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Sample records for night shift workers

  1. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  2. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Bonnell, Emily K; Huggins, Catherine E; Huggins, Chris T; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P

    2017-02-26

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  3. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnell, Emily K.; Huggins, Catherine E.; Huggins, Chris T.; McCaffrey, Tracy A.; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted. PMID:28245625

  4. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R. T. W. L.; Elliott, Ann L.; Mills, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Conroy, R. T. W. L., Elliott, Ann L., and Mills, J. N. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 170-174. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers. Blood samples have been collected for estimation of plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroids from three groups of workers - day and night shift workers in a light engineering factory, and night workers in a newspaper printing works. Up to five samples were collected over 24 hr, or two samples per 24 hr were collected for three days. In conformity with the observations of others, day workers showed maximal concentrations in the morning around the time when they started work. In the newspaper workers maximal concentrations were found when they awoke around 14·00 hr. Night shift workers in the engineering works showed a greater variety of pattern, some showing the pattern usual in a day worker, some showing a maximum concentration about midnight and a minimum around 06·00 hr and a large proportion showing no clear circadian rhythm. In the newspaper workers the rhythm was thus well adapted to their pattern of nocturnal work, whereas relatively few of the night shift workers in the engineering works showed such adaptation. It appears that the adrenal cortical rhythm can be adapted to night work in a community in which this is universal, accepted and lifelong, but that such adjustment is unusual in men on night shift work for limited periods, and whose associates are mainly following a usual nycthemeral existence. PMID:5428635

  5. Ocular Measures of Sleepiness Are Increased in Night Shift Workers Undergoing a Simulated Night Shift Near the Peak Time of the 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Kennaway, David J.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. Methods: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase— defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak—and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range. Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the auditory psychomotor vigilance task (aPVT). Waking electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and infrared reflectance oculography was used to collect ocular measures of sleepiness: positive and negative amplitude/velocity ratio (PosAVR, NegAVR), mean blink total duration (BTD), the percentage of eye closure (%TEC), and a composite score of sleepiness levels (Johns Drowsiness Scale; JDS). Results: Participants who were tested within aMT6s acrophase range displayed higher levels of sleepiness on ocular measures (%TEC, BTD, PosAVR, JDS), objective sleepiness (EEG delta power frequency band), subjective ratings of sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance, compared to those who were outside aMT6s acrophase range. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that objective ocular measures of sleepiness are sensitive to circadian rhythm misalignment in shift workers. Citation: Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1131–1141. PMID:26094925

  6. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  7. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers

    PubMed Central

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A.; Aguiar, Stefane A.; Carvalho, Adriana N. S.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001), postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048), and 14% (p = 0.006). Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006) and 425% (p = 0.015), respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361–0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280–0.748) and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304–0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325–0.715) and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001–0.03). Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents. PMID:27115868

  8. Light at Night and Measures of Alertness and Performance: Implications for Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Sahin, Levent; Wood, Brittany; Plitnick, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Rotating-shift workers, particularly those working at night, are likely to experience sleepiness, decreased productivity, and impaired safety while on the job. Light at night has been shown to have acute alerting effects, reduce sleepiness, and improve performance. However, light at night can also suppress melatonin and induce circadian disruption, both of which have been linked to increased health risks. Previous studies have shown that long-wavelength (red) light exposure increases objective and subjective measures of alertness at night, without suppressing nocturnal melatonin. This study investigated whether exposure to red light at night would not only increase measures of alertness but also improve performance. It was hypothesized that exposure to both red (630 nm) and white (2,568 K) lights would improve performance but that only white light would significantly affect melatonin levels. Seventeen individuals participated in a 3-week, within-subjects, nighttime laboratory study. Compared to remaining in dim light, participants had significantly faster reaction times in the GO/NOGO test after exposure to both red light and white light. Compared to dim light exposure, power in the alpha and alpha-theta regions was significantly decreased after exposure to red light. Melatonin levels were significantly suppressed by white light only. Results show that not only can red light improve measures of alertness, but it can also improve certain types of performance at night without affecting melatonin levels. These findings could have significant practical applications for nurses; red light could help nurses working rotating shifts maintain nighttime alertness, without suppressing melatonin or changing their circadian phase.

  9. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n = 1451) identified during the study period (1989-2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n = 3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity, and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; P(trend) = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; P(trend) = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant.

  10. Night shift work and lung cancer risk among female textile workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Paul; Lundin, Jessica; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta; Littell, Christopher; Li, Gao Dao; Thomas, David B.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a probable human carcinogen. Suppression of the anti-neoplastic hormone, melatonin, is a presumed mechanism of action. We conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n=1451) identified during the study period (1989–2006) were compared with an age-stratified subcohort (n=3040). Adjusting for age, smoking, parity and endotoxin exposure, relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs)] were estimated by Cox regression modeling to assess associations with cumulative years and nights of rotating shift work. Results did not consistently reveal any increased risk of lung cancer among rotating shift work or statistically significant trends for both cumulative years (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; Ptrend = 0.294) and nights (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.415). Further analyses imposing 10- and 20-year lag times for disease latency also revealed similar results. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, rotating nighttime shift work appears to be associated with a relatively reduced lung cancer risk although the magnitude of the effect was modest and not statistically significant. PMID:25616851

  11. Sleep, Fatigue and Quality of Life: A Comparative Analysis among Night Shift Workers with and without Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes-Junior, Silvio Araújo; Ruiz, Francieli Silva; Antonietti, Leandro Stetner; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The reversal of the natural cycle of wakefulness and sleep may cause damage to the health of workers. However, there are few studies evaluating sleep, fatigue and quality of life of night shift workers considering the influence of small children on these variables. Aims Evaluate the sleep time, fatigue and quality of life of night shift workers and verify the relationship between these variables with the presence or absence of children in different age groups. Methods Were evaluated 78 mens shiftworkers, with or without children. Group 1, workers without children (G1-NC), group 2, workers with children pré-school age (G2-PS) and group 3, workers with children school age (G3-S). The sleep time (ST), sleep efficiency (SE), sleep latency (SL) and maximum time awake (MTA) were recorded by actigraphy. The risk of being fatigued at work was estimated by risk index for fatigue (RIF). Results The G1-NC showed a longer ST on working days and when evaluated only the first nights shift, after day off (p<0,005). This sample, the age of the children did not influence the sleep time these workers. The MTA on day off was lower in the workers from G2-PS. The RIF was lower on G1-NC in the first nights shift compared to the other groups. Conclusion In this research, workers without children had higher sleep time during the working days. These workers also were less likely to feel fatigued during night work than workers with children, regardless of age these children. PMID:27391478

  12. Effects of napping on sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits in night-shift workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S

    2014-04-01

    Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation.

  13. Sleep Loss, Circadian Mismatch, and Abnormalities in Reorienting of Attention in Night Workers with Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Methods: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Statistical analyses: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. Results: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers. Citation: Gumenyuk V; Howard R; Roth T; Korzyukov O; Drake CL. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder. SLEEP 2014

  14. Comparison of the oral health problems and behavior of male daytime-only and night-shift office workers: An Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Yoshino, Koichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the oral health problems and behavior of full-time male daytime-only and night shift office workers. Methods: The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. During the period of 20 February 2015 to 11 March 2015, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their oral health. A total of 325 daytime-only workers and 351 workers who sometimes worked night shifts, ages 30 to 69, were analyzed in this study. Results: Overall, the mean number of teeth of the night shift workers was lower than that of the daytime-only workers (p=0.002). When analyzed by age group, a significant difference was seen in the 50-69 age group (p=0.016). The percentage of night shift workers with decayed teeth was higher than that of the daytime-only workers (p<0.001). The night shift workers were more likely to report gingival bleeding (p=0.015) and stomatitis (p=0.025) than the daytime-only workers. The percentage of night shift workers reporting frequent brushing behavior was lower than that of the daytime-only workers (p=0.040). The independent variables found to correlate significantly with tooth decay were night shift work (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.20-2.67), current smoking habit (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.13-2.46), and BMI of ≥25 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02-2.39). Conclusions: These results indicate a relationship between night shift work and oral health problems. Night shift workers may require additional support for oral health maintenance. PMID:27010087

  15. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  16. [Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pepłońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies.

  17. Implementing a night-shift clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was created in a midsized, community teaching hospital. The goal was to provide an advanced practice presence to improve patient outcomes, communication, education, and cost-effectiveness. The night-shift CNS participated in nursing education and skill certifications, communicated new procedures and information, and created a communication committee specifically for night-shift nurses. Through regular rounding and on-call notification, the CNS was available to every area of the hospital for consultation and clinical assistance and assisted with rapid responses, codes, and traumas. Providing education during night shift reduced overtime costs and increased morale, positively affecting turnover rates. The night-shift CNS position has improved morale and equalized support for night-shift nurses. More research, most notably in specific night-shift metrics, is necessary, and with the implementation of the role in additional facilities, more can be understood about improving patient care and nursing staff satisfaction during night shift.

  18. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  19. Effect of total sleep deprivation on postprandial metabolic and insulin responses in shift workers and non-shift workers.

    PubMed

    Wehrens, Sophie M T; Hampton, Shelagh M; Finn, Rebecca E; Skene, Debra J

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that shift workers are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease which may, in part, be related to metabolic and hormonal changes. Partial sleep deprivation, a common consequence of rotating shift work, has been shown to affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The current study investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation, as a proxy for the first night shift, on postprandial glucose, insulin and lipid (triacylglycerols (TAGs) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs)) responses under controlled laboratory conditions in shift workers and non-shift workers. Eleven experienced shift workers (35.7+/-7.2 years, mean+/-s.d.) who had worked in shifts for 8.7+/-5.25 years were matched with 13 non-shift workers who had worked for 32.8+/-6.4 years. After an adaptation night and a baseline sleep night, volunteers were kept awake for 30.5 h, followed by a nap (4 h) and recovery sleep. Blood samples were taken prior to and after a standard breakfast following baseline sleep, total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Basal TAG levels prior to the standard breakfast were significantly lower after sleep deprivation, indicating higher energy expenditure. Basal NEFA levels were significantly lower after recovery sleep. Postprandial insulin and TAG responses were significantly increased, and the NEFA response was decreased after recovery sleep, suggestive of insulin insensitivity. Although there were no overall significant differences between non-shift workers and shift workers, non-shift workers showed significantly higher basal insulin levels, lower basal NEFA levels, and an increased postprandial insulin and a decreased NEFA response after recovery sleep. In future, the reasons for these inter-group differences are to be investigated.

  20. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  1. [Possibilities and limits of sleep recovery for night-nursing workers].

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Soraya Maria; de Macêdo, Maria Lúcia Azevedo Ferreira; de Oliveira, Jonas Sâmi Albuquerque; Ribeiro, Laiane Medeiros

    2009-03-01

    The present study had the objective of investigating the possibilities/limits of sleep recovery in women workers with medium level in nursing that develop their activities in night shifts in a first-aid clinic at a public hospital in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This was an analytic study, with a qualitative approach which used the technique of thematic oral history Fifteen women workers with medium level in nursing were interviewed. The following empirical categories were defined: night shift work and night sleep and night rest at work environment Physiological and psychological sufferings are evident on their speech as well as what the lack of sleep causes in health and personal life of these women workers, making the overload of work clear and also the sociocultural imperfections of feminine gender

  2. Practical interventions to promote circadian adaptation to permanent night shift work: study 4.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark R; Fogg, Louis F; Eastman, Charmane I

    2009-04-01

    Scheduled bright light and darkness can phase shift the circadian clocks of night workers for complete adaptation to a night work, day sleep schedule, but few night workers would want this because it would leave them out of phase with the diurnal world on days off. This is the final study in a series designed to produce a compromise circadian phase position for permanent night shift work in which the sleepiest circadian time is delayed out of the night work period and into the first half of the day sleep episode. The target compromise phase position was a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of 3:00, which puts the sleepiest circadian time at approximately 10:00. This was predicted to improve night shift alertness and performance while permitting sufficient daytime sleep after work as well as late-night sleep on days off. In a between-subjects design, 19 healthy subjects underwent 3 simulated night shifts (23:00-7:00), 2 days off, 4 more night shifts, and 2 more days off. Subjects "worked" in the lab and slept at home. Experimental subjects received four 15-min bright light pulses during each night shift, wore dark sunglasses when outside, slept in dark bedrooms at scheduled times, and received outdoor afternoon light exposure ("light brake") to keep their rhythms from delaying too far. Control subjects remained in normal room light during night shifts, wore lighter sunglasses, and had unrestricted sleep and outdoor light exposure. The final DLMO of the experimental group was 3:22 +/- 2.0 h, close to the target of 3:00, and later than the control group at 23:24 +/- 3.8 h. Experimental subjects slept for nearly all the permitted time in bed. Some control subjects who slept late on weekends also reached the compromise phase position and obtained more daytime sleep. Subjects who phase delayed (whether in the experimental or control group) close to the target phase performed better during night shifts. A compromise circadian phase position improved performance during night

  3. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of night shifts and alcohol consumption on construction tiling quality.

