging from 14.67 to 58.64 ppm and 1.28 to 8.52 ppm, respectively. The levels in a control group were considerably and significantly lower. Transfer of nickel from a person's fingers to their face after handling a nickel-containing object could explain the presence of facial dermatitis in patients with nickel hypersensitivity.

  2. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Joyce

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these "real" systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF2O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  3. Fabrication of nickel microbump on aluminum using electroless nickel plating

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Honma, H.

    1997-02-01

    Fabrication of nickel microbumps on an aluminum electrode using a nickel displacement and a direct nickel plating process was investigated. Electroless nickel plating reaction with hypophosphite as a reducing agent was not initiated on the aluminum substrate, because aluminum does not have catalytic action on the oxidation of hypophosphite. Accordingly, nickel was initially deposited on the aluminum using nickel displacement plating for the initiation of the electroless plating. Nickel bumps on the aluminum electrode were fabricated by treatment of the nickel displacement plating followed by electroless nickel plating. Nickel microbumps also can be formed on the aluminum electrode without the displacement plating process. Activation of the aluminum surface is an indispensable process to initiate electroless nickel plating. Uniform bumps 20 {micro}m wide and 15 {micro}m high with good configuration were obtained by direct nickel plating after being activated with dimethyl amine borane.

  4. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  5. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  6. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  7. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  8. The nickel problem.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Dalmau, L

    1982-07-01

    Clinical use of the new base-metal alloys in restorative dentistry involves a risk for both dentist and patient. It is the responsibility of the dentist to determine if a patient is allergic to nickel prior to treatment with a restoration containing a nickel alloy. A patch test is recommended for nickel sensitivity in every patient when such a restoration is planned. In addition, the dentist should include in the work authorization order to the dental laboratory the type of alloy he wants for a particular patient. The dentist should be prepared to check for the presence of nickel in a casting suspected of containing it using the dimethylglyoxime test. The evaluation record for nickel sensitivity should include the patient's name, age, history of allergies, medication, name of drug, dosage, and reaction. The record should be kept in the patient's chart.

  9. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Nickel Allergy: What Is the Role of the Low Nickel Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Angela; Nucera, Eleonora; Laterza, Lucrezia; Gaetani, Eleonora; Valenza, Venanzio; Corbo, Giuseppe M; Inchingolo, Riccardo; Buonomo, Alessandro; Schiavino, Domenico; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by abnormal bowel movements. In sensitized subjects, ingested nickel (Ni) may induce gastrointestinal symptoms similar to IBS, in addition to typical systemic cutaneous lesions (systemic nickel allergy syndrome [SNAS]). A low nickel diet could improve the systemic manifestations. We evaluated prevalence of nickel allergy in IBS and effects of low Ni diet on (1) gastrointestinal symptoms control, (2) intestinal barrier function, (3) quality of life, and (4) psychological status of patients with IBS and Ni-sensitized patients. Methods Twenty consecutive patients affected by IBS and suspected SNAS underwent intestinal permeability tests. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the visual analogue scale before and after 3 months low Ni diet. Subjects with increased intestinal permeability at baseline repeated nuclear examination after the diet. Results The most frequent profile was diarrhea-predominant IBS (8/20). The low Ni diet induced a significant and constant improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and an equally significant improvement of visual analogue scale. Mean urinary output of 51Chromium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (51Cr-EDTA) was 5.91%/24 hr (± 2.08), significantly different from the control group (2.20%/24 hr ± 0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusion This pilot study shows that low Ni diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS and SNAS. PMID:28049864

  11. Electric explosion nickel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, A. B.; Aliev, B. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the morphology of the nickel nanopowders synthesized by an electric explosion of a metallic wire are comprehensively studied. The results of scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the nickel nanoclusters have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. An analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrates that the lattice parameter of the electric explosion nanopowder particles is larger than the standard parameter. The results of computer experiments agree well with the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction data. However, the causes of the lattice distortion in the nickel nanoclusters are still debatable.

  12. Nickel Curie point engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient heat source. A simple but elegant device illustrates this phenomenon beautifully.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for....1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from nickel ore by transforming...

  14. Production method of nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, H.; Ohira, T.

    1982-01-01

    A nickel electrode having improved charging efficiency, an increased coefficient of discharging utilization, and large capacity is disclosed. Nickel hydroxide or nickel oxide is retained in a porous nickel substrate which is immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt acetate with a pH 4.0 to 6.8. The electrode thus obtained is then immersed in an alkaline solution or heated to change cobalt acetate into cobalt hydroxide or cobalt oxide whereby the surface of nickel active material is covered with cobalt crystals and alloying of cobalt and nickel is promoted at the same time.

  15. Soil, nickel and low nickel food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Mimiola, Giancarlo; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Nickel is an ubiquitous trace element and occurs in soil, water, air and in the biosphere. Ni is an essential element for several plants, microorganisms and vertebrates. Human requirement for Ni has not been conclusively demonstrated. Nickel is normally present in human tissues at low concentration and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. Food is the major source of Ni exposure. Nickel is present in many food products, especially vegetables. The amount of Ni present in vegetables is increasing because of environmental contamination and cultural practices. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of a Ni-rich diet can cause an increase of immunological disorders including Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS patients are currently treated with a diet that is closely Ni-free. Therefore, there is a need to produce certified and guaranteed vegetables with a low Ni concentration in the market. The proposed research aims to develop new methods for vegetable production and innovative cultural practices through a suitable choice of agricultural soil, cultivar, amendments and fertilizers as well as good agricultural practices in order to reduce Ni plant uptake and its translocation to the edible plant parts and therefore to produce Ni-free food products for SNAS patients.

  16. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list.

  17. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  18. Lightweight Cathodes For Nickel Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight cathodes for rechargeable nickel-based electrochemical cells undergoing development. In cathodes, mats of nickel fibers are substrates providing structural support of, and electrical contact with, active cathode material. Offers specific energies greater than sintered nickel plaque cathodes. Electrodes used in rechargeable batteries for applications in which weight major concern, including laptop computers, cellular phones, flashlights, soldiers' backpacks, and electric vehicles.

  19. Progress in nickel toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.S.; Sunderman, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Nickel Metabolism and Toxicology was held at the PLM St Jacques Hotel in Paris in September 1984, under the joint sponsorship of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the Association of Clinical Scientists, and the Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association (NiPERA). The Paris Conference was attended by 150 participants from 19 countries, including many of the world's authorities on nickel in the areas of trace analysis, biochemistry, radiochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, immunology, industrial hygiene, epidemiology, occupational health and clinical medicine. The text of the Richard T. Barton memorial lecture and synopses of the scientific papers that were presented at the Conference are published in this volume.

  20. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  1. Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

  2. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  3. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  5. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  6. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  7. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  8. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  9. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  10. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  11. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  12. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  13. Commission 51: Bioastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Boss, Alan; Cosmovici, Cristiano; Kwok, Sun; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Morrison, David; Udry, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    Commission 51 met on August 12, 2009. Outgoing President Alan Boss chaired the meeting, and there were several dozen members present, including incoming President William Irvine, incoming Vice President Pascale Ehrenfreund, and outgoing Past President Karen Meech. Commission 51 (C51) was re-authorized for a term of six more years at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, and hence comes up for renewal at the 2012 IAU General Assembly in Beijing, China.

  14. NICKEL ALLERGY: Surgeons Beware.

    PubMed

    Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.

  15. Nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, E. J.; Turchan, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A high energy density nickel cadmium cell of aerospace quality was designed. The approach used was to utilize manufacturing techniques which produce highly uniform and controlled starting materials in addition to improvements in the overall design. Parameters controlling the production of plaque and both positive and negative plate were studied. Quantities of these materials were produced and prototype cells were assembled to test the proposed design.

  16. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOEpatents

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  17. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  18. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  19. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  20. Nickel contact hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B; Licht, Jonah; Friedler, Suzanne; Sethi, Shika; Laude, Teresita A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent allergy in North America, with an incidence of 14.3%. It is on the rise from 10 years ago, when the incidence was 10%. This has been presumed to represent an increased exposure to nickel in the environment-especially in costume jewelry and belt buckles. We examined a group of 30 pediatric patients who had either a personal history of umbilical or wrist dermatitis, or a family history of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. All of these patients had a positive patch test to nickel sulfate 5%. Moreover, 50% of patients had an id reaction; all of these patients had positive patch tests that were papular in nature, similar to their papular id reaction. We posit that the presence of a positive family history may be a positive predictor of nickel allergic contact dermatitis, requiring nickel avoidance, especially in atopic children. Based on the high level of positive reactions in patients with umbilical dermatitis and an id reaction, patch testing to nickel in these patients is most likely to yield a useful result. Knowledge of reactivity to nickel would then allow parents and patients to initiate nickel avoidance earlier in life.

  1. 42 CFR 51.11-51.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 51.11-51.20 Section 51.11-51.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §§ 51.11-51.20 ...

  2. 42 CFR 51.11-51.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 51.11-51.20 Section 51.11-51.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §§ 51.11-51.20 ...

  3. 42 CFR 51.11-51.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 51.11-51.20 Section 51.11-51.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §§ 51.11-51.20 ...

  4. 42 CFR 51.11-51.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 51.11-51.20 Section 51.11-51.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §§ 51.11-51.20 ...

  5. 42 CFR 51.11-51.20 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 51.11-51.20 Section 51.11-51.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Basic Requirements §§ 51.11-51.20 ...

  6. Lightweight Electrode For Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved substrate for nickel electrode increases specific energy of nickel/hydrogen cell. Consists of 50 percent by weight nickel fiber, 35 percent nickel powder, and 15 percent cobalt powder. Porosity and thickness of nickel electrodes affect specific energy, initial performance, and cycle life of cell. Substrate easily manufactured with much larger porosities than those of heavy-sintered state-of-art nickel substrate.

  7. Influence of injected silver content on synthesis of silver coated nickel particles by DC thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Si Taek; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-coated spherical nickel particles were prepared from a mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel as raw materials by DC thermal plasma treatment. The mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel powders was injected into the high-temperature region of an argon thermal plasma jet. Although the silver, with its very high thermal conductivity and relatively low boiling point, was thoroughly evaporated by this process, nickel was not evaporated perfectly because of its comparatively low thermal conductivity and high boiling point. The rough nickel powder was spheroidized as it melted. Finally, silver evaporated by the thermal plasma quickly condensed into nanoparticles on the surfaces of the micro-sized spherical nickel particles, aided by the sharp temperature gradient of the thermal plasma jet. With varying the ratios of silver to nickel feedstock from 1:10 to 5:1, the products synthesized in each condition were examined by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, and FE-TEM. More silver nanoparticles were attached on the nickel by increasing the injected feedstock to 9.8 at% silver. Meanwhile, a decrease of silver in the products was observed when larger amounts of silver were introduced to the thermal plasma jet. The exposed silver components decreased with greater proportions of silver feedstock because of the metal's dendritic structure and the formation of silver-coated silver particles.

  8. Galaxy Messier 51

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-25

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer took this image of the spiral galaxy Messier 51 on June 19 and 20, 2003. Messier 51 is located 27 million light-years from Earth. Due to a lack of star formation, the companion galaxy in the top of the picture is barely visible as a near ultraviolet object. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04628

  9. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  10. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  11. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  12. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  13. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  14. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  15. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  16. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  17. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  18. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  19. Nickel: Impact on horticultural characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge by practitioners regarding the potential impact of nickel nutritional physiology on pecan orchard profitability is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recogni...

  20. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    PubMed

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  1. Electroformed Nickel-Graphite Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong-Skiba, Pei

    2005-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomy will demand larger optics than Chandra, currently in orbit. Ways must be devised to produce cheaper and lighter x-ray mirrors to save the cost of manufacturing and launching this future telescope. One technique, being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center and elsewhere, is electroformed nickel replication technique, wherein mirror shells are electroformed (using pure nickel or a nickel alloy) onto super-polished and figured aluminum mandrels and are subsequently released by cooling. This technique can produce relatively inexpensive mirrors, but is hampered by the high density of nickel (8.9 g / cm3). An alternative is to develop a composite, with lower mass density and compatible mechanical properties to the nickel cobalt alloy, as the mirror shell material.

  2. Deep eutectic solvent approach towards nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Gage, Samuel H.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; ...

    2016-12-15

    Nickel nitride is an attractive material for a broad range of applications including catalysis. However preparations and especially those targeting nanoscale particles remain a major challenge. Herein, we report a wet-chemical approach to produce nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites using deep eutectic solvents. A choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent was used as a reaction medium to form gels containing nickel acetate tetrahydrate. Heat treatment of the gel in inert atmosphere forms nanoparticles embedded within a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to understand the decomposition profile of the precursors and to select pyrolysis temperatures locatedmore » in regions of thermal stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of metallic nickel, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the existence of a nickel nitride surface layer. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis these mixed phase, possibly core-shell type nanoparticles, have very defined facets. Furthermore, these materials represent a unique opportunity to tune catalytic properties of nickel-based catalysts through control of their composition, surface structure, and morphology; in addition to employing potential benefits of a nitrogen-doped carbon support.« less

  3. Deep eutectic solvent approach towards nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, Samuel H.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Richards, Ryan M.

    2016-12-15

    Nickel nitride is an attractive material for a broad range of applications including catalysis. However preparations and especially those targeting nanoscale particles remain a major challenge. Herein, we report a wet-chemical approach to produce nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites using deep eutectic solvents. A choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent was used as a reaction medium to form gels containing nickel acetate tetrahydrate. Heat treatment of the gel in inert atmosphere forms nanoparticles embedded within a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to understand the decomposition profile of the precursors and to select pyrolysis temperatures located in regions of thermal stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of metallic nickel, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the existence of a nickel nitride surface layer. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis these mixed phase, possibly core-shell type nanoparticles, have very defined facets. Furthermore, these materials represent a unique opportunity to tune catalytic properties of nickel-based catalysts through control of their composition, surface structure, and morphology; in addition to employing potential benefits of a nitrogen-doped carbon support.

  4. 42 CFR 51.33-51.40 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 51.33-51.40 Section 51.33-51.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services §§ 51.33...

  5. 42 CFR 51.33-51.40 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 51.33-51.40 Section 51.33-51.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services §§ 51.33...

  6. 42 CFR 51.33-51.40 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 51.33-51.40 Section 51.33-51.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services §§ 51.33...

  7. 42 CFR 51.33-51.40 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 51.33-51.40 Section 51.33-51.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services §§ 51.33...

  8. 42 CFR 51.33-51.40 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 51.33-51.40 Section 51.33-51.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services §§ 51.33...

  9. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in...

  10. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  11. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between 'cauliflower' like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  12. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  13. Nickel solvent extraction from cold purification filter cakes of Angouran mine concentrate using LIX984N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balesini, A. A.; Zakeri, A.; Razavizadeh, H.; Khani, A.

