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Sample records for nigerian native beer

  1. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    SciTech Connect

    Okoye, Z.S.C.

    1986-10-01

    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  2. Locally-brewed Nigerian lager beers and high blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Adeniyi, F.A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Volunteers who consumed 88g alcohol/day (= 2.48L of lager beer) had elevated levels of systolic and mean arterial Blood Pressure. The association between consumption of locally brewed Nigerian lager beer with arterial hypertension was independent of age and weight. The true mechanism for the development of hypertension in these alcohol-users is at present not clear. All brands of lager beer investigated contain as much as five times the sodium content of potable water. It is desirable to evaluate the consequences of ingesting such quantities of sodium in lager beers. The effect of alcohol on other monovalent and divalent cations may shed some light onto the true mechanism for the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hypertension. 15 references, 3 tables.

  3. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  4. Microsatellite Instability Is Common in Colorectal Cancer in Native Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Irabor, David O; Oluwasola, Olayiwola A; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Ogun, Olabiyi G; Okolo, Clement A; Melas, Marilena; Gruber, Stephen B; Shi, Chanjuan; Raskin, Leon

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fifth most common cancer in Africa, with significant differences in incidence, biology and clinical behavior from other populations. We studied prevalence and clinicopathological features of microsatellite instability (MSI) and young onset CRC in 83 archival samples from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Nigerian cases of CRC were MSI-high in 43% and MSI-high CRC had significantly lower histological heterogeneity than microsatellite-stable CRC (20% vs. 55% respectively, p=0.046). Presence of signet ring cell differentiation (10-50% of tumor) was significantly higher in younger patients with CRC (<50 years) (odds ratio(OR)=5.93, 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.17-29.95, p=0.038). Poor differentiation (34%), invasive growth (96%), and high prevalence of mucinous (10%) and signet ring cell adenocarcinomas (4%) were among distinct features of Nigerian patients with CRC. MSI-high CRC is more common in West Africa and more detailed molecular and genetic analysis is warranted as CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. A Strange Manifestation of Malaria in a Native Nigerian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Paola; Izzo, Ilaria; Saccani, Barbara; Casari, Salvatore; Caligaris, Silvio; Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Matteelli, Alberto; Lombardi, Annamaria; Meini, Antonella; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The protective role of Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) in malaria endemic areas has been proved, and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, while the association with malaria is considered rare. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal ultrasound for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic lesions suggestive of abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, copro-parasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was then made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain. Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered. PMID:28293411

  6. [Beer potomania].

    PubMed

    Mouallem, Meir; Potashnik, Yael

    2004-01-01

    Beer potomania is a rare syndrome which is manifested by severe hyponatremia and various mental changes related to binge beer drinking and poor dietary intake. This article is a case study describing an alcoholic that was admitted because of this syndrome. We also discuss the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in alcoholics and especially in the syndrome of beer potomania.

  7. Bilingualism in Education: The Nigerian Experience Re-examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Chuka Eze

    1983-01-01

    Because most Nigerian children receive only limited schooling, it is important to use this time as effectively as possible. One way to improve Nigerian schools is by teaching children in their native language, so that they will not be hindered by the need to master two languages and cultures. (IS)

  8. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  9. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  10. Foaming in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them several properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless, the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibers, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for investigating the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. We also consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer can with cellulose fibers.

  11. Prepositional Intraference in ESL and Its Teaching: The Educated Nigerian English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…

  12. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  13. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  14. Beer potomania: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae. PMID:22736559

  15. Beer potomania: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-04-29

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae.

  16. Beer and wort proteomics.

    PubMed

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Proteome analysis provides a way to identify proteins related to the quality traits of beer. A number of protein species in beer and wort have been identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with enzyme digestion such as trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry analyses and/or liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. In addition, low molecular weight polypeptides in beer have been identified by the combination of non-enzyme digestion and mass analyses. These data sets of various molecular weight polypeptides (i.e., proteomes) provide a platform for analyzing protein functions in beer. Several novel proteins related to beer quality traits such as foam stability and haze formation have been identified by analyzing these proteomes. Some of the proteins have been applied to the development of efficient protein or DNA markers for trait selection in malting barley breeding. In this chapter, recent proteome studies of beer and wort are reviewed, and the methods and protocols of beer and wort proteome analysis are described.

  17. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  18. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  19. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  20. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  1. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  2. Silicon in beer and brewing.

    PubMed

    Casey, Troy R; Bamforth, Charles W

    2010-04-15

    It has been claimed that beer is one of the richest sources of silicon in the diet; however, little is known of the relationship between silicon content and beer style and the manner in which beer is produced. The purpose of this study was to measure silicon in a diversity of beers and ascertain the grist selection and brewing factors that impact the level of silicon obtained in beer. Commercial beers ranged from 6.4 to 56.5 mg L(-1) in silicon. Products derived from a grist of barley tended to contain more silicon than did those from a wheat-based grist, likely because of the high levels of silica in the retained husk layer of barley. Hops contain substantially more silicon than does grain, but quantitatively hops make a much smaller contribution than malt to the production of beer and therefore relatively less silicon in beer derives from them. During brewing the vast majority of the silicon remains with the spent grains; however, aggressive treatment during wort production in the brewhouse leads to increased extraction of silicon into wort and much of this survives into beer. It is confirmed that beer is a very rich source of silicon. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  4. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  5. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  6. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  7. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  8. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  9. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  10. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs...

  11. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  12. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  13. Music in Nigerian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a brief history of music education in Nigerian educational institutions along with the goals and objectives. States music educators are traditional master musicians or Western educated professionals. Claims the focus of music education is on Western music. Makes recommendations for a radical revision of the curriculum and changes in…

  14. Bioflavoring and beer refermentation.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaegen, B; Neven, H; Coghe, S; Verstrepen, K J; Derdelinckx, G; Verachtert, H

    2003-08-01

    Various techniques are used to adjust the flavors of foods and beverages to new market demands. Although synthetic flavoring chemicals are still widely used, flavors produced by biological methods (bioflavors) are now more and more requested by consumers, increasingly concerned with health and environmental problems caused by synthetic chemicals. Bioflavors can be extracted from plants or produced with plant cell cultures, microorganisms or isolated enzymes. This Mini-Review paper gives an overview of different systems for the microbial production of natural flavors, either de novo, or starting with selected flavor precursor molecules. Emphasis is put on the bioflavoring of beer and the possibilities offered by beer refermentation processes. The use of flavor precursors in combination with non-conventional or genetically modified yeasts for the production of new products is discussed.

  15. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-07-01

    Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, beer is unique because it is unstable when in the final package. This instability can be divided into biological and nonbiological instability. Nonbiological stability of beer involves a wide range of chemical processes and can be considered in a number of categories: physical, flavor, light, foam, and gushing. It is the balance between flavanoid polyphenols (tannoids) and sensitive proteins that specifically combine with polyphenols to form haze that largely dictates physical stability. The flavor stability of beer primarily depends on the oxygen concentration of packaged beer but is influenced by all stages of the brewing process. Foam stability in a glass of beer reflects the quality of the beverage. The backbone of foam is hydrophobic polypeptides. Novel brewing processes such as high-gravity brewing result in a disproportionate loss of these polypeptides and have a negative effect on the foam stability of the resulting beer. Beer is light sensitive, especially in the 350 500 nm range. Beer exposed to this wavelength range in clear or green glass containers quickly develop nauseous skunky-like off-flavors resulting from the formation of 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Methods of enhancing all of these types of beer stability are discussed.

  16. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  17. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  18. Bubble nucleation in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; McKechnie, J. S.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Bubble nucleation in weakly supersaturated solutions of carbon dioxide—such as champagne, sparkling wines, and carbonated beers—is well understood. Bubbles grow and detach from nucleation sites: gas pockets trapped within hollow cellulose fibers. This mechanism appears not to be active in stout beers that are supersaturated solutions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In their canned forms these beers require additional technology (widgets) to release the bubbles which will form the head of the beer. We extend the mathematical model of bubble nucleation in carbonated liquids to the case of two gases and show that this nucleation mechanism is active in stout beers, though substantially slower than in carbonated beers and confirm this by observation. A rough calculation suggests that despite the slowness of the process, applying a coating of hollow porous fibers to the inside of a can or bottle could be a potential replacement for widgets.

  19. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  20. Nigerian University Libraries: What Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, I. E.

    1996-01-01

    Nigerian university libraries are threatened by underfunding and inadequate collections and facilities. This article examines factors influencing the future prospects of Nigerian university libraries. Discusses Nigeria's mineral oil resources; political instability and stratification of ethnic groups; and the National Universities Commission, the…

  1. Beer consumption and changes in stability of human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, S; Caspi, A; Goshev, I; Moncheva, S; Zemser, M; Weisz, M; Libman, I; Lerner, H T; Trakhtenberg, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of beer consumption (BC) on the functional and structural properties of human serum proteins (HSP). Thirty-eight volunteers (after coronary bypass) were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). Nineteen volunteers of the EG consumed 330 mL per day of beer (about 20 g of alcohol) for 30 consecutive days. The CG volunteers consumed mineral water instead of beer. Blood samples were collected from EG and CG patients before and after the experiment. Albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), and methanol-precipitable proteins (MPP) from human serum were denatured with 8 M urea. Fluorescence and electrophoresis were employed in order to elucidate urea-induced conformational changes and structural behavior of proteins. The measured fluorescence emission spectra were used to estimate the stability of native and denatured protein fractions before and after BC. It was found that before BC the fractions most stable to urea denaturation were Glo, Alb, and MPP fractions. After BC in most of the beer-consuming patients (EG) some changes in native and denatured protein fractions were detected: a tendency to lower stability and minor structural deviations. These qualitative changes were more profound in MPP than in Alb and Glo. Thus, Glo is more resistible to alcohol influence than Alb, which in turn is more resistible than MPP. No serum protein changes were detected in patients of CG.

  2. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Beer drinker's hyponatraemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hettema, M E; Halma, C

    1999-03-01

    Beer drinker's hyponatraemia, also called beer potomania, is a syndrome of hyponatraemia in patients who consume excessive amounts of beer and have a poor dietary intake. We describe a patient with chronic asymptomatic hyponatraemia due to beer potomania. The pathophysiology of this syndrome, the treatment and prevention are reviewed.

  4. Physics of beer tapping.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  5. Physics of Beer Tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  6. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    PubMed Central

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  7. Beer, breast feeding, and folklore.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1993-12-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined.

  8. [Spanish adaptation of Beers criteria].

    PubMed

    Pastor Cano, J; Aranda García, A; Gascón Cánovas, J J; Rausell Rausell, V J; Tobaruela Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    The Beers criteria, which were drawn up in the USA and updated in 2012, were developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions in older adults. Since there are significant differences between the Spanish and North American drug catalogues, our aim was to produce a Spanish adaptation of the criteria. A comparison of the drugs mentioned in the Beers list with the 2012 Spanish Drugs Catalogue identified those active substances that were on the list in the USA but not commercially available in Spain. We also searched for Spanish drugs that were similar to those listed in the criteria. If these drugs were available in the USA, it was assumed that they had been evaluated by the Beers authors. On the other hand, if similar active substances were not available in the USA, they were evaluated by reference to three information sources: articles reviewed by the American Geriatrics Society in support of the Beers criteria, the product characteristics and information leaflets, and the European STOPP/START, NORGEP and PRISCUS criteria. Of the 199 active substances listed in the Beers criteria, 54 (27.0%) were not commercially available in Spain, but 50 new active substances could be included. These figures differed when “Direct Criteria” were considered: 47 (34.3%) active substances were not commercially available in Spain and 40 new ones could be included in the Beers list. As regards “Disease Dependent Criteria” the figures were 33 (21.3%) and 48, respectively. A great number of drugs on the Beers list were not commercially available in Spain, and we added many active substances not included in the original version. This study is thus an adaptation of the Beers Criteria to the Spanish health care scenario.

  9. Nigerian Unity: In the Balance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    converted indigenous Nigerians, so that approximately 50 percent of Nigerians today may be Muslim and 40 percent Christian—and both now compete ...the foreign colonialists but failed to integrate the country into a whole. As they competed for power, prestige, and asso- ciated benefits...63 Thus began the problems that continue into today, including competing sectional and sectar- ian interests and the tendency of political leaders

  10. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  11. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  12. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  13. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  14. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  15. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  16. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  17. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  18. Making a Better Beer Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, Alan R.

    1982-01-01

    A class activity is detailed in which alternative designs for glasses are examined. The goal is to design a glass which is built tilted, so that beer can be poured in without creating a foam problem. The activity is viewed as one leading to interesting questions. (MP)

  19. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Sogbetun, A O; Osoba, A O

    1974-09-01

    The incidence and mode of presentation of trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males have benn investigated. Nineteen (10.6%) out of 179 patients presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis were found to harbour the parasite. The commonest symptoms were urethral discharge and/or urethral irritation. The usefulness of examining wet preparations of the urethral exudate in diagnosis is stressed. No significant difference has been found between the incidence of the condition in Nigerians as compared with other ethnic groups. Attention is drawn to the possibility of T. vaginalis playing a role in male infertility, its superinfection in longstanding urethritis is stressed, and the therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole is appraised.

  1. Beer as a sports drink? Manipulating beer's ingredients to replace lost fluid.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Murray, Daniel; Leveritt, Michael

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effect of manipulating the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Seven male volunteers exercised on a cycle ergometer until 1.96 ± 0.25% body mass (mean±SD) was lost. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included a low-alcohol beer (2.3% ABV; LightBeer), a low-alcohol beer with 25 mmol×L-1 of added sodium (LightBeer+25), a full-strength beer (4.8% ABV; Beer), or a full-strength beer with 25 mmol×L-1 of added sodium (Beer+25). Volumes consumed were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise and were consumed over a 1h period. Body mass and urine samples were obtained before and hourly for 4 hr after beverage consumption. Significantly enhanced net fluid balance was achieved following the LightBeer+25 trial (-1.02 ±0.35 kg) compared with the Beer (-1.59±0.32 kg) and Beer+25 (-1.64 ±0.28 kg) treatments. Accumulated urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+25 trial (1477±485 ml) compared with the Beer+25 (2101± 482 ml) and Beer (2175 ±372 ml) trials. A low alcohol beer with added sodium offers a potential compromise between a beverage with high social acceptance and one which avoids the exacerbated fluid losses observed when consuming full strength beer.

  2. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  3. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  4. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  5. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  6. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  7. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  9. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  10. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  11. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  12. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  13. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  14. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  15. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  16. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  17. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  18. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  19. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  20. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  1. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  2. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  3. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  4. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  5. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  6. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  7. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  8. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  9. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  10. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  11. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products. PMID:28396809

  12. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rhea A; Tadros, Susan; Bansal, Amolak S

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  13. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrate in transit. 28.320 Section 28.320 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When... or beer concentrate after removal from the brewery without payment of tax while in transit to...

  14. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concentrate in transit. 28.320 Section 28.320 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When... or beer concentrate after removal from the brewery without payment of tax while in transit to...

  15. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrate in transit. 28.320 Section 28.320 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When... or beer concentrate after removal from the brewery without payment of tax while in transit to...