    PubMed

    Dzeng, Ren-Jye; Wang, Shih-Hsu; Fang, Yi-Cho

    2015-09-01

    The adverse effects of night-shift work and alcohol consumption on performance have received considerable attention. However, how night shifts and alcohol affect productivity in workers has not been quantified. This paper describes the experiments featuring multiple tiling tasks and patterns. The tiling quality performed by the graduate student participants in four different statuses was objectively evaluated by an edge-detection computer program. The results indicate that both night shift and alcohol significantly reduce the quality in general, and the effects of the factors on position and alignment-angle qualities were dissimilar in distinct areas due to tile patterns and size. Both night-shift and alcohol conditions affected the basic (-34.01% and -25.79%) and advanced tiling abilities (-40.14% and -26.16%), and night shift had a larger impact than alcohol. These results provide jobsite managers with usable information regarding how night shifts and alcohol affect workers' abilities to execute basic and advanced tasks.

  4. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael L.; Howard, Mark E.; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S.; O’Brien, Conor S.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470

  5. Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brown, Devin L; Feskanich, Diane; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Schernhammer, Eva S; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2009-06-01

    Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and is associated with coronary heart disease. The relation between rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke is unclear. The Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing cohort study of registered female nurses, assessed in 1988 the total number of years the nurses had worked rotating night shifts. The majority (69%) of stroke outcomes from 1988 to 2004 were confirmed by physician chart review. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation between years of rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke, adjusting for multiple vascular risk factors. Of 80,108 subjects available for analysis, 60% reported at least 1 year of rotating night shift work. There were 1,660 ischemic strokes. Rotating night shift work was associated with a 4% increased risk of ischemic stroke for every 5 years (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.01). This increase in risk was similar when limited to the 1,152 confirmed ischemic strokes (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.10) and may be confined to women with a history of 15 or more years of rotating shift work. Women appear to have a modestly increased risk of stroke after extended periods of rotating night shift work.

  6. Melatonin production and light exposure of rotating night workers.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Lanctôt, Valérie; Cadieux-Viau, Raphaëlle; Paquet, Jean

    2012-03-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to acute suppression of pineal melatonin secretion by light exposure during night work, has been suggested to underlie higher cancer risks associated with prolonged experience of night work. However, the association between light exposure and melatonin production has never been measured in the field. In this study, 24-h melatonin production and ambulatory light exposure were assessed during both night-shift and day/evening-shift periods in 13 full-time rotating shiftworkers. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and light exposure was measured with an ambulatory photometer. There was no difference in total 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods. The night-shift period was characterized by a desynchrony between melatonin and sleep-wake rhythms, as shown by higher melatonin production during work and lower melatonin production during sleep when working night shifts than when working day/evening shifts. Light exposure during night work showed no correlation with aMT6s excreted during the night of work (p > .5), or with the difference in 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods (p > .1). However, light exposure during night work was negatively correlated with total 24-h aMT6s excretion over the entire night-shift period (p < .01). In conclusion, there was no evidence of direct melatonin suppression during night work in this population. However, higher levels of light exposure during night work may have decreased total melatonin production, possibly by initiating re-entrainment and causing internal desynchrony. This interpretation is consistent with the proposition that circadian disruption, of which decreased melatonin production is only one of the adverse consequences, could be the mediator between night shiftwork and cancer risks.

  7. Relationship between napping during night shift work and household obligations of female nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep-wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework.

  8. The impact of sleep deprivation on surgeons' performance during night shifts.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Ilda

    2014-09-01

    The median incidence of adverse events that may result in patient injury is a total of 9% of all in-hospital admissions. In order to reduce this high incidence initiatives are continuously worked on that can reduce the risk of patient harm during admission by strengthening hospital systems. However, the influence of physicians' shift work on the risk on adverse events in patients remains controversial. In the studies included in this PhD thesis we wished to examine the impact of sleep deprivation and circadian rhythm disturbances on surgeons' during night shifts. Further we wished to examine the impact sleep deprivation had on surgeons' performance as a measure of how patient safety would be affected. We found that sleep deprivation subjectively had an impact on the surgeons and that they were aware of the effect fatigue had on their work performance. As a result they applied different mechanisms to cope with fatigue. Attending surgeons felt that they had a better overview now, due to more experience and better skills, than when they were residents, despite the fatigue on night shifts. We monitored surgeons' performance during night shifts by laparoscopic simulation and cognitive tests in order to assess their performance; no deterioration was found when pre call values were compared to on call values. The surgeons were monitored prospectively for 4 days across a night shift in order to assess the circadian rhythm and sleep. We found that surgeons' circadian rhythm was affected by working night shifts and their sleep pattern altered, resembling that of shift workers on the post call day. We assessed the quality of admission in medical records as a measure of surgeons' performance, during day, evening and night hours and found no deterioration in the quality of night time medical records. However, consistent high errors were found in several categories. These findings should be followed up in the future with respect of clarifying mechanism and consequences for

  9. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  10. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. Objectives The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. Results The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. PMID:27695372

  11. Effects of Shift and Night Work in the Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    FOSSUM, Ingrid Nesdal; BJORVATN, Bjørn; WAAGE, Siri; PALLESEN, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Shift and night work are associated with several negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of all studies which examine effects of shift and night work in the offshore petroleum industry, to synthesize the knowledge of how shift work offshore may affect the workers. Searches for studies concerning effects on health, sleep, adaptation, safety, working conditions, family- and social life and turnover were conducted via the databases Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed. Search was also conducted through inspection of reference lists of relevant literature. We identified studies describing effects of shift work in terms of sleep, adaptation and re-adaptation of circadian rhythms, health outcomes, safety and accidents, family and social life, and work perceptions. Twenty-nine studies were included. In conclusion, the longitudinal studies were generally consistent in showing that adaptation to night work was complete within one to two weeks of work, while re-adaptation to a daytime schedule was slower. Shift workers reported more sleep problems than day workers. The data regarding mental and physical health, family and social life, and accidents yielded inconsistent results, and were insufficient as a base for drawing general conclusions. More research in the field is warranted. PMID:23803497

  12. Sleep on the job partially compensates for sleep loss in night-shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Silva, Flaviany; Rotenberg, Lucia; Soares, Renata Elisa; Pessanha, Joseane; Ferreira, Flavia Leticia; Oliveira, Paula; Silva-Costa, Aline; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Nursing personnel in Brazil are usually submitted to fixed 12 h shifts with no consecutive working days or nights. Moonlighting is common in this group, with a consequent increase in the number of working hours. The possibility of sleeping on the job during the night shift in the studied hospitals had already been described. The present study aims to analyze whether the time devoted to daily activities (sleep, rest, leisure, housework, commuting, personal needs, care of children or other people, non-paid work, and study) is related to the number of worked hours and to nap-taking during the night shift. The field study took place at two public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Workers filled out a structured form on time devoted to the above-mentioned activities for at least four consecutive days. The time devoted to sleep was analyzed according to its occurrence at home or on the job. Workers were classified according to the number of jobs (one job/two jobs) and the time dedicated to work according to the median of the whole series (below the median/above the median). All workers who had at least one working night were analyzed as to nap-taking on the job. They were classified according to the sleep occurrence during the night shift-the sleep group and the non-sleep group, both of which were compared to daytime workers. Statistical treatment of data included non-parametrical procedures. The study group comprised 144 workers (mean age: 35.7+/-10.5 years old; 91% women; 78% nurse assistants, the remainder registered nurses). They recorded their daily activities for 4-11 days; 829 cumulative days were analyzed for the whole group. A total of 165 working nights were analyzed; sleep or rest occurred during 112 (68%) of them, with mean sleep/rest duration of 141+/-86 min. Time devoted to sleep and leisure varied according to the number of working hours, being significantly reduced in those submitted to longer work hours (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Results

  13. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

  14. Night-shift work and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Biren B; Tergas, Ana I; Mateen, Farrah J; Bhayani, Neil H; Oh, Jiwon

    2013-02-01

    A 2007 report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified night-shift work as possibly carcinogenic to humans, emphasizing, in particular, its association with breast cancer. Since this report and the publication of the last systematic review on this topic, several new studies have examined this association. Hence, to provide a comprehensive update on this topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science (Conference Proceedings), and ProQuest dissertations for studies published before March 1, 2012, along with a manual search of articles that cited or referenced the included studies. Included were observational case-control or cohort studies examining the association between night-shift work and breast carcinogenesis in women, which all ascertained and quantified night-shift work exposure. The search yielded 15 eligible studies for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Using random-effects models, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer for individuals with ever night-shift work exposure was 1.21 (95 % CI, 1.00-1.47, p = 0.056, I (2) = 76 %), for short-term night-shift workers (<8 years) was 1.13 (95 % CI, 0.97-1.32, p = 0.11, I (2) = 79 %), and for long-term night-shift workers (≥8 years) was 1.04 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.18, p = 0.51, I (2) = 55 %), with substantial between-study heterogeneity observed in all analyses. Subgroup analyses suggested that flight attendants with international or overnight work exposure and nurses working night-shifts long-term were at increased risk of breast cancer, however, these findings were limited by unmeasured confounding. Overall, given substantial heterogeneity observed between studies in this meta-analysis, we conclude there is weak evidence to support previous reports that night-shift work is associated with increased breast cancer risk.

  15. Rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Feskanich, Diane; Liang, Geyu; Han, Jiali

    2013-11-01

    The risk of lung cancer among night-shift workers is unknown. Over 20 years of follow-up (1988-2008), we documented 1,455 incident lung cancers among 78,612 women in the Nurses' Health Study. To examine the relationship between rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for detailed smoking characteristics and other risk factors. We observed a 28% increased risk of lung cancer among women with 15 or more years spent working rotating night shifts (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.03) compared with women who did not work any night shifts. This association was strongest for small-cell lung carcinomas (multivariate RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47; Ptrend = 0.03) and was not observed for adenocarcinomas of the lung (multivariate RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.24; Ptrend = 0.40). Further, the increased risk associated with 15 or more years of rotating night-shift work was limited to current smokers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13; Ptrend < 0.001), with no association seen in nonsmokers (Pinteraction = 0.03). These results suggest that there are modestly increased risks of lung cancer associated with extended periods of night-shift work among smokers but not among nonsmokers. Though it is possible that this observation was residually confounded by smoking, our findings could also provide evidence of circadian disruption as a "second hit" in the etiology of smoking-related lung tumors.

  16. Meta-analysis on night shift work and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, B; He, Y; Xie, S; Li, M; Miao, X; Chan, E Y Y; Tang, J L; Wong, M C S; Li, Z; Yu, I T S; Tse, L A

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to quantitatively summarize the association between night shift work and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), with special reference to the dose-response relationship with years of night shift work. We systematically searched all observational studies published in English on PubMed and Embase from 1971 to 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; or odd ratio, OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approach. Pooled RR was calculated using random- or fixed-effect model. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. A total of 13 studies were included. The pooled RR for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and MetS risk was 1.57 (95% CI = 1.24-1.98, pheterogeneity  = 0.001), while a higher risk was indicated in workers with longer exposure to night shifts (RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.32-2.36, pheterogeneity  = 0.936). Further stratification analysis demonstrated a higher pooled effect of 1.84 (95% CI = 1.45-2.34) for studies using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria, among female workers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and the countries other than Asia (RR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.95). Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. No evidence of publication bias was detected. The present meta-analysis suggested that night shift work is significantly associated with the risk of MetS, and a positive dose-response relationship with duration of exposure was indicated.

  17. Breast cancer risk and night shift work in a case-control study in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ardanaz, Eva; Altzibar, Jone Miren; Sanchez, Vicente Martin; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Muñoz, David; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic and animal data indicate that night shift work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the association of night work with different clinical types of breast cancer in a population based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) taking into account chronotype, an individual characteristic that may relate to night shift work adaptation. Lifetime occupational history was assessed by face-to-face interviews and shift work information was available for 1708 breast cancer cases and 1778 population controls from 10 Spanish regions, enrolled from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated three shift work domains, including shift work type (permanent vs rotating), lifetime cumulative duration and frequency. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for night work compared to day work using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Having ever worked permanent or rotating night shift was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer compared to day workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.43]. Chronotype was differentially associated with breast cancer depending on the duration of night shift work. Risk was higher in women with invasive tumors (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.51) and for estrogen and progestagen positive tumors among premenopausal women (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.99). Having ever performed night shift was associated with a small increased risk for breast cancer and especially in subgroups of women with particular hormone related characteristics.

  18. [Night shift work and cancer risk: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brudnowska, Joanna; Pepłońska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    About 15-20% of the employees in Europe and in the USA are engaged in shift work that involves night work. Some experimental and observational data indicate that this type of work might lead to circadian disruption, including disruption in the melatonin synthesis - a hormone of anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. A hypothesis that there is a potential link between exposure to light at night and the risk of breast cancer was formulated for the first time by Stevens in 1987. Since then, relatively few epidemiological studies have been carried out in this area (15 studies including 8 cohort and 7 case-control studies). All of them are reviewed in this article. The majority of the epidemiological studies performed to date have focused on the association between shift work and breast cancer risk, few studies have reported an increased risk of other cancers, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In six out of ten studies, a statistically significant association between night shift work and risk of breast cancer has been shown (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5 in nurses in Norway with > 30 years of night shift work). The increased cancer risk has been reported in nurses, radio-telephone operators, flight attendants, and women employed in the enterprises, in which 60% of employees work at night. Most of the analyses have been based on the data from the registries, with limited potential for the exposure assessment and confounders adjustment. Although some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among nurses, we are still far from drawing final conclusions. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are warranted.

  19. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.