    2013-11-01

    Cold purification filter cakes generated in the hydrometallurgical processing of Angouran mine zinc concentrate commonly contain significant amounts of Zn, Cd, and Ni ions and thus are valuable resources for metal recovery. In this research, a nickel containing solution that was obtained from sulfuric acid leaching of the filter cake following cadmium and zinc removal was subjected to solvent extraction experiments using 10vol% LIX984N diluted in kerosene. Under optimum experimental conditions (pH 5.3, volume ratio of organic/aqueous (O:A) = 2:1, and contact time = 5 min), more than 97.1% of nickel was extracted. Nickel was stripped from the loaded organic by contacting with a 200 g/L sulfuric acid solution, from which 77.7% of nickel was recovered in a single contact at the optimum conditions (pH 1-1.5, O:A = 5:1, and contact time = 15 min).

  14. Recent Advances in Nickel Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Standley, Eric A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Preface The field of nickel catalysis has made tremendous advances in the past decade. There are several key properties of nickel that have allowed for a broad range of innovative reaction development, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and leveraged to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Herein, we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism. PMID:24828188

  15. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  16. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  17. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  18. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  19. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  20. Nickel-Magnesia Cermet Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-06-01

    alumin " oxide cermet. To develop a bond between these tw components it in first necessary to produce a controlled film of Cr 203 on the Cr grains...somewhat more refractory. A cobalt - magnesia cermet may be made in the same way as the nickel - magnesia cermet, the bond being through the agency...of the oxide CoO. However, cobalt is not as oxidation resistant as nickel and is more strategic. Iron will wet probably all oxides and silicates and

  1. Nickel uptake in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.; Mallick, S.; Maier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    Free-living Bradyrhizobium japonicum grown heterotrophically with 1 ..mu..M /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ accumulated label. Strain SR470, a Hup/sup c/ mutant, accumulated almost 10-fold more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ on a per-cell basis than did strain SR, the wild type. Nongrowing cells were also able to accumulate nickel over a 2-h period, with the Hup/sup c/ mutant strain SR470 again accumulating significantly more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ than strain SR. These results suggest that this mutant is constitutive for nickel uptake as well as for hydrogenase expression. The uptake process was relatively specific for nickel; only Cu/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ (10 ..mu..M) were found to appreciably inhibit the uptake of 1 ..mu..M Ni, while a 10-fold excess of Mg/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ did not affect Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake. The lack of inhibition by Mg/sup 2 +/ indicates that nickel is not transported by a magnesium uptake system. Nickel uptake was also inhibited by cold and slightly by the ionophores nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The cytochrome c oxidase inhibitors azide, cyanide, and hydroxylamine did not inhibit Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake, even at concentrations (of cyanide and hydroxylamine) that inhibited O/sub 2/ uptake. The addition of oxidizable substrates such as succinate or gluconate did not increase nickel uptake, even though they increased respiratory activity. Nickel uptake showed a pH dependence with an optimum at 6.0. Most (approximately 85%) of the /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ taken up in 1 min by strain SR470 was not exchangeable with cold nickel.

  2. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  3. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  4. Nickel and the Carbon Cycle†

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    This article, dedicated to Edward Stiefel, reviews three nickel enzymes that play important roles in the carbon cycle: CO dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA synthase, and methyl-coenzyme M reductase. After a short discussion of the carbon cycle, the structures of the active centers of the proteins and their proposed mechanisms are discussed. A brief description of future research areas is presented for each enzyme system. A short perspective on future research on nickel enzymes ends this contribution. PMID:17716738

  5. 42 CFR 51.28-51.30 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 51.28-51.30 Section 51.28-51.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Program Administration and Priorities...

  6. 42 CFR 51.28-51.30 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 51.28-51.30 Section 51.28-51.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Program Administration and Priorities...

  7. 42 CFR 51.28-51.30 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 51.28-51.30 Section 51.28-51.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Program Administration and Priorities...

  8. 42 CFR 51.28-51.30 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 51.28-51.30 Section 51.28-51.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Program Administration and Priorities...

  9. 42 CFR 51.28-51.30 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 51.28-51.30 Section 51.28-51.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Program Administration and Priorities...

  10. 28 CFR 51.51 - Purpose of the subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the subpart. 51.51 Section 51.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General §...

  11. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  12. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  13. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  14. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-37-059 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- The mouth of the Betsiboka River in northwest Madagascar is seen. The estuary at Mahajanga is being quickly filled with river borne sediments due to poor land management, mainly deforest-action in the river basin. Changes in the estuary can be seen from one Shuttle flight to the next.

  16. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-37-014 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- This Earth view shows Oregon and Washington including metropolitan Portland at the center. The Columbia River can be seen from Goble (upper left) upstream to Bonneville (upper right). The Willamette River is at the lower photo and seen upstream to east of McMinnville.

  17. 51B earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51B-33-028 (29 April-6 May 1985) --- An excellent view of the Finger Lakes area of New York, and including Lake Ontario and a small part of Ontario. The lakes are fjord-like remnants of the glacial era. The cities of Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica can be seen.

  18. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-40-017 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- The great peaks and massive system of glaciers of the Karakoram Range of northern Pakistan are seen in this unique photo. The area is just of the west of Mount Godwin-Austen with peaks up to 26,000 feet. The Hispar Glacier is at the lower right.

  19. Experiments shed new light on nickel-fluorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Gunther, W.; Jarry, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Isotopic tracer experiments and scale-impingement experiments show fluorine to be the migrating species through the nickel fluoride scale formed during the fluorination of nickel. This is in contrast to nickel oxide scales, where nickel is the migrating species.

  20. Nickel-Resistant Bacteria from Anthropogenically Nickel-Polluted and Naturally Nickel-Percolated Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Stoppel, R.; Schlegel, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    DNA fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in Europe and Zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from New Caledonia by DNA-DNA hybridization. The biotinylated DNA probes were derived from the previously described Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A, Alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and Klebsiella oxytoca CCUG 15788 and four new nickel resistance-determining fragments cloned from strains isolated from soils under nickel-hyperaccumulating trees. Nine probes were hybridized with endonuclease-cleaved plasmid and total DNA samples from 56 nickel-resistant strains. Some of the New Caledonian strains were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comamonas, Hafnia alvei, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter aurescens, and Arthrobacter ramosus strains. The DNA of most strains showed homologies to one or several of the following nickel resistance determinants: the cnr and ncc operons of the strains A. eutrophus CH34 and A. xylosoxidans 31A, respectively, the nre operon of strain 31A, and the nickel resistance determinants of K. oxytoca. On the basis of their hybridization reactions the nickel resistance determinants of the strains could be assigned to four groups: (i) cnr/ncc type, (ii) cnr/ncc/nre type, (iii) K. oxytoca type, and (iv) others. The majority of the strains were assigned to the known groups. Among the strains from Belgium and Zaire, exclusively the cnr/ncc and the cnr/ncc/nre types were found. Among the New Caledonian strains all four types were represented. Homologies to the nre operon were found only in combination with the cnr/ncc operon. The homologies to the cnr/ncc operon were the most abundant and were detected alone or together with homologies to the nre operon. Only the DNA of the strains isolated from soil in Scotland and the United States

  1. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  2. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  3. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  4. 51F activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-12-034 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- A ball of liquid floats aboard Challenger as one of the Spacelab 2 crewmembers continues the ongoing fascination of liquids in weightlessness. Coffe, grape juice, orange juice, strawberry punch and various other beverages have been formed into globules, usually by the means of plastic straws, on a number of previous Shuttle missions as well as earlier NASA spacecraft. A second crewmember photographed this closeup with a 35 mm camera.

  5. Nickel in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Dominic A.; Garland, Thomas R.; Wildung, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption of Ni2+ by 21-day-old soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) was investigated with respect to its concentration dependence, transport kinetics, and interactions with various nutrient cations. Nickel absorption, measured as a function of concentration (0.02 to 100 μm), demonstrated the presence of multiple absorption isotherms. Each of the three isotherms conforms to Michaelis-Menten kinetics; kinetic constants are reported for uptake by the intact plant and for transfer from root to shoot tissues. The absorption of Ni2+ by the intact plant and its transfer from root to shoot were inhibited by the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Co2+. Competition kinetic studies showed Cu2+ and Zn2+ to inhibit Ni2+ absorption competitively, suggesting that Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ are absorbed using the same carrier site. Calculated Km and Ki constants for Ni2+ in the presence and absence of Cu2+ were 6.1 and 9.2 μm, respectively, whereas Km and Ki constants were calculated to be 6.7 and 24.4 μm, respectively, for Ni2+ in the presence and absence of Zn2+. The mechanism of inhibition of Ni2+ in the presence of Fe2+ and Co2+ was not resolved by classical kinetic relationships. PMID:16660559

  6. Provocative use test of nickel coins in nickel-sensitized subjects and controls.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chew, A-L; Bashir, S J; Reagan, K E; Hostynek, J J; Maibach, H I

    2003-08-01

    Consensus exists on levels of nickel release that are well tolerated in exposure to nickel-containing items in direct and continuous contact with skin (e.g. watches). The clinical relevance of nickel-containing coins eliciting nickel dermatitis associated with extensive occupational exposure (e.g. coins handled by cashiers) has not been determined. To examine whether nickel-containing coins might be an elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in occupational settings with extensive exposure to coins (i.e. cashiers). Eighteen subjects (10 nickel sensitized and eight non-nickel sensitized) completed this study after screening of history, physical examination and diagnostic patch testing (5% nickel sulphate). Each volunteer handled 10 coins (nickel-containing coins or non-nickel-containing coins) in a cross-over design at 5-min intervals (5 min handling followed by 5 min rest) for 8 h per day, for a total of 12 days excluding the weekend. One hand was gloved while the other was not during coin handling. Visual scoring and bioengineering measurements were recorded at each of four predetermined sites at baseline (day 1), end of day 5 and day 12 (last day of exposure). There were no statistical differences for either visual or bioengineering data comparing: (i) nickel-sensitized vs. non-nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins at day 1, day 5 and day 12; (ii) day 12 vs. day 1 (baseline) for nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins; (iii) handling of nickel-containing coins vs. non-nickel-containing coins by nickel-sensitized subjects at day 5 and day 12; (iv) gloved hand vs. ungloved hand of nickel-sensitized subjects handling nickel-containing coins at day 12. Limitations of the method and clinical extrapolation are detailed. Individuals handling these nickel-containing coins daily did not develop ACD, as judged by visual signs or bioengineering parameters.

  7. Nickel and cobalt allergy before and after nickel regulation--evaluation of a public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2011-09-01

    Over the 20th century, the frequent use of nickel in consumer products resulted in an increasing prevalence of nickel allergy. Risk items included suspenders in the 1950s-1960s; buttons, zippers and rivets in the 1970s; and ear-piercing jewellery in the 1980s. When subjects allergic to nickel were exposed to nickel in high concentrations, it often resulted in allergic nickel contact dermatitis and hand eczema. In 1990, the Danish government began to regulate consumer nickel exposure as a response to the increasing nickel allergy problem. In 1994, the EU Nickel Directive was passed, a regulation that was based on the Danish and Swedish nickel regulations. These major public health interventions were expected to change the epidemiology of nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europe. Furthermore, it was debated whether nickel would be replaced by cobalt in inexpensive jewellery and result in higher prevalence of cobalt allergy. An evaluation of the possible effects of the European nickel regulations is of importance to ensure protection of consumers and dermatitis patients. This doctoral thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory interventions on nickel exposure by investigating the development of nickel allergy and dermatitis before and after nickel regulation. Furthermore, a change in the association between nickel allergy and hand eczema was evaluated. The nickel spot test was validated to determine its value when used for screening purposes. Possible explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy were explored including genetic predisposition and consumer nickel exposure from jewellery and accessories. A cobalt spot test was developed and validated. Finally, it was evaluated whether a cobalt allergy epidemic had replaced the nickel allergy epidemic after nickel regulation in terms of increasing cobalt sensitization and cobalt exposure. The thesis showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly after nickel regulation in young Danish

  8. The effects of platinum on nickel electrodes in the nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of platinum and platinum compounds with the nickel electrode that are possible in the nickel hydrogen cell, where both the nickel electrode and a platinum catalyst hydrogen electrode are in intimate contact with the alkaline electrolyte, are examined. Additionally, a mechanism of nickel cobalt oxyhydroxide formation in NiH2 cells is presented.

  9. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  10. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  11. Study of fluoride corrosion of nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, W. H.; Steindler, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Report contains the results of an investigation of the corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys exposed to fluorine, uranium hexafluoride, and volatile fission product fluorides at high temperatures. Survey of the unclassified literature on the subject is included.

  12. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Wheeler, James R.; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder and the second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  13. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance, thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder. The second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested, and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  14. Nickel-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Musiani, Francesco; Zambelli, Barbara; Bazzani, Micaela; Mazzei, Luca; Ciurli, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Nickel is an essential micronutrient for a large number of living organisms, but it is also a toxic metal ion when it accumulates beyond the sustainable level as it may result if and when its cellular trafficking is not properly governed. Therefore, the homeostasis and metabolism of nickel is tightly regulated through metal-specific protein networks that respond to the available Ni(II) concentration. These are directed by specific nickel sensors, able to couple Ni(II) binding to a change in their DNA binding affinity and/or specificity, thus translating the cellular level of Ni(II) into a modification of the expression of the proteins devoted to modulating nickel uptake, efflux and cellular utilization. This review describes the Ni(II)-dependent transcriptional regulators discovered so far, focusing on their structural features, metal coordination modes and metal binding thermodynamics. Understanding these properties is essential to comprehend how these sensors correlate nickel availability to metal coordination and functional responses. A broad and comparative study, described here, reveals some general traits that characterize the binding stoichiometry and Ni(II) affinity of these metallo-sensors.

  15. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  16. Thermodynamics of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Challingsworth, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) and Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries are calculated for temperatures ranging from 273.15K (0 C) to 373.15K (100 C). For both systems, we list equilibrium and thermoneutral voltages for the cells, and in the case of the NiH2 battery, these data are provide for hydrogen fugacities ranging from 0.01 to 100 (atm) to simulate the full discharged and charged states. The quality of the input thermodynamic data are assessed and the effect of assuming different cell reactions is analyzed.

  17. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness.

    PubMed

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods.

  18. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods. PMID:27413375

  19. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  20. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  1. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The provisions...

  2. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions in...

  3. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be...

  8. Cobalt improves nickel hydroxide electrodes for batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, S. R.; Seiger, H. N.

    1969-01-01

    Positive nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 20 mole percent of cobalt hydroxide are more efficient than when impregnated to the same degree by weight with nickel hydroxide alone. Charge-acceptance and oxygen-evolution tests indicate cobalt electrodes are more efficient than plain positive nickel hydroxide electrodes at all rates of charge.

  9. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  10. High-temperature nickel-brazing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. H.; Thompson, S. R.

    1970-01-01

    Gold-nickel brazing alloy, with 5 percent indium added to depress the melting point, is used for brazing of nickel-clad silver electrical conductors which operate at temperatures to 1200 deg F. Alloy has low resistivity, requires no flux, and is less corrosive than other gold-nickel, gold-copper alloys.

  11. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    1982-04-27

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch to terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.