  16. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate in transit. 28.320 Section 28.320 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When... or beer concentrate after removal from the brewery without payment of tax while in transit to...

  17. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrate in transit. 28.320 Section 28.320 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When... or beer concentrate after removal from the brewery without payment of tax while in transit to...

  18. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years.

  19. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sensitization to beer ingredients in Chinese individuals with beer allergy: a clinical study of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wenchieh; Huang, Xiuying; Zhou, Xiaofang; Luo, Jie; Wang, Huan; Darsow, Ulf; Becker, Thomas; Qian, Fei; Hao, Fei; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Rare case reports of allergic reactions to beer have been published, but the nature of the eliciting substances in beer ingredients is often unknown. It was the aim of this study to identify sensitization patterns against various beer ingredients in Chinese individuals with beer allergy. Twenty-seven Chinese individuals with a clear-cut history of beer allergy were prescreened to answer a specific questionnaire related to the history and symptoms of beer allergy. Twenty individuals underwent allergy diagnostics with different food allergens and extracts of beer ingredients using the skin prick test (SPT) and the open oral provocation test (OPT) with beer. Fifteen patients (75%) showed positive reactions to one or more beer ingredients. Of these, 9 individuals, reactive to sorghum and/or sorghum malt also showed positive reactions to other ingredients. Seventeen individuals showed variable symptoms after the OPT. Cutaneous erythema and urticaria were the most common symptoms and usually persisted for over 2 h. There were no significant differences in SPT reactivity to beer ingredients between male and female individuals. Single patients reacted to barley, hops or yeast. Sensitization to sorghum and/or sorghum malt was the most common finding in Chinese individuals with beer allergy.

  1. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-06-07

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  2. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  3. What is in a beer? Proteomic characterization and relative quantification of hordein (gluten) in beer.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    The suite of prolamin proteins present in barley flour was characterized in this study, in which we provide spectral evidence for 3 previously characterized prolamins, 8 prolamins with only transcript evidence, and 19 genome-derived predicted prolamins. An additional 9 prolamins were identified by searching the complete spectral set against an unannotated translated EST database. Analyses of wort, the liquid extracted from the mashing process during beer production, and beer were undertaken and a similar suite of prolamins were identified. We have demonstrated by using tandem mass spectrometry that hordeins are indeed present in beer despite speculation to the contrary. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry was used for the rapid analyses of hordein in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) beer. A selection of international beers were analyzed and compared to the results obtained with hordein deletion beers. The hordein deletion beers were brewed from grains carrying mutations that prevented the accumulation of either B-hordeins (Risø 56) or C-hordeins (Risø 1508). No intact C-hordeins were detected in beer, although fragments of C-hordeins were present in wort. Multiple reaction monitoring analysis of non-barley based gluten (hordein)-free beers targeting the major hordein protein families was performed and confirmed the absence of hordein in several gluten-free commercial beers.

  4. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction, equipment...

  6. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  7. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  8. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  9. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  10. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  11. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  12. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  13. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  14. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  15. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  16. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  17. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  18. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  19. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  20. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  1. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  2. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  3. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  4. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  5. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  6. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  7. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  8. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  9. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  10. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  11. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  12. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  13. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  14. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  15. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  16. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  17. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  18. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  19. Potentiometric Determination of Fluoride Concentration in Beers.

    PubMed

    Jaudenes, Juan Ramón; Hardisson, Arturo; Paz, Soraya; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Burgos, Antonio; Revert, Consuelo

    2017-04-26

    Beer is a widely consumed drink throughout the world, and because its manufacture involves the use of water, beer can be, in some cases, a source of fluorides. For this reason, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of fluorides in 50 samples of beers from different sources sold in two different types of container (aluminum can and glass bottle). The possible significant differences between the different types of packaging and the intake of fluoride from the consumption of these beers were evaluated. The concentration of fluoride in beers has been determined using the potentiometric method of fluoride determination by standard addition. The concentration of fluoride ranged between 0.06 and 1.77 mg/L. In general, the concentration was below 1 mg/L, except for three beer samples from Ireland and the USA, whose concentration was over 1.5 mg/L. No significant differences were found between the types of packaging. The contribution of fluoride to the diet from beer consumption is not high (<27%); however, it is necessary to warn consumers whenever they are in areas of high concentrations of fluoride in the water supply.

  20. Fortification of sorghum beer with thiamin.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuyzen, J; Davis, R E; Icke, G C; Metz, J

    1985-01-01

    The consumption of indigenous cereal-based fermented beer is widespread throughout Africa and other parts of the world. In some countries such beer is brewed commercially as well as at home. As evidence of beri-beri may occur in habitual consumers of the beer, the thiamin content of beer brewed commercially from a mixture of sorghum and maize was investigated. Thiamin concentration in beer averaged 0.33 mg/l, with more than 95% in the cellular fraction, mainly live yeast cells. The thiamin in the cells is not generally available for absorption and the cells take up thiamin added to the beer. At low concentrations (0.25-0.5 mg/l) up to 90% of added 14C-thiamin was taken up by the cells but with concentrations in excess of 2.5 mg/l, the uptake was less than 30%. These results indicate that fortification of sorghum beer with thiamin is feasible. The addition of 2.5 mg/l would supply up to 1.6 mg of absorbable thiamin and thus meet the recommended daily allowance in the target group of habitual consumers.

  1. Identification of a stale-beer-like odorant in extracts of naturally aged beer.

    PubMed

    Callemien, Delphine; Dasnoy, Sébastien; Collin, Sonia

    2006-02-22

    For a long time, beer staling has been a prime concern in brewery research. Yet, to improve flavor stability, better knowledge of all chemicals involved is still needed. From our aroma extract dilu-tion analyses (AEDA) applied to naturally aged lager beers emerged an old-beer-like odorant at RICP-SIL 5 CB = 1532 and RIFFAP = 2809, with a FD value close to that of trans-2-nonenal (the well-known cardboard off-flavor found in aged beers). Specific phenol extraction, GC cold trapping, and mass spectrometry (electron impact and chemical ionization) enabled us to identify it as 4-vinylsyringol. Although already mentioned in some fresh beers, this compound had never been highlighted as involved in the aging process of lager beers.

  2. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  3. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Voica, Cezara; Dragan, Felicia; Georgiu, Monica

    2013-11-01

    A representative selection of 5 different beers commercially available were measured spectrophotometrically in UV-Vis spectral region and by fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to determine qualitative differentiation due to the mainly iso-R-acids (with a five member ring) originating from R-acids present in hops. Minerals and trace elements analysis were also performed by ICP-MS method. The determination of the bitter organic acids in beers and of the content in metallic ions can be used as indicators for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing.

  4. Voltammetric assay for the aging of beer.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luís F; Fortunato, Nélia A; Rodrigues, José A; Barros, Aguiles A

    2003-07-02

    A new method for the evaluation of beer aging, based on a voltammetric analysis of beer distillates, is described. By measuring the current of both acetaldehyde and sulfite voltammetric peaks it is possible to distinguish between fresh, naturally aged, and artificially aged beers. The results obtained for the ratio of acetaldehyde and SO(2) currents correlate well with those given by an expert sensory panel. The kinetics of the combining reaction of sulfite with acetaldehyde was followed for different acetaldehyde/SO(2) molar ratios by using a programmed voltammetric procedure. The formation of an acetaldehyde-sulfite adduct is rapid, and the reaction equilibrium is reached after 30 min, which is in accordance with the results previously obtained by other methods. This voltammetric-based approach seems to be a new attractive tool for detecting chemical equilibria of the addition of sulfite to carbonyls in beer model systems.

  5. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  7. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  8. Allergy to beer in LTP-sensitized patients: beers are not all the same.

    PubMed

    Quercia, O; Zoccatelli, G; Stefanini, G F; Mistrello, G; Amato, S; Bolla, M; Emiliani, F; Asero, R

    2012-09-01

    Most cases of beer allergy reported so far have been associated with hypersensitivity to the non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP). In view of the marked differences in brewing processes we assessed IgE reactivity as well as tolerance to many different beers in an allergic patient. A 45 year-old man hypersensitive to grass pollen, cat dander and Alternaria tenuis with a history of urticaria and dyspnoea after drinking beer and a weak skin reactivity to commercial corn extract was studied. The patient underwent SPT with 36 different brands of beer and an open challenge with those scoring negative was performed. An immunoblot analysis was carried out using 2 SPT-positive beers, 2 SPT-negative beers, and barley, wheat, and maize extracts using both patient's serum and a maize LTP-specific in-house developed polyclonal antibody from rabbit. Further, the immune reactive LTP of one beer was separated by HPLC and the chromatogram was compared to that of purified maize LTP. Beer SPT scored positive in 30/36 cases. The immunoblot analysis showed IgE reactivity at about 10 kDa against the two SPT-positive beers and against maize with both patient's serum and the polyclonal anti-LTP rabbit serum, whereas the two SPT-negative beers, and barley extract scored negative. The immunodetected protein co-migrated with maize LTP. In beer-allergic patients the diagnostic workup may point to the detection of some tolerated products that can be consumed risk-free. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  10. Application of chitooligosaccharides as antioxidants in beer to improve the flavour stability by protecting against beer staling during storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Luan, Bo; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Chao; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

    2017-02-01

    To improve beer flavour stability by adding chitooligosaccharides that prevent formation of staling compounds and also scavenge radicals in stale beer. Chitooligosaccharides, at 0.001-0.01%, inhibited the formation of staling compounds in forced aged beer. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, trans-2-nonenal and phenylacetaldehyde were decreased by 105, 360 and 27%, respectively, when compared with those in stale beer without chitooligosaccharide addition. The capability of chitooligosaccharides to prevent staling compound formation depended on their molecular size (2 or 3 kDa). The DPPH/hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in fresh beer significantly lower than that in forced aged beer in the presence of chitooligosaccharides. When compared with stale beer without added chitooligosaccharides, the radical scavenging activity could be increased by adding chitooligosaccharides to forced aged beer. Chitooligosaccharides play an active part in the prevention of beer flavour deterioration by inhibiting the formation of staling compounds and increasing radical scavenging activity.

  11. Somatotypes of Nigerian power athletes.

    PubMed

    Igbokwe, N U

    1991-09-01

    This study comparatively assessed the somatotype characteristics of elite male Nigerian power athletes who comprised middleweight boxers (n = 23), weightlifters (n = 18) and wrestlers (n = 21), as well as a nonathletic group (n = 19). They were aged 24-35 years. Analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc method were used to determine significant differences in the mean somatotype ratings of the groups. Among the groups, the nonathletes (4.02) were most significantly endomorphic (p less than 0.05). The weightlifters (5.12) and wrestler (5.04) were more significantly mesomorphic (p less than 0.05) than the boxers. (3.18) and nonathletes (3.06). The wrestlers' and weightlifters' dominance in mesomorphy confirms earlier reports on the salience of mesomorphy in performing strength-related skills.

  12. Serum immunoglobulins in Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Akinwolere, O A; Akinkugbe, F M; Oyewole, A I; Salimonu, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins G, M and A levels were studied in 187 Nigerian neonates. Estimations were done by the radial immunodifusion method of Mancini. Immunoglobulin G shows a fall in value in the first few days of life to about 62% of the value in the last days of the neonatal period. There is however a gradual increase in the level of IgM to about double at the end of the neonatal period. IgA level remained relatively constantly low throughout this period. The effect of maternal education on the levels of immunoglobulins of their neonates was also investigated. This had a positive influence at the secondary educational level, affecting only the IgG and IgA.

  13. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi; Lagundoye, S. B.; Bankole, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Two-thirds of all teratomas seen in 31 Nigerian children at Ibadan were situated in the sacrococcygeal region. About one-quarter of all the sacrococcygeal teratomas were malignant as shown on radiological and pathological examinations. The malignant tumours had papillary carcinomatous pattern, probably derived from the choroid plexus. The clinicopathological features of one patient with malignant change is described to illustrate the biological behaviour of this tumour. Malignancy in all the sacrococcygeal tumours appears to be associated with growth of the tumour into the pelvic cavity and metastasis initially to inguinal lymph nodes and later to distant sites. Inferior venacavogram can be of great value in defining the extent of the intrapelvic mass and the displacement of the genito-urinary organs, particularly when surgery is contemplated. ImagesFig. PMID:5440177

  14. Determination and fractionation of metals in beer: a review.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel

    2008-06-01

    Major, minor and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and influence yeast metabolism. A real concern is the content of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe), which are involved in beer conditioning and ageing through reactions resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species. The reactive oxygen species readily oxidize organic compounds present in beer, changing the quality of foaming and the flavour stability of beer. In view of brewing technology and beer processing, knowledge regarding functions of metals and their speciation in brewing liquors and beer is of special significance. Metals in beer also have a certain nutritional importance, but their actual effect related to beer consumption depends on the type of species they form with low and high molecular mass organic ligands which naturally occur in beer. This review covers the determination and fractionation of metals in beer using atomic spectrometry methods. Special attention is drawn to the role of metals in beer and brewing, possible metal associations, methods of beer preparation before analysis on the total metal content, and approaches to metal partitioning in beer.

  15. Becoming a beer expert: is simple exposure with feedback sufficient to learn beer categories?

    PubMed

    Lelièvre-Desmas, Maud; Chollet, Sylvie; Abdi, Hervé; Valentin, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Category learning is an important aspect of expertise development which had been little studied in the chemosensory field. The wine literature suggests that through repeated exposure to wines, sensory information is stored by experts as prototypes. The goal of this study was to further explore this issue using beers. We tested the ability of beer consumers to correctly categorize beers from two different categories (top- and bottom-fermented beers) before and after repeated exposure with feedback to beers from these categories. We found that participants learned to identify the category membership of beers to which they have been exposed but were unable to generalize their learning to other beers. A retrospective verbal protocol questionnaire administrated at the end of the experiment indicates that contrary to what was suggested in the wine literature, prototype extraction is probably not the only mechanism implicated in category learning of foods and beverages. Exemplar-similarity and feature-frequency models might provide a better account of the course of learning of the categorization task studied.

  16. Beer and health: preventive effects of beer components on lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiji

    2004-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the light-to-moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality. While the inverse association between red-wine consumption and cardiovascular risk is globally recognized as the French paradox, many epidemiological studies have concluded that beer and red wine are equally beneficial. Moderate alcohol intake improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether additional health benefits associated with the non-alcohol components in beer may be expected. This article summarizes the results of the latest studies on the health benefits of beer while referring to our recent results, which demonstrate the preventive effects of beer and its components on lifestyle-related diseases. A series of studies using animal models have shown that beer may prevent carcinogenesis and osteoporosis; beer provides plasma with significant protection from oxidative stress; and isohumulones, the bitter substances derived from hops, may prevent and improve obesity and type-2 diabetes, improve lipid metabolism, and suppress atherosclerosis. Further studies are needed to clarify the components in addition to isohumulones that are responsible for these beneficial effects of beer, and the underlying mechanisms must be addressed.

  17. Beer Potomania--An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content, may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little food.