  20. Working the night shift causes increased vascular stress and delayed recovery in young women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-08-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p < .001). The authors concluded that although the nurses may recover from cardiac stress the first day off following a night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day.

  1. Interindividual differences in circadian fatigue patterns of shift workers

    PubMed Central

    Östberg, O.

    1973-01-01

    Östberg, O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 341-351. Interindividual differences in circadian fatigue patterns of shift workers. Data from 37 computer operators and output-handlers, working on discontinuous 8-16-24 alternating shifts, were collected in the morning, evening, and night shifts during a one-year period. The study was directed to the interindividual differences in the workers' circadian patterns of activity, sleep, oral temperature, time estimation, physical fitness, and food intake. By means of a questionnaire on preferences and habits of activity and time of day, three subgroups of five subjects each were selected—`morning', `middle', and `evening' groups. Significant differences were found between the groups and between the shifts. Most interesting was the significant interaction of group × shift, on the basis of which it could be concluded that the `morning' type of subjects had the most pronounced difficulty in adapting to the shift system practised. It is thought that a refinement of the questionnaire used should eventually result in a tool for assessing a person's circadian type and the interaction of type × shift. PMID:4753717

  2. The hidden shift: how do night shift nurses learn to adapt to circadian disruption?

    PubMed

    Lawson Carney, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythm has a significant impact on the physical, psychosocial, and professional lives of night shift nurses. How night shift nurses learn the coping techniques they employ to adapt to this disruption was examined in a qualitative, cross-sectional survey of 42 nurses. A template analysis technique was used to categorize the responses, which were then compared to industry "best practices" in fatigue countermeasures. Results documented the variety of sleep/wake routines nurses employ to cope with circadian disruption as well as a wide-ranging variety of behaviors related to driving while fatigued.

  3. The effect of sleep on item recognition and source memory recollection among shift-workers and permanent day-workers.

    PubMed

    Mawdsley, Matthew; Grasby, Katrina; Talk, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of sleep versus wakefulness on item recognition and source memory recollection in a sample of shift-workers and permanent day-workers. Recognition of words that were previously viewed arrayed in quadrants of a page, and recollection of the original source location of the words on the page were assessed after a 12-h retention interval that was filled with wakefulness incorporating the subjects' work-shift, or an equal period that included sleep. Both shift-workers and permanent day-workers had poorer item recognition and source memory recollection when the retention interval was spent awake rather than including sleep. Shift-workers expressed larger deficits in performance than day-workers after wakefulness. This effect was not mediated by whether the shift-workers were on a day- or night-shift at the time of the study. These results indicate that sleep is an important contributor to successful item recognition and source recollection, and that mnemonic processing in shift-workers may be especially sensitive across their work-shift.

  4. Influence of night-shift and napping at work on urinary melatonin, 17-β-estradiol and clock gene expression in pre-menopausal nurses.

    PubMed

    Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L

    2013-01-01

    Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses’ ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect.

  5. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  6. Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.

    PubMed

    Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

    2013-04-01

    This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems.

  7. Effects of diurnal and seasonal sleep deficiency on work effort and fatigue of shift workers.

    PubMed

    Khaleque, A

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to assess and compare the quantity and quality of sleep of morning, afternoon, and night shift workers during the winter and summer seasons, and to evaluate the effects of sleep deficiency on the work effort and fatigue of the workers. The subjects studied consisted of a sample of 150 textile workers, working on a monthly rotating 3-shift system: morning shift (06.00-11.00 and 14.00-17.00) afternoon shift (11.00-14.00 and 17.00-22.00), and night shift (22.00-06.00). Information concerning quantity and quality of sleep were registered daily over a week for every subject. The Ratings of Perceived Effort scale and the Feeling and Symptoms of Fatigue scale were used to collect information about feeling of effort and fatigue of the subjects. The results showed that the duration of sleep length is longest in the afternoon and shortest in the night shift both during summer and winter. The amount of sleep is shorter during summer during all three shifts. The workers spent more effort and felt more fatigued during summer than winter. The shift workers, particularly of the tropical region, like Bangladesh, seem to be worst affected in terms of quantity and quality of sleep, health and well-being due to extremely high temperature (30-45 degrees Celsius) during summer than winter (5-25 degrees Celsius). The workers think that the problems of shift work could be minimized by improving the quality of working and living conditions, reducing cycle of rotation, shortening working day and closing night shift during peak summer.

  8. Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Georgina; Coates, Alison; Sargent, Charli; Dorrian, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h or 12-h shifts. The dietary profile was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Shift-related (e.g., sleep duration and fatigue), work-related (e.g., industry), and demographic factors (e.g., BMI) were measured using a modified version of the Standard Shift work Index. Mean daily energy intake was 8628 ± 3161 kJ. As a percentage of daily energy intake, all workers reported lower than recommended levels of carbohydrate (CHO, 45%–65%). Protein was within recommended levels (15%–25%). Permanent night workers were the only group to report higher than recommended fat intake (20%–35%). However, all workers reported higher than recommended levels of saturated fat (>10%) with those on permanent nights reporting significantly higher levels than other groups (Mean = 15.5% ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). Shorter sleep durations and decreased fatigue were associated with higher CHO intake (p ≤ 0.05) whereas increased fatigue and longer sleep durations were associated with higher intake of fat (p ≤ 0.05). Findings demonstrate sleep duration, fatigue, and shift schedule are associated with the dietary profile of shift workers. PMID:27916861

  9. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.

  10. SHIFT WORK AND BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN TEXTILE WORKERS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Although night shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. METHODS The study included 1709 incident breast cancer cases and 4780 non-cases. Data on historical shift-work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. RESULTS We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work, or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggest that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women. PMID:25421377

  11. Wearing blue-blockers in the morning could improve sleep of workers on a permanent night schedule: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Alexandre; Benhaberou-Brun, Dalila; Fontaine, Charlotte; Charon, Marie-Claude; Hebert, Marc

    2009-07-01

    Night shiftworkers often complain of disturbed sleep during the day. This could be partly caused by morning sunlight exposure during the commute home, which tends to maintain the circadian clock on a daytime rhythm. The circadian clock is most sensitive to the blue portion of the visible spectrum, so our aim was to determine if blocking short wavelengths of light below 540 nm could improve daytime sleep quality and nighttime vigilance of night shiftworkers. Eight permanent night shiftworkers (32-56 yrs of age) of Quebec City's Canada Post distribution center were evaluated during summertime, and twenty others (24-55 yrs of age) during fall and winter. Timing, efficacy, and fragmentation of daytime sleep were analyzed over four weeks by a wrist activity monitor, and subjective vigilance was additionally assessed at the end of the night shift in the fall-winter group. The first two weeks served as baseline and the remaining two as experimental weeks when workers had to wear blue-blockers glasses, either just before leaving the workplace at the end of their shift (summer group) or 2 h before the end of the night shift (fall-winter group). They all had to wear the glasses when outside during the day until 16:00 h. When wearing the glasses, workers slept, on average +/-SD, 32+/-29 and 34+/-60 more min/day, increased their sleep efficacy by 1.95+/-2.17% and 4.56+/-6.1%, and lowered their sleep fragmentation by 1.74+/-1.36% and 4.22+/-9.16% in the summer and fall-winter group, respectively. Subjective vigilance also generally improved on Fridays in the fall-winter group. Blue-blockers seem to improve daytime sleep of permanent night-shift workers.

  12. Night shift work, chronotype and prostate cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Burgos, Javier; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Arredondo, Francisco; Tardón, Adonina; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-09-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on experimental studies and limited human evidence on breast cancer. Evidence on other common cancers, such as prostate cancer, is scarce. Chronotype is an individual characteristic that may relate to night work adaptation. We evaluated night shift work with relation to prostate cancer, taking into account chronotype and disease severity in a population based case-control study in Spain. We included 1,095 prostate cancer cases and 1,388 randomly selected population controls. We collected detailed information on shift schedules (permanent vs. rotating, time schedules, duration, frequency), using lifetime occupational history. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and chronotype through a validated questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Subjects who had worked at least for one year in night shift work had a slightly higher prostate cancer risk [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.14; 95%CI 0.94, 1.37] compared with never night workers; this risk increased with longer duration of exposure (≥ 28 years: OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.05, 1.81; p-trend = 0.047). Risks were more pronounced for high risk tumors [D'Amico classification, Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 1.40; 95%CI 1.05, 1.86], particularly among subjects with longer duration of exposure (≥28 years: RRR 1.63; 95%CI 1.08, 2.45; p-trend = 0.027). Overall risk was higher among subjects with an evening chronotype, but also increased in morning chronotypes after long-term night work. In this large population based study, we found an association between night shift work and prostate cancer particularly for tumors with worse prognosis.

  13. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  14. The nutritional status and eating habits of shift workers: a chronobiological approach.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, I C; Moreno, C R C

    2004-01-01

    The eating habits of workers may vary according to the season of the year and corresponding work schedule. A study aiming at verifying the changes in their diet in summer and winter, as well as the nutritional status of those who work fixed shifts, was conducted. The distribution during the 24h in the quantity of calories and macronutrients ingested and the circadian rhythm of calories consumed were also analyzed. The study was conducted on 28 workers subject to three fixed work (morning, afternoon, and night) shifts at a transport company in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The mean age of the workers was 32.8 (SD+/-5.3) yrs. Their food intake was ascertained by the use of a 3-day dietary record, and their nutritional status was evaluated by their body mass index (BMI), both in winter and summer. Two-way ANOVA (shift and season) showed food consumption--measured in calories/24 h--was significantly higher in winter than summer (F(1.25)=11.7; p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among shifts (F(2.25)=0.85; p<0.44), and the interaction effect between shift and season was also not significant (F(2.25) = 0.15; p < 0.86). No seasonal difference in BMI was detected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Cosinor analyses showed circadian rhythmicity in calories consumed by morning (p < 0.01) as well as afternoon shift workers (p < 0.001), both in the winter and summer. Circadian rhythmicity in calories consumed by night workers was found only in summer (p < 0.01). The changes observed in the workers' eating habits from one season to another and during the 24h period show the need for further studies to help develop educational programs to improve the nutrition of shift employees taking into consideration shift schedule and season of the year when work is performed.

  15. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p < 0.0001). Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 mmHg and 0.8 mmHg, respectively (both p ≤ 0.038). The misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h SBP was primarily explained by an increase in SBP during the wake period (+1.7 mmHg; p = 0.017), whereas the misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h DBP was primarily explained by an increase in DBP during the sleep opportunity (+1.8 mmHg; p = 0.005). Circadian misalignment per se increases hs-CRP and blood pressure in shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  16. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species.

  17. Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift.

  18. A prospective study of night shift work, sleep duration, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglei; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2006-04-15

    The authors prospectively investigated whether working rotating night shifts was associated with the risk of Parkinson's disease among 84,794 female nurses who reported years of night shift work in 1988 (the US Nurses' Health Study). After 975,912 person-years of follow-up (1988-2000), 181 incident Parkinson's disease cases were documented. Compared with nurses who never worked rotating night shifts, those with 15 years or more of night shift work had a 50% lower risk of Parkinson's disease after adjustment for age and smoking (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.97; p(trend) = 0.01). Sleep duration was positively associated with Parkinson's disease risk: The relative risk was 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 3.42) when comparing nurses who reported 9 or more hours of sleep per day with those who slept 6 hours or less (p(trend) = 0.005). These data suggest that working night shifts may be protective against Parkinson's disease or that low tolerance for night shift work is an early marker of Parkinson's disease. Conversely, habitual longer sleep duration may be an earlier marker of Parkinson's disease. Because of the novelty and the exploratory nature of these findings, confirmation is needed.

  19. Putting baseload to work on the night shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

  20. Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) inversely associated with smoking and time of blood sample collection. These results were consistent among both pre- and postmenopausal women. Nulliparity was significantly positively associated with prolactin among premenopausal women, but inversely among postmenopausal. Age was related to prolactin among postmenopausal women only. Our study indicates that rotating night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.

  1. Minor psychiatric disorders among nursing workers--is there an association with current or former night work?

    PubMed

    Diniz, Thiago Bernardes; Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at analyzing whether Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD) is associated to night work either currently or in the past. A cross-sectional study was conducted at three public hospitals in Brazil, with female nursing workers. Data collection (N=1,134) was based on a comprehensive questionnaire that included the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) for screening of MPD. Former night workers were subdivided into three groups according to their reasons for leaving night work: (i) directly related to work, (ii) related to better reconcile with studies or another job, and (iii) related to health, sleep, fatigue or stress. Binomial logistic regression was performed, with adjustment for potential confounders. A dose response gradient was observed between current night work and MPD (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2 and OR=2.1; 95%CI: 1.5-3.1 for those who worked up to five nights and six or more nights per 2-week span, respectively). Potential detrimental effects of night work were confirmed. The association between working at night and MPD was not restricted to current night workers as workers who left night work for health/fatigue/sleep/strain also showed higher chances of reporting MPD (OR=1.8;95%CI:1.14-2.90). Results contribute to the scientific debate on the impact of night work on health and wellbeing.