  12. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-42-058 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- This excellent view covers portions of Switzerland, France, and Italy. Lac Leman (Lake of Geneva) is at the center. The valley of the Rhone River can be seen from Tyon (lower left edge) upstream to the Swiss town of Brig. Great Alpine peaks including Mount Blanc, Matterhorn, Monte Rosa,Jungfrau, and Finsteraarhorn can be seen. Famous resorts in the photo include Aosta, Chamonix, Monreux, Laussane, Gstaad, Interlaken, Stresa, and Zermatt. The Swiss capital of Bern is at the upper right.

  13. 51F earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    51F-37-097 (29 July-6 Aug 1985) --- The snow capped peaks of the Oregon Cascades are clearly seen. From bottom to top we see Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, and the Three Sisters volcanos. The Columbia River is at the bottom. The Deschutes River system and canyon, the scene of railroad wars nearly a century ago, is at the left side. The Cascades make a very distinct rain shadow between the moist forests to the right and the semiario lands to the east (left) of these great mountains.

  14. Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

  15. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  17. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  18. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  19. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  20. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  1. Direct Alloying of Steel with Nickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Proshunin, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    A technology of alloying steel with nickel reduced from nickel concentrate is analysed and developed. Limits of reduction concentration areas are defined. An optimal composition of nickel concentrate pellets and a method of feeding them into the furnace are deduced from experiments. It is proved that when pellets made of nickel concentrate and coke are added into the charge during steel smelting by the technology of alloyed scrap remelting, nickel recovery achieves 92-95%. The technology was tested by smelting DSP-40 steel.

  2. Simultaneous amperometric determination of nickel and copper.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y K; Rao, S B; Raju, N A

    1975-06-01

    A method is described for the amperometric titration of nickel and successive amperometric determination of copper and nickel. Nickel (1.0-16.0 mg) and copper (1.0-11.0 mg) could be determined with an average error of less than 1%. Cobalt interferes but chloride does not. Interference by aluminium, iron(III) and chromium can be eliminated. Zinc and manganese do not interfere if the correct applied voltage is chosen. The procedures can be utilized in the analysis of alloys such as nichrome, Raney nickel, constantan, german silver and manganin. It is best to use the standard addition method for less than 3 mg of nickel.

  3. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells are currently being manufactured on a semi-experimental basis. Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This has been stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  4. Nickel isotopes and methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubeck, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Methanogens require Ni for their growth and as a consequence the microbial fractionation of Ni isotopes can be used as a biomarker for activity of methanogenic communities1. Anaerobic laboratory experiments was performed using methanogens to investigate methanogenic growth in a modified nutrient media2 with olivine Fo91 (5g/l) added as an additional mineral nutrient source and as the only H2 provider. One of the investigated methanogens showed an increased growth in the experiments with added olivine. There were also a close relationship between the mobilized Ni and the growth of the methanogen. Ni is an element that previously has been neglected in the study of fossilized microorganisms and their interaction with mineral substrates and, thus, there are no records or published data of Ni in association with microfossils. However, we have detected enrichments of Ni in fossilized microorganisms and ichno-fossils, respectively, from three separate locations. Ni is not present in the host rock in any of the samples. Thus, Ni is present in association with fossilized microorganisms from environments and more extensive analysis is required to understand the magnitude, uptake, preservation and fractionation of Ni in microfossils. In order to analyze Ni isotope fractionation from microbe-mineral interaction, we plan to use a high-resolution Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS)3. In situ profile ablation will provide detailed and localized data on fractionation patterns between microfossils and their host rock. Also, this technique will allow us to identify the change in Ni isotopic fractionation in rock samples caused by abiotic and biogenic processes in a faster and easier way and with less risk for contamination compared to the wet chemistry analyses of Ni isotopes. 1. Cameron, V., Vance, D., Archer, C. & House, C. H. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 10944-10948 (2009). 2. Schn

  5. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  6. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    PubMed

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D; Huffnagle, Ian M; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  7. Inhibition of nickel precipitation by organic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.L.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Grasso, D.

    1996-11-01

    Wastewaters from electroplating are very complex due to the composition of the plating baths. A nickel plating bath typically consists of a nickel source (nickel chloride or nickel sulfate), complexing agents to solubilize nickel ions controlling their concentration in the solution, buffering agents to maintain pH, brighteners to improve brightness of the plated metal, stabilizers (inhibitors) to prevent undesired reactions, accelerators to enhance speed of reactions, wetting agents to reduce surface tension at the metal surface, and reducing agents (only for electroless nickel plating) to supply electrons for reduction of the nickel. Alkaline precipitation is the most common method of recovering nickel from wastewaters. However, organic constituents found in the wastewaters can mask or completely inhibit the precipitation of nickel. The objective of this study was to conduct an equilibrium study to explore the inhibition behavior of various organic ligands on nickel precipitation. This will lay the groundwork for development of technologies efficacious in the treatment of complexed nickel. The organic ligands used in this study are EDTA, triethanolamine (TEA), gluconate, and tartrate.

  8. Assaying Environmental Nickel Toxicity Using Model Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Generated by Manufacturers or Users of Nickel, Chromium, or Iron Baghouse bags Raney nickel catalyst Floor... Nickel, chromium, and iron catalysts Nickel-cadmium and nickel-iron batteries Filter cake from...

  12. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, N.F.; Williams, J.L.

    In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel contianing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  13. Nickel on the Swedish market. Follow-up after implementation of the Nickel Directive.

    PubMed

    Lidén, Carola; Norberg, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    The Nickel Directive aims at the prevention of sensitization and elicitation of nickel dermatitis. It limits nickel release from, and nickel content in, certain items. The Directive came into full force by July 2001. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency on the market of items that release nickel and of nickel content in piercing posts, 2 years after coming into force of the Directive. Of special interest was to study changes compared to the situation in 1999, when a baseline study had been carried out. Nickel release from 786 items covered by the Nickel Directive was tested with the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test, and nickel content in 18 piercing posts was analysed. Nickel release was shown from 8% of items intended for direct and prolonged contact with the skin, and 17% of the piercing posts contained too much nickel, a decrease compared to 1999. There has been significant adaptation to the requirements of the Nickel Directive. The DMG test is useful for screening for nickel release and for monitoring the market. Provided there is further adaptation to the requirements, the risk of sensitization and elicitation of nickel dermatitis will be significantly reduced.

  14. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  15. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  16. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  17. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  18. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  19. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  20. 40 CFR 471.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.51 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... million off-pounds) of refractory metals rolled with emulsions Copper 0.815 0.429 Nickel 0.824...

  1. 40 CFR 471.51 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.51 Effluent limitations representing the degree of... million off-pounds) of refractory metals rolled with emulsions Copper 0.815 0.429 Nickel 0.824...

  2. Lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel/hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Zelter, Gabriela R.

    1993-01-01

    Thick nickel electrodes with lightweight substrate material have been prepared and tested in Ni/H2 boilerplate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte. Lightweight substrates used were either 85 or 90 percent in porosity and either 0.8 or 2 mm in thickness, respectively, compared with 80 to 82 percent porosity and 0.75 to 0.8 mm thickness of the state-of-the-art sintered plaque substrate. All of these thick electrodes had substantially improved theoretical (or chemical) capacity over that of state-of-the-art sintered nickel plaque electrodes. However, utilization of the active material was low (65 to 80 percent) compared with that of the state-of-the-art electrodes (approximately 90 percent) in 26 percent KOH. Due to this low utilization, the electrodes using 85 percent porous substrates did not show any advantage over the state-of-the-art ones. The electrodes using a 90 percent porous substrate, however, showed 17 percent higher usable specific capacity (about 0.13 Ah/g in 26 percent KOH) than that of the state-of-the-art nickel electrodes despite the low utilization. These electrodes achieved up to 4860 cycles at 40 percent depth-of-discharge with neither capacity loss nor any significant changes of rate capability and charging efficiency with cycling.

  3. Characterization of Nickel Diffusion and its Effect on the Microstructure of Nickel PM Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougas, Bernard; Blais, Carl; Chagnon, François; Pelletier, Sylvain

    2013-02-01

    Admixing pure elements to powder mixes can cause the formation of heterogeneous microstructures in sintered parts. For instance, nickel is renowned for forming nickel-rich areas (NRA) in powder metallurgy (PM) nickel steels due to its poor diffusivity in iron matrix (or lattice). The present work is aimed at characterizing the principal diffusion mechanisms of nickel and their influence on microstructures and properties of PM nickel steels. A new wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDS) approach linking line scans and X-ray maps to concentration maps is proposed. Grain boundary and volume diffusion coefficients of admixed nickel have been determined in PM nickel steels using Suzuoka's equation. Results also show that nickel distributes itself in the iron matrix mainly by surface and grain boundary diffusion.

  4. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1988-03-15

    Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides treated with hafnium or zirconium, boron and cerium to which have been added chromium to significantly improve high temperature ductility, creep resistance and oxidation properties in oxidizing environments.

  5. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  6. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  7. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  8. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  9. Lightweight Nickel Electrode Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1998-01-01

    Because of its relatively high specific energy and excellent cycling capability, the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) cell is used extensively to store energy in aerospace systems. For the past several years, the NASA Lewis Research Center has been developing the Ni-H2 cell to improve its components, design, and operating characteristics. The battery size and weight are crucial parameters in aerospace and spacecraft power systems for applications such as the International Space Station, space satellites, and space telescopes. The nickel electrode has been identified as the heaviest and most critical component of the Ni-H2 cell. Consequently, Lewis began and is leading a program to reduce the electrode's weight by using lightweight plaques.

  10. Aerosol Catalysis on Nickel Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Alfred P.; Seipenbusch, Martin; Thanner, Christoph; Kasper, Gerhard

    1999-06-01

    Nickel nanoparticles produced by spark discharges were used as aerosol catalyst for the formation of methane. The available surface area of the particles was determined using different methods. It was found that the surface area available for nitrogen adsorption and, therefore, for the methanation reaction remained virtually constant during restructuring of the agglomerates while the surface area based on the mobility was significantly reduced. In general, the reaction parameters such as activation energy and reaction rates agree well with the values for single nickel crystals and foils. At temperatures above 350°C the activation energy and the photoelectric activity of the particles decrease indicating the formation of graphite on the particle surface. Also the change of the work function points to the build up of multiple layers of graphite on the particle surface. The surprisingly low temperature for the surface deactivation may indicate an enhanced formation of carbon atoms at the surface.

  11. A biokinetic model for systemic nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, Dunstana; Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is updating its suite of reference biokinetic models for internally deposited radionuclides. This paper reviews data for nickel and proposes an updated biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) nickel in adult humans for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current model for nickel, the proposed model is based on a larger set of observations of the behavior of nickel in human subjects and laboratory animals and provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of nickel in the body. For the two most important radioisotopes of nickel, 59Ni and 63Ni, the proposed model yields substantially lower dose estimates per unit of activity reaching blood than the current ICRP model.

  12. A biokinetic model for systemic nickel

    DOE PAGES

    Melo, Dunstana; Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is updating its suite of reference biokinetic models for internally deposited radionuclides. This paper reviews data for nickel and proposes an updated biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) nickel in adult humans for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current model for nickel, the proposed model is based on a larger set of observations of the behavior of nickel in human subjects and laboratory animals and provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of nickel in the body. For the two most important radioisotopes of nickel, 59Ni andmore » 63Ni, the proposed model yields substantially lower dose estimates per unit of activity reaching blood than the current ICRP model.« less

  13. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel].

    PubMed

    Cruz, María Jesus; Costa, Roser; Marquilles, Eduard; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2006-06-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed occupational asthma following exposure to chromium and nickel in the nickel-plating section of a metalworks company. Skin prick tests for specific antibodies proved positive for nickel chloride at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and negative for potassium dichromate. The specific bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel. The patient presented a late positive reaction to nickel chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and an immediate positive reaction to a 10 mg/mL solution of potassium dichromate. These results indicate a dual response to nickel and chromium in this patient.

  14. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  15. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  16. Electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Tushar

    Pulse electrodeposition (PC) and pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRC) bring a new era in improving the surface properties of metals. These processes are associated with many advantages, such as reduction in porosity, low level of inclusions, and higher deposition rates compared to direct current (DC) electrodeposition process. There is much more flexibility in varying three basic parameters which are, pulse current density, on time, and off time in pulse electrodeposition resulting in unique composition and microstructure of coating being deposited. In this work, nickel matrix composite coatings were synthesized by co-depositing nano particles (Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2) from Watts bath. To get detailed insight into effect of processing parameters on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the composite coatings, the coatings were also fabricated using DC, PC, and PRC techniques. Also, the effect of bath loading on the level of reinforcement in the coating was investigated for Ni-Al2O 3 composite coatings. Furthermore an attempt was made to produce Ni-CNT coatings by pulse electrodeposition method. Pure nickel coatings were also prepared for comparison. Composite coatings deposited using PC and PRC techniques exhibited significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance. The presence of nanoparticles in the composite coating seems to prohibit the columnar growth of the nickel grains resulting in random/weak texture and smaller thickness of the composite coatings. Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings show maximum hardness and wear resistance compared to Ni-SiC and Ni-ZrO 2 composite coatings. As Al2O3 content in electroplating bath increases, Microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings increases but thickness of the coatings decreases due to nanoparticles obstructing grain growth. The Ni-CNT composite coatings exhibited significantly improved microhardness compared to pure nickel coatings.

  17. 7 CFR 51.51 - Prohibited uses of approved identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 51.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION,...

  18. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  19. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Goodwin, Gene M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys.

  20. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Hopfer, S.M. ); Sweeney, K.R. ); Marcus, A.H.; Creason, J. ); Most, B.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution, and elimination was performed in healthy human volunteers who ingested NiSO{sub 4} drinking water (Experiment 1) or added to food (Experiment 2). Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and feces collected during 2 days before and 4 days after a specified NiSO{sub 4} dose (12 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; 18 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; or 50 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 1). Absorbed nickel averaged 27 {plus minus} 17% (mean {plus minus} SD) of the dose ingested in water vs. 0.7 {plus minus} 0.4% of the same dose ingested in food (a 40-fold difference); rate constants for nickel absorption, transfer, and elimination were not significantly influenced by the oral vehicle. The elimination half-time for absorbed nickel averaged 28 {plus minus} 9 hr. Renal clearance of nickel averaged 8.3 {plus minus} 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in Experiment 1 and 5.8 {plus minus} 4.3 ml/min/1.73 m{sub 2} in Experiment 2. This study confirms that dietary constituents profoundly reduce the bioavailability of Ni{sup 2+} for alimentary absorption; approximately one-quarter of nickel ingested in drinking water after an over-night fast is absorbed from the human intestine and excreted in urine, compared with only 1% of nickel ingested in food. The compartmental model and kinetic parameters provided by this study will reduce the uncertainty of toxicologic risk assessments of human exposures to nickel in drinking water and food.

  1. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Standley, Eric A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2014-05-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states, have allowed the development of a broad range of innovative reactions. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism.

  2. Thermomagnetic analysis of hydrogenated nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, S. S. M.; Miraglia, S.; Lafuente, A.; Fruchart, D.