  18. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  19. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  20. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  1. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  2. An Analysis of the Thematic Content of Televised Beer Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Edward

    After summarizing the widespread occurrence and male orientation of television beer advertising, this paper describes a study of the thematic content of beer commercials. Two-hundred and six beer advertisements which appeared on WTBS, the USA Network, and ESPN between September 1983 and September 1985 were studied. Event-specific ads and those in…

  3. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  4. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  5. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  6. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  7. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  8. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  9. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  10. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  11. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  12. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  13. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  14. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  15. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  16. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  17. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  18. The level of MXR1 gene expression in brewing yeast during beer fermentation is a major determinant for the concentration of dimethyl sulfide in beer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jørgen; Bruun, Susanne V; Bech, Lene M; Gjermansen, Claes

    2002-05-01

    DMS (dimethyl sulfide) is an important beer flavor compound which is derived either from the beer wort production process or via the brewing yeast metabolism. We investigated the contribution of yeast MXR1 gene activity to the final beer DMS content. The MXR1-CA gene from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (synonym of Saccharomyces pastorianus) lager brewing yeast was isolated and sequenced, and found to be 88% identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MXR1. Inactive deletion alleles of both genes were substituted for their functional counterparts in S. carlsbergensis. Such yeasts fermented well and did not form DMS from dimethyl sulfoxide. Overexpression in brewing yeast of MXR1 from non-native promoters with various strengths and transcription profiles resulted in an enhanced and correlated DMS production. The promoters of MXR1 and MXR1-CA contain conserved Met31p/Met32p binding sites, and in accordance with this were found to be co-regulated with the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In addition, conserved YRE-like DNA sequences are present in these promoters, indicating that Yap1p may also take part in the control of these genes.

  19. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  20. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  1. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  2. Beer, Bread and the Seeds of Change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural research continually seeks to understand what processes might render a system unsustainable or in a more positive light, what innovations might truly transform society. The book Beer, Bread and the Seeds of Change, by Thomas R. Sinclair and Carol J. Sinclair, delivers a thought-provokin...

  3. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  4. Shotgun proteome analysis of beer and the immunogenic potential of beer polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Addeo, Francesco; Camarca, Alessandra; Vocca, Immacolata; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2012-10-22

    The majority of beer proteins originate from barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is used for brewing. Barley is known to contain celiacogenic gliadin-like prolamins (hordeins) along with other immunogenic proteins which endure malt proteases and the harsh conditions of brewing. In addition, a multitude of peptides that may retain or even amplify the immune-stimulating potential is released in beer because of proteolysis. The comprehensive annotation of the beer proteome is challenged both by the high concentration range of the protein entities and by a severe degree of processing-induced modifications. Overcoming the pitfalls of the classical two-dimensional electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), the gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis expanded the current inventory of a popular Italian beer to 33 gene products, including traces of intact B- and D-hordeins and 10 proteins from Saccharomyces spp. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray MS/MS peptidomic analysis of the low-molecular weight beer components disclosed a panel of hordein-derived peptides that encrypt gluten-like sequence motifs, potentially harmful to celiacs. The presence of antigliadin IgA-immunoresponsive prolamins was assayed by Western and dot blot using sera of N=4 celiac patients. Gliadin-reactive T-cell lines isolated from the intestine of N=5 celiacs activated an IFN-γ response when challenged with deamidated beer polypeptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is <10% under UK cultivation conditions, as seen previously under Mediterranean conditions. The Se concentration of 128 commercial beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tracing the origin of beer samples by NMR and chemometrics: Trappist beers as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Marini, Federico; Antiochia, Riccarda; Cesa, Stefania; Magrì, Antonio; Capitani, Donatella; Sobolev, Anatoly P

    2016-10-01

    An NMR and chemometric analytical approach to classify beers according to their brand identity was developed within the European TRACE project (FP6-2003-FOOD-2-A, contract number: 0060942). Rochefort 8 Trappist beers (47 samples), other Trappist beers (76 samples) and non-Trappist beers (110 samples) were analyzed by (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Selected NMR signals were measured and used to build classification models. Three different classification problems were identified, namely Trappist versus non-Trappist, Rochefort versus Non-Rochefort, and Rochefort 8 versus non-Rochefort 8. In all the three cases, both a discriminant and a modeling approaches were followed, using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), respectively, leading to very high classification accuracy as evaluated by external validation. Information regarding chemical composition was also obtained: Trappist beers contain a higher amount of formic and pyruvic acids and a lower amount of acetic acid and alanine with respect to non-Trappist ones. Rochefort beers turned out to have also a higher content of propanol and isopentanol with respect to non-Rochefort samples. Finally, Rochefort 8, shows the highest content of pyruvic acid and the lowest content of gallic, fumaric, acetic acids, adenosine, uridine, 2-phenylethanol, GABA, and alanine.

  7. [Some features of teenage beer alcoholism combined with hashish addiction].

    PubMed

    Pogosov, A V; Anosova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Sixty male teenagers with beer alcoholism combined with hashish addiction were examined. The beer consumption was promoted by drinking customs existing in the microsociety, curiosity, pressure of other people, the existing opinion on harmlessness of beer and its availability. In all cases, subjects began to use hashish after the development of beer alcoholism. Peculiarities of combined pathologies were as follows: one disease (beer alcoholism) created conditions for the development of another one (hashish addiction); the polymorphism of clinical symptoms (the syndrome of addiction included symptoms of both diseases); reciprocity of these diseases. Psychosensory disorders played a central role in clinical presentations of mixed intoxication. There was the increase of tolerance to hashish while the amount of consumed beer remained stable. Symptoms characteristic of dependence of both psychoactive substances were present in the clinical presentations of the syndrome. Mental disorders (dysphoric signs) were observed more frequently in the abstinent syndrome in the combined beer and hashish reception. Personality changes in teenagers promoted criminal activity.

  8. Semantics of Occupational Lexis in Nigerian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Victoria A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes forms of semantic reinvestment of occupational lexis items in Nigerian English. Three categories and two subcategories of reinvestment are identified: shift, generalization, narrowing, reassignment, and analogy. These types of semantic reinvestment are considered within a sociocultural and linguistic setting of Nigeria as a developing…

  9. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  10. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  11. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of prostate cancer among Nigerian male immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akpuaka, Stella O; Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Nichols-English, Gloria J; Daniel, Marlon G; Akpuaka, Aloysius I

    2013-01-01

    Studies focusing on prostate cancer in the Nigerian population, especially Nigerian male immigrants residing in the United States, are limited. Nigerian immigrants are one of the fastest growing populations of Africans currently residing in the United States. According to a report from Migration Policy Institute in Washington DC, 1.4 million African immigrants live in the United States, of which 13.1% or 185,787 are Nigerian-born individuals (Terrazas, 2009). A great number of these African immigrants (159,928/11.3%) currently reside in the Washington metropolitan area. Similar to African American males in the United States, Nigerian men are at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In Nigeria, prostate cancer constitutes 11% of all male cancers making it the #1 ranking cancer among Nigerian men.

  13. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only rice...

  14. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  15. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  16. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate beer...

  17. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  18. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  19. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  20. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  1. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  2. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  3. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  4. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  5. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  6. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  7. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  8. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  9. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer.

    PubMed

    Berner, T S; Arneborg, N

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced ageing experiments. Interestingly, the strain with the lowest oxidative stress resistance and lowest secretion of thioredoxin, as measured by Western blotting, resulted in the highest uptake of iron, as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the slowest formation of radicals in the model beers. A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. To obtain lager beers with enhanced oxidative stability, yeast strains should be screened for their low oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to take up iron rather than for their high oxidative stress tolerance and/or high ability to secrete thioredoxin. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  11. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  12. NMR methods for beer characterization and quality control.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J E; Gil, A M

    2011-12-01

    The use of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the brewing industry is described; most studies having aimed at assessing the composition of beer and its raw materials and correlating it to a variety of quality parameters. First, the application of NMR to the qualitative characterization of beer is reviewed, addressing both targeted and untargeted methods and focusing on both beer extracts and direct beer analysis. A subsequent chapter addresses the NMR studies, which envisage the development of new rapid methods for beer analysis and quality control, such as site-specific natural fractionation-NMR and multivariate data analysis methods for marker search or rapid compound quantification. Finally, possible future perspectives toward a deeper and more complete understanding of beer and its brewing process are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  14. Beer potomania: two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fenves, A Z; Thomas, S; Knochel, J P

    1996-01-01

    The association of severe hyponatremia and the ingestion of large quantities of beer, termed beer potomania, has been known for several years. We report two new cases, and review 20 others from the medical literature. These patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking, poor dietary intake, and then present with severe hyponatremia and various mental status changes or seizures. Typical laboratory findings include hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and a very dilute urine. The patients respond quickly to the administration of sodium chloride containing i.v. fluids. We propose that the pivotal pathophysiologic mechanism in beer potomania syndrome is the minimal intake of solute and the hypoosmolality of the beer ingested. This will lead to the inability to excrete sufficient amounts of free water to keep up with the ingestion of large quantities of the hyposmolar beer. Treatment with isotonic sodium chloride results in the rapid clearance of the accumulated excess free water.

  15. Determination of cobalt, manganese, and alcohol content in beers.

    PubMed

    Cameán, A; López-Artíguez, M; Roca, I; Herce-Pagliai, C; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of exposure to cobalt and manganese through the consumption of different brands of commercial beers widely consumed in Spain, considered as two groups according to their alcohol content. The Mn and Co concentrations in beer samples ranged from 25.29 to 228.60 micrograms/liter and 0.16 to 0.56 micrograms/liter, respectively. These contents do not differ from those found in other countries, and all comply with the maximum levels permitted by law. Significant differences occurred only in Mn content between beers with and without alcohol. The consumption of alcoholic beers contributes to an increased body burden of Mn among heavy consumers. According to the low levels of Co found in both types of beers, we can suggest that there is no risk of suffering cardiomyopathies and there is no significant contribution to the total intake of the element in heavy beer drinkers.

  16. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leike, A.

    2002-01-01

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals.

  17. "Beer potomania" in non-beer drinkers: effect of low dietary solute intake.

    PubMed

    Thaler, S M; Teitelbaum, I; Berl, T

    1998-06-01

    A ovolactovegetarian patient presented with hyponatremia. She had maximally dilute urine and undetectable vasopressin levels. Dietary history revealed very low protein intake but no beer intake. We postulated that the very low intake of solute limited her water excretion and caused the hyponatremia despite only a modest increase in fluid intake. When protein intake was increased in a clinical research center setting, free water excretion increased and serum sodium normalized despite maintaining the water intake at 4 to 5 L daily. We discuss the role of dietary solute in water excretion. Previously described in beer drinkers, the phenomenon can occur in the absence of beer drinking. In this era of weight consciousness, hyponatremia because of low solute intake may be seen with increased frequency.

  18. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers.

    PubMed

    Dostálek, P; Hochel, I; Méndez, E; Hernando, A; Gabrovská, D

    2006-11-01

    The gluten content in different varieties of barley and malts, and in different types of beers, was determined by a 'sandwich' enzyme immunoassay (RIDASCREEN Gliadin kit). The gluten levels in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts ranged 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6 and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer were compared, the gluten concentration increased as follows: alcohol-free beer (<3.0), lager beers (<3.0-8.7 mg l-1), stouts (9.0-15.2 mg l-1) and wheat beers (10.6-41.2 mg l-1). When 10 Czech lager beers were analysed, using both sandwich and competitive ELISA, the results showed that the latter method provided values several times higher than the former. Gluten balance was carried out during the brewing process, starting from the raw materials and terminating at the final beer. Gluten levels decreased due to precipitation during the mashing process, primary and secondary fermentation and, lastly, as a result of adsorption during beer stabilization. The gluten content in beer is, thus, approximately three orders of magnitude lower than in the raw malt.

  19. Codeine-spiked beer in a date rape case?

    PubMed

    Havig, Stine Marie; Wiik, Elisabeth; Karinen, Ritva; Brochmann, Gerd Wenche; Vevelstad, Merete

    2016-11-01

    A case of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, involving codeine and acetaminophen, possibly mixed in beer, was recently addressed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. To examine the case, a small study was performed, spiking beer with preparations containing codeine and acetaminophen and observing the concentrations, appearance, and taste of the solutions. The study revealed the majority of the preparations to be quickly soluble in beer, achieving high concentrations, but at the expense of strong taste and drastic visible changes in the beer.

  20. Complement components in Nigerians with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Onyemelukwe, G C

    1989-10-01

    Serum complement components C1q, C3, C4, factor B, and C3d breakdown products were measured in asthmatic Nigerians and in age-matched and sex-matched controls. C3 mean level was higher than in controls while C1q and C4 mean levels were lower than in controls. High levels of C3d in asthmatic patients suggest the possible role of C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins in the etiopathogenesis of perennial asthma in Nigerian patients in a tropical environment with ubiquitous airborne allergens and infective agents. The significantly elevated levels of IgM and IgG may suggest recurrent respiratory challenge of perennial antigens in our environment.

  1. Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

    1985-12-01

    Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs.

  2. Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    Nigeria to receive financial benefit from participating in efforts to reduce global warming. The “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Screaming Trees: The Nigerian Deforestation Crisis (U) 5a...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world and the Government of Nigeria (GON) has failed to

  3. Waardenburg's syndrome: case reports in two Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Amoni, S S; Abdurrahman, M B

    1979-01-01

    We saw two cases of Waardenburg's syndrome in Nigerian children. A 9-year-old girl had congenital deaf-mutism, high-arched palate, complete heterochromia iridis with pigment mottling in the posterior pole of the eye with the hypochromic iris, dyspigmented frontal scalp hair, a history of vitiligo, but with no dystopia canthorum. An 11-year-old boy had a harelip with cleft palate, heterochromia iridis, blonde fundus on the eye with blue iris, and dystopia canthorum.

  4. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  5. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  6. Academic Quality Assurance Variables in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  7. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  8. An Analysis of Female Research Productivity in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the research output of female staff and the factors that affect their research productivity in the Nigerian university system. The study was carried out with a view to promoting strategies that will enhance productivity and increase the research output of female staff in Nigerian universities. The study adopted a survey…

  9. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  10. Moral Reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maqsud, M.

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the universality of Piaget's and Kohlberg's stages of development of moral judgment in Nigerian and Pakistani cultures. Results show that the moral reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim adolescents are greatly affected by their cultural values. (Editor/RK)

  11. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  12. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  13. Managing Language Testing in Nigerian Large Classes: Processes and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abioye, Taiwo

    2010-01-01

    The demand for literacy in a developing country like Nigeria has multiple results such as the expansion, by leaps and bounds, of the average Nigerian classroom. This paper highlights the reasons for large classes in Nigerian secondary schools, the educational and psychological dimensions of language testing in large classes, the challenges of such…

  14. Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A Challenge for Status Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is probably the language with the highest population of users in Nigeria, it does not enjoy official recognition and is excluded from the education system. It lacks prestige because it is seen by many Nigerians as a "bad" form of English and associated with a socially deprived set of people.…

  15. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  16. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  17. Lung function in young Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I

    1991-01-01

    Static and dynamic long volumes have been measured in 181 (123 males and 58 females) apparently healthy Nigerian adults. The age range in both sexes was between 17 and 34 years (22.0 +/- 3.2 years in males and 21.3 +/- 3.2 years in females). In the male subjects mean height, weight and body surface area were 170.0 +/- 6.0 cm, 62.0 +/- 8.5 kg and 1.72 +/- 0.19 m2 respectively. In the female subjects mean height, was 162.3 +/- 15.3 cm, mean weight was 57.2 +/- 8.4 kg and mean body surface area was 1.60 +/- 0.12 m2. In both sexes, caucasian prediction formulae overestimated the TLC, FVC and RV/TLC% of the subjects. Observed FEV % in our subjects was higher than in the caucasians. The elevated FEV1 % and reduced FVC, RV/TLC % and TLC in Nigerian subjects may suggest and increased elastic recoil of the lungs and chestwall in them. Regression coefficients and constants for predicting TLC, FVC, FEV1, IC, ERV and RV in Nigerian subjects are presented.