  2. Sleep inertia associated with a 10-min nap before the commute home following a night shift: A laboratory simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Van Dongen, Hans P; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Night shift workers are at risk of road accidents due to sleepiness on the commute home. A brief nap at the end of the night shift, before the commute, may serve as a sleepiness countermeasure. However, there is potential for sleep inertia, i.e. transient impairment immediately after awakening from the nap. We investigated whether sleep inertia diminishes the effectiveness of napping as a sleepiness countermeasure before a simulated commute after a simulated night shift. N=21 healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 12 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a baseline night, subjects were kept awake for 27h for a simulated night shift. They were randomised to either receive a 10-min nap ending at 04:00 plus a 10-min pre-drive nap ending at 07:10 (10-NAP) or total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP). A 40-min York highway driving task was performed at 07:15 to simulate the commute. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue) were administered at 06:30 (pre-nap), 07:12 (post-nap), and 07:55 (post-drive). In the 10-NAP condition, total pre-drive nap sleep time was 9.1±1.2min (mean±SD), with 1.3±1.9min spent in slow wave sleep, as determined polysomnographically. There was no difference between conditions in PVT-B performance at 06:30 (before the nap). In the 10-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse after the nap (07:12) compared to before the nap (06:30); no change across time was found in the NO-NAP condition. There was no significant difference between conditions in PVT-B performance after the drive. SP-Fatigue and driving performance did not differ significantly between conditions. In conclusion, the pre-drive nap showed objective, but not subjective, evidence of sleep inertia immediately after awakening. The 10-min nap did not affect driving performance during the simulated commute home, and was not effective as a sleepiness countermeasure.

  3. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  4. The Prognosis of Cardiac Origin and Noncardiac Origin in-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Occurring during Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fu-Jen; Kung, Chia-Te

    2016-01-01

    Background. The survival rates of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) are reportedly low at night, but the difference between the survival rates of cardiac origin and noncardiac origin IHCAs occurring at night remains unclear. Methods. Outcomes of IHCAs during different shifts (night, day, and evening) were compared and stratified according to the etiology (cardiac and noncardiac origin). Result. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 24.7% lower for cardiac origin IHCA and 19.4% lower for noncardiac origin IHCA in the night shift than in the other shifts. The survival rate was 8.4% lower for cardiac origin IHCA occurring during the night shift, but there was no difference for noncardiac origin IHCA. After adjusting the potential confounders, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.3, CI: 0.15–0.63) and survival to discharge (aOR: 0.1; CI: 0.01–0.90) related to cardiac origin IHCA were lower during night shifts. Regarding noncardiac origin IHCA, chances of ROSC (aOR: 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.78) were lower in the night shift, but chances of survival to discharge (aOR: 1.3, CI: 0.43–3.69) were similar in these two groups. Conclusion. IHCA occurring at night increases mortality, and this is more apparent for cardiac origin IHCAs than for noncardiac origin IHCA. PMID:27766260

  5. Phototherapy and orange-tinted goggles for night-shift adaptation of police officers on patrol.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Diane B; Boudreau, Philippe; Tremblay, Geneviève M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age ± SD: 29.8 ± 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age ± SD: 30.3 ± 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 × /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 × /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 × /h) and performance (1 × /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was

  6. Association of sickness absence with poor sleep and depressive symptoms in shift workers.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Haratani, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kawakami, Norito; Arito, Heihachiro; Kobayashi, Fumio; Fujioka, Yosei; Fukui, Satoe; Araki, Shunichi

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of daily sleep habits and depressive symptoms to sickness absences of shift workers. A self-administered questionnaire that solicited answers about sleep, symptoms of depression, sickness absence, diseases/injuries, and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 522 rotating shift workers between the ages of 18-59 (mean 27) yrs of an electric equipment manufacturing company. The seven features of sleep queried were daily hours of sleep, time to fall asleep, awakening during sleep, early morning awakening, sleep well at night, sufficiency of sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness at work. The responses were assessed over the subject's previous 1-yr period. Each sleep feature, except daily sleeping hours, was dichotomized by the following responses: (1) taking more than 30min to fall asleep (difficulty initiating sleep; DIS), (2) awakening during sleep almost every day (difficulty maintaining sleep; DMS), (3) early morning awakening almost every day (EMA), (4) sleeping very poorly or not so well at night, (5) definite or somewhat insufficient nightly sleep, and (6) excessive daytime sleepiness at work almost every day (EDS). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Sickness absence was calculated by asking subjects "How many days in total have you been absent from work due to sickness, including paid vacation, in the last 1-yr period?" The responses were divided into three groups that included no (0 days) sickness absences (reference group, n=235 subjects), 1 to 4 days (short-term, n=199 subjects), and 5 days or more (long-term, n = 88 subjects). Compared to the prevalence of sleep features of the reference group, workers with short-term absence showed a significantly higher prevalence of EMA with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-22.0. Long-term absence was significantly associated with DMS (OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1

  7. Night and Day in the VA: Associations between Night Shift Staffing, Nurse Workforce Characteristics, and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    de Cordova, Pamela B.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Schmitt, Susan; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses’ years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. PMID:24403000

  8. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.

  9. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, Angela; Fensom, Georgina K.; Appleby, Paul N.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Wang, Xiao-Si; Roddam, Andrew W.; Gathani, Toral; Peto, Richard; Green, Jane; Key, Timothy J.; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that night shift work could increase breast cancer incidence. A 2007 World Health Organization review concluded, mainly from animal evidence, that shift work involving circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans. We therefore aimed to generate prospective epidemiological evidence on night shift work and breast cancer incidence. Methods: Overall, 522 246 Million Women Study, 22 559 EPIC-Oxford, and 251 045 UK Biobank participants answered questions on shift work and were followed for incident cancer. Cox regression yielded multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for night shift work vs no night shift work, and likelihood ratio tests for interaction were used to assess heterogeneity. Our meta-analyses combined these and relative risks from the seven previously published prospective studies (1.4 million women in total), using inverse-variance weighted averages of the study-specific log RRs. Results: In the Million Women Study, EPIC-Oxford, and UK Biobank, respectively, 673, 28, and 67 women who reported night shift work developed breast cancer, and the RRs for any vs no night shift work were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.08), 1.07 (95% CI = 0.71 to 1.62), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.00). In the Million Women Study, the RR for 20 or more years of night shift work was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.81 to 1.23), with no statistically significant heterogeneity by sleep patterns or breast cancer risk factors. Our meta-analysis of all 10 prospective studies included 4660 breast cancers in women reporting night shift work; compared with other women, the combined relative risks were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.03) for any night shift work, 1.01 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.10) for 20 or more years of night shift work, and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.14) for 30 or more years. Conclusions: The totality of the prospective evidence shows that night shift work, including long

  10. How do the timing and length of a night-shift nap affect sleep inertia?

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Matsumoto, Shun; Ebara, Takeshi; Murata, Kensaburo; Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru

    2010-07-01

    Napping is one strategy that may assist night shiftworkers to cope with sleepiness and fatigue. However, one potential disadvantage of napping is that awakening from naps is disturbed by sleep inertia, which has also been found to impair performance and/or mood, transiently. The authors examined the effects of the timing and length of a night-shift nap on sleep inertia in a laboratory setting. Twelve male university students (mean +/- SD: 21.6 +/- 2.8 yrs) participated in this 3-day experiment, during which included a simulated night shift (22:00-08:00 h) and subsequent day (11:30-17:30 h) and night sleep (00:00-07:00 h). The simulated night shift was designed to include one of five (four nap/one no-nap) conditions. The napping conditions differed by their timing and duration: 00:00-01:00 h (Early 60 min; E60), 00:00-02:00 h (Early 120 min; E120), 04:00-05:00 h (Late 60 min; L60), 04:00-06:00 h (Late 120 min; L120). Participants completed all the experimental conditions in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature (R(T)) was recorded throughout the simulated shift and polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during the nap period. Immediately before and after each nap, participants were required to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess sleepiness and a visual vigilance test (VVT). During the simulated night shift, a set of tasks (an English transcription task, a performance test battery, and a break) was repeated hourly, except during the periods of napping. For each nap condition, the VAS and VVT (reaction time [RT]; lapses >5 s) results were analyzed by two-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (nap [nap versus no-nap] x time point [pre-nap versus post-nap]). PSG and R(T) data were analyzed with one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Marginally significant interactions were observed for RTs and lapses in VVT for the L60 nap condition (p = .071 and p = .070, respectively). However, those effect sizes were moderate (partial eta(2) = 0.266, 0

  11. Parasomnias are more frequent in shift workers than in day workers.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente E; Pallesen, Ståle; Waage, Siri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different shift work schedules were associated with nonrapid eye movement (NREM)- and/or REM-related parasomnias. A total of 2198 nurses with different work schedules participated in a longitudinal cohort study. The parasomnia questions were included in the fourth wave of the data collection, with a response rate of 74.1%. Logistic regression analyses with the different parasomnias as dependent variables were conducted. Nurses working two shift (day and evening) and nurses working three shift (day, evening and night) rotational schedules had increased risk of confusional arousal, a NREM-related parasomnia, compared to nurses working daytime only (odds ratios = 2.10 and 1.71, respectively). Similarly, nurses working two and three shift rotational schedules had increased risk of nightmares, a REM-related parasomnia (odds ratios = 1.64 and 1.57, respectively). The other parasomnias were not significantly associated with work schedule. Working night shifts only was not associated with any of the parasomnias. In conclusion, confusional arousal and nightmares were more commonly reported by nurses working rotational shift work schedules compared to nurses working daytime only. This is likely related to the circadian rhythm misalignment and sleep deprivation caused by such shift schedules.

  12. Effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day shift before a night shift on physical activities and sleep patterns of single nurses and married nurses with children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Misuzu; Akamatsu, Yasuhiro; Furui, Hikari; Tomita, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day before a night shift, 12 single nurses and 18 married nurses with children that engaged in night shift work in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked 2 different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after a day shift (D-N). Physical activity levels were recorded with a physical activity volume meter to measure sleep/wake time more precisely without restricting subjects' activities. The duration of sleep before a night shift of married nurses was significantly shorter than that of single nurses for both shift schedules. Changing shift from the D-N to the HF-N increased the duration of sleep before a night shift for both groups, and made wake-up time earlier for single nurses only. Repeated ANCOVA of the series of physical activities showed significant differences with shift (p < 0.01) and marriage (p < 0.01) for variances, and age (p < 0.05) for a covariance. The paired t-test to compare the effects of changing shift patterns in each subject group and ANCOVA for examining the hourly activity differences between single and married nurses showed that the effects of a change in shift schedules seemed to have less effect on married nurses than single nurses. These differences might due to the differences of their family/home responsibilities.

  13. A work-life perspective on sleep and fatigue--looking beyond shift workers.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Natalie; Dorrian, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sleep and fatigue through a work-life lens. Whilst most often thought of as an issue for shift workers, this study observed that self-reported insufficient sleep and fatigue were prevalent for workers on standard daytime schedules. Using a representative sample of 573 daytime workers (51.3% men; 70.7% aged 25-54 yr) from one Australian state, it was observed that 26.4% of daytime workers never or rarely get the seven hours of sleep a night that is recommended for good health. Those with parenting responsibilites (29.4%) or working long (45+) hours (37.4%) were most likely to report insufficient sleep. Whereas mothers in full-time work were most likely to report frequent fatigue (42.5%). This study highlights the common experience of insufficient sleep and fatigue in a daytime workforce, with significant implications for health and safety at work and outside of work. Stronger and more effective legislation addressing safe and 'decent' working time is clearly needed, along with greater awareness and acceptance within workplace cultures of the need to support reasonable workloads and working hours.

  14. A work-life perspective on sleep and fatigue—looking beyond shift workers

    PubMed Central

    SKINNER, Natalie; DORRIAN, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sleep and fatigue through a work-life lens. Whilst most often thought of as an issue for shift workers, this study observed that self-reported insufficient sleep and fatigue were prevalent for workers on standard daytime schedules. Using a representative sample of 573 daytime workers (51.3% men; 70.7% aged 25−54 yr) from one Australian state, it was observed that 26.4% of daytime workers never or rarely get the seven hours of sleep a night that is recommended for good health. Those with parenting responsibilites (29.4%) or working long (45+) hours (37.4%) were most likely to report insufficient sleep. Whereas mothers in full-time work were most likely to report frequent fatigue (42.5%). This study highlights the common experience of insufficient sleep and fatigue in a daytime workforce, with significant implications for health and safety at work and outside of work. Stronger and more effective legislation addressing safe and ‘decent’ working time is clearly needed, along with greater awareness and acceptance within workplace cultures of the need to support reasonable workloads and working hours. PMID:26027709

  15. What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-01

    The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

  16. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  17. Analysis of polymorphisms in the circadian-related genes and breast cancer risk in Norwegian nurses working night shifts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Some studies have suggested that night work may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in nurses. We aimed to explore the role of circadian gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to night work-related breast cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of Norwegian nurses comprising 563 breast cancer cases and 619 controls within a cohort of 49,402 Norwegian nurses ages 35 to 74 years. We studied 60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 genes involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm in cases and controls. The data were analyzed in relation to the two exposure variables "maximum number of consecutive night shifts ever worked" and "maximum number of consecutive night shifts worked for at least 5 years." The odds of breast cancer associated with each SNP was calculated in the main effects analysis and in relation to night shift work. The statistically significant odds ratios were tested for noteworthiness using two Bayesian tests: false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). Results In the main effects analysis, CC carriers of rs4238989 and GG carriers of rs3760138 in the AANAT gene had increased risk of breast cancer, whereas TT carriers of BMAL1 rs2278749 and TT carriers of CLOCK rs3749474 had reduced risk. The associations were found to be noteworthy using both the FPRP and BFDP tests. With regard to the effect of polymorphisms and night work, several significant associations were observed. After applying FPRP and BFDP in women with at least four night shifts, an increased risk of breast cancer was associated with variant alleles of SNPs in the genes AANAT (rs3760138, rs4238989), BMAL1 (rs2290035, rs2278749, rs969485) and ROR-b (rs3750420). In women with three consecutive night shifts, a reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with carriage of variant alleles of SNPs in CLOCK (rs3749474), BMAL1 (rs2278749), BMAL2 (rs2306074), CSNK1E (rs5757037), NPAS2