    2002-04-01

    The effect of hydrogen inserted by electrolytic charging on the magnetic properties of nickel is discussed by taking into account the thermomagnetic analysis (TMA), X-ray diffraction and saturation magnetization results. After hydrogenation, thin foils of nickel presented a biphasic structure of metastable β-NiH x ( x=0.67±0.07) and α-Ni (with <0.03 at% H). During room temperature aging the β-NiH x hydride decomposes into α-Ni and H 2. The TMA heating curves obtained just after hydrogenation show two magnetic transitions, the first one in the range 100-120°C and the second that of Curie point of Ni. Between the first and the second transition an abrupt increase of magnetization is observed, which is due to the formation of more ferromagnetic nickel from the hydride decomposition. On the other hand, the first transition of the TMA curve can only be attributed to the ferromagnetism of some regions of phase β.

  3. PROCESS OF COATING WITH NICKEL BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF NICKEL CARBONYL

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.

    1959-04-01

    An improved process is presented for the deposition of nickel coatings by the thermal decomposition of nickel carbonyl vapor. The improvement consists in incorporating a small amount of hydrogen sulfide gas in the nickel carbonyl plating gas. It is postulated that the hydrogen sulfide functions as a catalyst. i

  4. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  5. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuck, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Together with chromium, nickel makes steel more resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel thus accounts for more than 65 percent of primary nickel consumption in the world. One of the more common grades of stainless steel is Type 304, which contains 18 to 20 percent chromium and 10.5 to 12 percent nickel. Owing to their high corrosion resistance, nickel-bearing stainless steels are widely used in the transportation sector, the energy sector, the food preparation and processing industry, the beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community.

  7. Hydrogen diffusion and trapping in nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of hydrogen transport in pure polycrystalline nickel foils and rods at 300-550 K shows that both trapping and short-circuit diffusion are present and have small yet significant effects on permeation, evolution, and absorption. Both effects appear to be associated primarily with the dislocation substructure of nickel. Relations describing hydrogen transport in nickel are obtained using the data on deuterium permeation, tritium absorption, and outgassing in pure polycrystalline nickel together with earlier measurements of diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen isotopes.

  8. Hydrogen diffusion and trapping in nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of hydrogen transport in pure polycrystalline nickel foils and rods at 300-550 K shows that both trapping and short-circuit diffusion are present and have small yet significant effects on permeation, evolution, and absorption. Both effects appear to be associated primarily with the dislocation substructure of nickel. Relations describing hydrogen transport in nickel are obtained using the data on deuterium permeation, tritium absorption, and outgassing in pure polycrystalline nickel together with earlier measurements of diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen isotopes.

  9. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  10. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  11. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51.2950, 51.2954, and 51.2963...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51.2950, 51.2954, and 51.2963...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51.2950, 51.2954, and 51.2963...

  15. Factors Affecting Nickel-oxide Electrode Capacity in Nickel-hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The nickel-oxide electrode common to the nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell is by design the limiting or capacity determining electrode on both charge and discharge. The useable discharge capacity from this electrode, and since it is the limiting electrode, the useable discharge capacity of the cell as well, can and is optimized by rate of charge, charge temperature and additives to electrode and electrolyte. Recent tests with nickel hydrogen cells and tests performed almost 25 years ago with nickel cadmium cells indicate an improvement of capacity as a result of using increased electrolyte concentration.

  16. Development of a micro-fiber nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  17. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm-2 at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts.

  18. Shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline nickel rich nickel titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Irfan

    NiTi is the most commonly used shape memory alloy (SMA) and has been widely used for bio-medical, electrical and mechanical applications. Nickel rich NiTi shape memory alloys are coming into prominence due to their distinct superelasticity and shape memory properties as compared to near equi-atomic NiTi shape memory alloys. Besides, their lower density and higher work output than steels makes these alloys an excellent candidate for aerospace and automotive industry. Shape memory properties and phase transformation behavior of high Ni-rich Ni54Ti46 (at.%) polycrystals and Ni-rich Ni 51Ti49 (at.%) single-crystals are determined. Their properties are sensitive to heat treatments that affect the phase transformation behavior of these alloys. Phase transformation properties and microstructure were investigated in aged Ni54Ti46 alloys with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal the precipitation characteristics and R-phase formation. It was found that Ni54Ti46 has the ability to exhibit perfect superelasticity under high stress levels (~2 GPa) with 4% total strain after 550°C-3h aging. Stress independent R-phase transformation was found to be responsible for the change in shape memory behavior with stress. The shape memory responses of [001], [011] and [111] oriented Ni 51Ti49 single-crystals alloy were reported under compression to reveal the orientation dependence of their shape memory behavior. It has been found that transformation strain, temperatures and hysteresis, Classius-Clapeyron slopes, critical stress for plastic deformation are highly orientation dependent. The effects of precipitation formation and compressive loading at selected temperatures on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) properties of a [111]- oriented Ni51Ti49 shape memory alloy were revealed. Additionally, aligned Ni4Ti3 precipitates were formed in a single crystal of Ni51Ti49 alloy by aging under applied compression stress along the

  19. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to begin Mission STS-51 on 12 September 1993. The 57th shuttle mission began at 7:45 a.m. EDT, and lasted 9 days, 20 hours, 11 minutes, 11 seconds, while traveling a total distance of 4,106,411 miles. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was one of the projects deployed. This satellite serves as a test bed for advanced experimental communications satellite concepts and technology. Another payload on this mission was the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) telescope mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) payload carrier. ORFEUS was designed to investigate very hot and very cold matter in the universe. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into

  20. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to begin Mission STS-51 on 12 September 1993. The 57th shuttle mission began at 7:45 a.m. EDT, and lasted 9 days, 20 hours, 11 minutes, 11 seconds, while traveling a total distance of 4,106,411 miles. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was one of the projects deployed. This satellite serves as a test bed for advanced experimental communications satellite concepts and technology. Another payload on this mission was the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) telescope mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) payload carrier. ORFEUS was designed to investigate very hot and very cold matter in the universe. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into

  1. Formation of alumina-nickel-molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Erofeev, V.I.; Basov, V.G.; Vagin, A.I.; Kalechits, I.V.

    1982-06-01

    On the basis of the results obtained in physical and chemical studies of alumina-nickel-molybdenum oxide catalysts as well as binary system and the individual oxides, the conclusions show that the commercial catalyst consists mainly of nickel and aluminium molybdates, aluminium molybdates, molybdenum oxide, and the alumina support. 4 figures.

  2. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  3. Study made of Raney nickel technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Raney nickel study indicates that its improved storage life is due to gaseous hydrogen and that the mechanism of its ignitions is catalytic and due to chemisorbed hydrogen atoms. It shows that reacted Raney nickel powder can be reactivated and can introduce multiple ignitions in a hydrogen gas stream.

  4. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1990-07-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  5. Graphene-nickel interfaces: a review.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Arjun; Batzill, Matthias

    2014-03-07

    Graphene on nickel is a prototypical example of an interface between graphene and a strongly interacting metal, as well as a special case of a lattice matched system. The chemical interaction between graphene and nickel is due to hybridization of the metal d-electrons with the π-orbitals of graphene. This interaction causes a smaller separation between the nickel surface and graphene (0.21 nm) than the typical van der Waals gap-distance between graphitic layers (0.33 nm). Furthermore, the physical properties of graphene are significantly altered. Main differences are the opening of a band gap in the electronic structure and a shifting of the π-band by ∼2 eV below the Fermi-level. Experimental evidence suggests that the ferromagnetic nickel induces a magnetic moment in the carbon. Substrate induced geometric and electronic changes alter the phonon dispersion. As a consequence, monolayer graphene on nickel does not exhibit a Raman spectrum. In addition to reviewing these fundamental physical properties of graphene on Ni(111), we also discuss the formation and thermal stability of graphene and a surface-confined nickel-carbide. The fundamental growth mechanisms of graphene by chemical vapor deposition are also described. Different growth modes depending on the sample temperature have been identified in ultra high vacuum surface science studies. Finally, we give a brief summary for the synthesis of more complex graphene and graphitic structures using nickel as catalyst and point out some potential applications for graphene-nickel interfaces.

  6. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  7. Nickel: Impact on leaf morphology and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  8. Comparison of nickel-hydrogen and nickel-cadmium reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafen, Douglas

    Nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) real-time and accelerated low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle test data at 10 C have been used to generate a model of reliability as a function of depth-of-discharge (DOD). A cycle life prediction has also been derived from the reliability equation and has been compared to a prediction generated for nickel-cadmium (NiCd) hardware. At each DOD for which test data existed in 5 to 10 C range, the real-time and accelerated LEO life cycle test data were best fit to a Weibull distribution by a method that accounts for cells removed from test without a failure. The analysis was performed for the 40 percent, 60 percent and 80 percent DOD test conditions for NiH2, and at DODs ranging from 15 percent to 50 percent for NiCd. The end result of the cell reliability analysis is a plot of cell probability of success (PS) versus cycle time. LEO life test data at 10 C show that NiH2 is clearly the system of choice for both geosynchronous and LEO missions requiring high reliability and longer life.

  9. Satellite spectra of heliumlike nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsuan, H.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S. Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.C.; Sesnic, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Karim, K.R.

    1987-02-01

    Spectra of heliumlike nickel, NiXXVII, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the heliumlike resonance line, the intercombination and forbidden lines, and all the associated satellites due to transitions 1s/sup 2/nl - 1s2l'nl'' with N greater than or equal to 2. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can thus be determined very accurately. The observed spectral data are in good agreement with results from the present Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic model calculations and predictions from the Z-expansion method.

  10. Designer Magnetoplasmonics with Nickel Nanoferromagnets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new perspective on magnetoplasmonics in nickel nanoferromagnets by exploiting the phase tunability of the optical polarizability due to localized surface plasmons and simultaneous magneto-optical activity. We demonstrate how the concerted action of nanoplasmonics and magnetization can manipulate the sign of rotation of the reflected light’s polarization (i.e., to produce Kerr rotation reversal) in ferromagnetic nanomaterials and, further, how this effect can be dynamically controlled and employed to devise conceptually new schemes for biochemosensing. PMID:22029387

  11. Nickel hydrogen cell tests. [recharging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    Some parametric tests followed by cycling tests are described for the characterization of the service life of nickel hydrogen cells. Three cells were automatically cycled in simulated low Earth orbit in 35 minute discharge, 55 minute charge, with charging voltage limited, temperature compensated. The cells were mounted in a fixture that conducts heat to an aluminum baseplate. The baseplate in turn, is bounded in a temperature controlled bath to remove the heat from the mounted fixture. One cell was tested with a zircar separator, which failed after 2473 cyles. Two other cells were tested one with a zircar separator; the other with asbestos. More than 400 cycles were achieved.

  12. Nickel-hydrogen separator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1986-01-01

    The separator technology is a critical element in the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) systems. Previous research and development work carried out at NASA Lewis Research Center has determined that separators made from zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and potassium titanate (PKT) fibers will function satisfactorily in Ni-H2 cells without exhibiting the problems associated with the asbestos separators. A program has been established to transfer the separator technology into a commercial production line. A detailed plan of this program will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen separator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1986-01-01

    The separator technology is a critical element in the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) systems. Previous research and development work carried out at NASA Lewis Research Center has determined that separators made from zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and potassium titanate (PKT) fibers will function satisfactorily in Ni-H2 cells without exhibiting the problems associated with the asbestos separators. These separators and their characteristics were previously discussed. A program was established to transfer the separator technology into a commercial production line. A detailed plan of this program will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  14. Nickel alloys in the oral environment.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Drury, Jeanie L; Chung, Whasun O

    2013-07-01

    The use of nickel casting alloys for long-term restorations in dentistry has long been controversial. A 'tug-of-war' between economic, engineering and biological considerations is central to this controversy; nickel-casting alloys have low costs and favorable physical properties, but are corrosion-prone in the oral environment. Clinicians and researchers have questioned the safety of nickel-containing dental alloys because several nickel compounds are known to cause adverse biological effects in vivo and in vitro in contexts outside of dentistry. The debate revolves around the extent to which corrosion products from oral restorations cause intraoral or systemic biological problems. Current evidence suggests that nickel alloys may be used successfully and safely in dentistry if clinical risks are taken into account. However, these alloys may cause significant clinical problems, primarily allergenic and inflammatory, if the risks are ignored.

  15. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.; Sokolov, M. A.; Nanstad, R. K.; Russell, K. F.

    2006-06-01

    The microstructures of three high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels. The high-nickel, low-manganese, low-copper VVER-1000 weld and forging exhibited lower than predicted levels of embrittlement during neutron irradiation. The Palisades weld exhibits a Δ T41 J of 102 °C which was significantly lower than the value of 154 °C predicted by Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2. Atom probe tomography revealed nickel-, manganese-, and silicon-enriched precipitates in both the VVER-1000 base and weld materials after neutron irradiation. A high number density of copper-, nickel-, manganese-, silicon- and phosphorus-enriched precipitates were observed in the Palisades weld after neutron irradiation. Atom probe tomography also revealed high levels of phosphorus segregation to the dislocations in all three materials.

  16. Homologous Pairing Activities of Two Rice RAD51 Proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2

    PubMed Central

    Ikawa, Shukuko; Mimida, Naozumi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Toki, Seiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because their biochemical properties have not been characterized. In the present study, we purified RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, and found that RAD51A2 robustly promotes homologous pairing in vitro. RAD51A1 also possesses homologous-pairing activity, but it is only about 10% of the RAD51A2 activity. Both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 bind to ssDNA and dsDNA, and their DNA binding strictly requires ATP, which modulates the polymer formation activities of RAD51A1 and RAD51A2. These findings suggest that although both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have the potential to catalyze homologous pairing, RAD51A2 may be the major recombinase in rice. PMID:24124491

  17. Role of nickel in membrane-bound hydrogenase and nickel metabolism in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Rhizobium japonicum requires nickel for activity. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni co-migrates with hydrogenase activity in native gel systems and co-elutes with purified hydrogenase form an affinity matrix column. A simplified scheme for the purification of hydrogenase has been developed and constitutes the first report of the aerobic purification of this enzyme from R. japonicum. The aerobic purification utilizes the general affinity matrix. Reactive Red 120-agarose and results in higher specific activity and yield of enzyme than previously reported. The stability of aerobically purified hydrogenase to oxygen is substantially greater than that reported for anaerobically isolated enzyme. Reduction of the aerobically purified enzyme in the presence of oxygen, however, results in the rapid loss of activity. R. japonicum cells accumulate nickel during heterotrophic growth and as non-growing cells. The hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 accumulates substantially greater amounts of nickel under both conditions. Kinetic studies indicate that the nickel uptake system in the hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 is upregulated relative to SRwt cells. The uptake system is specific for nickel, although a 10-fold excess (relative to nickel) of copper or zinc inhibits nickel uptake. The nickel uptake system appears to require energy. Under nickel-free conditions hydrogenase protein is not synthesized as determined by cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against hydrogenase, indicating that nickel regulates the formation of the enzyme as well as being a constituent of the active protein.