  18. Determinants of journal choice among Nigerian medics.

    PubMed

    Olusegun, Nwhator Solomon; Olayinka, Agbaje Maarufah; Modupe, Soroye; Ikenna, Isiekwe Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior faculty members (28%) were willing

  19. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  20. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  1. Haze formation in model beer systems.

    PubMed

    Miedl, Michaela; Garcia, Marco A; Bamforth, Charles W

    2005-12-28

    The interaction of a haze-active protein (gliadin) and a haze-active polyphenol (tannic acid) was studied in a model beer system in order to investigate the principle mechanisms of haze formation at low temperatures. Low concentrations (g/L) of tannic acid, high concentrations of gliadin, and comparatively high temperatures lead to maximum haze values. When considered on a molar basis, the greatest haze levels are displayed at an approximate 1:1 equivalence of polyphenol and protein. The greater part of haze formation was completed within 0.5 h, irrespective of the concentration of gliadin, the concentration of tannic acid, and the temperature of the model solution.

  2. Ribotyping of lactobacilli isolated from spoiled beer.

    PubMed

    Yansanjav, Altanzaya; Svec, Pavel; Sedlácek, Ivo; Hollerová, Ida; Nemec, Miroslav

    2003-12-05

    Twenty-nine Lactobacillus strains contaminating beers in different Czech breweries as well as representative type strains obtained from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms were characterized using ribotyping with EcoRI and a probe made complementary to 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Biochemical test results assigned the 29 strains to the species L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. buchneri and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei. Ribotyping separated L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains into species-specific ribogroups in full correspondence with biotyping; L. buchneri strains were split into two ribogroups. Characteristic band patterns for each species and even typical bands of certain sizes were observed.

  3. Analysis of beers from an 1840s' shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Londesborough, John; Dresel, Michael; Gibson, Brian; Juvonen, Riikka; Holopainen, Ulla; Mikkelson, Atte; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Viljanen, Kaarina; Virtanen, Hannele; Wilpola, Arvi; Hofmann, Thomas; Wilhelmson, Annika

    2015-03-11

    Two bottles of beer from an about 170-year-old shipwreck (M1 Fö 403.3) near the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea were analyzed. Hop components and their degradation compounds showed that the bottles contained two different beers, one more strongly hopped than the other. The hops used contained higher levels of β-acids than modern varieties and were added before the worts were boiled, converting α-acids to iso-α-acids and β-acids to hulupones. High levels of organic acids, carbonyl compounds, and glucose indicated extensive bacterial and enzyme activity during aging. However, concentrations of yeast-derived flavor compounds were similar to those of modern beers, except that 3-methylbutyl acetate was unusually low in both beers and 2-phenylethanol and possibly 2-phenylethyl acetate were unusually high in one beer. Concentrations of phenolic compounds were similar to those in modern lagers and ales.

  4. Guilty or Not Guilty? How Nigerian Families Impede the Aspirations of Nigerian Girls for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onochie, Okeke Chinedu Ifedi

    2010-01-01

    The females' relatively low participation in higher education is discussed within the Nigerian society in a way that such issues are discursively placed in often contradictory, as well as extremely complicated contexts. Dominant discussions draw on the interplay between gender and students' performance across subjects, as well as on the influences…

  5. Comparison of the odor-active compounds in unhopped beer and beers hopped with different hop varieties.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Toru; Wanikawa, Akira; Kono, Katsunori; Shibata, Kazunori

    2006-11-15

    Odorants comprising the hop aromas of beers were examined. Strongly hopped beers with Saazer, Hersbrucker, and Cascade hops were compared with unhopped beer by gas chromatography-olfactometry (CharmAnalysis) and sensory evaluation. Twenty-seven odorants were revealed as hop-derived, which derived either directly from hops or via metabolization, and 19 components were identified. Of the components, linalool, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate were determined as odor-active components from their Charm values and aroma values. The muscat-like aroma of Cascade beer and the spicy aroma of Hersbrucker beer were predominant in sensory evaluation, and the contributors to these characteristics were investigated.

  6. Uncovering patterns of consumers' interest for beer: A case study with craft beers.

    PubMed

    Donadini, Gianluca; Porretta, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing

  7. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  8. Exploring Low Alcohol Beer Consumption Among College Students: Implications for Drunk Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Nason W.; Geller, E. Scott

    1988-01-01

    When given a "blind" taste test prior to a party, college students (N=137) showed no clear preference for Budweiser beer, Bud Light, or low-alcohol beer, but later drank significantly less low-alcohol beer. It was concluded that without improved marketing intervention, low-alcohol beer will not impact on drunk driving among college…

  9. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  10. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  11. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  12. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  13. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  15. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  16. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  17. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  18. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  19. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  20. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  1. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  2. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  3. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  4. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  5. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  6. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  7. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  9. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  10. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  11. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  14. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  15. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  16. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  17. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  18. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  19. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  20. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  1. Exploring Low Alcohol Beer Consumption Among College Students: Implications for Drunk Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Nason W.; Geller, E. Scott

    1988-01-01

    When given a "blind" taste test prior to a party, college students (N=137) showed no clear preference for Budweiser beer, Bud Light, or low-alcohol beer, but later drank significantly less low-alcohol beer. It was concluded that without improved marketing intervention, low-alcohol beer will not impact on drunk driving among college…

  2. Growth and survival of foodborne pathogens in beer.

    PubMed

    Menz, Garry; Aldred, Peter; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2011-10-01

    This work aimed to assess the growth and survival of four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) in beer. The effects of ethanol, pH, and storage temperature were investigated for the gram-negative pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium), whereas the presence of hops ensured that the gram-positive pathogens (L. monocytogenes and S. aureus) were rapidly inactivated in alcohol-free beer. The pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium could not grow in the mid-strength or full-strength beers, although they could survive for more than 30 days in the mid-strength beer when held at 4°C. These pathogens grew rapidly in the alcohol-free beer; however, growth was prevented when the pH of the alcohol-free beer was lowered from the "as received" value of 4.3 to 4.0. Pathogen survival in all beers was prolonged at lowered storage temperatures.

  3. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-03

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents.

  4. Presence and distribution of arsenical species in beers.

    PubMed

    Herce-Pagliai, C; González, G; Camean, A M; Repetto, M

    1999-06-01

    The total content of arsenic and of its inorganic (As(III) and As(V)) and organic (monomethylarsonic acid, MMAA, and dimethylarsinic acid, DMAA) species were determined in a set of 21 alcoholic and alcohol-free beer samples using the technique of Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. For total arsenic analysis, beer samples were dried and then microwave digested with nitric acid in polytetrafluoroethylene containers. For the speciation analysis, beers were previously subjected to ion exchange chromatography to elute the mentioned inorganic and organic arsenical species. Both microwave digestion and chromatographic separation methods were validated from certified reference materials and prepared standard solutions, respectively. The results obtained are presented in terms of the distribution and occurrence of arsenical species in the samples. The As levels of the beer samples were in the range of 1.5-12.4 micrograms/l. The influence of the production process for the alcohol-free beers in the speciation of arsenic is discussed. In alcoholic beers MMAA was the most abundant species, and for non-alcoholic beers inorganic As(III) was similar to the organic species. An estimated intake of total As of 0.47 microgram/person/day and 11.4 micrograms/person/day was obtained for average consumers and for heavy drinkers, respectively.

  5. Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

    1985-01-01

    Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs. Images p219-a p219-b p219-c PMID:4092144

  6. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-04-04

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.

  7. Lactobacillus amylolyticus sp. nov., isolated from beer malt and beer wort.

    PubMed

    Bohak, I; Back, W; Richter, L; Ehrmann, M; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Some of the strains used for the biological acidification in breweries belong to L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis or L. fermentum. However, more recent studies showed that most strains isolated are physiologically different from the above mentioned species and were tentatively allocated to Lactobacillus amylovorus. Genotypic studies of 25 strains exclusively isolated from beer malts and beer worts, showed, that there were differences to the type strain of L. amylovorus concerning DNA-DNA similarities and the sequences of their 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Therefore, we propose to combine these strains in a new species of the genus Lactobacillus, namely L. amylolyticus. Strain DSM 11664 is proposed as the type strain. An rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probe was designed that allows a fast and reliable identification of Lactobacillus amylolyticus.

  8. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  9. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  10. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C Silva

    2011-02-18

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 °C), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC-MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achieving a threefold reduction of the chromatographic time. Although losing optimum resolution, rapid GC runs showed similar chromatographic profiles and semi-quantitative ability to characterize volatile compounds. To evaluate the variations on the global volatile signature (chromatographic profile and m/z pattern of fragmentation in each scan) of beer during thermal deterioration, a non-supervised multivariate analysis method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to the GC-MS data. This methodology allowed not only the rapid identification of the degree of deterioration affecting beer, but also the identification of specific compounds of relevance to the thermal deterioration process of beer, both well established markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF), furfural and diethyl succinate, as well as other compounds, to our knowledge, newly correlated to beer aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history.

  14. Beer potomania syndrome in an alcoholic.

    PubMed

    Harrow, A S

    1989-06-01

    To summarize, patients with the "beer potomania" syndrome are characterized by 1) a history of chronic alcohol ingestion (in a hypotonic form); 2) protein malnutrition; 3) signs, symptoms and laboratory values consistent with water intoxication, including hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and, usually, hypokalaemia; 4) no evidence of another cause of hyponatraemia such as steroid use, diuretic use, hyperlipidaemia, etc. The pathophysiology involves the inability to excrete sufficient free water, based on a loss of normal renal urea gradients. Patients may actually be total-body sodium depleted, yet have elevated urinary sodium and fractional sodium excretion due to this disorder of water metabolism. Attention to proper nutrition during the acute illness may obviate the need for potentially hazardous administration of hypertonic saline.

  15. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  16. Hops (Humulus lupulus) Content in Beer Modulates Effects of Beer on the Liver After Acute Ingestion in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Marianne; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Jung, Finn; Brombach, Christine; Bergheim, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol. Female C57BL/6 J mice were either fed one iso-alcoholic and iso-caloric bolus dose of ethanol, beer, beer without hops (6 g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric bolus of maltodextrin control solution. Markers of steatosis, intestinal barrier function, activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascades, lipid peroxidation and lipogenesis were determined in liver, small intestine and plasma 2 h and 12 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Alcohol-induced hepatic fat accumulation was significantly attenuated in mice fed beer whereas in those fed beer without hops, hepatic fat accumulation was similar to that found in ethanol-fed mice. While markers of intestinal barrier function e.g. portal endotoxin levels and lipogenesis only differed slightly between groups, hepatic concentrations of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 protein as well as of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts were similarly elevated in livers of mice fed ethanol or beer without hops when compared with controls. Induction of these markers was markedly attenuated in mice fed hops-containing beer. Taken together, our data suggest that hops in beer markedly attenuated acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in female mice through mechanisms involving a suppression of iNOS induction in the liver. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of detection medium for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Asano, S; Iijima, K; Kuriyama, H; Kitagawa, Y

    2008-05-01

    To develop a detection medium for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Four hard-to-culture beer-spoilage strains of LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus paracollinoides and Lactobacillus lindneri, have been obtained by repeatedly subculturing the wild-type strains in beer. To develop a countermeasure against these hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB, a beer-based medium was modified. As a consequence, the supplementation of a small amount of de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium was found to enhance the growth of hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB strains obtained in this study. In addition, sodium acetate was shown to improve the selectivity of this beer-based medium. Further comparative study was performed with five other media widely used for the detection of beer-spoilage LAB in the brewing industry. This study revealed that the newly developed medium, designated advanced beer-spoiler detection (ABD) medium, possessed superior sensitivity for hard-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB and comparable sensitivity with easy-to-culture beer-spoilage LAB. Moreover, ABD medium was found to suppress the growth of nonspoilage micro-organisms, and thereby allow the selective growth of beer-spoilage LAB. Advanced beer-spoiler detection medium is considered as an effective tool for comprehensive detection of beer-spoilage LAB in breweries. The detection by ABD medium can be used as an indicator for differentiating the beer-spoilage ability of LAB without further confirmatory tests in breweries.

  18. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  19. Stigmatization of mental illness among Nigerian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Pablo; Dogra, Nisha; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella, Tolulope; Atitola, Olayinka

    2010-09-01

    Despite the fact that about 10% of children experience mental health problems, they tend to hold negative views about mental illness. The objective of this study was to investigate the views of Nigerian schoolchildren towards individuals with mental illness or mental health problems. A cross-sectional design was used. Junior and senior secondary schoolchildren from rural and urban southwest Nigeria were asked: 'What sorts of words or phrases might you use to describe someone who experiences mental health problems?' The responses were tabulated, grouped and interpreted by qualitative thematic analysis. Of 164 students, 132 (80.5%) responded to the question. Six major themes emerged from the answers. The most popular descriptions were 'derogatory terms' (33%). This was followed by 'abnormal appearance and behaviour' (29.6%); 'don't know' answers (13.6%); 'physical illness and disability' (13.6%); 'negative emotional states' (6.8%); and 'language and communication difficulties' (3.4%). The results suggest that, similar to findings elsewhere, stigmatization of mental illness is highly prevalent among Nigerian children. This may be underpinned by lack of knowledge regarding mental health problems and/or fuelled by the media. Educational interventions and encouraging contact with mentally ill persons could play a role in reducing stigma among schoolchildren.

  20. Obstetric neuropraxia in the Nigerian African.

    PubMed

    Bademosi, O; Osuntokun, B O; Van de Werd, H J; Bademosi, A K; Ojo, O A

    1980-01-01

    The results of a prospective study of 34 Nigerian women with obstetric neuropraxia (puerperal paresis of the lower limbs) seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, are presented. The height of 29 (84%) was under 62 in (1.58 m). All were younger than 45, and 41% (14) were primiparous. Lumbosacral plexus injury with a foot-drop was the most frequent presenting feature (88%), bilateral involvement was observed in 13 patients (38%), femoral neuropathy was observed in nine (26%) and the ankle tendon jerks were absent in 35%. Spastic paraparesis was not uncommon (15%). Results of electromyographic examination and determinations of conduction velocities were consistent with proximal neuropraxia of the lumbasacral trunk in many of them (88%). The presentation of the fetus was cephalic in 97% of the women. The major predisposing factor was prolonged labor. Among the complications associated with the neuropraxia were hydroureters above the pelvic brim and vesico- and rectovaginal fistulae. Perinatal mortality was high particularly with labor of more than 18 hours. Recovery from the neuropraxia was complete for 76% of the patients. It is concluded that direct pressure on the lumbosacral plexus and nerve trunks by the presenting fetal part is the major factor in the pathogenesis of obstetric neuropraxia encountered in Nigerians.