  18. Bone resorption is affected by follicular phase length in female rotating shift workers.

    PubMed Central

    Lohstroh, Pete N; Chen, Jiangang; Ba, Jianming; Ryan, Louise M; Xu, Xiping; Overstreet, James W; Lasley, Bill L

    2003-01-01

    Stressors as subtle as night work or shift work can lead to irregular menstrual cycles, and changes in reproductive hormone profiles can adversely affect bone health. This study was conducted to determine if stresses associated with the disruption of regular work schedule can induce alterations in ovarian function which, in turn, are associated with transient bone resorption. Urine samples from 12 rotating shift workers from a textile mill in Anqing, China, were collected in 1996-1998 during pairs of sequential menstrual cycles, of which one was longer than the other (28.4 vs. 37.4 days). Longer cycles were characterized by a prolonged follicular phase. Work schedules during the luteal-follicular phase transition (LFPT) preceding each of the two cycles were evaluated. All but one of the shorter cycles were associated with regular, forward phase work shift progression during the preceding LFPT. In contrast, five longer cycles were preceded by a work shift interrupted either by an irregular shift or a number of "off days." Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone levels were reduced in the LFPT preceding longer cycles compared with those in the LFPT preceding shorter cycles. There was greater bone resorption in the follicular phase of longer cycles than in that of shorter cycles, as measured by urinary deoxypyridinoline. These data confirm reports that changes in work shift can lead to irregularity in menstrual cycle length. In addition, these data indicate that there may be an association between accelerated bone resorption in menstrual cycles and changes of regularity in work schedule during the preceding LFPT. PMID:12676625

  19. The relationship between subjective and objective sleepiness and performance during a simulated night-shift with a nap countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, Rebecca; Dorrian, Jill; Lack, Leon; Lovato, Nicole; Ferguson, Sally; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Greg

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived and actual sleepiness and performance during a simulated night-shift that included a 30-min night-nap as an on-duty sleepiness countermeasure. Twenty-four healthy young adults (nine males, fifteen females) participated in a repeated measures design comprising two experimental conditions: no night-nap and 30-min night-nap. Both groups were given a 2-h prophylactic afternoon sleep opportunity (1500-1700 h). Measures of subjective sleepiness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale), objective sleepiness (sleep latency tests), objective performance (Symbol-Digit Substitution Task) and reaction time (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were taken before the night-nap (0230 h) and at several intervals post-nap. Time-series correlation analyses indicated that subjective sleepiness was less correlated with objective sleepiness and objective performance when participants were given a 30-min night-nap. However subjective sleepiness and reaction time performance was strongly correlated in both conditions, and there was no significant difference between the nap and no-nap conditions. Consistent with previous research, results of the present study indicate that subjective and objective indicators of sleepiness and performance may not always correspond, and this relationship may be reduced by the inclusion of a night-nap.

  20. Fatigue and Psychological Distress: A Case Study Among Shift Workers of an Iranian Petrochemical Plant, During 2013, in Bushehr

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulzadeh, Yahya; Bazazan, Ahmad; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Dianat, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shift work is a well-recognized occupational health hazard in both industrialized and industrially developing countries. Prolonged working time, day/night shift rotation, circadian rhythm and sleep disorders, family and social problems are the most important features of shift working, which have serious complications. Objectives: The present study evaluated the fatigue and psychological distress and their relationship among shift workers, in a petrochemical plant (Southern Pars gas field) in Southwest Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional field study, 400 shift workers from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 72.5% (290 persons). The multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used to evaluate the level of fatigue and psychological distress, respectively. Results: The results showed that the fatigue and psychological distress (particularly social dysfunction, anxiety and insomnia) are frequent among 12-hour shift workers (the total MFI and total GHQ scores were 42.68 ± 17.88 and 34.66 ± 18.56). A relatively strong positive correlation was found between fatigue and psychological distress (r = 0.62). The results of the stepwise regression model indicated that the psychological distress was significantly related only to general fatigue, mental fatigue and reduced motivation, whereas it was not to the physical fatigue and reduced activity. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the importance of the mental aspect of fatigue in this working group. These results have possible implications for workers’ health and well-being and for the design of shift work systems, for industrial workers. PMID:26568862

  1. Circadian Adaptation to Night Shift Work Influences Sleep, Performance, Mood and the Autonomic Modulation of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Philippe; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate how circadian adaptation to night shift work affects psychomotor performance, sleep, subjective alertness and mood, melatonin levels, and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen healthy police officers on patrol working rotating shifts participated to a bright light intervention study with 2 participants studied under two conditions. The participants entered the laboratory for 48 h before and after a series of 7 consecutive night shifts in the field. The nighttime and daytime sleep periods were scheduled during the first and second laboratory visit, respectively. The subjects were considered “adapted” to night shifts if their peak salivary melatonin occurred during their daytime sleep period during the second visit. The sleep duration and quality were comparable between laboratory visits in the adapted group, whereas they were reduced during visit 2 in the non-adapted group. Reaction speed was higher at the end of the waking period during the second laboratory visit in the adapted compared to the non-adapted group. Sleep onset latency (SOL) and subjective mood levels were significantly reduced and the LF∶HF ratio during daytime sleep was significantly increased in the non-adapted group compared to the adapted group. Circadian adaptation to night shift work led to better performance, alertness and mood levels, longer daytime sleep, and lower sympathetic dominance during daytime sleep. These results suggest that the degree of circadian adaptation to night shift work is associated to different health indices. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate long-term clinical implications of circadian misalignment to atypical work schedules. PMID:23923024

  2. Impact of Night Shift and Training Development Factors on Performance of Professional Nurses in North West Bank Governmental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayed, Ahmad; Thulth, Ahida Saleem; Sayej, Sumaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organizational factors are considered to be the cornerstone in achieving psychological and professional security at work, which in turn are positively reflected in job performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to assess night shift and education/training developmental factors on performance of…

  3. Effect of LED light stimulation on sleep latency in night shift people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Yang-Chyuan; Chiu, Hui-Ling; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chen, Ming-Jie; Chang, Yu-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Sleep problems are getting worse and worse in modern world. They have a severe impact on psychological and physical health, as well as social performances. From our previous study, the brainwave α rhythm, θ wave and β wave were affected by radiating the palm of the subjects with low-level laser array. In addition, from other study, the LED array stimulator (LEDAS) also has the similar effects. In the present study, LED light was used to radiate the left palm of the subjects too, and the effects were assessed with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis. The results revealed that it doesn't have significant meaning between these two groups. However, the tendency of the sleep latency (SL) in the LED group was shorter than that in the control group. In addition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) analysis showed that the sympathetic nervous system was getting larger in the LED group than that in the control group, and total ANS activity were mainly getting larger in the LED group. We infer that this LED stimulation could reduce SL and balance ANS activity of the night-shift people. In the future, the further study will be conducted on normal subjects.

  4. Examination of Attention Level in Nurses Working Night Shifts in terms of the Relationship between Electrodermal Activity and Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    DOLU, Nazan; ELALMIŞ, Derya Deniz; KELOĞLAN, Seval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an electrical activity of eccrine sweat gland stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. Skin conductance level (SCL) is measured with EDA. SCL and sweat gland activity increase in emotional situations, such as high activation, attention or stress. In this study, we investigated whether working in shifts affects attention level of nurses with EDA and explored the relationship between EDA and sex hormones. Method The study was carried out on nurses working night shifts (16.00–08.00 h) (n=22) and nurses working without a shift (08.00–16.00 h) (n=20). Firstly, The Epworth Sleepiness Scale which evaluates a person’s daytime sleepiness was applied to the subjects. For EDA measurement, Ag/AgCl electrodes were put on two fingers of their dominant hand. SCL was measured via MP30 system and GSR connection. The blood samples were analyzed for cortisol and ACTH hormone levels to investigate the changes in sleep and circadian rhythm. Result It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in skin conductance levels between the groups. Moreover, in the comparison of hormone values between the groups, the cortisol levels in night shift nurses were higher than in those working without a shift. Conclusion Night shift had no significant effect on the attention levels in the nurses. This situation is thought to be related to the fact that the nurses responsible for the night service raise their attention level to the highest point. The reason for higher level of cortisol in nurses working shifts may reflect that cortisol has no effect on the breadth of attention but reflects a high level of stress.

  5. Driving home from the night shift: a bright light intervention study.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Denise M; Nikol, Maria; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2017-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs vigilance and increases the risk of driving accidents during the commute home after night work. Bright light (BL) can enhance alertness and cognitive performance. We examined the effects of BL (5600 lux) versus dim light (DL, 35 lux) at the end of a night awake on driving performance.

  6. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20–40 years enrolled in the 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Conclusion Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace. PMID:28360979

  7. Prevalence of Workers with Shifts in Hearing by Industry: A Comparison of OSHA and NIOSH Hearing Shift Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Sweeney, Marie Haring; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Wall, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of workers with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health significant threshold shifts (NSTS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard threshold shifts (OSTS), and with OSTS with age correction (OSTS-A), by industry using North American Industry Classification System codes. Methods 2001-2010 worker audiograms were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for NSTS were estimated by industry. NSTS, OSTS and OSTS-A prevalences were compared by industry. Results 20% of workers had an NSTS, 14% had an OSTS and 6% had an OSTS-A. For most industries, the OSTS and OSTS-A criteria identified 28-36% and 66-74% fewer workers than the NSTS criteria, respectively. Conclusions Use of NSTS criteria allowing for earlier detection of shifts in hearing is recommended for improved prevention of occupational hearing loss. PMID:24662953

  8. Shift in Food Intake and Changes in Metabolic Regulation and Gene Expression during Simulated Night-Shift Work: A Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Andrea Rørvik; Meerlo, Peter; Grønli, Janne; van Hasselt, Sjoerd Johan; Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Pedersen, Torhild Thue; Henriksen, Tone Elise Gjøtterud; Skrede, Silje

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift work is linked to a shift in food intake toward the normal sleeping period, and to metabolic disturbance. We applied a rat model of night-shift work to assess the immediate effects of such a shift in food intake on metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 8 h of forced activity during their rest (ZT2-10) or active (ZT14-22) phase. Food intake, body weight, and body temperature were monitored across four work days and eight recovery days. Food intake gradually shifted toward rest-work hours, stabilizing on work day three. A subgroup of animals was euthanized after the third work session for analysis of metabolic gene expression in the liver by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results show that work in the rest phase shifted food intake to rest-work hours. Moreover, liver genes related to energy storage and insulin metabolism were upregulated, and genes related to energy breakdown were downregulated compared to non-working time-matched controls. Both working groups lost weight during the protocol and regained weight during recovery, but animals that worked in the rest phase did not fully recover, even after eight days of recovery. In conclusion, three to four days of work in the rest phase is sufficient to induce disruption of several metabolic parameters, which requires more than eight days for full recovery. PMID:27834804

  9. Shifting from implicit to explicit knowledge: different roles of early- and late-night sleep.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-07-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in this process. Implicit and explicit knowledge (insight) related to a hidden regularity were assessed in an associative motor-learning task (number reduction task, NRT), which was performed in two sessions (initial practice and retest) separated by 3 h of either early-night sleep, rich in SWS, or of late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep. About half of the participants developed signs of implicit rule knowledge (i.e., speeded reaction times for responses determined by the hidden regularity) at initial practice preceding early or late sleep. Of these, half developed explicit knowledge across early-night sleep, significantly more than across late-night sleep. In contrast, late-night subjects preferentially remained on the level of implicit rule knowledge after sleep. Participants who did not develop implicit knowledge before sleep had comparable rates of transition to implicit or explicit knowledge across early and late sleep. If subjects gained explicit knowledge across sleep, this was associated with lower amounts of REM sleep, specifically in the late-night group. SWS predominant during the early night may restructure implicit memory representations in a way that allows creating an explicit representation afterward, whereas REM sleep in the late night appears to stabilize them in their implicit form.

  10. Dietary and lifestyle habits and the associated health risks in shift workers.

    PubMed

    Nea, Fiona M; Kearney, John; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Corish, Clare A

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally only a small proportion of the workforce was engaged in shift work. Changing economic pressures have resulted in increased engagement in shift work, with approximately 17 % of the workforce in Europe engaged in this work pattern. The present narrative review aimed to summarise the data on the effects of shift work on the diet, lifestyle and health of employees, while addressing the barriers to, and opportunities for, improving health among shift workers. Shift work can result in low-quality diet and irregular eating patterns. Adverse health behaviours are also reported; particularly increased smoking and poor sleep patterns. These altered lifestyle habits, in conjunction with disruption to circadian rhythms, can create an unfavourable metabolic phenotype which facilitates the development and progression of chronic disease. Although the data are inconclusive due to issues such as poor study design and inadequate control for confounding factors; shift workers appear to be at increased mental and physical health risk, particularly with regard to non-communicable diseases. Information is lacking on the obstacles to leading a healthier lifestyle while working shifts, and where opportunities lie for intervention and health promotion among this group. In order to provide an informed evidence base to assist shift workers in overcoming associated occupational hazards, this gap must be addressed. This review highlights the unique nutritional issues faced by shift workers, and the subsequent effect on health. In societies already burdened with increased incidence of non-communicable chronic diseases, there is a clear need for education and behaviour change interventions among this group.