  18. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  19. Nickel Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    This account is a selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on nickel and nickel salts in the environment and their effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources, The subtopics include nickel sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties of nickel; nickel concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; nickel deficiency effects; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; currently proposed nickel criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  20. A Simplified Method for the Estimation of Nickel in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J. Gwynne

    1960-01-01

    A simplification of Sandell's method for estimating nickel in urine is described. Nickel is a normal constituent of most articles of food and between 0·01 and 0·03 p.p.m. are found in normal urine. There is a slight increase of urinary nickel in workers engaged in the carbonyl process. After accidental inhalation of nickel carbonyl, urinary nickel increased in a few hours and reached a maximum about the fourth day, returning to normal in 10 to 14 days. Although an increase of urinary nickel gives an indication of nickel carbonyl absorption, clinical signs and symptoms remain the best guide of the severity of poisoning. PMID:14424117

  1. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) General § 51.2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) General § 51.2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) General § 51.2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of...

  4. Transient Influx of nickel in root mitochondria modulates organic acid and reactive oxygen species production in nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J; Sparks, Donald L; Bais, Harsh P

    2013-03-08

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation.

  5. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Sparks, Donald L.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation. PMID:23322782

  6. Dual role of nickel in sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, J.; Redey, L.; Skocypec, R.; Lowrey, R.; Vissers, D.

    Corrosion of Ni metal in chloroaluminate melts containing sulfur additive was investigated in order to see whether Ni could be used not only as active material but also as current collector and cell- case material. Three layers were found after three days; they comprised NiCl2, Ni sulfide, and NaAlCl4. Ni-200 wires were also tested under tension in NaAlCl4 + 2 wt percent S at 300 C; no stress corrosion was observed. Results show that Ni metal is very stable even under severe cell conditions with respect to corrosion or electochemical dissolution. The nickel metal, therefore, can serve the dial role of active material for the positive electode and material for the current-collector and cell-case assembly in the Na/NiCl2 cell with sulfur additive in the positive electrode.

  7. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  8. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  9. Nickel vacancy behavior in the electrical conductance of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-08-01

    Nickel vacancy behavior in electrical conductance is systematically investigated using various analysis methods on nickel oxide films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures. The results of Rutherford backscattering, x-ray diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the sputtered nickel oxide films are nickel-deficient. Through the deconvolution of Ni2p and O1s spectra in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the number of Ni{sup 3+} ions is found to increase with the O{sub 2} ratio during the deposition. According to the vacancy model, nickel vacancies created from the non-stoichiometry are concluded to produce Ni{sup 3+} ions which lead to an increment of the conductivity of the nickel oxide films due to the increase of the hole concentration.

  10. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from jewelry from a non-nickel directive country.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Maneeprasopchoke, Pitchaya; Suiwongsa, Bordeesuda; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2015-01-01

    A directive restricting nickel release from jewelry and other skin-contact products has not been initiated in Thailand or in the United States. The prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergies is increasing, and the main cause of sensitization seems to be jewelry. We aimed to investigate nickel and cobalt release from jewelry available in Thai marketplaces and to study the factors associated with nickel and cobalt release. Used costume jewelry items were collected from volunteers. They were tested with the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt tests. Five hundred fifty-one items, including belt buckles, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, rings, and watches, were tested; 216 (39.2%) gave positive dimethylglyoxime tests, and 206 (37.4%) gave positive cobalt tests. The factors that determined nickel or cobalt release were shopping location and jewelry price. Cobalt-containing jewelry could be identified by its dark color. A large proportion of the jewelry sold in Thai markets release nickel or cobalt.

  11. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry of nickel with 1-nitroso-2-napthol using a bismuth film electrode.

    PubMed

    Segura, Rodrigo; Pradena, Milenco; Pinto, Deny; Godoy, Fernando; Nagles, Edgar; Arancibia, Verónica

    2011-10-15

    A sensitive procedure is presented for the voltammetric determination of nickel. The procedure involves an adsorptive accumulation of nickel 1-nitroso-2-napthol (NN) complex on a bismuth film electrode prepared ex situ by electrodeposition. The most suitable operating conditions and parameters such as pH, ligand concentration (C(NN)), adsorptive potential (E(ads)), adsorptive time (t(ads)), scan rate and others were selected and the determination of nickel in aqueous solutions using the standard addition method was possible. The adsorbed Ni-NN complex gives a well defined cathodic stripping peak current at -0.70 V, which was used for the determination of nickel in the concentration range of 10.0-70.0 μg L(-1) (pH 7.5; C(NN) 6.5 μmol L(-1); E(ads) -0.30 V; t(ads) 60s) with a detection limit of 0.1 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation for a solution containing 10.0 μg L(-1) of Ni(II) was 3.5% (n=4). The proposed method was validated determining Ni(II) in certified reference waste water (SPS-WW1) and Certified Reference Water for Trace Elements (TMDA 51.3) with satisfactory results. Then lake water samples were analyzed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  13. Occupational Asthma Caused by Nickel and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chein Soo; Oh, Seung Heon; Lee, Hyun Chul; Huh, Kap Bum; Lee, Sang Yong

    1986-01-01

    A 28-year-old man developed asthma 10 years after working in a metal-plating factory. Recordings of peak expiratory flow rates showed increased variations after exposure at work. Allergy prick skin tests elicited an immediate reaction with nickel sulfate at a concentration of 1 and 10 mg/ml, and with zinc sulfate at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Inhalation challenges with nickel sulfate and zinc sulfate produced bronchial obstructions. Thus, we concluded that this was a case of asthma caused by nickel sulfate and zinc sulfate. PMID:3154623

  14. Aspects of electroless nickel plating on molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkola, R.D.; Daugherty, C.E.; Harris, G.E.; Neff, W.A.; Owens, W.W.

    1984-07-01

    A process for depositing an adherent coating of an electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy on molybdenum was developed. The required pretreatment processes included an anodic etch in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution, an anodic etch in a phosphonic acid solution, and an oxide stripping step in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution. Initiation of the electroless nickel plating was accomplished through a series of strikes in the nickel bath. Scale up from laboratory parts to large components involved optimization of parameters such as pretreat time, current density, anode to cathode ratio and strike time.

  15. Nickel porphyrins for memory optical applications

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Jia, Songling; Medforth, Craig; Holten, Dewey; Nelson, Nora Y.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nickel-porphyrin derivative in a matrix, the nickel-porphyrin derivative comprising at least two conformational isomers, a lower-energy-state conformer and a higher-energy-state conformer, such that when the higher-energy-state conformer is generated from the lower-energy-state conformer following absorption of a photon of suitable energy, the time to return to the lower-energy-state conformer is greater than 40 nanoseconds at approximately room temperature. The nickel-porphyrin derivative is useful in optical memory applications.

  16. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  17. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Maik, D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.

    2009-01-01

    A generic strategy is proposed to prepare one dimensional (1D) metallic nanotubes by using 1D carbon nanostructures as the initial templates. Following the strategy, nickel (Ni) nanotubes are prepared by using carbon nanobells (CNBs) as the initial templates. CNBs are first prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Carbon/nickel core/shell structures are then prepared by electroplating the CNBs in a nickel-Watts electrolytic cell. In the final step, the carbon core is selectively removed by employing hydrogen plasma etching to obtain Ni nanotubes. The mechanism leading to Ni nanotubes is briefly discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 434.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Areas § 434.51 ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 434.51 Section 434.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL...

  19. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area. ...

  20. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area. ...

  1. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area. ...

  2. 40 CFR 434.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Areas § 434.51 ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 434.51 Section 434.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL...

  3. M51's spiral structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, S.; Byrd, Gene G.

    1990-01-01

    The M51 system (NGC 5194/5195) provides an excellent problem both in spiral structure and in galaxy interactions. The authors present an analytic study of a computer experiment on the excitation mechanisms for M51's spiral arms and whether or not a halo is important for these mechanisms. This work extends previous numerical studies of the M51 system by including self-gravitation in a two component disk: gas and stars, and a dark halo. The analytic study provides two new observational constraints: the time (approx. 70 to 84 million years ago) and position angle of perigalacticon (300 degrees). By using these constraints and a simple conic approximation, the search for the companion's possible orbit is greatly simplified. This requires fewer N-body simulations than a fully self-gravitating orbit search.

  4. The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc-Nickel: OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners - Getting It Into Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Blake Simpson Louie Tran The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners – Getting It Into Production Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel : OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on...currently in production 2. Problem at Hand – Hexavalent Chromates 3. Transition to Zinc- Nickel 4. Preliminary Testing 5. Plan moving forward for

  5. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51...

  7. STS-51G Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-51G mission included (kneeling front left to right) Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian; and payload specialists Sultan Salman Al-Saud, and Patrick Baudrey. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 17, 1985 at 7:33:00 am (EDT), the STS-51G mission's primary payloads were three communications satellites: MORELOS-A for Mexico; ARABSAT-A , for Arab Satellite communications; and TELSTAR-3D, for ATT.

  8. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  9. Copper/nickel eutectic brazing of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutchera, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique joins titanium or one of its alloys to materials, such as iron, nickel or cobalt base material, or to refractory metals. To ensure formation of a satisfactory bond, the temperature, time, environment and pressure must be controlled.

  10. Organic chemistry: Nickel steps towards selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, Matthew; Williamson, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Hydrocarbons called alkenes are isolated from petroleum as mixtures of isomers, often making it hard to use them as reagents for synthesis. A reaction involving a migrating nickel atom offers a possible solution. See Letter p.84

  11. Wetlife Study of Nickel Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the residual Nickel Precharge, and to understand the Performance and Cycle Life of Aged Nickel Hydrogen cells that were in cold storage up to thirteen (13) years. Comsat Technical Services, Aerospace Corporation, and NSWC/Crane test data to date indicate a nominal electrical performance with a small second plateau and the presence of Nickel Precharge in the cells: Cell Teardown, Plate (active Nickel Precharge determination), and Electrolyte Analyses are in progress. Preliminary Thermal Imaging data indicates that older the cell greater the heat generation, but cell over charge (capacity) could dominate heat generation. U.S. Govt. cells has completed 1150 nominal 60% LEO cycles. The completion date for this study is January 31, 2008.

  12. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  13. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  14. Sintering Process for Limonitic Nickel Laterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Enguang; Liu, Mei; Pan, Cheng; Yuan, Qiugang; Lv, Xuewei

    Land-based nickel resources include nickel sulfide and nickel laterite. With the consumption of high grade nickel sulfide, use of nickel laterite has received more and more attention. The mineralogy and sintering behavior of limonitic nickel laterite with high iron and low nickel and silica was studied to offer technical support for producing ferronickel through sintering-blast furnace route. The mineralogy results showed that the main phases in this kind of nickel laterite are goethite (FeO(OH)), gibbsite (Al(OH)3) and NiFe2O4. The TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) revealed hydroxide minerals in addition to absorbed water. After the sintering experiments the chemical composition, phases present (XRD analysis) and physical properties of the sinter were studied. The content of FeO in the sinter increased with increasing basicity up to 1.3, and then decreased with further increase in basicity. The yield of sinter increased (from 73% to 80%) with increase in the basicity from 1.1 to 1.7, and then the yield decreased with the further increase in basicity. Mg(Ni)(Fe,Al)2O4 is the main phase in the sinter while MgCaSiO4 and Fe2SiO4 is the main binder phase when the basicity is 1.1 1.5, and MgCaSiO4, Fe2SiO4 and SFCA is the main binder phase when the basicity is 1.7 2.1.

  15. Toxicity of nickel ores to marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Florence, T M; Stauber, J L; Ahsanullah, M

    1994-06-06

    Queensland Nickel proposes to import New Caledonian (Ballande) and Indonesian (Gebe) nickel ores, one option being ship-to-barge transfer in Halifax Bay, North Queensland. Because small amounts of ore may be split during the unloading and transfer operations, it was important to investigate the potential impact of the spilt ore on the ecological health of the Bay. Long-term leaching of the ores with seawater showed that only nickel and chromium (VI) were released from the ores in sufficient concentrations to cause toxicity to a range of marine organisms. The soluble fractions of nickel and chromium (VI) were released from the ores within a few days. Nickel, chromium (VI) and the ore leachates showed similar toxicity to the juvenile banana prawn Penaeus merguiensis, the amphipod Allorchestes compressa and both temperature (22 degrees C) and tropical (27 degrees C) strains of the unicellular marine alga Nitzschia closterium. In a series of 30-day sub-chronic microcosm experiments, juvenile leader prawns Penaeus monodon, polychaete worms Galeolaria caespitosa and the tropical gastropod Nerita chamaeleon were all very resistant to the nickel ores, with mortality unaffected by 700 g ore per 50 l seawater. The growth rate of the leader prawns was, however, lower than that of the controls. From these data, a conservative maximum safe concentration of the nickel ores in seawater is 0.1 g l-1. The nickel ore was not highly toxic and if spilt in the quantities predicted, would not have a significant impact on the ecological health of the Bay.

  16. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-10-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  17. The STS 51-L Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The STS-51L crewmembers are: in the back row from left to right: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  18. Recent progress in the development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H{sub 2}) cell is rapidly replacing nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cell as the system of choice for aerospace applications where weight is crucial. The heavy-sintered nickel electrode used in this cell accounts for about 38% of the cell weight. The use of small diameter fiber nickel electrodes will reduce the weight and improve the specific energy of the state-of-the-art Ni-H{sub 2} cell by about 50%. One advantage of this small diameter nickel fiber material is the increase in the surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial testing of this type of electrode is very promising. This electrode is also applicable to other nickel-based batteries, such as nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-metal-hydride, both for space and commercial applications.

  19. Relation of Nickel Concentrations in Tree Rings to Groundwater Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1992-08-01

    Increment cores were collected from trees growing at two sites where groundwater is contaminated by nickel. Proton-induced X ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the nickel concentrations in selected individual rings and in parts of individual rings. Ring nickel concentrations were interpreted on the basis of recent concentrations of nickel in aquifers, historical information about site use activities, and model simulations of groundwater flow. Nickel concentrations in rings increased during years of site use but not in trees outside the contaminated aquifers. Consequently, it was concluded that trees may preserve in their rings an annual record of nickel contamination in groundwater. Tulip trees and oaks contained higher concentrations of nickel than did sassafras, sweet gum, or black cherry. No evidence was found that nickel accumulates consistently within parts of individual rings or that nickel is translocated across ring boundaries.

  20. Relation of nickel concentrations in tree rings to groundwater contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    Increment cores were collected from trees growing at two sites where groundwater is contaminated by nickel. Proton-induced X ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the nickel concentrations in selected individual rings and in parts of individual rings. Ring nickel concentrations were interpreted on the basis of recent concentrations of nickel in aquifers, historical information about site use activities, and model simulations of groundwater flow. Nickel concentrations in rings increased during years of site use but not in trees outside the contaminated aquifers. Consequently, it was concluded that trees may preserve in their rings an annual record of nickel contamination in groundwater. Tulip trees and oaks contained higher concentrations of nickel than did sassafras, sweet gum, or black cherry. No evidence was found that nickel accumulates consistently within parts of individual rings or that nickel is translocated across ring boundaries.

  1. Characterization of Nickel-Zinc Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacz, Kevin; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous nickel serves as an interesting catalytic material due to its large surface area and therefore high reactivity. The purpose of this project is to develop a method for producing thin films of nanoporous nickel. This is done by the electrodeposition of a nickel-zinc alloy followed by the selective removal of zinc. A series of primarily sulfate baths were used for deposition in an attempt to produce samples ideal for selective removal of zinc. Deposition variables examined include metal concentration in the solution, ratio of metals in solution, deposition potential and solution pH. Depositions were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Linear sweep voltammetry was also used to characterize the dealloying process. It was determined that increasing the nickel concentration in solution also increased the concentration in the deposit. Uniform depositions with low nickel concentration were successfully made although attempts to increase the nickel concentration adversely affected the deposition quality. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under REU Grant PHY/DMR-1104811, RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  2. Nickel, cobalt and chromate sensitization and occupation.