  1. Insulin secretory reserve in diabetic Nigerian Africans.

    PubMed

    Bella, A F; Adelaja, B; John-Alo, C; Adetuyibi, A

    1990-03-01

    The insulin secretory capacity of three groups of Nigerian African diabetics was assessed by measuring the concentration of C-peptide before and after stimulation with oral glucose. Group 1 subjects had a history of keto-acidosis and were treated with insulin. Those in group 2 had no history of keto-acidosis but required insulin to normalize blood glucose while those in group 3 also had no history of keto-acidosis and were treated with diet alone or in combination with oral hypoglycaemic drugs. C-peptide levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) showed group 1 subjects to be insulin deficient (fasting 0.08 +/- 0.04 pmol/ml, peak 0.14 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml), group 2 to have reduced insulin secretion (fasting 0.16 +/- 0.01 pmol/ml, peak 0.35 +/- 0.01 pmol/ml) and group 3 to have a moderately reduced fasting insulin and a higher peak insulin secretion (fasting 0.27 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml, peak 1.49 +/- 0.4 pmol/ml) compared with a non-diabetic control group (fasting 0.30 +/- 0.03 pmol/ml, peak 1.16 +/- 0.1 pmol/ml). Although the aetiology of diabetes in the Nigerian African is unclear, a spectrum of the disease exists which is similar to that in Caucasian population.

  2. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    PubMed

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not.

  3. A cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ikenna Isiekwe, Gerald; Olatokunbo DaCosta, Oluranti; Chukwudi Isiekwe, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student's t-test with a level of significance at P<0·05. Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield. Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians.

  4. Native Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningfield, Damond

    2001-03-01

    People native to North America practiced their own version of astronomy. They tracked the motions of the Sun to help them decide when to plant crops, move their camps, and stage sacred rituals. Some tribes built great circles of stones to help them predict the changing seasons. Others built great mounds of earth to reflect the patterns they saw in the heavens and to align their ceremonial centers with the Sun and the Moon.

  5. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate...

  6. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate...

  7. Beer Potomania—An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Electrolyte abnormalities are common findings in patients with a history of heavy alcohol use. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content (sodium concentration, 1.8 mEq/L and potassium concentration, 7.2 mEq/L), to the exclusion of other solute intake may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little other food. His hyponatremia improved with increased solute intake and, upon correction of his serum sodium, he had no subsequent neurologic sequelae. PMID:26176571

  8. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    Thomas Tate, a third grade student at Anne Beers Elementary school, asks a question following a presentation by the crew of STS-127, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Flavor-active esters: adding fruitiness to beer.

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M; Pretorius, Isak S; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2003-01-01

    As they are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages, volatile esters constitute an important group of aromatic compounds in beer. In modern high-gravity fermentations, which are performed in tall cylindroconical vessels, the beer ester balance is often sub-optimal, resulting in a clear decrease in beer quality. Despite the intensive research aimed at unravelling the precise mechanism and regulation of ester synthesis, our current knowledge remains far from complete. However, a number of factors that influence flavor-active ester production have already been described, including wort composition, wort aeration and fermentor design. A thoughtful adaptation of these parameters allows brewers to steer ester concentrations and thus to control the fruity character of their beers. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the biochemistry behind yeast ester synthesis and discusses the different factors that allow ester formation to be controlled during brewery fermentation.

  10. Beer elicits vasculoprotective effects through Akt/eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the effect of alcohol beverage intake in vascular vasodilatory function in peripheral arteries. The effects of beer intake in coronary vasodilation remain unknown. We investigated whether regular beer intake (alcohol and alcohol-free) protects against hypercholesterolaemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction and the mechanisms behind this effect. Pigs were fed 10 days: (i) a Western-type hypercholesterolaemic diet (WD); (ii) WD+low-dose beer (12·5 g alcohol/day); (iii) WD+moderate-dose beer (25 g alcohol/day); or (iv) WD+moderate-dose alcohol-free-beer (0·0 g alcohol/day). Coronary responses to endothelium-dependent vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine: receptor mediated; calcium ionophore-A23189: nonreceptor mediated), endothelium-independent vasoactive drug (SNP) and L-NMMA (NOS-antagonist) were evaluated in the LAD coronary artery by flow Doppler. Coronary Akt/eNOS activation, MCP-1 expression, oxidative DNA damage and superoxide production were assessed. Lipid profile, lipoproteins resistance to oxidation and urinary isoxanthohumol concentration were evaluated. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer intake prevented WD-induced impairment of receptor- and non-receptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to SNP and L-NMMA blunted all endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation responses. Haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Coronary arteries showed lower DNA damage and increased Akt/eNOS axis activation in beer-fed animals. Animals taking beer showed HDL with higher antioxidant capacity, higher LDL resistance to oxidation and increased isoxanthohumol levels. Weight, lipids levels, liver enzymes and MCP-1 expression were not affected by beer intake. Non-alcoholic-related beer components protect against hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by counteracting vascular oxidative damage and preserving the Akt/eNOS pathway. Light-to-moderate beer

  11. [Prevention of beer dependence in adolescents in educational institutions].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A G; Novikova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The authors have systematized approaches to the prevention of beer dependence in adolescents and presented the inner structure of prevention in educational institutions in terms of consecutive steps. The author's methods for adolescence beer dependence diagnosis are described. Different forms of preventive work with adolescences and their parents allowing to combine flexibly the preventive methods with the participation of cross-functional specialists are presented.

  12. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  13. Analysis of anions in beer using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The majority of anions found in beer are a consequence of impurities derived from the water used during the brewing process. The process of beer manufacture consists of malting, brewing and fermentation followed by maturation before filtration and finally storage. Strict quality control is required because the presence of certain anions outside strictly defined tolerance limits can affect the flavour characteristics of the finished product. The anions present were quantified using the technique of ion chromatography with the Metrohm modular system following sample preparation. The analysis produced a result of the order 200 mg l(-1) for chloride, phosphate and sulphate and around 20 mg l(-1) for nitrate. If the chloride level exceeds 250 mg l(-1), then the sweetness of the beer is enhanced, but yeast flocculation can be hindered. An excess of sulphate can give a sharp, dry edge to hopped beers and excessive amounts of nitrate have been found to harm the yeast metabolism after conversion to the nitrite form. As water is a primary ingredient within beer, its quality and type is a fundamental factor in establishing many of the distinctive regional beers that can be found in the United Kingdom and is thus monitored carefully.

  14. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    PubMed

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  15. Beer Consumption Increases Human Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures. PMID:20209056

  16. Involvement of flavanoids in beer color instability during storage.

    PubMed

    Callemien, Delphine; Collin, Sonia

    2007-10-31

    Besides Maillard reactions, structural rearrangements of flavan-3-ol monomers cause color changes in beer during storage. Acetone/water-soluble fractions (70/30, v/v) of three lager beers of the same batch, differently stabilized before bottling in glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles, were monitored by normal-phase HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS over a 1-year period of storage at 20 degrees C. In parallel, beer color was monitored by the European Brewery Convention assay. The evolution of color was similar in the silica gel-filtered beer to that in identically bottled and stored poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone)-treated samples, despite the high flavanoid dimers content of the former. On the other hand, color evolved more rapidly in the PET bottle, suggesting a key role of oxygen. The kinetics was still increased in model media containing (+)-catechin, while no color was detected when normal-phase HPLC-fractionated dimers or trimers were investigated. (+)-Catechin emerged as the precursor of less polar products, characterized by a yellow-brown color. MS/MS enabled us to identify these products as issued from the oxidation and intramolecular additions of dehydrodicatechin B4. Similar structures were found in aged beers spiked with (+)-catechin. Beer storage in the absence of oxygen and at low temperature is recommended so as to minimize the synthesis of such pigments.

  17. Analysis of anions in beer using ion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The majority of anions found in beer are a consequence of impurities derived from the water used during the brewing process. The process of beer manufacture consists of malting, brewing and fermentation followed by maturation before filtration and finally storage. Strict quality control is required because the presence of certain anions outside strictly defined tolerance limits can affect the flavour characteristics of the finished product. The anions present were quantified using the technique of ion chromatography with the Metrohm modular system following sample preparation. The analysis produced a result of the order 200 mg l-1 for chloride, phosphate and sulphate and around 20 mg l-1 for nitrate. If the chloride level exceeds 250 mg l-1, then the sweetness of the beer is enhanced, but yeast flocculation can be hindered. An excess of sulphate can give a sharp, dry edge to hopped beers and excessive amounts of nitrate have been found to harm the yeast metabolism after conversion to the nitrite form. As water is a primary ingredient within beer, its quality and type is a fundamental factor in establishing many of the distinctive regional beers that can be found in the United Kingdom and is thus monitored carefully. PMID:18924733

  18. Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

    2007-01-01

    We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care.

  19. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A; van de Venter, M; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-07-03

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum paniculatum, Celosia trigyna, Drymaria cordata, Cyathula achyranthoides and Cyathula prostata. Justica extensa, Pupalia lappacea, Hedranthera barteri leaves, Alternanthera sessilis, Ethulia conyzoides leaves, Combretum zenkeri root, Sapium ellipticum stembark and Lannea nigritana stembark showed very low activity while Combretum molle, Adenanthera parvoniana and Lannea acida showed no activity. The results justify the use of Sapium, Combretum, Celosia, Drymaria and Cyathula in traditional treatment of cancer.

  1. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis in an adult Nigerian.

    PubMed

    Salako, Abdulkadir A; Olasode, Babatunde J; Eziyi, Amogu K; Osasan, Stephen A

    2006-02-01

    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare benign disease of the testis which has not been previously documented in tropical Africa. We report a case of a 24-year-old Nigerian man who presented with a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. Our clinical diagnosis was left testicular cancer. Testicular tumor markers were normal. At surgical exploration, we found a left testicular tumor. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed XGO of the left testis. He had left radical orchiectomy and left inguinal node dissection. He has remained stable 8 months after the treatment. Xanthogranulomatous orchitis cannot be distinguished clinically from testicular cancer unless by histopathological examination. Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice. However, in all patients and particularly young patients and those with a single testis, histopathological confirmation is suggested to avoid unnecessary radical orchiectomy, useless irradiation and ill-timed chemotherapy.

  3. NOTE: The modified Beer Lambert law revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Herman, P.; Eke, A.

    2006-03-01

    The modified Beer Lambert law (MBLL) is the basis of continuous-wave near-infrared tissue spectroscopy (cwNIRS). The differential form of MBLL (dMBLL) states that the change in light attenuation is proportional to the changes in the concentrations of tissue chromophores, mainly oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. If attenuation changes are measured at two or more wavelengths, concentration changes can be calculated. The dMBLL is based on two assumptions: (1) the absorption of the tissue changes homogeneously, and (2) the scattering loss is constant. It is known that absorption changes are usually inhomogeneous, and therefore dMBLL underestimates the changes in concentrations (partial volume effect) and every calculated value is influenced by the change in the concentration of other chromophores (cross-talk between chromophores). However, the error introduced by the second assumption (cross-talk of scattering changes) has not been assessed previously. An analytically treatable special case (semi-infinite, homogeneous medium, with optical properties of the cerebral cortex) is utilized here to estimate its order of magnitude. We show that the per cent change of the transport scattering coefficient and that of the absorption coefficient have an approximately equal effect on the changes of attenuation, and a 1% increase in scattering increases the estimated concentration changes by about 0.5 µM.

  4. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  5. The modified Beer-Lambert law revisited.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, L; Herman, P; Eke, A

    2006-03-07

    The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) is the basis of continuous-wave near-infrared tissue spectroscopy (cwNIRS). The differential form of MBLL (dMBLL) states that the change in light attenuation is proportional to the changes in the concentrations of tissue chromophores, mainly oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. If attenuation changes are measured at two or more wavelengths, concentration changes can be calculated. The dMBLL is based on two assumptions: (1) the absorption of the tissue changes homogeneously, and (2) the scattering loss is constant. It is known that absorption changes are usually inhomogeneous, and therefore dMBLL underestimates the changes in concentrations (partial volume effect) and every calculated value is influenced by the change in the concentration of other chromophores (cross-talk between chromophores). However, the error introduced by the second assumption (cross-talk of scattering changes) has not been assessed previously. An analytically treatable special case (semi-infinite, homogeneous medium, with optical properties of the cerebral cortex) is utilized here to estimate its order of magnitude. We show that the per cent change of the transport scattering coefficient and that of the absorption coefficient have an approximately equal effect on the changes of attenuation, and a 1% increase in scattering increases the estimated concentration changes by about 0.5 microM.

  6. Development of a robotic pourer constructed with ubiquitous materials, open hardware and sensors to assess beer foam quality using computer vision and pattern recognition algorithms: RoboBEER.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Li, GuangJun; Collmann, Richard; Condé, Bruna; Torrico, Damir

    2016-11-01

    There are currently no standardized objective measures to assess beer quality based on the most significant parameters related to the first impression from consumers, which are visual characteristics of foamability, beer color and bubble size. This study describes the development of an affordable and robust robotic beer pourer using low-cost sensors, Arduino® boards, Lego® building blocks and servo motors for prototyping. The RoboBEER is also coupled with video capture capabilities (iPhone 5S) and automated post hoc computer vision analysis algorithms to assess different parameters based on foamability, bubble size, alcohol content, temperature, carbon dioxide release and beer color. Results have shown that parameters obtained from different beers by only using the RoboBEER can be used for their classification according to quality and fermentation type. Results were compared to sensory analysis techniques using principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. The PCA from RoboBEER data explained 73% of variability within the data. From sensory analysis, the PCA explained 67% of the variability and combining RoboBEER and Sensory data, the PCA explained only 59% of data variability. The ANN technique for pattern recognition allowed creating a classification model from the parameters obtained with RoboBEER, achieving 92.4% accuracy in the classification according to quality and fermentation type, which is consistent with the PCA results using data only from RoboBEER. The repeatability and objectivity of beer assessment offered by the RoboBEER could translate into the development of an important practical tool for food scientists, consumers and retail companies to determine differences within beers based on the specific parameters studied. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-06-07

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  8. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (−1.1%), AB (−1.0%) and NAB (−1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (−3.9%) and AB (−3.7%), plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (−0.9%) and NAB (−1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  9. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  10. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b).