  11. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  12. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.

  13. Task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada: does it help personal support workers' intention to stay?

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Plenderleith, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of task shifting policy on personal support workers' (PSWs) intention to stay in home care. Data were collected through interviews with 46 home care staff of a large home care organization in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and a thematic analysis was conducted using a qualitative software package. Half of the study participants mentioned that task shifting increases PSWs' intention to stay in home care, while less than a quarter commented that task shifting increases PSWs intention to leave. Results show that the implementation of task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada may contribute to personal support workers' intention to stay; however, inadequate compensation may negatively affect intention to stay and should be addressed. We recommend policy-makers consider appropriate compensation to assist PSWs in effectively executing shifted tasks.

  14. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-07-21

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering.

  15. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  16. Academic--practice partnerships in practice research: A cultural shift for health social workers.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Academic practice partnerships in practice research support health social workers in engaging in research that is embedded within their practice. This shift in culture enables social workers to join in a health service discourse that is increasingly data -driven and focused on effective practice and demonstrated quality of care for patients. The mentoring model is described as enabling practitioners to superimpose research skills onto existing practice skills. An academic practice research collaboration can reduce the distance between research and practice, contribute to a body of knowledge for health social work and promote health social workers as 'research focused practitioners'.

  17. Rapid adaptation to night work at an oil platform, but slow readaptation after returning home.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, B; Kecklund, G; Akerstedt, T

    1998-07-01

    Previous research indicates that night workers' circadian rhythms do not adapt to night work and that disturbed sleep and wakefulness persist, even after weeks of working on night shift. We studied adjustment to 14 days of consecutive night work at an oil platform and the readjustment to day life at home, using the Karolinska sleep/wake diary. The platform workers adapted to night work within a few days, as indicated by the rapid reduction of night-work sleepiness, and by the gradual delay of bedtime to an hour commensurate with the behavior of day workers. Readaptation to day life was slower and more difficult, adding evidence of a complete adaptation to night work. We conclude that the lack of conflicting exposure to daylight in the morning may have facilitated the rapid adjustment to night work.

  18. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies.

  19. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff) and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management. PMID:22985229

  20. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Frydenberg, Morten; Christiansen, Peer; Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Bonde, Jens Peter E

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr Richard Stevens for his comments (1) on our recent article that showed no increased risk of breast cancer following recent night shift work when compared with recent day shift work (2). This finding was based on linkage of day-by-day information on working hours and breast cancer incidence data. Results are thus less likely to have been biased by differential misclassification than findings from earlier studies relying on self-report (3). We defined a night shift as ≥3 hours of work between 24:00-05:00 hours and a day shift as ≥3 hours work between 6:00-20:00 hours. This day shift definition did not exclude shifts starting before 05:00 or ending after 24:00 hours. However, this affected only 0.02% and 0.3% of all day shifts, respectively. This diminutive misclassification, that is expected to be non-differential, can hardly explain our negative findings. It is suggested that shifts that begin after 07:00 and end before 18:00 would constitute a more sensible baseline comparison group. Since the biological mechanism is not certain, it is not obvious to us if this will be a more appropriate reference than the present. However, we agree that future studies should test how different definitions of shifts affect the risk of breast cancer, which will be possible using this type of data. We only had information on working hours from 2007 and onwards, and night shift work prior to 2007 could have confounded our analyses towards no effect but only if inversely associated with night shift work in 2007 or later. We find this unlikely. Left truncation could also have biased findings towards the null. We therefore supplemented analyses of the total study population with analyses of the one-third of the population with first recorded employment in 2008 or later (the inception population). Even if the mean age was 35.5 years - and many undoubtedly had been working (with and without night shifts) prior to 2008 - this population should be less affected by such

  1. The Effects of Shift Work on Sleeping Quality, Hypertension and Diabetes in Retired Workers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ≥20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers. PMID:23976988

  2. [Shift work: overall health state related to sleep in nursing workers].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Sandra Soares; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the symptoms related to the overall health status associated with shift work in nursing and relate it to the quality of sleep. The study was performed at Hospital da Irmandade da Santa Casa in Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais State. The participants were 136 nursing professionals, of an average age of 33.1 years, divided into the following categories: nurse (8.1%); nurse technician (80.9%); and nursing aides working the day and night shifts (11%). The health symptoms were identified based on the Overall Health Status Inventory, and quality of sleep was evaluated based on sleep logs. The Chi-Square test showed statistical significance (p=0.021) for the presence of flatulence and abdominal distension during the night shift. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that subjects working the day shift who experienced symptoms of poor digestion (sometimes or always) and irritability (always) had a poorer quality of sleep.

  3. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  4. Adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules measured with sleep diary and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Waage, Siri; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-07-01

    In this study we examine sleep during adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules in the offshore oil industry. The sleep of 19 offshore workers was assessed daily for 1 week before, during the work period, and for 1 week after 3 different work schedules: (1) day (14 consecutive days of work), (2) night (14 consecutive nights of work), and (3) swing shift work (first 7 nights with night work then 7 days of day work). The workers' sleep was assessed for 84 days. Actigraphy and sleep diary estimates of sleep was applied assessing: (1) adaptation to offshore shift work, (2) sleep across the 2 offshore work weeks, and (3) readaptation after the work period. Regarding adaptation, sleep efficiency was higher when working day than night and swing shift the first week of work. Sleep quality was better during swing than regular day/night shifts the first week of work. Total sleep time was longer during day and night shift than swing shift across the 2 work weeks. Sleep efficiency, based on sleep diaries, was higher during day than night and swing shift during the 2 work weeks. There were no significant differences between the shifts in readaptation in terms of sleep. To conclude, adaptation to swing shift was more difficult than adaptation to regular day and night shifts in terms of sleep. Readaptation to day work after 1 week of night work affected sleep negatively. There were no differences between the shift schedules the week after the work period.

  5. Effect of exposure to occupational noise and shift working on blood pressure in rubber manufacturing company workers.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Safakhah, Farnaz; Nojomi, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Saber

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between shift working and occupational exposure to noise with blood pressure (BP). The study was carried out in a rubber manufacturing company in 2010. Demographic, medical and occupational information for carrying out the study were collected through direct interview. All 331 under study workers were divided into four groups according to work shift and noise exposure severity, from non-noise exposed day time workers (Group 1) to noise exposed shift workers (Group 4). Finally, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were compared among these four groups. The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between average systolic and diastolic BP and hypertension (HTN) frequency in the four groups (p<0.05). The highest rate of HTN and mean systolic and diastolic BP were observed among shift workers who were exposed to noise higher than permissible limit (Group 4). Also the results of logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between simultaneous exposures to noise more than the permitted limit and shift work with HTN (p<0.05). The results of our study showed that shift working and simultaneous exposure to noise have an additive effect on occurrence of HTN. It is recommended that during periodic physical examinations of noise exposed shift workers, assessment of the cardiovascular system and BP should be done as well as the auditory system.

  6. Rotating Shift-Work as an Independent Risk Factor for Overweight Italian Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Santarelli, Lory; Croce, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Vincitorio, Daniela; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers. Objective The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history. Results Compared to daytime workers (N = 229), rotating shift workers (N = 110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels. PMID:23675472

  7. [Auditory threshold and the degree of its temporary and permanent shifts in the textile industry workers].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, H; Cieślewicz, A

    1982-01-01

    Hearing threshold was measured with digital audiometer CASK-431 in transportable soundproof booth GIG-AU-1 in 170 women and 75 men before and at the end of the afternoon shift work in the weaving-mill with shuttle looms, where an average noise level was 100 dB(A). The average hearing losses calculated from the formula dB (1000 Hz + 2000 Hz + 4000 Hz): 3 were higher than those calculated from the formula db (500 Hz + 1000 Hz + 2000 Hz): 3. There was also a higher correlation coefficient between the occupational exposure to noise and the values of hearing loss calculated according to the former of the mentioned formulae, as compared to the latter. Workers wearing individual hearing protectors from the glass microfibres suffered from temporary threshold shift (TTS) of few dB whereas in those wearing no hearing protectors the TTS attained 10 to 24 dB on average. Among the women--workers of comparable age and occupational exposure to noise the hearing losses were higher in those living in noisy communities than in those living in quiet communities. This result is indicative of cumulative effects of community and industrial noise in respect to the hearing damage. Regulations for permissible noise levels in occupational environment should involve the kind of exposure to the community noise.

  8. Cross-shift and longitudinal changes in FEV1 among wood dust exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Gitte Højbjerg; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Acute lung function (LF) changes might predict an accelerated decline in LF. In this study, we investigated the association between cross-shift and longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) among woodworkers in a 6-year follow-up study. Methods 817 woodworkers and 136 controls participated with cross-shift changes of FEV1 at baseline and FEV1 and forced vital capacity at follow-up. Height and weight were measured and questionnaire information on respiratory symptoms, employment and smoking habits was collected. Wood dust exposure was assessed from 3572 personal dust measurements at baseline and follow-up. Cumulative wood dust exposure was assessed by a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. Results The median (range) of inhalable dust at baseline and cumulative wood dust exposure was 1.0 (0.2–9.8) mg/m3 and 3.8 (0–7.1) mg year/m3, respectively. Mean (SD) for %ΔFEV1/workday and ΔFEV1/year was 0.2 (6.0)%, and −29.1 (41.8) ml. Linear regression models adjusting for smoking, age, height and weight change showed no association between cross-shift and annual change in FEV1 among woodworkers or controls. Including different exposure estimates, atopy or cross-shift change dichotomised or as quartiles did not change the results. Conclusions This study among workers exposed to low levels of wood dust does not support an association between acute LF changes and accelerated LF decline. PMID:23014594

  9. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    PubMed

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  10. Night Sweats

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  11. Assessing internet survey data collection methods with ethnic nurse shift workers.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Barbara Betz; Farr, Lynne A

    2004-01-01

    mouth. The site was accessed 656 times with the Internet survey being completed by 138 WNH and 56 AI/AN nurses meeting the inclusion criteria. Except for the polychronicity measure (PAI3), instruments measuring time awareness, chronotype, and situational sleepiness achieved acceptable reliability coefficients with Internet data collection. Using pull-down menus would improve questions asking specific times. Internet data collection with different ethnic groups is possible; however, accessing the target population may be difficult. Despite extensive recruitment efforts, few AI/AN nurses participated. Computer literacy and failing to relate to the study's purpose may have limited the interest of the AI/AN nurses. It is possible to recruit nurse shift workers and collect individual difference and sleep disturbance data through the Internet; however, the researcher must remain vigilant throughout the process.

  12. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boeckler, Julius; Ringe, Bastian P.; Koch, Hans Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT) and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF), and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x) = f′′(x)/(1 + f′(x)2)3/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern f(x) = A · (1 + k · e(I · x)) with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss. PMID:28203455

  13. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  14. Trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in Norwegian nurses with and without night work and rotational work.

    PubMed

    Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Åkerstedt, Torbjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Waage, Siri; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies report high prevalence rates of sleepiness and insomnia in shift workers, but few longitudinal studies exist. We investigated trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in a sample of Norwegian nurses across four measurements, spanning a total of four years (sleepiness) and five years (insomnia). The participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Bergen Insomnia Scale at each measurement instance. Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the data. Separate models examined night work (night work, entering and leaving night work) and rotational work (rotational work, entering and leaving rotational work) as predictors for trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, respectively. Baseline values of sleepiness and insomnia were higher among rotational shift workers than among workers with fixed shifts (day or night). The results showed that night work throughout the period and entering night work during the period were not associated with different trajectories of sleepiness or insomnia symptoms, compared to not having night work. The same results were found for rotational work and entering rotational work, compared to not having rotational work. Leaving night work and leaving rotational work were associated with a decrease in sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, compared to staying in such work.

  15. [An effort to discontinue the use of verbal change of shift reports in a workplace with both nursing staff and personal support workers--encouraging independent information collection by personal support workers].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Eri; Norioka, Tsugiko; Kisida, Matsumi; Nomura, Momiko

    2008-09-01

    The change of shift report is of great importance in nursing in order to ensure the continuity of care, transfer information among nurses, and to ensure the transfer of responsibility from one shift to the next. In workplaces where nursing staff work together with personal support workers, it is important for staff to have common access to patient information in order to be able to use the information practically and carry out their individual responsibilities and roles. Until now, nursing staff and personal support workers collaborated and combined information for the verbal change of shift report, but the role of the personal support worker was in practice, more passive. Beginning 3 years ago, nurses began planning training sessions to educate personal support workers to increase their practical abilities. Through the training, personal support workers learned how to leave accurate patient records and nursing staff and personal support worker staff began to use a joint flow sheet to keep a record of patient information. This written record became the means of communication, making the verbal change of shift report redundant. As a result of trying to discontinue the verbal change of shift reports, personal support workers began to collect information more independently, and began to practice care more intentionally. In addition, the understanding of the role of the personal support worker deepened, the ability to care for patients improved, and it also led to better cooperation between nursing staff and personal support workers.