    PubMed

    Rui, Francesca; Bovenzi, Massimo; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Romano, Ilaria; Peserico, Andrea; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Carrabba, Enrico; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2010-04-01

    Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis. To estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors. A total of 14 464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. About 24.6% of the patients reacted positively to nickel sulphate, 10.2% to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work (OR 1.54; 95%, CI 1.16-2.05). Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.00-2.49) and men (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.55-3.22). Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09-2.12) and with cleaning work in men (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.18-2.93). Our study showed interesting associations between some occupations and nickel, chromate and cobalt allergy.

  3. DDG 51 Arleigh Burke Class Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG 51)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    providing for a stable industrial base for shipbuilders in Maine and Mississippi , for the AWS procurement in New Jersey, and for GFE vendors across the...3954.5 3961.5 256.6 736.8 91234.4 Delta 80.7 39.2 51.5 -145.7 -426.1 -370.7 3316.6 244.3 2789.8 Quantity Undistributed Prior FY2014 FY2015 FY2016...Total 0 68 1 2 2 2 2 0 0 77 Delta 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 DDG 51 December 2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17:07:04 UNCLASSIFIED 14 Cost and Funding Annual

  4. Urinary and fecal elimination of nickel in relation to air-borne nickel in a battery factory.

    PubMed

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Nilsson, B; Piscator, M

    1983-01-01

    Nickel in urine and in air from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in a battery factory was determined weekly during 11 consecutive weeks. The study started immediately following three weeks of Christmas vacation. The nickel levels in air varied but did not increase with time. The average urinary excretion of nickel showed an increase during the first weeks, after which a steady state seemed to have been reached. There was a considerable individual variation in both exposure levels and urine nickel levels. However, a correlation between the averages of nickel in air and urine could be demonstrated on a group basis. In a second study, during one week, measurements of nickel in air and feces were made on 15 of the workers. A significant correlation was found between nickel in air and fecal nickel. Smoking habits did not seem to influence neither urinary nor fecal nickel concentrations.

  5. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L; Noller, Barry N; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H

    2017-02-16

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves - in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni(2+) does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni(2+) chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  6. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  7. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    PubMed Central

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-01-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:28205587

  8. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Menné, Torkil

    2009-11-01

    Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. To determine the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs of scissors and 7 (53.8%; 95% CI = 26.0 - 82.0) of 13 crochet hooks released an excessive amount of nickel. The prevalence of nickel allergy was higher among middle-aged and older female hairdressers than among young female hairdressers. The prevalence of nickel allergy was lower among young hairdressers in comparison to older hairdressers. This may possibly be a result of the European Union (EU) Nickel Directive or a consequence of a decreased use of nickel-releasing work tools in salons. When nickel allergic hairdressers present with hand eczema, their work tools should be investigated for nickel release.

  9. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  10. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  11. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  12. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  13. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  14. 22 CFR 51.71 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The hearing. 51.71 Section 51.71 Foreign... and Revocations § 51.71 The hearing. (a) The Department will name a hearing officer, who will make findings of fact and submit recommendations based on the record of the hearing as defined in § 51.72 to the...

  15. 22 CFR 51.71 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The hearing. 51.71 Section 51.71 Foreign... and Revocations § 51.71 The hearing. (a) The Department will name a hearing officer, who will make findings of fact and submit recommendations based on the record of the hearing as defined in § 51.72 to the...

  16. 22 CFR 51.71 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The hearing. 51.71 Section 51.71 Foreign... and Revocations § 51.71 The hearing. (a) The Department will name a hearing officer, who will make findings of fact and submit recommendations based on the record of the hearing as defined in § 51.72 to the...

  17. 22 CFR 51.71 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The hearing. 51.71 Section 51.71 Foreign... and Revocations § 51.71 The hearing. (a) The Department will name a hearing officer, who will make findings of fact and submit recommendations based on the record of the hearing as defined in § 51.72 to the...

  18. 28 CFR 51.28 - Supplemental contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental contents. 51.28 Section 51... SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.28 Supplemental..., is provided in addition to that required by § 51.27. (a) Demographic information. (1) Total...

  19. 40 CFR 51.1100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 51.1100 Section 51.1100... National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1100 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart. Any term not defined herein shall have the meaning as defined in 40 CFR 51.100. (a...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications. (a...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications. (a...

  2. 7 CFR 51.708 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.708 Section 51.708 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.708 Serious damage. Serious damage means any specific defect described in § 51.713, Table IV; or...

  3. 7 CFR 51.702 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.702 Section 51.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.702 Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in § 51.713, Table IV; or an equally...

  4. 7 CFR 51.642 - Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage. 51.642 Section 51.642 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.642 Damage. Damage means any specific defect described in § 51.652, Table IV; or an equally...

  5. 7 CFR 51.646 - Serious damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serious damage. 51.646 Section 51.646 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.646 Serious damage. Serious damage means any specific defect described in § 51.652, Table IV...

  6. 10 CFR 51.45 - Environmental report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the human environment. An environmental report prepared at the early site permit stage under § 51.50(b... reports prepared under § 51.53(c) need not discuss issues not related to the environmental effects of the... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report. 51.45 Section 51.45 Energy...

  7. 7 CFR 51.699 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injury. 51.699 Section 51.699 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... § 51.699 Injury. Injury means any specific defect described in § 51.713, Table IV; or an equally...

  8. 7 CFR 51.637 - Injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injury. 51.637 Section 51.637 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States...) Definitions § 51.637 Injury. Injury means any specific defect described in § 51.652, Table IV; or an equally...

  9. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  10. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  11. Precise tuning in platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide interface nanowires for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengtang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Lu, Gang; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-02-01

    Comprising abundant interfaces, multicomponent heterostructures can integrate distinct building blocks into single entities and yield exceptional functionalities enabled by the synergistic components. Here we report an efficient approach to construct one-dimensional metal/sulfide heterostructures by directly sulfuring highly composition-segregated platinum-nickel nanowires. The heterostructures possess a high density of interfaces between platinum-nickel and nickel sulfide components, which cooperate synergistically towards alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction. The platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide heterostructures can deliver a current density of 37.2 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 70 mV, which is 9.7 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C. The heterostructures also offer enhanced stability revealed by long-term chronopotentiometry measurements. The present work highlights a potentially powerful interface-engineering strategy for designing multicomponent heterostructures with advanced performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and beyond.

  12. Precise tuning in platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide interface nanowires for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengtang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Lu, Gang; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Comprising abundant interfaces, multicomponent heterostructures can integrate distinct building blocks into single entities and yield exceptional functionalities enabled by the synergistic components. Here we report an efficient approach to construct one-dimensional metal/sulfide heterostructures by directly sulfuring highly composition-segregated platinum-nickel nanowires. The heterostructures possess a high density of interfaces between platinum-nickel and nickel sulfide components, which cooperate synergistically towards alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction. The platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide heterostructures can deliver a current density of 37.2 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 70 mV, which is 9.7 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C. The heterostructures also offer enhanced stability revealed by long-term chronopotentiometry measurements. The present work highlights a potentially powerful interface-engineering strategy for designing multicomponent heterostructures with advanced performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and beyond. PMID:28239145

  13. Nickel release from stainless steel and nickel titanium archwires - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Huma D; Ajith, Sreedevi D; Goel, Prachi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nickel release from stainless steel and nickel titanium archwires in artificial saliva over three months with the use of simulated fixed orthodontic appliances. Fifty simulated fixed orthodontic appliances representing half of the dental arch were used for this study. Five groups of ten samples each were made. Group A was the control group without archwires. Groups B and C contained stainless steel archwires from American Orthodontics (Sheboygan, WI, USA) and Dentaurum (Remanium, Ispringen, Germany) respectively. Groups D and E contained NiTi archwires from American Orthodontics (Sheboygan, WI, USA) and copper NiTi from Ormco (Glendora, CA) respectively. The amount of nickel released from the appliances into the artificial saliva were measured after 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The mean release from each group was calculated and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Significant release of nickel was seen in all groups up to the end of first month (p < 0.05), the median values of which were; Control Group A (without archwire); 13.75 ppb, Group B; 15.2 ppb, Group C; 14.16 ppb, Group D; 18.6 ppb, Group E; 17.45 ppb respectively. On comparing the nickel release between all groups at each time interval, the result was not significant (p > 0.05). The highest amount of nickel was released from nickel titanium archwires, however, the quantity of nickel released from both NiTi and stainless steel archwires were not significant. The rate of nickel released was high within the first week and continued up to the first month after which the nickel content was stable in all the groups.

  14. Extraction of nickel from nickel limonite ore using dissolved gaseous SO2 - air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulandari, Winny; Soerawidjaja, Tatang Hernas; Joshua, Stephen; Isradi, Hashfi Rijal

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a method of extracting nickel from nickel limonite by using dissolved SO2-air in ambient pressure. This method has been reported in the literature to be having advantages of a high selectivity of nickel towards iron, and can be conducted at ambient condition. The purpose of this study is to determine the good condition of nickel extraction from limonite ore by conducting pre-treatment and varying temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out in a five-neck reactor and comprised of three steps: pre-treatment of sample by pre-heating at 650 °C, leaching of the pre-treated sample, and analysis. The leaching solution was analyzed by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometer) method to determine the concentration of nickel and iron in the solution. The operating parameters included the acidity pH level of 3, 4, or 5 and the temperature of 30, 55, and 80 °C. The leaching was carried out up to 180 min. The mineralogical analysis of the ore was conducted by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis. It is found that the good condition was obtained at pH 3, temperature of 80 °C, and 180 min leaching time, with nickel leaching efficiency of 21% from original nickel content. The selectivity nickel towards iron, defined by the extracted nickel (%) divided by extracted iron (%), has been found up to 2743. This method shows that nickel extraction can be carried out at very mild condition, including low temperature, atmospheric pressure and low pH.

  15. STS-51I Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew emblem for STS-51I is based on a strong patriotic theme with the basic colors of red, white, and blue suggesting the American flag and a dominant American bald eagle in aggressive flight. The 19 stars signify the numerical sequence of the flight. The shock wave represents that formed by the orbited during the entry phase of the flight. Surnames of crew members surround the top part of the circular design.

  16. STS-51I Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew emblem for STS-51I is based on a strong patriotic theme with the basic colors of red, white, and blue suggesting the American flag and a dominant American bald eagle in aggressive flight. The 19 stars signify the numerical sequence of the flight. The shock wave represents that formed by the orbited during the entry phase of the flight. Surnames of crew members surround the top part of the circular design.

  17. The Archean Nickel Famine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Robbins, Leslie J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Peacock, Caroline; Kappler, Andreas; Lalonde, Stefan V

    2015-10-01

    Iron formations (IF) preserve a history of Precambrian oceanic elemental abundance that can be exploited to examine nutrient limitations on early biological productivity. However, in order for IF to be employed as paleomarine proxies, lumped-process distribution coefficients for the element of interest must be experimentally determined or assumed. This necessitates consideration of bulk ocean chemistry and which authigenic ferric iron minerals controlled the sorption reactions. It also requires an assessment of metal mobilization reactions that might have occurred in the water column during particle descent and during post-depositional burial. Here, we summarize recent developments pertaining to the interpretation and fidelity of the IF record in reconstructions of oceanic trace element evolution. Using an updated compilation, we reexamine and validate temporal trends previously reported for the nickel content in IF (see Konhauser et al., 2009 ). Finally, we reevaluate the consequences of methanogen Ni starvation in the context of evolving views of the Archean ocean-climate system and how the Ni famine may have ultimately facilitated the rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  18. Nickel Base Superalloy Turbine Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Gauda, John (Inventor); Telesman, Ignacy (Inventor); Kantzos, Pete T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A low solvus, high refractory alloy having unusually versatile processing mechanical property capabilities for advanced disks and rotors in gas turbine engines. The nickel base superalloy has a composition consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 3.0-4.0 N, 0.02-0.04 B, 0.02-0.05 C, 12.0-14.0 Cr, 19.0-22.0 Co, 2.0-3.5 Mo, greater than 1.0 to 2.1 Nb, 1.3 to 2.1 Ta,3.04.OTi,4.1 to 5.0 W, 0.03-0.06 Zr, and balance essentially Ni and incidental impurities. The superalloy combines ease of processing with high temperature capabilities to be suitable for use in various turbine engine disk, impeller, and shaft applications. The Co and Cr levels of the superalloy can provide low solvus temperature for high processing versatility. The W, Mo, Ta, and Nb refractory element levels of the superalloy can provide sustained strength, creep, and dwell crack growth resistance at high temperatures.

  19. Chromium-51 calibrating neutrino source

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, N.F.; Karasev, V.I.; Karelin, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    The problem for measurement of the sun neutrino flux is resolved at the specially made Baksansk neutrino telescope and calls for calibration of registration system. For this a man made neutrino source is required with the known yield of particles and intensity comparable with the intensity of the measured subject. The most suitable radionuclide for production of this source is chromium-51 the radionuclide decay of which is accompanied with neutrino radiation. At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (in Dimitrovgrad) the production technology is developed as well as the closed chromium-51 neutrino source is made of 4 x 10{sup 5} Ci activity. The parts of active source made in the form of core of metallic isotope-enriched chromium were irradiated in the high flux neutron trap of the SM-2 reactor. The sources were subsequently assembled at the shield cells with remote equipment application. The source was certificated as a special form radioactive material. Due to low half-life of chromium-51 (T 1/2 - 27 hours) all the operations on assembly, certification and delivery of source to the Baksansk Laboratory were performed at the earliest possible date (less than 3 days).

  20. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  1. Plating Repair Of Nickel-Alloy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steve K.; Chagnon, Kevin M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for localized electrodeposition of nickel enables repair of small damaged nickel-based pressure vessels. Electrodeposition restores weakened areas of vessel wall to at least their former strength.

  2. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R

    2004-07-12

    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  4. Nickel aluminides: Breaking into the marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Nurtured by ORNL researchers for almost 15 years, nickel aluminides may have found their niche. ORNL`s modified nickel aluminides are receiving considerable attention by the heat-treating industry in the United States and may have arrived just in the nick of time to make some companies more competitive. Nickel aluminides are intermetallic materials that have long been considered potentially useful because, thanks to their ordered crystal structure, they are very strong and hard and melt only at very high temperatures. But they had a serious weakness: they were too brittle to be shaped into reliable components. Then, in 1982, ORNL researchers led by Chain T. Liu in the Metals and Ceramics Division found the secret recipe for producing a ductile nickel aluminide alloy: add trace amounts of a few alloying elements in the right proportion. It was like turning peanut brittle into taffy. Their most important discovery was that the addition of a small amount of boron (200 parts per million) to a nickel aluminide alloy (Ni{sub 3}Al) makes the alloy highly ductile at room temperature. To address the safety concerns of the alloy preparation industry, Vinod Sikka and Joseph Vought developed a new process in collaboration with Seetharama Deevi, who was on a 1-year sabbatical at ORNL from the Research Center at Philip Morris in Richmond, Virginia. The development is called the Exo-Melt process.