  11. Monoclonal antibody probe for assessing beer foam stabilizing proteins.

    PubMed

    Onishi, A; Proudlove, M O; Dickie, K; Mills, E N; Kauffman, J A; Morgan, M R

    1999-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (Mab; IFRN 1625) has been produced, which is specific for the most hydrophobic polypeptides responsible for foam stabilization. The binding characteristics of the Mab suggest that it is the conformation of certain hydrophobic polypeptides which is important for foam stabilization. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for assessing the foam-positive form of the foam-stabilizing polypeptides in beer was developed using IFRN 1625. A good correlation was obtained between ELISA determination of foam-stabilizing polypeptides and an empirical means of determining foaming, that is, the Rudin head retention values, for a collection of beers of various foam qualities. Application of the ELISA to different stages of the brewing process showed that the amounts of foam-positive polypeptides increased during barley germination. During the brewing process the proportion of foam-positive polypeptides present after fermentation increased slightly, although a large amount was lost along with other beer proteins during subsequent steps, such as filtering. The present study demonstrates that the amounts of beer polypeptide present in a foam-positive form have a direct relationship with the foaming potential of beer, that their levels are altered by processing, and that there is potential for greater quality control.

  12. Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-07-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer's lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  13. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer.

  14. Craft vs. industrial: Habits, attitudes and motivations towards beer consumption in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; García, Mauricio; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Food choices tend to be stable over time; they do not change fast, since consumers tend to act like creatures of habits. However, food habits can evolve, like currently the craft beer category. A change of habits involves a change of perception towards a product. Therefore, what is changing in the perception of beer? Two studies were conducted to address this question. First study was preliminary and aimed at exploring beer consumption habits in Mexico and a better understanding of craft beer representation among beer users. A questionnaire was administrated to 207 consumers in Mexico City during a beer festival. Results showed that respondents could be classified in: industrial beer (41.1%), occasional industrial (24.1%), and craft beer (34.8%) consumers. Craft cluster included mostly 25-35 years old men with high-income level. Among the craft beers cited by respondents from this cluster some are industrial, suggesting that the concept of craft beer might not be well defined, or defined in ideological terms. The second and main study was conducted using consumer ethnographies to understand the motivations and benefits of craft beer consumption. Opposite to industrial, craft beer emerges as an experience-based and symbolic product rather than a utilitarian one. The main motivation for drinking craft beer seems to be the quest of authenticity. Respondents' motivations to drink craft beer are generated by three important factors: desire for more knowledge, new taste experiences, and move away from the mainstream beer consumption. Craft consumers do not drink the product for its functional attributes, they consume it for what it means and as a consequence they build an identity, perceived as more authentic and unique, in comparison to the mainstream industrial beer consumption in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  16. Mutagenizing brewing yeast strain for improving fermentation property of beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengran; Zhang, Guangyi; Sun, Yunping

    2008-07-01

    A brewing yeast mutant with perfect sugar fermentation capacity was isolated by mutagenizing the Saccharomyces pastorianus transformant, which carries an integrated glucoamylase gene and has one copy of non-functional alpha-acetolactate synthase gene. The mutant was able to utilize maltotriose efficiently, and the maltotriose fermentability in YNB-2% maltotriose medium increased from 32.4% to 72.0% after 5 d in shaking culture. The wort fermentation test confirmed that the sugar fermentation property of the mutant was greatly improved, while its brewing performances were analogous to that of the wild-type strain and the characteristic trait of shortened beer maturation period was retained. Therefore, we believe that the brewing yeast mutant would benefit the beer industry and would be useful for low caloric beer production.

  17. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  18. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to β-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process. PMID:22069701

  19. Metabolism of zearalenone in the course of beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-02-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to β-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.

  20. Pre-internship Nigerian medical graduates lack basic musculoskeletal competency.

    PubMed

    Nottidge, Timothy Eyo; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Ifesanya, Adeleke Olusegun; Nnabuko, Richard E; Dim, Edwin Maduakonam; Udoinyang, Clement Inyang

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the basic musculoskeletal competency of pre-internship graduates from Nigerian medical schools. We administered the Freedman and Bernstein basic musculoskeletal competency examination to 113 pre-internship graduates from seven Nigerian medical schools over a three year period from 2008 to 2010 at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Five specialist residents took the examination to test criteria relevance. All graduates failed this test, obtaining scores ranging from 7% to 67%. The duration of the orthopaedic posting, and observation of operative fracture fixation, were not significant determinants of the score. The two final-year specialist residents each had a marginal pass in the examination. Basic musculoskeletal competency among pre-internship Nigerian medical-school graduates is inadequate.

  1. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614

  2. Anti-trypanosomal activity of nigerian plants and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Ngozi Justina; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Adikwu, Michael Umale; Mbah, Chika John

    2015-04-28

    African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to the lives of about 60 million people and 48 million cattle globally. Nigerian medicinal plants are known to contain a large variety of chemical structures and some of the plant extracts have been screened for antitrypanosomal activity, in the search for potential new drugs against the illness. We surveyed the literatures on plants and plant-derived products with antitrypanosomal activity from Nigerian flora published from 1990 to 2014. About 90 plants were identified, with 54 compounds as potential active agents and presented by plant families in alphabetical order. This review indicates that the Nigerian flora may be suitable as a starting point in searching for new and more efficient trypanocidal molecules.

  3. Cognitive Determinants of Academic Performance in Nigerian Pharmacy Schools.

    PubMed

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.

  4. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  5. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  6. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  7. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  8. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  9. Using Preferred Attribute Elicitation to Determine How Males and Females Evaluate Beer.

    PubMed

    Muggah, Elizabeth M; McSweeney, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    The variety of beers available for consumption has increased due to the recent emergence of many craft brewing operations and it has been suggested that this is affecting how consumers evaluate beer. Currently, beer consumers are mostly male and only 20% of women are primarily beer drinkers. The main objective of this project is to compare and contrast descriptions of beer products created by males and females. The preferred attribute elicitation (PAE) method was used to create a description of 4 beers common to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada. Four PAE sessions were held: 2 sessions consisted of females (n = 16 and 15) and 2 sessions of males (n = 11 and 17). Four beer samples were chosen from locally available commercial beers, 2 of these samples were considered to be craft-brewed beer and the other samples were nationally available brands (macrobrewed). Both the males and females generated descriptions that included 5 identical terms; however, they differed in the importance they assigned to each attribute. Notably, bitterness was perceived to be of more importance to female panelists. Throughout all PAE sessions, the craft-brewed beers were associated with considerably more sensory attributes than the macrobrewed beers. It can be concluded that both the female and male groups found discernible differences between the craft and macrobrewed beers; however, they place importance on different sensory attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  11. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  13. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  14. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  15. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  16. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  17. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  18. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  19. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  20. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  1. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  2. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  3. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  4. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  5. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  6. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  7. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  8. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  9. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  10. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  11. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  12. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  13. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to wines... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  14. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  15. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  16. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to wines... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  17. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements as to wines... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  18. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  19. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  20. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements as to wines... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  1. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  2. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  3. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  4. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to wines... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  5. The Nigerian Aging Males' Symptoms scale. Experience in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Akanni; Bamiwuye, Olusina; Inathaniel, Thomas; Ijadunola, Kayode; Fatusi, Adesegun

    2008-06-01

    The Aging Males' Symptoms scale (AMS) is an internationally used scale to analyse health related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this paper is to provide evidence that the Nigerian AMS scale measures HRQoL with similar accuracy as in other language versions. We also intended to show the severity of complaints of aging in males in advanced old age. More generally, we aim to demonstrate that the Nigerian AMS scale is an applicable, validated, sensitive instrument to measure HRQoL in Nigeria. We performed a representative survey in Nigeria to get data of the AMS scale in a group of males in old age. The survey was a household-based population sample conducted in March 2006. The Nigerian data were compared with existing data from other European countries. Only community-based data were used for this comparison. The internal structure of the AMS (factorial analysis) was sufficiently similar with the comparison group of other countries in Europe to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.8-0.9) but lower among the sub-scales (0.4-0.8). This suggests that the domains are not fully independent. The reliability (consistency) was found to be good and almost identical with European countries. Mean scores of the Nigerian AMS did systematically differ from data of other European studies. There were much higher because of older age. The same applies for the population reference values obtained in Nigeria. It is the first time that population norm values are available for very old age. The Nigerian AMS scale is a standardized HRQoL scale that showed good psychometric characteristics (reliability, validity) similar to other international versions. We suggest that the results obtained with the Nigerian AMS scale should be used preliminarily as reference for 'norm values' for highest age, i.e. in absence of other data. Confirmation in future studies is needed.

  6. Fluorescence studies of beer protein uptake by silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperson, Kathleen; Birch, David J. S.; Leiper, Kenneth; McKeown, Ian P.

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescence has been investigated with respect to new methods for monitoring protein uptake by silica, with particular attention being given to haze forming proteins and foam proteins present in beer. These are of particular interest to the brewing industry as an important aspect of the brewing process is the prevention of chill haze formation. This is necessary in order to maintain the clarity of the beer and to extend the shelf life. Chill haze, which is a result of the interaction of certain proteins with some polyphenols, can be prevented by the removal of one or both of these constituents.

  7. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  8. Beer potomania: an unusual cause of symptomatic hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S M; Potter, R

    1986-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with acute agitation, confusion, and tonic seizures. She had a history of drug abuse, most notably beer, which constituted her major dietary intake. The patient's seizures were at first thought to be factitious in association with an acute psychosis; however, her serum sodium concentration was 110 mEq/L and urine sodium was 14 mEq/L. The patient responded to IV hypertonic saline and subsequently recovered completely. Beer potomania, the most likely etiology for this patient's hyponatremia, is a rare disorder in which dietary sodium and protein insufficiency lead to dilutional hyponatremia.

  9. Current incidence of N-nitrosodimethylamine in beers worldwide.

    PubMed

    Baxter, E D; Slaiding, I R; Travers, V

    2007-08-01

    A range of beers (n = 138) from 42 countries were analysed for the presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a chemiluminescence technique with a limit of quantification of 0.1 microg L(-1). The overwhelming majority of samples (79%) did not contain detectable NDMA, and only three samples exceeded 0.5 microg L(-1). No association was found between NDMA content and beer strength, type or geographical origin. It was noted that water can be a potential source of NDMA in beverages.

  10. A Random Number Model for Beer's Law-Atom Shadowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, R. Scott

    1999-01-01

    A random-number corpuscular-theory-of-light model for teaching Beer's law is presented. In this model, atoms are considered to have photon-capture cross-sectional areas and to exist in some finite volume. Where by chance one atom lies directly behind another, the first atom is said to cast a shadow on the second, thereby preventing the second atom from participating in the attenuation of radiation at that instant. This model not only produces the linear Beer's law relationship, but it also provides a simple and visual model from which the law can be demonstrated with the use of a computer-spreadsheet random number generator.

  11. Native Americans with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  12. Beer, Wood, and Welfare--The Impact of Improved Stove Use Among Dolo-Beer Breweries.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Local beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households as well as the environmental effect. We find substantial wood savings among the breweries, 36% to 38% if they fully switch to an improved stove. In absolute amounts, they save about 0.176 kg of fuelwood per litre of dolo brewed. These savings imply huge reductions in CO2-emissions and reduce the overall demand for woodfuel, which is predominantly used by the poorer strata for cooking purposes. We provide estimates for the price decrease that might result from this and show that the urban poor are likely to benefit. Thus, the intervention under study is an example for a green growth intervention with pro-poor welfare gains--something green growth strategies should look for.

  13. Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-09-28

    The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8-27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7-21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2-1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3-2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4-230 μg/L), maltosine (6-56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1-4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15-60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.

  14. Some metallogenetic features of the Nigerian basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woakes, Michael; Rahaman, M. A.; Ajibade, A. C.

    The Nigerian basement consists of Eburnean granitic and metamorphic rocks into which are folded Upper Proterozoic supra-crustal low grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks forming N-S elongate belts. Pan-African granitoids mark the last major event and they have intrusive and/or tectonic relationships with the earlier units. Structural features are often complex. The Basement can be divided into the Eastern and Western Provinces, where the latter is marked by the occurrence of a variety of metallogenetic types and greater development of the supracrustal N-S belts, while the Eastern province is dominated by Pan-African granitoid rocks and a paucity of metallic mineral occurrences. The principle metallogenetic types that are (or have been) exploited are iron deposits, gold vein mineralization and SnTaNb-bearing pegmatites. Small occurrences are known of chromite, asbestos, CuNi sulphides, manganese and a variety of industrial minerals including talc, kyanite and magnesite. Metallogenetic types found in other Pan-African terrains that are markedly absent in Nigeria include basemetal deposits of plate accretion type (e.g. Saudi Arabia) and uranium (e.g. of Rossing type). It is suggested that Nigeria's relatively low metal production from basement deposits is attributable to a regional low metallogenetic inheritance which in turn has discouraged intensive prospecting but there is good potential especially for industrial mineral deposits.

  15. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  17. Gross motor development of Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Iloeje, S O; Obiekwe, V U; Kaine, W N

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study of 320 Nigerian children was undertaken to determine their pattern of motor development by recording the age at attainment of 12 gross-motor milestones. The children were all born full term and were neurologically normal at birth. They were recruited in the first week of life and seen at regular intervals in a well-baby clinic, where their parents were questioned about the ages at attainment of milestones. Results show that most gross-motor milestones were attained at earlier ages by these children than by children studied to establish norms for the traditional tests of motor development that have long been in use. Our findings confirm several previous reports which emphasize the more rapid attainment of motor milestones such as 'sit without support', 'crawl', 'stand well alone' and 'walk well alone' by black as compared with white children. But, conversely, a number of transitional milestones such as 'roll over', 'pull self to stand' and 'stand holding on' were achieved later by children in this study than by their non-African counterparts. Girls in this study were slightly advanced, relative to boys, in their attainment of most milestones. The results of this study have been incorporated into a chart which can be used in well-baby clinics to detect children with motor delay.

  18. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  19. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  20. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  1. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  2. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  3. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  4. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  5. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  6. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  7. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  8. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  9. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  10. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  11. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  12. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  13. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  14. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  15. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  16. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  17. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    Ajani Young, a fourth grade student at Anne Beers Elementary school, at podium, introduces the crew of STS-127 during their visit, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Seated from left are crew members, Chris Cassidy, Doug Hurley, Commander Mark Polansky, David Wolf, Tom Marshburn and Canadian Space Agency astronaut Julie Payette. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Continuous beer fermentation using immobilized yeast cell bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, José A

    2005-01-01

    Traditional beer fermentation and maturation processes use open fermentation and lager tanks. Although these vessels had previously been considered indispensable, during the past decades they were in many breweries replaced by large production units (cylindroconical tanks). These have proved to be successful, both providing operating advantages and ensuring the quality of the final beer. Another promising contemporary technology, namely, continuous beer fermentation using immobilized brewing yeast, by contrast, has found only a limited number of industrial applications. Continuous fermentation systems based on immobilized cell technology, albeit initially successful, were condemned to failure for several reasons. These include engineering problems (excess biomass and problems with CO(2) removal, optimization of operating conditions, clogging and channeling of the reactor), unbalanced beer flavor (altered cell physiology, cell aging), and unrealized cost advantages (carrier price, complex and unstable operation). However, recent development in reactor design and understanding of immobilized cell physiology, together with application of novel carrier materials, could provide a new stimulus to both research and application of this promising technology.

  19. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw... Puerto Rico on computation, but before payment, of the tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 7652(a), equal to the tax...