  16. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health.

  17. Training Child Welfare Workers from an Intersectional Cultural Humility Perspective: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Robert M.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2011-01-01

    The increasing diversity of the populations encountered and served by child welfare workers challenges cultural competence models. Current concerns focus on the unintentional over-emphasis on shared group characteristics, undervaluing unique differences of individuals served, and privileging worker expertise about the client's culture, thereby…

  18. [The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night risks].

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Gonnelli, Irene Margherita; Garbarino, Sergio; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangelil, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night work. Night work, in the last 30-40 years, has been extended to almost all areas of employment. The potential effects on workers' health--related to the disruption of circadian rhythms--are now well defined and studied in the Literature. All issues about the protection of safety and health for night workers are governed by the Italian Legislative Decree no. 66/2003 and subsequent amendments. The management of night work hasn't been included into the main Law on Occupational Safety and Health (Italian Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments) and a coordination between the two disciplines is desirable. The occupational health physician, as a global consultant for the protection of all health issues into a company, has to evaluate the potential effects of night work on health, both individually and as a group of workers. In this way, the physician may use either traditional tools (history, physical examination, blood tests) or innovative tools (questionnaires, health promotion programs, interventions on shift schedules). In the management of night work is useful to employ schedules that respect both psychophysical integrity and social welfare of workers and the needs of the production. The occupational health physician plays a significant role in information and training of workers, both individually and as a group of workers, and in the organization of health promotion programs (whit a voluntary participation by the workers).

  19. Impacts of shift work on sleep and circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Boivin, D B; Boudreau, P

    2014-10-01

    Shift work comprises work schedules that extend beyond the typical "nine-to-five" workday, wherein schedules often comprise early work start, compressed work weeks with 12-hour shifts, and night work. According to recent American and European surveys, between 15 and 30% of adult workers are engaged in some type of shift work, with 19% of the European population reportedly working at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00. The 2005 International Classification of Sleep Disorders estimates that a shift work sleep disorder can be found in 2-5% of workers. This disorder is characterized by excessive sleepiness and/or sleep disruption for at least one month in relation with the atypical work schedule. Individual tolerance to shift work remains a complex problem that is affected by the number of consecutive work hours and shifts, the rest periods, and the predictability of work schedules. Sleepiness usually occurs during night shifts and is maximal at the end of the night. Impaired vigilance and performance occur around times of increased sleepiness and can seriously compromise workers' health and safety. Indeed, workers suffering from a shift work sleep-wake disorder can fall asleep involuntarily at work or while driving back home after a night shift. Working on atypical shifts has important socioeconomic impacts as it leads to an increased risk of accidents, workers' impairment and danger to public safety, especially at night. The aim of the present review is to review the circadian and sleep-wake disturbances associated with shift work as well as their medical impacts.

  20. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Scott, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare.

  1. Effectiveness of the hearing conservation program: Change in hearing threshold shift incidence among industrial workers, 1978 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    Hearing conservation programs (HCP) are widely employed in preventing noise-induced hearing loss, but studies of their effectiveness have been rare. The impact of the implementation of hearing conservation programs was assessed in a large group of highly noise-exposed blue-collar workers by investigating time-trends in hearing-threshold shift incidence. Serial annual audiograms for employees of 14 British Columbia lumber mills for the period 1978 to 2003 were obtained from local regulatory-agency archives. Audiograms and concomitant otological medical histories were linked to subjects' work histories and noise exposure data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the incidence of hearing threshold shift while controlling for age, baseline level of hearing loss, and other potential confounders. A total of 109257 audiograms were associated with 10590 subjects. Mean noise exposure in this group was 91.4 dBA(A). Mean interval between hearing tests was 566 days and mean age at first threshold shift was 44. Forty-six percent of subjects had at least one OSHA significant threshold shift during follow up. Preliminary analyses indicated a trend toward lower incidence of threshold shifts over the study period, with incidence in 5 approximately equal 5-year periods from 1978 to 2003 being 3.2%, 6.6%, 4.9%, 4.3% and 2.4%, respectively.

  2. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  3. Psychopathology of Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender…

  4. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, A; Griep, R H; Rotenberg, L

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the "Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study." Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers.

  5. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  6. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. All variables related to cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of the variables of omission error (p < 0.027) and commission error (p < 0.036). A significant difference was also observed between daily and nightly trends of sleepiness (p < 0.0001) so that sleepiness was higher for the night shift. Participants had low sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p < 0.01). Long working hours per shift result in fatigue, irregularities in the circadian rhythm and the cycle of sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours. PMID:27103934

  7. Experience and limited lighting may affect sleepiness of tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working on shifts, especially on a night shift, influences the endogenous sleep regulation system leading to diminished sleep time and increased somnolence. We attempted to evaluate the impact of shifts on sleepiness and correlate the sleepiness score to the experience in a shift schedule. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study consists of 42 male and 2 female workers involved in a tunnel construction. They underwent spirometry, pulse oximetry and were asked to complete the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed that workers of lower Epworth had a mean age of 43.6 years, compared to the mean age of 36.4 years of workers with higher Epworth. Furthermore, workers of lower Epworth were characterized by a mean number of shift years equal to 14.8, while those of higher Epworth possessed a mean number of shift years equal to 8. The shift schedule did not reveal any statistically significant correlation. Conclusions Workers employed for a longer time had diminished sleepiness. However, there is no relationship between night shifts and sleepiness, possibly because of exposure to artificial lighting in the construction site. PMID:24993796

  8. The role of experience in night work: Lessons from two ergonomic studies.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Valérie; Toupin, Cathy; Volkoff, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some connections between experience, health and work, especially in the field of night work. As a result of the baby boom, the proportion of elderly workers is steadily increasing, while at the same time many workers are reaching retirement age and being replaced by younger people. And, in the same time, there is an overall gradual increase in shift work and night work. To our knowledge, worker experience has not been extensively studied in this context. This was our focus in studying work activity in two very different situations, in a hospital and in a steel industry. In these two studies we observed that the experienced workers endeavor to plan ahead, especially at night. They do this to limit fatigue and to avoid emergencies and ensure that work is stress-free and as far as possible under control. But experience not only brings workers to plan ahead, it also enables them to do so, thanks to the resources it confers: gaining familiarity with tasks and acquiring the ability to identify critical situations, gaining knowledge about themselves and awareness of situations that cause difficulty; and gaining a better overview of the collective aspects of their work and of ways to share tasks or obtain assistance. They are able to undertake these strategies thanks to specific skills and capacities they have built along their professional career, which notably leads them to find the best trade-off between several goals, possibly contradictory. Such experience is especially valuable at night, when the worker is tired, and when there are fewer supervisors present. This experience can only be gained, however, if the work environment fosters its acquisition and provides an opportunity to make use of it, especially during the night shift and especially with respect to planning tasks ahead of time.

  9. Personal Support Worker (PSW)-supported home hemodialysis: A paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Pierratos, Andreas; Tremblay, Melanie; Kandasamy, Gokulan; Woodward, Graham; Blake, Peter; Graham, Janet; Hebert, Marc; Harvey, Rebecca

    2016-08-22

    Introduction Despite improving clinical outcomes associated with the use of home hemodialysis (HD), its utilization is low in most countries. The inability or unwillingness of patients and their families to participate in their own treatment is one of the most important barriers to the adoption of home HD. Methods We hypothesized that paid helper-delivered home HD supported by public funds would be successful and welcomed by patients and be delivered at an affordable cost. We conducted a pilot project to dialyze six patients at home using Personal Support Workers (PSW) and resolve regulatory, organizational and financial constraints. Findings We provided publically-funded PSW-supported home HD to six patients. We describe the administrative structure of the pilot project allowing scalability and turnkey operation in the province of Ontario. Regulatory and insurance concerns were resolved and patients and staff were enthusiastic. The projected total dialysis cost, when economies of scale are met, are expected to be lower than the cost of in-center HD. Discussion A second phase of the project is currently under way including 8 hospitals and 67 patients. If equally successful, it may have significant implications for the delivery of care for End Stage Renal Disease in Ontario and similar jurisdictions. It promises to increase the utilization of home dialysis possibly at a lower cost than in-center HD. This would be particularly important in providing dialysis in underserviced and geographically hard to access areas.

  10. Night terror

    MedlinePlus

    ... not be disoriented after the episode. Exams and Tests In many cases, no further examination or testing is needed. If the night terror is severe or prolonged, the child may need a psychological evaluation. Treatment In many cases, a child who ...

  11. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Filho, Fábio Fernandes Dantas; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

  12. Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

    2013-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues.

  13. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.

  14. The impact of shift work and organizational work climate on health outcomes in nurses.

    PubMed

    von Treuer, Kathryn; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Little, Glenn

    2014-10-01

    Shift workers have a higher rate of negative health outcomes than day shift workers. Few studies however, have examined the role of difference in workplace environment between shifts itself on such health measures. This study investigated variation in organizational climate across different types of shift work and health outcomes in nurses. Participants (n = 142) were nursing staff from a metropolitan Melbourne hospital. Demographic items elicited the type of shift worked, while the Work Environment Scale and the General Health Questionnaire measured organizational climate and health respectively. Analysis supported the hypotheses that different organizational climates occurred across different shifts, and that different organizational climate factors predicted poor health outcomes. Shift work alone was not found to predict health outcomes. Specifically, permanent night shift workers had significantly lower coworker cohesion scores compared with rotating day and evening shift workers and significantly higher managerial control scores compared with day shift workers. Further, coworker cohesion and involvement were found to be significant predictors of somatic problems. These findings suggest that differences in organizational climate between shifts accounts for the variation in health outcomes associated with shift work. Therefore, increased workplace cohesion and involvement, and decreased work pressure, may mitigate the negative health outcomes of shift workers.

  15. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity.

  16. Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time

    PubMed Central

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21∶00 instead of 00∶00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

  17. Perceptions of health stakeholders on task shifting and motivation of community health workers in different socio demographic contexts in Kenya (nomadic, peri-urban and rural agrarian)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shortage of health professionals in low income countries is recognized as a crisis. Community health workers are part of a “task-shift” strategy to address this crisis. Task shifting in this paper refers to the delegation of tasks from health professionals to lay, trained volunteers. In Kenya, there is a debate as to whether these volunteers should be compensated, and what motivation strategies would be effective in different socio-demographic contexts, based type of tasks shifted. The purpose of this study was to find out, from stakeholders’ perspectives, the type of tasks to be shifted to community health workers and the appropriate strategies to motivate and retain them. Methods This was an analytical comparative study employing qualitative methods: key informant interviews with health policy makers, managers, and service providers, and focus group discussions with community health workers and service consumers, to explore their perspectives on tasks to be shifted and appropriate motivation strategies. Results The study found that there were tasks to be shifted and motivation strategies that were common to all three contexts. Common tasks were promotive, preventive, and simple curative services. Common motivation strategies were supportive supervision, means of identification, equitable allocation of resources, training, compensation, recognition, and evidence based community dialogue. Further, in the nomadic and peri-urban sites, community health workers had assumed curative services beyond the range provided for in the Kenyan task shifting policy. This was explained to be influenced by lack of access to care due to distance to health facilities, population movement, and scarcity of health providers in the nomadic setting and the harsh economic realities in peri-urban set up. Therefore, their motivation strategies included training on curative skills, technical support, and resources for curative care. Data collection was viewed as an

  18. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers.

  19. Sleepiness, Long Distance Commuting and Night Work as Predictors of Driving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Di Milia, Lee; Rogers, Naomi L.; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n = 649). The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR = 5.25, CI, 1.42–19.49, p<0.01) followed by driving ≥150 kms (OR = 3.61, CI, 1.66–7.81, p<0.001), obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR = 2.58, CI, 1.03–6.46, p<0.05), driving after night shift (OR = 2.19, CI, 1.24–3.88, p<0.001), being <43 years old (OR = 1.95, CI, 1.11–3.41, p<0.05) and using mobile phones during the journey (OR = 1.90, CI, 1.10–3.27, p<0.05). Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers. PMID:23029278

  20. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    PubMed

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  1. Leveraging Workforce Development and Postsecondary Education for Low-Skilled, Low-Income Workers: Lessons from the Shifting Gears Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Dresser, Laura; Smith, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Shifting Gears was launched in 2007 by the Joyce Foundation, a Chicago-based organization focused on improving the quality of life of citizens residing in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The primary goal of Shifting Gears is to increase the number of low-skilled, low-income Midwestern adults who obtain college-level occupational…

  2. Factors affecting work ability in day and shift-working nurses.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Sartori, Samantha; Campanini, Paolo; Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria; Costa, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    Satisfactory work ability is sustained and promoted by good physical and mental health and by favorable working conditions. This study examined whether favorable and rewarding work-related factors increased the work ability among European nurses. The study sample was drawn from the Nurses' Early Exit Study and consisted of 7,516 nursing staff from seven European countries working in state-owned and private hospitals. In all, 10.8% were day, 4.2% were permanent night, 20.9% were shift without night shift, and 64.1% were shift workers with night shifts. Participants were administered a composite questionnaire at baseline (Time 0) and 1 yr later (Time 1). The Work Ability Index (WAI) at Time 1 was used as the outcome measure, while work schedule, sleep, rewards (esteem and career), satisfaction with pay, work involvement and motivation, and satisfaction with working hours at Time 0 were included as potential determinants of work ability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted after adjusting for a number of confounders (i.e., country, age, sex, type of employment, family status, and other job opportunities in the same area). Work schedule was not related to Time 1 changes in WAI. Higher sleep quality and quantity and more favorable psychosocial factors significantly increased work ability levels. Higher sleep quality and quantity did not mediate the effect of work schedule on work ability. No relevant interaction effects on work ability were observed between work schedule and the other factors considered at Time 0. As a whole, sleep and satisfaction with working time were gradually reduced from day work to permanent night work. However, scores on work involvement, motivation, and satisfaction with pay and rewards were the highest in permanent night workers and the lowest in rotating shift workers that included night shifts.