  5. Lactose intolerance in systemic nickel allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, I A; Vadrucci, E; Cammarota, G; Minelli, M; Gasbarrini, A

    2011-01-01

    Some patients affected by nickel-contact allergy present digestive symptoms in addition to systemic cutaneous manifestations, falling under the condition known as systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). A nickel-related pro-inflammatory status has been documented at intestinal mucosal level. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance in patients affected by SNAS compared to a healthy population. Consecutive patients affected by SNAS referring to our departments were enrolled. The control population consisted of healthy subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms. All subjects enrolled underwent lactose breath test under standard conditions. One hundred and seventy-eight SNAS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled. Positivity of lactose breath test occurred in 74.7% of the SNAS group compared to 6.6% of the control group. Lactose intolerance is highly prevalent in our series of patients affected by SNAS. Based on our preliminary results, we can hypothesize that in SNAS patients, the nickel-induced pro-inflammatory status could temporarily impair the brush border enzymatic functions, resulting in hypolactasia. Further trials evaluating the effect of a nickel-low diet regimen on lactase activity, histological features and immunological pattern are needed.

  6. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Geisler, Carsten; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-03-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses in the draining lymph nodes compared to mice sensitized with cobalt alone. In contrast, the presence of cobalt during nickel sensitization only induced an increased CD8(+) T cell proliferation during challenge to nickel. Thus, the presence of nickel during cobalt sensitization potentiated the challenge response against cobalt more than the presence of cobalt during sensitization to nickel affected the challenge response against nickel. Taken together, our study demonstrates that sensitization with a mixture of nickel and cobalt leads to an increased immune response to both nickel and cobalt, especially to cobalt, and furthermore that the adjuvant effect appears to correlate with the inflammatory properties of the allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Structural and magnetic transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaletina, Yu. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Terentev, P. B.

    2015-02-01

    The structural and magnetic phase transitions in Ni-Mn-Sn-based alloys have been studied. The temperature dependences of the martensitic and magnetic phase transformations in Ni51 - x Mn36 + x Sn13 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) have been determined in the case where manganese atoms substitute for nickel atoms. For the studied alloys, the concentration phase diagram has been constructed and the temperature regions of the existence of the high-temperature austenite phase L21 and the low-temperature martensite phase in different magnetic states have been determined.

  8. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-04-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni{sub 2}P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni{sub 2}P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni{sub 2}P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N{sub 2}-sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni{sub 2}P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni{sub 3}P, Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5}, Ni{sub 2}P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni{sub 2}P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy.

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  10. Nickel hypersensitivity: a clinical review and call to action.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Warshaw, Erin M; Laumann, Anne

    2010-02-01

    Nickel sensitivity is common and increasing in prevalence. This review discusses nickel sensitivity and its association with body piercing and other environmental factors, occupational relevance, and potential implications for implantable metal medical devices. In addition, current European legislation that limits the release of nickel from jewelry is highlighted and an argument for similar legislation elsewhere is presented.

  11. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. Electrospinning of nickel oxide nanofibers: Process parameters and morphology control

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Abdullah Hashaikeh, Raed

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology (diameter and roughness) were fabricated via electrospinning technique using a precursor composed of nickel acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. It was found that the diameter and surface roughness of individual nickel oxide nanofibers are strongly dependent upon nickel acetate concentration in the precursor. With increasing nickel acetate concentration, the diameter of nanofibers increased and the roughness decreased. An optimum concentration of nickel acetate in the precursor resulted in the formation of smooth and continuous nickel oxide nanofibers whose diameter can be further controlled via electrospinning voltage. Beyond an optimum concentration of nickel acetate, the resulting nanofibers were found to be ‘flattened’ and ‘wavy’ with occasional cracking across their length. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the obtained nanofibers are polycrystalline in nature. These nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology have potential applications in various engineering domains. - Highlights: • Nickel oxide nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning. • Fiber diameter and roughness depend on nickel acetate concentration used. • With increasing nickel acetate concentration the roughness of nanofibers decreased. • XRD and TEM revealed a polycrystalline structure of the nanofibers.

  1. A dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1992-02-01

    A dual anode cell with decreased polarization effects provides improved performance characteristics, such as voltage characteristics and depth-of-discharge characteristics. A hydrogen electrode is placed on both sides of a nickel electrode. An electrolyte saturated separator is placed between each hydrogen electrode and the nickel electrode. The electrolyte saturated separator can be a layered-type separator consisting of one layer of zirconia knit cloth next to the hydrogen electrode and a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film next to the nickel electrode. These layers of the electrochemical cell are cut in a pineapple-slice configuration. Both hydrogen electrodes are connected in parallel to form a single electrical node. The electrochemical cell is placed in a vessel pressurized with hydrogen and saturated with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte. A gas screen is placed on the outer surface of each of the hydrogen electrodes.

  2. Cascade collapse in copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrano, J.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Averback, R.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Kirk, M.A. )

    1990-04-01

    In-situ TEM studies of the development of the damage structure produced by heavy ion irradiations have been performed in copper and nickel to investigate the possibility that melting occurs in local regions within displacement cascades. These experiments reveal that as the ion dose increases additional loops form from isolated displacement cascades, but more surprisingly some fo the pre-existing loops are annihilated, change position, size and/or Burgers vector. It was also found that the probability for loop formation and the defect image size are greater in copper than in nickel even at temperatures well below stage 3. It will be demonstrated that these observations provide supporting evidence, albeit indirect, that local melting occurs within the cascade core. These results will be compared to the molecular dynamic computer simulations of the damage created by low energy self-ions in copper and nickel. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Corrosion of nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The volume consists of three tutorial lectures and 18 contributed papers. The three tutorial lectures provide state-of-the-art background on the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys as it relates to corrosion. Also featured are the mechanisms and applications of these alloys and an insight into the corrosion testing techniques. The three tutorial lecture papers will help acquaint newcomers to this family of alloys with a thorough overview. The contributed papers are categorized into four major topics: general corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, fatigue and localized corrosion. Each topic is key-noted by one invited lecture followed by several contributed papers. The papers in the general corrosion section are wide ranging and cover the aspects of material selection, development of galvanic series in corrosive environments, corrosion resistance characteristics, hydrogen permeation and hydrogen embrittlement of nickel and some nickel-base alloys.

  4. EXPERIMENT (TOYS) - STS-51E

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-02-04

    S85-26822 (February 1985) --- The crew members of Space Shuttle flight STS-51D have agreed to demonstrate the behavior of simple toys on their mission scheduled for launch in early March of this year. The pictured toys will be carried aboard the Challenger as part of a study of physics in cooperation with the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences. The toys include a yo-yo, paddle ball, friction powered toy car, flipping mouse, top, ball and jacks, gyroscopes, Slinky, Wheelo. The photograph was taken by Otis Imboden.

  5. Portrait - STS 51G Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-01-01

    S85-32877 (20 May 1985) --- Seven 51-G crew members take a break from training and other preparations for their June flight aboard the Discovery to pose for a group photograph. Kneeling in front are astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) and John O. Creighton, commander and pilot, respectively. Astronauts Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel and John M. Fabian, mission specialists (l.-r.) join Payload Specialists Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (second right) and Patrick Baudry on the back row. Photo credit: NASA

  6. STS-51C earth observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-10

    51C-143-027 (24-27 Jan 1985) --- This near-vertical photograph taken in January, 1985, shows the distribution pattern of muddy fresh water from the Mississippi River as it flows into the Gulf of Mexico. New Orleans, with its surrounding urban area, is highly reflective and appears at the top center. Light colored streaks of developed land extend on natural levees along the ancient La Fourche Delta to the west located at the top left of the view. The Chandeleur Islands, to the east of the present Mississippi Delta (center right), are remnants of the older delta lobe.

  7. STS-51C CREW INSIGNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-01-01

    S84-42223 (10 Nov. 1984) --- The crew insignia for STS-51C includes the names of its five crew members are astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, commander; Loren J. Shriver, pilot; Ellison L. Onizuka and James F. Buchli, mission specialists; and Gary E. Payton, payload specialist. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Anodic stripping voltammetry of nickel ions and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyarofah, N. R. R.; Gunlazuardi, J.; Einaga, Y.; Ivandini, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of nickel ions in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The deposition potential at 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 300 s in 0.1 M PBS pH 3 was found as the optimum condition. The condition was applied for the determination of nickel contained in nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. A linear calibration curve can be achieved of Ni(OH)2-NPs in the concentration range of x to x mM with an estimated limit of detection (LOD) of 5.73 × 10-6 mol/L.

  9. Comparative Performance Assessment of INTELSAT 5 Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Ozkul, A.

    1984-01-01

    The first Nickel Hydrogen battery deployment onboard a commercial geosynchronous communications satellite was realized with the launch of the INTELSAT 5, Flight 6 spacecraft on 19 May 1983. The initial five spacecrafts in this series are equipped with Nickel Cadmium batteries. Based on the data available on both types of batteries, design and operational performance comparisons of INTELSAT 5 Nickel Cadmium batteries are presented. General characteristics of the INTELSAT 5 spacecraft as related to electrical-power-subsystem functions and battery operations are summarized.

  10. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1989-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen batteries are rapidly becoming accepted for use in low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous orbit applications. With their increased use it has become evident that the storage procedures commonly used for nickel-cadmium cells are not adequate for the nickel-hydrogen system. The capacity loss exhibited by nickel electrodes from various manufacturers when exposed to different storage conditions was determined. A comprehensive test matrix was developed to evaluate capacity loss in nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. Two types of tests were run; individual electrode tests, which involved flooded capacity and impedance measurements before and after storage under varied conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration; and cell tests which primarily evaluated the effects of state-of-charge on storage. The cell tests evaluated capacity loss on cells stored open circuit, shorted and trickle charged at C/100 following a full charge. The results indicate that capacity loss varies with the specific electrode manufacturing process, storage temperature and hydrogen pressure. In general, electrodes stored at low temperatures or low hydrogen pressures exhibited a smaller loss in capacity over the twenty-eight day storage period than those stored at high pressure and high temperature. The capacity loss appears to correlate with the level of cobalt in the nickel electrode, with the most significant loss of capacity occurring in electrodes with higher cobalt levels. Impedance measurements appear to correlate well with the capacity loss observed for a given type of electrode but do not correlate well with the capacity loss between electrodes fabricated by different manufacturers. There was a definite correlation between the electrode potential measured immediately following storage and the measured capacity loss.

  11. Risk assessment for nickel contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Chaiwanon, Onjuta; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    Nickel is one of the most common allergens causing allergic contact dermatitis worldwide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the contributing factors to nickel contact allergy (NiCA) in Asians who have a unique culture and lifestyle. We randomly selected 324 previously patch-tested patients, 162 nickel patch test (PT)-positive patients and 162 nickel PT-negative patients. The patients were telephone interviewed for their lifestyle information. Most of the nickel PT-positive patients (93.2%) were female with a mean age of 38.9 ± 13.3 years compared with the other group of nickel PT-negative patients who had a smaller proportion of females (76.5%) with an older mean age of 44.1 ± 14.9 years (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis was able to establish that the significant risk factors for NiCA were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 6.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-18.94), young age (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), occupation with long periods of exposure to metal (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.18-8.02), seafood (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.17-3.27) and canned food consumption (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.17-8.33) (P < 0.05). The adjusted factors found to associate with NiCA were female sex, young age, occupation with long periods of exposure to metal, seafood and canned food consumption.

  12. On the performance of stabilized α-nickel hydroxide as a nickel-positive electrode in alkaline storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh Kumar, V.; Munichandraiah, N.; Vishnu Kamath, P.; Shukla, A. K.

    The internal resistance of a stabilized α-nickel hydroxide electrode is found to be lower than that of a β-nickel hydroxide electrode as shown from studies of the open-circuit potential-time transients at all states-of-charge. Nevertheless, the self-discharge rates of the former is higher. Gasometric studies reveal that the charging efficiency of the α-nickel hydroxide electrode is higher than that of the β-nickel hydroxide electrode.

  13. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  14. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1990-01-01

    A controlled experiment evaluating the capacity loss experienced by nickel electrodes stored under various conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration was conducted using nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. It was found that capacity loss varied with regard to hydrogen pressure and storage temperature, as well as with regard to electrode manufacturing processes. Impedance characteristics were monitored and found to be indicative of electrode manufacturing processes and capacity loss. Cell testing to evaluate state-of-charge effects on capacity loss were inconclusive as no loss was sustained by the cells tested in this experiment.

  15. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1989-01-01

    A controlled experiment evaluating the capacity loss experienced by nickel electrodes stored under various conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration was conducted using nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. It was found that capacity loss varied with respect to hydrogen pressure, and storage temperature as well as with respect to electrode manufacturing processes. Impedance characteristics were monitored and found to be indicative of electrode manufacturing processes and capacity loss. Cell testing to evaluate state-of-charge effects on capacity loss were inconclusive as no loss was sustained by the cells tested in this experiment.

  16. Program Diagnoses Nickel/Cadmium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Bykat, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) computer program is prototype expert-system program for diagnosis and management of health of nickel/cadmium batteries. Intended to support evaluation of performance of batteries in Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. Oversees status of batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when so merits, raises alarm and provides diagnosis of faults as well as advice on actions to be taken to remedy condition giving rise to alarm. Provides history of statuses of batteries pertaining to health of batteries, and graphical display to help operator assimilate information generated. Written in C language.

  17. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  18. Dual-Anode Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Use of two hydrogen anodes in nickel/hydrogen cell reduces ohmic and concentration polarizations contributing to internal resistance, yielding cell with improved discharging performance compared to single-anode cell. Dual-anode concept incorporated into nickel/hydrogen cells of individual pressure-vessel type (for use aboard spacecraft) and common pressure-vessel type, for use on Earth to store electrical energy from photovoltaic sources, "uninterruptible" power supplies of computer and telephone systems, electric vehicles, and load leveling on power lines. Also applicable to silver/hydrogen and other metal/gas batteries.

  19. Interactions involving the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C and XRCC3 in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Collins, David W.; Albala, Joanna S.; Thompson, Larry H.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks and crosslinks in human cells is likely to require Rad51 and the five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2 and Rad51D/Rad51L3), as has been shown in chicken and rodent cells. Previously, we reported on the interactions among these proteins using baculovirus and two- and three-hybrid yeast systems. To test for interactions involving XRCC3 and Rad51C, stable human cell lines have been isolated that express (His)6-tagged versions of XRCC3 or Rad51C. Ni2+-binding experiments demonstrate that XRCC3 and Rad51C interact in human cells. In addition, we find that Rad51C, but not XRCC3, interacts directly or indirectly with Rad51B, Rad51D and XRCC2. These results argue that there are at least two complexes of Rad51 paralogs in human cells (Rad51C-XRCC3 and Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2), both containing Rad51C. Moreover, Rad51 is not found in these complexes. X-ray treatment did not alter either the level of any Rad51 paralog or the observed interactions between paralogs. However, the endogenous level of Rad51C is moderately elevated in the XRCC3-overexpressing cell line, suggesting that dimerization between these proteins might help stabilize Rad51C.