  20. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-04-01

    The authors theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  1. Determination of free fatty acids in beer wort.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Benedetti, Paolo; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-15

    The importance of free fatty acids (FFAs) in wort has been known for a long time because of their influence on beer quality and yeast metabolism. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as negative effects on beer quality. Lipids content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids seems to be related to gushing problems. A novel, simple, and reliable procedure for quantitative analysis of FFAs in wort was developed and validated. The determination of FFAs in wort was achieved via liquid-liquid cartridge extraction, purification of FFA fraction by solid phase extraction, boron trifluoride in methanol methylation, and injection into GC-FID system. The proposed method has high accuracy (<0.3%, expressed as the bias), high precision (<1.2%, RSD), and recoveries ranging from 74% to 98%. The method was tested on two different wort samples (9° and 12° Plato).

  2. [Beer and cardiovascular disease. Systematic bibliographic review (meta-analysis)].

    PubMed

    Villarino Marín, A L; Posada Moreno, P; Martínez Alvarez, J R; Ortuño Soriano, I; Astasio, P; Ortega, P

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the present study are: To carry out a systematic revision of the printed literature on beer consumption and its possible effects on human health. To analyze the possibility of applying techniques used in epidemiological studies considering meta-analysis as the most important element. Meta-analysis is a set of different statistical techniques that aim to get a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the results of different independent studies on the same subject. First we proceed to carry out the bibliographical search and compilation by means of the following Date-Bases: Medline, Embase and Toxline. Beer is used as key word, specifying the time period between January, 1998 and May, 2000. A total of 403 reference works are obtained and subjected to the corresponding criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The meta-analysis of the selected studies related to cardiovascular disease provides an OR of 0.89 (0.89-0.97) which shows that the group of risk falls ill in less cases than the non-exposed. Beer consumption: possible factor of cardiovascular protection. Nevertheless we must take this consideration with as much caution as possible. It is necessary to determine the effects of beer consumption on the Spanish population.

  3. Comparison of blood alcohol concentrations after beer and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Roine, R P; Gentry, R T; Lim, R T; Helkkonen, E; Salaspuro, M; Lieber, C S

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether blood alcohol concentrations achieved by ingestion of various alcoholic beverages differ as a function of prandial state, healthy male volunteers, aged 24 to 48 years, were given the same amount of alcohol (0.3 g/kg) as different beverages. The alcohol was consumed in three prandial states: postprandial (1 hr after a meal, n = 10), prandial (during the meal, n = 10), and preprandial (after an overnight fast, n = 9). Each subject was tested with both beer and whiskey, and in the postprandial state also with wine and sherry, in a within-subjects design. Blood alcohol concentrations were estimated by breath analysis for 4 hr or until concentrations reached zero. Peak blood alcohol levels were higher with beer than with whiskey in the postprandial and prandial conditions (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite was true in the preprandial state (p < 0.05). Similarly, the area under the blood alcohol curve was higher with beer in the prandial state (p < 0.05), and higher with whiskey in the preprandial condition (p < 0.01). Wine and sherry yielded peak concentrations intermediate between those of beer and whiskey in the postprandial state. The results indicate that a dilute alcoholic drink can yield either higher or lower blood alcohol levels than a concentrated beverage, depending on the prandial state.

  4. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    Students and teachers look on as STS-127 Commander Mark Polansky, seated left on stage talks about the mission to the International Space Station as other crew members Chris Cassidy, Doug Hurley, David Wolf, Tom Marshburn looks on during a visit to Anne Beers Elementary school, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  6. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    Canadian Space Agency astronaut Julie Payette, right, a mission specialist on STS-127, talks with two unidentified students during a visit to Anne Beers Elementary school, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Payette, along with the rest of the crew from STS-127, visited with students at the school Thursday. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    Students, including Marcus Pratt, left, and Ajani Young, second from left, pay close attention as the crew from STS-127 makes their presentation during a visit to Anne Beers Elementary school, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. How Adolescents Counterargue Television Beer Advertisements: Implications for Education Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Beauvais, Frederick; Murphy, Kevin; Estes, Emily

    1998-01-01

    Examined types of counterarguments generated by Anglo and Latino adolescents exposed to television beer ads, noting counterargument differences based on demographic and behavioral variables. Questionnaires and comments from the students indicated that without any cues, they responded with counterarguments, though counterarguments represented only…

  9. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  10. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subpart, on all beer so withdrawn. The bond shall be executed in a penal sum not less than the amount of unpaid tax which, at any one time, is chargeable against the bond: Provided, That the penal sum of such bond shall not exceed $500,000, but in no case shall the penal sum be less than $1,000. (Aug. 16, 1954...

  11. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  12. Determinants of the thirst-quenching character of beer.

    PubMed

    Guinard, J X; Souchard, A; Picot, M; Rogeaux, M; Sieffermann, J M

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to find which sensory characteristics are significant determinants of the thirst-quenching character of beer. The sensory attributes and thirst-quenching characteristics ("thirst quenching", "refreshing", "drinkability") of 18 beers were evaluated by a panel of 12 judges. The only significant positive determinants of the "thirst-quenching" character of the beers in the design were carbonation and bubble density. Significant negative determinants were foam, overall aroma and flavor, color, viscosity, malty, hoppy, burnt, bitterness, acidic, metallic, astringency and aftertaste. The same correlations (both in terms of direction and significance level) were observed between descriptive attributes and the "refreshing" and "drinkability" factors. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the mean ratings indicated that variability among beers was mostly along a thirst-quenching dimension (72% of the variance). Procrustes analysis performed on the individual ratings showed that, for one of the judges, the interpretation of the thirst-quenching concept differed from that shown by PCA for the overall panel. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. How Adolescents Counterargue Television Beer Advertisements: Implications for Education Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Beauvais, Frederick; Murphy, Kevin; Estes, Emily

    1998-01-01

    Examined types of counterarguments generated by Anglo and Latino adolescents exposed to television beer ads, noting counterargument differences based on demographic and behavioral variables. Questionnaires and comments from the students indicated that without any cues, they responded with counterarguments, though counterarguments represented only…

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  15. The Color of Safety: Ingroup Associated Colors make Beer Safer

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals display high levels of trust and express feelings of safety when interacting with social ingroup members. Here, we investigated whether cues related to ingroup membership would change perceptions of the safety of alcohol. Participants were exposed to images of beer in either a standard can or a can featuring the colors of their university (i.e., ‘fan cans’). We hypothesized that exposure to fan cans would change perceptions of the risks of beer drinking. Results showed that participants exposed to fan cans rated beer consumption as less dangerous (Experiment 1), were more likely to automatically activate safety-related mental content after unconscious perception of beer cues (Experiment 2), and viewed their ingroup’s party practices as less dangerous (Experiment 3). These results provide evidence that ingroup-associated colors can serve as a safety cue for alcohol, which may in theory perpetuate alcohol-related risk-taking, already a cause for concern on college and university campuses. PMID:21499547

  16. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…

  17. Contemporary Issues in Collection Development Programmes of Nigerian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on problems affecting the collection development of university libraries in Nigeria. Identifies the global economic recession of the 1980s as the significant variable for the success and failure of these programs. Examines the impact of financial problems on collection growth and development in Nigerian university libraries. Suggests…

  18. Web 2.0 and Nigerian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunmisi, Sowemimo Ronke; Odunewu, Abiodun Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications to library services are aimed at enhancing the provision of relevant and cost-effective information resources for quality education and research. Despite the richness of these web applications and their enormous impact on library and information services as recorded in the developed world, Nigerian academic libraries are yet…

  19. Nigerian University and Manpower Development in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyebe, Adam Adem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines Nigerian university system in relation to manpower development in a rapidly changing world of work. This is for purposes of identifying areas that need urgent attention in order to reposition the system to produce high quality manpower. The study reveals that the expansion in the university system is characterized by a mixed…

  20. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  1. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  2. Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkang, Iniobong Ekong

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified…

  3. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  4. Dialogue and Discourse in a Nigerian English Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindele, Femi

    Although many studies have been undertaken by literary critics and stylisticians on African English literary texts generally and Nigerian English prose fiction specifically, there has been little or no analysis of dialogue and discourse in such texts. An examination of the phenomenon of speech as manifested in conversational pieces in Nigerian…

  5. Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education and Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoregie, Norah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines quality assurance in Nigerian University education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast loosing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian…

  6. Space and House Form: Teaching Cultural Significance to Nigerian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradeon, David

    1981-01-01

    It is necessary to understand how the people of Nigeria have created spaces appropriate in their lifestyles before designing architecture for the specifics of the diverse cultures in the country. Only by understanding why Nigerians live as they do can relevant spaces be developed for them. (MLW)

  7. The Need for Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejunmobi, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Social studies in Nigerian schools would improve student's appreciation of their culture and instill a sense of national citizenship as well as broaden their interests and promote international understanding. Attempts are being made to replace the inadequate instruction of history and geography with a social studies component. (JH)

  8. Brief communication: Emergence chronology of permanent teeth in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Esan, Temitope A; Oyedele, Titus A

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the mean age, duration, and sequence of the emergence of permanent dentition in Nigerian children and compared the findings with other population groups. The cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Nigerian children, aged 4-16 years old, from selected primary and secondary schools in the Ife Central local government area in Ile-Ife, Osun State. In general, compared to boys, girls had an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth. Children from high socioeconomic class had an earlier mean age of emergence for the maxillary incisors (6.43 and 7.58 years) and mandibular incisors (5.28 and 6.44 years) compared to children from middle and low socioeconomic classes, although socioeconomic effects were more mixed for premolars and molars. Compared to their counterparts in the USA, Australia, Belgium, and Iran, Nigerian children showed an earlier mean age of emergence of all the permanent teeth studied except for Pakistani boys, who had an earlier mean age of emergence of the maxillary premolars and second molar. Poorer economic status has been associated with delayed dental development; however, when compared to other populations, the Nigerian children in this study have earlier mean emergence ages than children from wealthier countries such as the USA and Australia.

  9. Employability of Nigerian Graduates, the Role of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiodun-Oyebanji, Olayemi Jumoke

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the worrisome issue of employability of Nigerian university graduates in recent times, which have become a great concern to all and sundry. Certain indices such as, lack of complementary life skills, low moral standards, low employment generating capacity of the Nigerina economy, and the certification mentality, are discussed.…

  10. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  11. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  12. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  13. Demonstrating Functional Interactive Language Teaching in the Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Rachael O.; Oni-Buraimoh, Olawunmi O.

    2014-01-01

    Applied linguistics affords Linguists the opportunity of solving language related problems using various methods. In this paper, we x-ray the Nigerian University classroom situation in the teaching of the English language viz-a-viz the use of functional interactive method. Following Littlewood (1981) and Krashen (1982), we posit that the teaching…

  14. Responsiveness of Nigerian Students to Pictorial Depth Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. S.; Seddon, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Three groups of Nigerian high school and college students were tested for response to four pictorial depth cues. Students had more difficulty with cues concerning the relative size of objects and the foreshortening of straight lines than with cues involving overlap of lines and distortion of the angles between lines. (Author/JEG)

  15. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  16. Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education and Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoregie, Norah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines quality assurance in Nigerian University education and credentialing. The research contends that university education in Nigeria which hitherto enjoyed tremendous global respectability and acceptability is fast loosing its high esteem in the face of labour market and members of community because the currently certified Nigerian…

  17. Academic Utilization of Government Publications in Three Nigerian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwor, Roseline Ngozi; Mole, Austin J. C.; Ihekwoaba, Emmanuel Chukwudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the current state of academic utilization of government publications in Nigerian university libraries. Using a descriptive survey, the study focused on three academic libraries in Southeastern Nigeria serving a population of 11,996 undergraduate and postgraduate student library users, 592 of whom answered a…

  18. Interactive Digital Technologies' Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    The interactive digital technologies in education is an effective means used to widen educational opportunities. However, many faculty members do not use or adopt digital technologies as instructional tools. The purpose of this study was to predict faculty members' use of digital technologies in Nigerian Universities. 492 university lecturers from…

  19. Public-Private Partnership and Infrastructural Development in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwaiye, R. O.; Sofoluwe, A. O.; Bello, T. O.; Durosaro, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) services are related to infrastructural development in Nigerian Universities. The research design used was descriptive survey method. The population for the study encompassed all the 20 universities in South-west Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select 12…

  20. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  1. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  2. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  3. Challenges, Benefits, and Recommendations for Continued Nigerian Peacekeeping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Joint Military Operations Department Naval War College 686 Cushing Road...infection rate amongst returning Nigerian peacekeepers regarding sexually transmitted diseases , especially the HIV/AIDS virus. A study done in 2005 by...increased occurrences of sexually transmitted diseases . These 5 factors that are common to militaries worldwide. Danger/risk taking is part of

  4. Alternative Model of Funding for Academic Research in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2010-01-01

    Funding of academic research in Nigerian universities by Government (5 per cent recurrent grants) is a policy dictated by the National Universities Commission (NUC) as the central body for allocating research funds. This research fund, little as it is, is irregular and inadequate and to make it worse is difficult to access. These aforementioned…

  5. Class, Gender, and Life Chances: A Nigerian University Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biraimah, Karen L.

    1987-01-01

    Among 500 students surveyed at the University of Ife (Nigeria), female students represented an elite segment of Nigerian society but held equal or lower educational and career expectations than did the more socially and economically diverse male student sample. Male students' lower-SES background did not appear to limit university access,…

  6. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  7. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of…

  8. Statistical Evaluation of the Impact of ICT on Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Iwasokun Gabriel; Kayode, Alese Boniface; Aderonke, Thompson; Bethy, Favour; Ola, Aranuwa Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes twenty-four performance indices that were freely considered by the authors as relevant for the conceptualization and evaluation of the impact of ICT on the Nigerian Universities. The indices are contained in the questionnaire that was administered on forty five out of sixty three public universities that span the six…

  9. Gender Analysis of Student Enrollment in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Kola; Akpotu, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The paper analysed the trend and pattern of gender enrollment in Nigerian Universities between 1989 and 1997. It critically examined the gender disparity in university enrollment generally, as well as among some selected disciplines and the country's Geo-political zones. The analysis revealed that gap existed between female and male in the…

  10. E-Training Adoption in the Nigerian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, Bello; Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Pangil, Faizuniah Bt; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that aid e-training adoption in the Nigerian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a review of past literature from databases, reports, newspapers, magazines, etc. The literature recognised the role of perceived cost, computer self-efficacy, availability of…

  11. Modes of Funding Nigerian Universities and the Implications on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the modes of funding Nigerian universities with a view to assessing their adequacy and effectiveness. The implications of the mechanisms of funding on university performance were investigated. The history of university funding in Nigeria was explored in order to determine the causes of shift in financing the system since 1948…

  12. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  13. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Busch, David R.; Mesquita, Rickson C.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law is among the most widely used approaches for analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance signals for measurements of tissue blood volume and oxygenation. Briefly, the modified Beer-Lambert paradigm is a scheme to derive changes in tissue optical properties based on continuous-wave (CW) diffuse optical intensity measurements. In its simplest form, the scheme relates differential changes in light transmission (in any geometry) to differential changes in tissue absorption. Here we extend this paradigm to the measurement of tissue blood flow by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). In the new approach, differential changes of the intensity temporal auto-correlation function at a single delay-time are related to differential changes in blood flow. The key theoretical results for measurement of blood flow changes in any tissue geometry are derived, and we demonstrate the new method to monitor cerebral blood flow in a pig under conditions wherein the semi-infinite geometry approximation is fairly good. Specifically, the drug dinitrophenol was injected in the pig to induce a gradual 200% increase in cerebral blood flow, as measured with MRI velocity flow mapping and by DCS. The modified Beer-Lambert law for flow accurately recovered these flow changes using only a single delay-time in the intensity auto-correlation function curve. The scheme offers increased DCS measurement speed of blood flow. Further, the same techniques using the modified Beer-Lambert law to filter out superficial tissue effects in NIRS measurements of deep tissues can be applied to the DCS modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow monitoring of deep tissues.