  20. Interactions involving the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C and XRCC3 in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Collins, David W.; Albala, Joanna S.; Thompson, Larry H.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks and crosslinks in human cells is likely to require Rad51 and the five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2 and Rad51D/Rad51L3), as has been shown in chicken and rodent cells. Previously, we reported on the interactions among these proteins using baculovirus and two- and three-hybrid yeast systems. To test for interactions involving XRCC3 and Rad51C, stable human cell lines have been isolated that express (His)6-tagged versions of XRCC3 or Rad51C. Ni2+-binding experiments demonstrate that XRCC3 and Rad51C interact in human cells. In addition, we find that Rad51C, but not XRCC3, interacts directly or indirectly with Rad51B, Rad51D and XRCC2. These results argue that there are at least two complexes of Rad51 paralogs in human cells (Rad51C-XRCC3 and Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2), both containing Rad51C. Moreover, Rad51 is not found in these complexes. X-ray treatment did not alter either the level of any Rad51 paralog or the observed interactions between paralogs. However, the endogenous level of Rad51C is moderately elevated in the XRCC3-overexpressing cell line, suggesting that dimerization between these proteins might help stabilize Rad51C.

  1. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs. ...

  2. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs. ...

  3. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs. ...

  4. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs. ...

  5. 28 CFR 33.51 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audit. 33.51 Section 33.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants... Justice Programs. ...

  6. 49 CFR 585.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 585.51 Section 585.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... light vehicles (49 CFR 571.139). ...

  7. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  8. 7 CFR 301.51-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... legal entity. Quarantined area. Any State, or any portion of a State, listed in § 301.51-3(c) of this subpart or otherwise designated as a quarantined area in accordance with § 301.51-3(b) of this subpart... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 301.51-1 Section 301.51-1 Agriculture...

  9. Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings is given and recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates are presented. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel and HP 9-4-20 steel are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel.

  10. Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1982-09-20

    This paper includes a review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings and then presents recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel, HP 9-4-20 steel, and U-0.75 Ti are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel. 6 tables.

  11. Sequential desorption energy of hydrogen from nickel clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Deepika,; Kumar, Rakesh; R, Kamal Raj.; Kumar, T. J. Dhilip

    2015-06-24

    We report reversible Hydrogen adsorption on Nickel clusters, which act as a catalyst for solid state storage of Hydrogen on a substrate. First-principles technique is employed to investigate the maximum number of chemically adsorbed Hydrogen molecules on Nickel cluster. We observe a maximum of four Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom, but the average Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom decrease with cluster size. The dissociative chemisorption energy per Hydrogen molecule and sequential desorption energy per Hydrogen atom on Nickel cluster is found to decrease with number of adsorbed Hydrogen molecules, which on optimization may help in economical storage and regeneration of Hydrogen as a clean energy carrier.

  12. Nickel phosphate molecular sieve as electrochemical capacitors material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-He; Tan, Juan; Ma, Ding

    2014-08-01

    The nickel phosphate molecular sieve VSB-5 as an electrode material for supercapacitors is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry in alkaline media. The VSB-5 shows high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The specific capacitance of VSB-5 is 2740 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1 and there is no significant reduction in Coulombic efficiency after 3000 cycles at 30 A g-1. In comparison with mesoporous nickel phosphate NiPO, porous nickel hydroxide and mesoporous nickel oxide, this remarkable electrochemical performance of VSB-5 will make nickel phosphate material a promising new electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  13. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  14. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed.

  15. Cancer hazards caused by nickel and chromium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.

    1980-09-01

    An increased risk of cancer associated with nickel refining and with chromate production has been known for some decades. The occupational exposure pattern of both nickel and chromium is very complex. Nickel subsulfide may be the most potent carcinogen among the different nickel compounds. A correlation between lung cancer and exposure to chromates has been shown in several studies. Hexavalent chromium has been suggested as the causative carcinogen among platers and ferrochromium workers. There is an urgent need for careful dose registration before a quantitative cancer risk analysis can be performed for the nickel and chromium industry.

  16. Study of high performance alloy electroforming. [nickel manganese and nickel cobalt manganese alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-manganese alloy electrodeposits from an electrolyte containing more manganese ion than previously used is being evaluated at two bath operating temperatures with a great variety of pulse plating conditions. Saccharine was added as a stress reducing agent for the electroforming of several of the samples with highest manganese content. All specimens for mechanical property testing have been produced but are not through the various heat treatments as yet. One of the heat treatment will be at 343 C (650 F), the temperature at which the MCC outer electroformed nickel shell is stress relieved. A number of retainer specimens from prior work have been tested for hardness before and after heat treatment. There appears to be a fairly good correlation between hardness and mechanical properties. Comparison of representative mechanical properties with hardnesses are made for nickel-manganese electrodeposits and nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits.

  17. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  18. 40 CFR 426.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 426.51 Section 426.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.51...

  19. 14 CFR 31.51 - Ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ballast. 31.51 Section 31.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.51 Ballast. Each captive gas balloon must have...

  20. 33 CFR 51.11 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records. 51.11 Section 51.11... REVIEW BOARD § 51.11 Records. (a) The record of the discharge review will include— (1) The application for review; (2) A summarized record of the testimony and a summary of evidence considered by the DRB...

  1. 33 CFR 51.11 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records. 51.11 Section 51.11... REVIEW BOARD § 51.11 Records. (a) The record of the discharge review will include— (1) The application for review; (2) A summarized record of the testimony and a summary of evidence considered by the DRB...

  2. 18 CFR 131.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 131.51 Section 131.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.51...

  3. 18 CFR 131.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 131.51 Section 131.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.51...

  4. 18 CFR 131.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 131.51 Section 131.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.51...

  5. 18 CFR 131.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 131.51 Section 131.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.51...

  6. 18 CFR 131.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 131.51 Section 131.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 FORMS § 131.51...

  7. 48 CFR 51.106 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Title. 51.106 Section 51... CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources 51.106 Title. (a) Title to all property acquired by..., title to property having an acquisition cost of less than $5,000 shall vest in the contractor...

  8. 40 CFR 424.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 424.51 Section 424.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.51...

  9. 40 CFR 424.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 424.51 Section 424.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.51...

  10. 40 CFR 424.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 424.51 Section 424.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.51...

  11. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrowers With Limited Resource Interest Rate Loans § 765.51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct loans. 1710.51 Section 1710.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and Loan Guarantees § 1710.51 Direct loans....

  13. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrowers With Limited Resource Interest Rate Loans § 765.51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited...

  14. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrowers With Limited Resource Interest Rate Loans § 765.51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited...

  15. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrowers With Limited Resource Interest Rate Loans § 765.51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited...

  16. 7 CFR 765.51 - Annual review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Annual review. 765.51 Section 765.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrowers With Limited Resource Interest Rate Loans § 765.51 Annual review. (a) A borrower with limited...

  17. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Safety standards. 51.203 Section 51... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... from a hazard: (a) Thermal Radiation Safety Standard. Projects shall be located so that: (1)...

  18. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety standards. 51.203 Section 51... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... from a hazard: (a) Thermal Radiation Safety Standard. Projects shall be located so that: (1)...

  19. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety standards. 51.203 Section 51... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... from a hazard: (a) Thermal Radiation Safety Standard. Projects shall be located so that: (1)...

  20. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Safety standards. 51.203 Section 51... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... from a hazard: (a) Thermal Radiation Safety Standard. Projects shall be located so that: (1)...

  1. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safety standards. 51.203 Section 51... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... from a hazard: (a) Thermal Radiation Safety Standard. Projects shall be located so that: (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 13.51 - Intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 13.51 Section 13.51... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.51 Intervention. Any person may... represented by existing parties, and that the intervention will not unduly broaden the issues or delay the...

  3. 42 CFR 51c.112 - Grantee accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 51c.112 Section 51c.112 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.112 Grantee accountability. (a) Accounting for grant...

  4. 7 CFR 1944.51 - Objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Objective. 1944.51 Section 1944.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Application Packaging Grants § 1944.51 Objective. This subpart...

  5. 7 CFR 3550.51 - Program objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program objectives. 3550.51 Section 3550.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.51 Program...

  6. 10 CFR 75.51 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 75.51 Section 75.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.51 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of...

  7. 10 CFR 75.51 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations. 75.51 Section 75.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.51 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of...

  8. 10 CFR 75.51 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations. 75.51 Section 75.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.51 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of...

  9. 10 CFR 75.51 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 75.51 Section 75.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.51 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of...

  10. 10 CFR 75.51 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 75.51 Section 75.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Enforcement § 75.51 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of...

  11. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The facility...

  12. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190 Section 51.190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility...

  13. 38 CFR 51.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dental services. 51.170 Section 51.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.170 Dental services. (a) A facility...

  14. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190 Section 51.190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility...

  15. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190 Section 51.190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility...

  16. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The facility...

  17. 38 CFR 51.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dental services. 51.170 Section 51.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.170 Dental services. (a) A facility...

  18. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190 Section 51.190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility...

  19. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physician services. 51.150 Section 51.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A...

  20. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physician services. 51.150 Section 51.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A...

  1. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physician services. 51.150 Section 51.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A...

  2. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physician services. 51.150 Section 51.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A...

  3. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The facility...

  4. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The facility...

  5. 38 CFR 51.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dental services. 51.170 Section 51.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.170 Dental services. (a) A facility...

  6. 38 CFR 51.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dental services. 51.170 Section 51.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.170 Dental services. (a) A facility...

  7. 38 CFR 51.170 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dental services. 51.170 Section 51.170 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.170 Dental services. (a) A facility...

  8. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The facility...

  9. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physician services. 51.150 Section 51.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A...

  10. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190 Section 51.190 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility...

  11. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an... for various aspects of a project, a Federal agency may choose to adopt the analysis of another Federal...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3412 - Unusable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unusable material. 51.3412 Section 51.3412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3412 Unusable material. “Unusable Material”...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2760 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2760 Section 51.2760 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2760 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2123 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2123 Section 51.2123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2123 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2738 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2738 Section 51.2738 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2738 Foreign material. Foreign material means pieces or loose particles of any substance other than peanut kernels or skins....

  16. 7 CFR 51.2718 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2718 Section 51.2718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2718 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3412 - Unusable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable material. 51.3412 Section 51.3412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3412 Unusable material. “Unusable Material”...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2738 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2738 Section 51.2738 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2738 Foreign material. Foreign material means pieces or loose particles of any substance...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2123 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2123 Section 51.2123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2123 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2718 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2718 Section 51.2718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2718 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2738 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2738 Section 51.2738 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2738 Foreign material. Foreign material means pieces or loose particles of any substance...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2760 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2760 Section 51.2760 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2760 Foreign material. Foreign material...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2738 - Foreign material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign material. 51.2738 Section 51.2738 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2738 Foreign material. Foreign material means pieces or loose particles of any substance other than peanut kernels or skins....

  4. 42 CFR 51c.108 - Grant payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant payments. 51c.108 Section 51c.108 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.108 Grant payments. The Secretary shall from time to time make payments...

  5. 42 CFR 51c.108 - Grant payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant payments. 51c.108 Section 51c.108 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.108 Grant payments. The Secretary shall from time to time make payments...

  6. 40 CFR 420.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 420.51 Section 420.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.51...

  7. 40 CFR 420.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 420.51 Section 420.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.51...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  9. 10 CFR 51.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 51.5 Section 51.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  10. 10 CFR 51.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 51.5 Section 51.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  11. 10 CFR 51.6 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 51.6 Section 51.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.6 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any...

  12. 10 CFR 51.6 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 51.6 Section 51.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.6 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any...

  13. 40 CFR 420.51 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 420.51 Section 420.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing Subcategory § 420.51...

  14. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for...

  15. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for...

  16. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for...

  17. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for...

  18. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for...

  19. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  20. 32 CFR 2001.51 - Technical security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Technical security. 2001.51 Section 2001.51..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.51 Technical security. Based upon the risk management factors referenced in § 2001.40 of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2001 - Blank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blank. 51.2001 Section 51.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2001 Blank. Blank means a...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2001 - Blank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blank. 51.2001 Section 51.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2001 Blank. Blank means a...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.51 - Technical security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technical security. 2001.51 Section 2001.51..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.51 Technical security. Based upon the risk management factors referenced in § 2001.40 of...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2001 - Blank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blank. 51.2001 Section 51.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2001 Blank. Blank means a...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.51 - Technical security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical security. 2001.51 Section 2001.51..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.51 Technical security. Based upon the risk management factors referenced in § 2001.40 of...

  6. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  7. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  8. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  9. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  10. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain, preserve...

  11. 18 CFR 701.51 - The Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true The Council. 701.51 Section 701.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.51 The Council. Decisions of the Council are made as hereinafter described...

  12. 18 CFR 701.51 - The Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Council. 701.51 Section 701.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.51 The Council. Decisions of the Council are made as hereinafter described...

  13. 18 CFR 701.51 - The Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Council. 701.51 Section 701.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.51 The Council. Decisions of the Council are made as hereinafter described...

  14. 18 CFR 701.51 - The Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Council. 701.51 Section 701.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.51 The Council. Decisions of the Council are made as hereinafter described...

  15. 7 CFR 51.913 - Clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clusters. 51.913 Section 51.913 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.913 Clusters....

  16. 7 CFR 51.913 - Clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clusters. 51.913 Section 51.913 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.913 Clusters....

  17. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Direct loans. 1710.51 Section 1710.51 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and Loan Guarantees § 1710.51 Direct loans. RUS makes direct loans under section 4 of the RE Act....

  18. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.51 Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Direct loans. 1710.51 Section 1710.51 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and Loan Guarantees § 1710.51 Direct loans. RUS makes direct loans under section 4 of the RE Act....

  20. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct loans. 1710.51 Section 1710.51 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and Loan Guarantees § 1710.51 Direct loans. RUS makes direct loans under section 4 of the RE Act....

  1. 49 CFR 22.51 - Loan closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan closings. 22.51 Section 22.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.51 Loan closings. (a) The Participating Lender must promptly close all STLP loans in accordance with...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Direct loans. 1710.51 Section 1710.51 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and Loan Guarantees § 1710.51 Direct loans. RUS makes direct loans under section 4 of the RE Act....

  3. 40 CFR 51.116 - Data availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data availability. 51.116 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.116 Data availability. (a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan...

  4. 40 CFR 51.116 - Data availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data availability. 51.116 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.116 Data availability. (a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan...

  5. 40 CFR 51.116 - Data availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data availability. 51.116 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.116 Data availability. (a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan...

  6. 40 CFR 51.116 - Data availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data availability. 51.116 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.116 Data availability. (a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan...

  7. 40 CFR 51.116 - Data availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data availability. 51.116 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.116 Data availability. (a) The State must retain all detailed data and calculations used in the preparation of each plan...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel is practically free from dirt and other foreign substance....

  9. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean....

  12. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material....

  13. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...