  15. Plasma circulating fibrinogen stability and moderate beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Caspi, Abraham; Zemser, Marina; Libman, Imanuel; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2003-12-01

    MODERATE BEER CONSUMPTION (MBC) IS CARDIOPROTECTIVE: it positively influences plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in beer-consuming individuals. The connection between MBC and blood coagulation is not clearly defined. Forty-two volunteers were equally divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups following coronary bypass surgery. For 30 consecutive days, only patients of the EG consumed 330 mL of beer per day (about 20 g of alcohol). A comprehensive clinical investigation of 42 patients was done. Blood samples were collected before and after the investigation for a wide range of laboratory tests. The plasma fibrinogen was denatured with 8 M urea and intrinsic fluorescence (IF), hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to reveal possible qualitative changes. After 30 days of moderate beer consumption, positive changes in the plasma lipid levels, plasma anticoagulant and plasma antioxidant activities were registered in patients of the EG group. In 17 out of 21 patients of the same group, differences in plasma circulating fibrinogen's (PCF), secondary and tertiary structures were found. The stability of fibrinogen, expressed in thermodynamic parameters, has shown that the loosening of the structure takes place under ethanol and urea denaturation. Also fluorescence stability of PCF was decreased. No changes in the lipid levels, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity or changes in PCF were detected in patients of CG. In conclusion, for the first time after a short term of moderate beer consumption some qualitative changes in the plasma circulating fibrinogen were detected: differences in the emission peak response, fluorescence intensity and all thermodynamic data. Together, with the decrease in the PCF concentration it may lead to an elevation of the blood anticoagulant activity.

  16. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon…

  17. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon…

  18. Regional native plant strategies

    Treesearch

    Wendell G. Hassell

    1999-01-01

    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...

  19. An Empirical Evaluation of the US Beer Institute’s Self-Regulation Code Governing the Content of Beer Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Damon, Donna; Noel, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated advertising code violations using the US Beer Institute guidelines for responsible advertising. Methods. We applied the Delphi rating technique to all beer ads (n = 289) broadcast in national markets between 1999 and 2008 during the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball tournament games. Fifteen public health professionals completed ratings using quantitative scales measuring the content of alcohol advertisements (e.g., perceived actor age, portrayal of excessive drinking) according to 1997 and 2006 versions of the Beer Institute Code. Results. Depending on the code version, exclusion criteria, and scoring method, expert raters found that between 35% and 74% of the ads had code violations. There were significant differences among producers in the frequency with which ads with violations were broadcast, but not in the proportions of unique ads with violations. Guidelines most likely to be violated included the association of beer drinking with social success and the use of content appealing to persons younger than 21 years. Conclusions. The alcohol industry’s current self-regulatory framework is ineffective at preventing content violations but could be improved by the use of new rating procedures designed to better detect content code violations. PMID:23947318

  20. On the Relationship between the Indirectly Measured Attitude Towards Beer and Beer Consumption: The Role of Attitude Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account. PMID:24777156

  1. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    PubMed

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  2. Geriatric Prescription in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Osemeke, Nwani Paul; Hart, Onwukwe Chikezie; Cosmas, Nwosu Maduaburochukwu; Ohumagho, Isah Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the medications prescribed for elderly inpatients on specific days during hospital admission with a view to detecting areas of irrational prescription. Methods: It was a prospective study of all patients aged 65 years and above admitted to the medical wards of a Nigerian tertiary hospital over a 12-month period. The World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators were used to assess drug prescriptions on various days of admission. Results: A total of 1513 patient encounters involving 345 patients aged between 65 and 92 years were assessed on hospital days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28. The average number of medicines per encounter ranged from 6.1 ± 2.5 on hospital day 1 to 7.8 ± 2.4 on hospital day 28. This difference was statistically significant (F = 14.42; P < 0.05). The percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed ranged from 50.4% on hospital day 1 to 62.9% on hospital day 28 while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed decreased from 72.8% on hospital day 1 to 50.0% on day 28. Conclusions: This study suggests some degree of irrational prescribing as evident by the high average number of medicine per encounter and the high percentages of encounters with an antibiotic or injection prescribed. However, there is a need to develop standard values for the WHO/INRUD indicators based on the recently published national treatment guidelines for common elderly diseases which will serve as yardsticks to assess elderly inpatients prescriptions using WHO/INRUD core indicators in future studies. PMID:28104970

  3. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next") as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them. PMID:22292982

  4. Awareness of periodontal diseases amongst Nigerian diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ayanbadejo, P O; Savage, K O; Jeboda, S O

    2004-03-01

    This prospective study sample consisted of 261 Nigerians made up of 155 diabetics seen at the medical outpatient clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos and general hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria and 106 health controls randomly selected. The subjects were required to complete a questionnaire containing the biographic data and occupation, and assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice towards periodontal health and utilisation of appropriate professional care. They were then examined and assessed using the CPITN code. Their ages ranged from 5 to 65 years. Close to three-quarters of the subjects (73.5% for diabetics and 74.5% for controls) were 45 years or older. Furthermore, 6% of the low skilled diabetics new about periodontal disease while only 27.2% of those in the medium and highly skilled group had some knowledge of periodontal disease. This relationship was found to be statistically significant (X2 = 12-22 ; df = 2, p < 0.05). Similarly, statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between diabetics and controls with regards to knowledge about the demonstrated between diabetic and controls with regards to knowledge about the cause/s of periodontal disease and awareness of gum bleeding. 73.6% of the controls had never been to the dentist before unlike 62.1% of diabetics. All subjects in either group who claimed not to bleed scored at least the minimum on the CPITN code. While 52.3% of diabetics and 22.5% of control had a CPITN score of 2,54% of those in the control group and 30% of diabetics recorded a score of 3 on the CPITN code. In conclusion, the level of awareness of periodontal disease is quite low amongst both groups, hence there is a need to promote periodontal health awareness in the general populace as well as clinics.

  5. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.; Lawal, Abdul; Omolase, Charles O.; Ologunsua, Yinka; Samaila, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8%) and over a third (37.5%) had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%). They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4%) and change (4%) in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  6. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (P<0.0001). Postpartum, the intraocular pressure began to rise. The difference between the third trimester and post-partum values was also statistically significant (P< 0.0001). The difference in visual acuity through out the pregnancy was not significant (P= 0.8477). Although, there was a fall in refractive error across the different trimesters, it was not statistically significant (P=0.3). There was also no difference in the third trimester and the 6 weeks postpartum values of both visual acuity and refractive error. Ocular changes associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  7. RT-qPCR analysis of putative beer-spoilage gene expression during growth of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) in beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination of beer presents a continual economic threat to brewers. Interestingly, only certain isolates of LAB can grow in the hostile beer environment (e.g., as studied here, Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) and a non-ropy isolate of Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344NR)), indicating that significant genetic specialization is required. The genes hitA, horA, horB, horC, and bsrA, which have been proposed to confer beer-spoiling ability to an organism, are suspected of counteracting the antimicrobial effects of hops. However, these genes are not present in the same combination (if at all) across beer-spoiling organisms. As such, we sought to investigate the extent to which these genes participate during Lb464 and Pc344NR mid-logarithmic growth in beer through reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. We first determined the optimal reference gene set needed for data normalization and, for each bacterium, established that two genes were needed for accurate assessment of gene expression. Following this, we found that horA expression was induced for Pc344NR, but not for Lb464, during growth in beer. Instead, horC expression was dramatically increased in Lb464 when growing in beer, whereas no change was detected for the other putative beer-spoilage-related genes. This indicates that HorC may be one of the principle mediators enabling growth of Lb464 in beer, whereas in Pc344NR, this may be attributable to HorA. These findings not only reveal that Lb464 and Pc344NR are unique in their beer-specific genetic expression profile but also indicate that a range of genetic specialization exists among beer-spoilage bacteria.

  8. Beer, Wood, and Welfare ‒ The Impact of Improved Stove Use Among Dolo-Beer Breweries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Local beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households as well as the environmental effect. We find substantial wood savings among the breweries, 36% to 38% if they fully switch to an improved stove. In absolute amounts, they save about 0.176 kg of fuelwood per litre of dolo brewed. These savings imply huge reductions in CO2-emissions and reduce the overall demand for woodfuel, which is predominantly used by the poorer strata for cooking purposes. We provide estimates for the price decrease that might result from this and show that the urban poor are likely to benefit. Thus, the intervention under study is an example for a green growth intervention with pro-poor welfare gains – something green growth strategies should look for. PMID:26244341

  9. Deoxynivalenol in commercial beer - screening for the toxin with an indirect competitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Niessen, L; Böhm-Schrami, M; Vogel, H; Donhauser, S

    1993-09-01

    Antibodies specific for deoxynivalenol (DON) were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a deoxynivalenol-hemiglutaryl-HSA conjugate. The antibody showed cross-reactivity with DON, 15a-acetyl-DON (15-Ac DON), and 3a-acotyl-DON (3-Ac DON) of 100%, 216%, and 260%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed against 20 further trichothecenes of the A-, B-, and C-type. An indirect competitive ELISA procedure was set up for the detection of DON in liquid matrices occurring in the brewing process, Including beer. ELISA was sensitive down to 3.8 ng/mL. Detection limit for DON in tenfold diluted beer was 50 ppb. Recovery of the toxin in spiked beer was 45%, 77%, and 83% at toxin levels of 50; 500; and 1,000 ppb, respectively. ELISA results corresponded quite well with HPLC data. 196 commercial beers from several German breweries, including 36 gushing-positive samples, were assayed for DON. Screening revealed toxin levels from not detectable to 569 ppb. 69% of the gushing beers had marked levels of DON. 37% of the gushing-negative beer samples contained DON in detectable amounts with a maximum content of 172 ppb. Wheat beers had significantly higher DON-contents than beers derived from barley. Concentration of the toxin was significantly higher in gushing beers than in nongushing beers from both cereal sources.

  10. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Results Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Conclusion Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer. PMID:24079909

  11. The silicon content of beer and its bioavailability in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Elliott, Hazel; Walker, Caroline; Mehta, Payal; Shoukru, Sera; Thompson, Richard P H; Powell, Jonathan J

    2004-03-01

    Dietary Si, as soluble orthosilicic acid (OSA), may be important for the growth and development of bone and connective tissue. Beer appears to be a major contributor to Si intake, although the Si content of beer and its bioavailability in human subjects have not been well established. Here we investigated the Si content of different beers and then estimated Si absorption from beer in healthy volunteers. The Si content of seventy-six different beers was estimated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and one of the beers, used in the ingestion study, was ultrafiltered to determine OSA content. Next, following the ingestion of 0.6 litres beer (22.5 mg Si; 4.6 % (v/v) ethanol), serum and urinary Si levels were measured in nine healthy volunteers over a 6 h period. A solution of OSA was similarly investigated as a positive control and water and 4.6 % ethanol as negative controls. The mean Si level of beer was 19.2 (sd 6.6) mg/l; the median Si level was 18.0 mg/l. There was no significant difference in the Si levels of the different beers by geographical origin or type of beer. Serum and urinary Si levels increased considerably following the ingestion of beer or a solution of OSA but not with the ingestion of either 4.6 % ethanol or water. The ultrafilterability of Si from beer (about 80 %) and its absorption in volunteers (about 55 %) was comparable with that of a solution of OSA suggesting that Si in beer is present chiefly in a monomeric form and is readily bioavailable.

  12. The impact of different ale brewer's yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer.

    PubMed

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-09-30

    It is well known that brewer's yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer's yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer's yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer.

  13. The Microbial Diversity of Traditional Spontaneously Fermented Lambic Beer

    PubMed Central

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration. PMID:24748344

  14. A study of an alcohol advertisement for low alcohol beer.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, K L; Smith, D I

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken to measure the blood alcohol levels (BALs) of five men and five women after they had consumed seven middies of Emu 2.2 (2.2% alcohol by volume) beer in 1 hour. This study was conducted in response to a newspaper advertisement which depicted a well-known football player drinking seven middies of Emu 2.2 beer over 1 hour and registering a BAL of 0.012%. As predicted, the BALs of the ten adults varied considerably, but all greatly exceeded the very low result obtained by the football player. More importantly, from the point of view of road safety, all ten BALs exceeded the 0.02% probationary driver limit in Western Australia, and two of the BALs were above the 0.05% legal limit for driving in several other Australian states.

  15. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    PubMed

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  16. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  17. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  18. STS-127 Crew Visit to Anne Beers Elementary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-23

    STS-127 Commander Mark Polansky, center, speaks to students during a visit to Anne Beers Elementary school, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2009, in Washington. Polansky, along with the rest of the crew from STS-127, visited with students at the school Thursday. Seated from left are Canadian Space Agency astronaut Julie Payette, Chris Cassidy, Doug Hurley, David Wolf and Tom Marshburn. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. An overview of ochratoxin A in beer and wine.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rufino; Medina, Angel; Mateo, Eva M; Mateo, Fernando; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2007-10-20

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by several fungal species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic to animals and has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. OTA occurs in a variety of foods, including beer and wine. Reports on OTA occurrence in beer indicate that this is a worldwide problem due to the widespread consumption of this beverage. At present, the European Union (EU) has not set a maximum allowable limit (MAL) for this mycotoxin in beer, although there is a limit in barley and malt. Studies carried out in different countries agree in the high proportion of samples contaminated with OTA although levels are, usually, below 0.2 ng/ml. OTA occurrence has been related to the contamination of malt barley with ochratoxigenic species, particularly Penicillium verrucosum. OTA produced in grains is carried to wort and, although fermentation decreases the concentration, the toxin is not eliminated. Reducing the fungal contamination of malt barley is the most promising strategy for reducing OTA in beer. With regard to wine, surveys on the presence of OTA have been conducted worldwide. The proportion of wines in which OTA is detected is very high (above 50%) in some countries (especially in the Mediterranean basin) although only a few wines contained concentrations exceeding the MAL laid down by the EU (2.0 ng/ml). A gradient of concentration is usually recognized; OTA levels decrease in the order red, rose, and white wine but also with increasing latitude of the producing countries. OTA presence in wines is due to the black aspergilli, mainly A. carbonarius, which can grow on grapes in the vineyards and produce the toxin. At grape crushing, the juice can be contaminated with the toxin which is carried over into wine, where it persists due to its stability. Pre- and post-harvest treatments are being investigated to diminish contamination of wines

  20. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded.

    PubMed

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-15

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.