  3. Shifting Gears: Building New Pathways for Low-Skilled Workers to Succeed in the 21st Century Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The United States faces an increasing gap between the skills possessed by its workforce and those that are necessary to succeed in the 21st century economy. This gap poses a threat to the financial wellbeing of low-skilled American workers and their families and to the nation's long-term economic growth. Recognizing the threat posed by these…

  4. Shift Work and Occupational Stress in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K.; Hartley, Tara A.; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. Methods The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27–66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. Results During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Conclusion Non–day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered. PMID:25830066

  5. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    PubMed

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered.

  6. Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Anna; Tucker, Philip; Gustavsson, Petter; Rudman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quick returns (intervals of <11 h between the end of one shift and the start of the next) are associated with short sleeps and fatigue on the subsequent shift. Recent evidence suggests that shift workers regard quick returns as being more problematic than night work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  7. Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reid, K; Dawson, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To simulate a 12 hour shift rotation and measure the difference in performance if any, between older and younger subjects. Significant reductions in neurobehavioural performance during shift work and particularly night work have long been recognised. There are conflicting reports of the effects of 12 hour shifts on performance, alertness, and safety. Furthermore, research suggests that older shift workers have more sleep disruption and maladaption to shift work. When this is combined with longer hours at work there may be considerable reductions in performance for older compared with younger workers.
METHODS—Thirty two subjects were allocated to groups according to age. Group one had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 21.2 (2.7) years, and group two had 16 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 43.9 (6.8) years. Subjects came to the laboratory for six consecutive days and completed a simulated 12 hour shift rotation consisting of two 12 hour day shifts (0700-1900), followed by two 12 hour night shifts (1900-0700). During the work period subjects completed a computer administered neurobehavioural performance task every hour.
RESULTS—Performance for the older subjects was consistently lower than for the younger subjects. There was a significant difference in performance across the shift between older and younger subjects. There was a significant change in performance across the shifts in the older subjects, such that performance significantly increased across the day shifts and decreased across the night shifts. By contrast, the younger subjects were able to maintain performance across both day shifts and the second night shift.
CONCLUSIONS—There are significant differences in performance of older and younger subjects during a simulated 12 hour shift rotation. Future studies both in the field and the laboratory would be useful in determining whether this is typical and if there are any important consequences for the older worker on 12

  8. Teaching Tu Fu on the Night Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Philip

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's unsuccessful attempt to introduce the poetry of Tu Fu, a wayward bureaucrat of the T'ang dynasty, to a class of part-time students. Uses his students' resistance to this poetry as an occasion to discuss the importance of personal responses to poetry, as opposed to "correct" academic responses. (TB)

  9. The Impact of Rotating Shift Work on the Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Nojkov, Borko; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Chey, William D.; Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Shift work has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. These symptoms overlap with those reported by patients with functional bowel disorders. Because shift work will lead to misalignment between the endogenous circadian timing system and the external 24 h environment, we hypothesized that nurses participating in shift work will have a higher prevalence of functional bowel disorders when compared with nurses participating in day shifts. METHODS Nurses engaged in patient care were invited to complete Rome III, irritable bowel syndrome–quality of life measure (IBS-QOL) and modified Sleep-50 questionnaires. Respondents were classified as working day, night, or rotating shifts. The prevalence of IBS, functional constipation, functional diarrhea, and individual gastrointestinal symptoms was determined. RESULTS Data were available for 399 nurses (214 day shift, 110 night shift, and 75 rotating shift workers). Rotating shift nurses had a significantly higher prevalence of IBS compared to day shift nurses (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression correcting for age, gender, and sleep quality proved this association robust. IBS-QOL scores among groups were similar. Prevalence of functional constipation and functional diarrhea was similar between groups. Rotating shift nurses had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal pain compared to day shift (81% vs. 54%, P < 0.0001) and night shift workers (61%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Participation in shift work, especially rotating shift work, is associated with the development of IBS and abdominal pain that is independent of sleep quality. Circadian rhythm disturbances may have a function in the pathogenesis of IBS and abdominal pain. PMID:20160712

  10. Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

  11. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  12. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work.

    PubMed

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Hetland, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use.

  13. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work

    PubMed Central

    SAKSVIK-LEHOUILLIER, Ingvild; HETLAND, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use. PMID:26423327

  14. The feasibility of adapted group-based interpersonal therapy (IPT) for the treatment of depression by community health workers within the context of task shifting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Bhana, A; Baillie, K

    2012-06-01

    Within the context of a large treatment gap for depression and a scarcity of specialist resources, there is a need for task shifting to scale up mental health services to address this gap in South Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of an adapted manualized version of grouped based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) for use by supervised community health workers through a pilot study on 60 primary health care clinic users screened as having moderate to severe depression. Retention was good and participants in the group-based IPT intervention showed significant reduction in depressive symptoms on completion of the 12-week intervention as well as 24 weeks post baseline compared to the control group. Qualitative process evaluation suggests that improved social support, individual coping skills and improved personal agency assisted in the reduction of depressive symptoms.

  15. Determinants of sleepiness at work among railway control workers.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Teresa; Carvalhais, José; Neto, Catarina; Teles, Júlia; Noriega, Paulo; Rebelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the control of the Portuguese railway network has become much more centralized in three centres, there integrating the functions of route flow management, electrical control and signalling. This study aimed to investigate the influence of work and individual determinants in sleepiness among railway control workers, namely socio-demographic factors, work ability, psychosocial factors, shiftwork characteristics, fatigue perception, and sleep. Sleepiness by shift was associated with quality of sleep, job satisfaction, fatigue perception, quantitative demands, and age. The results indicate a high prevalence of sleepiness during the night shift and show the relevance of the quality of sleep as a predictor in the three models of sleepiness for morning, afternoon and night shifts. This study, done at the major Portuguese railway control centre, alerted managers to the importance of schedule planning as well as sleepiness prevention plans and makes these results a reference for future research.

  16. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  17. Nutritional status and eating habits of bus drivers during the day and night.

    PubMed

    Balieiro, Laura Cristina Tibiletti; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Waterhouse, Jim; Paim, Samantha Lemos; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5 ± 10.7 cm in day workers versus 103.2 ± 9.7 cm in night workers; p = 0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p = 0.004) and increased WC (>94 cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p = 0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings ±0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings ±0.7 day workers, p = 0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings ±0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers ±0.5; p = 0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p = 0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p = 0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR = 2.94, 95% IC: 1.14-7.66, p = 0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR = 2.82, 95% IC: 1.20-6.69, p = 0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers. Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these

  18. Shift work in a security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

  19. Career shift phenomenon among doctors in tacloban city, philippines: lessons for retention of health workers in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At the height of the global demand for nurses in the 1990s, a phenomenon of grave concern arose. A significant number of medical doctors in the Philippines shifted careers in order to seek work as nurses overseas. The obvious implications of such a trend require inquiry as to the reasons for it; hence, this cross-sectional study. The data in the study compared factors such as personal circumstances, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, perceived benefits versus costs of the alternative job, and the role of social networks/linkages among doctors classified as career shifters and non-shifters. Methodology A combined qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in the study. Data gathered came from sixty medical doctors practicing in three major hospitals in Tacloban City, Philippines, and from a special nursing school also located in the same city. Respondents were chosen through a non-probability sampling, specifically through a chain referral sampling owing to the controversial nature of the research. A set of pre-set criteria was used to qualify doctors as shifters and non-shifters. Cross-tabulation was carried out to highlight the differences between the two groups. Finally, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess if these differences were significant. Results Among the different factors investigated, results of the study indicated that the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and certain socio-demographic factors such as age, length of medical practice, and having children to support, were significantly different among shifters and non-shifters at p ≤ 0.05. This suggested that such factors had a bearing on the intention to shift to a nursing career among physicians. Conclusion Taken in the context of the medical profession, it was the level of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction that was the immediate antecedent in the intention to shift careers among medical doctors. Personal factors, specifically age, support of children, and

  20. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health I just started working the night shift, and I'm having trouble sleeping during ... as long as you work the shift. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...

  1. Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, M G; White, R D

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to perform a literature review on the health consequences of working rotating shifts and implications for structural design. A literature search was performed in June 2012 and a selection of the most relevant peer-review articles was included in the present review. Shift workers are more likely to suffer from a circadian sleep disorder characterized by sleepiness and insomnia. Shift work is associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life and adverse effects on health. Circadian disruption resulting from rotating shift work has also been associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This article summarizes the known health effects of shift work and discusses how light can be used as a countermeasure to minimize circadian disruption at night while maintaining alertness. In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed.

  2. The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-01

    Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

  3. The passing of the night watch: night nursing reform in the London teaching hospitals, 1856-90.

    PubMed

    Helmstadter, C

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the nineteenth century a separate team of women called the "night watch" was responsible for the night nursing in the London teaching hospitals. Rough, uneducated, and frequently the "scrubbers," or charwomen, who cleaned the halls and stairways in the hospitals in the daytime, the night watchers came to be closely identified with Dickens's Sarah Gamp. As the century progressed, the expanding capabilities of the new academic medicine forced an improvement in the standard of nursing. The difficulty in finding clinically experienced nurses who were willing to work nights at an affordable price, however, made it possible for the night watchers to remain in the new professionally organized hospital long after such unskilled and undisciplined workers had been phased out of other areas of the late Victorian workforce. By the end of the century when hospitals began rotating partially trained probationer, or student, nurses onto nights, the night watchers finally disappeared from the teaching hospitals.

  4. Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24 h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6 ± 4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00 h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00 h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50 lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2 h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8 h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00 h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00 h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24 h. This

  5. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Aydın, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Beşiroğlu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory.

  6. Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate

  7. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  8. Armodafinil for Treatment of Excessive Sleepiness Associated With Shift Work Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Walsh, James K.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (≥3 months) shift work disorder (SWD) of moderate or greater severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-week, randomized controlled study was conducted at 42 sleep research facilities in North America from April 2 through December 23, 2004, and enrolled 254 permanent or rotating night shift workers with SWD. Entry criteria included excessive sleepiness during usual night shifts for 3 months or longer (corroborated by mean sleep latency of ≤6 minutes on a Multiple Sleep Latency Test), insomnia (sleep efficiency ≤87.5% during daytime sleep), and SWD that was judged clinically to be of moderate or greater severity. Patients received armodafinil, 150 mg, or placebo 30 to 60 minutes before each night shift. Physiologic sleep propensity during night shift hours, clinical impression of severity, patient-reported sleepiness, and cognitive function were assessed during laboratory night shifts at weeks 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Armodafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency from 2.3 (1.6) minutes at baseline to 5.3 (5.0) minutes at final visit, compared with a change from 2.4 (1.6) minutes to 2.8 (2.9) minutes in the placebo group (P<.001). Clinical condition ratings improved in more patients receiving armodafinil (79%) vs placebo (59%) (P=.001). As reported by patients' diaries, armodafinil significantly reduced sleepiness during laboratory nights (P<.001), night shifts at work (P<.001), and the commute home (P=.003). Armodafinil improved performance on standardized memory (P<.001) and attention (power, P=.001; continuity, P<.001) tests compared with placebo. Armodafinil was well tolerated and did not affect daytime sleep, as measured by polysomnography. CONCLUSION: In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic SWD of moderate or

  9. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  10. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  11. One Night in January.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)

  12. Night work, fatigued driving and traffic law: the case of police officers.

    PubMed

    Radun, Igor; Ohisalo, Jussi; Radun, Jenni; Kecklund, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Given the well-known difficulties in defining and detecting fatigue, it is a real challenge to incorporate it into either traffic or criminal law. Finnish traffic law forbids fatigued driving "only" on a general level concerning the driver's fitness to drive. We present several comments from Finnish traffic and local police officers regarding their own experiences of driving while fatigued. The comments were extracted from a larger survey of traffic (N=129) and local (N=100) police officers, and prosecutors (N=96). Although the main topic of the survey was the application of the law that forbids fatigued driving, some police officers raised the issue of their own behavior in this respect. We argue that many shift workers, including police officers, break the law, especially when driving home after a night shift.

  13. Task-shifting to community health workers: evaluation of the performance of a peer-led model in an antiretroviral program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Stella; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kenneth, Ekoru; Sunday, Pamella; Laga, Marie; Colebunders, Robert Leon

    2012-02-01

    Task shifting to community health workers (CHW) has received recognition. We examined the performance of community antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment supporters (CATTS) in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Reach Out, a community-based ART program in Uganda. Retrospective data on home visits made by CATTS were analyzed to examine the CATTS ability to perform home visits to patients based on the model's standard procedures. Qualitative interviews conducted with 347 randomly selected patients and 47 CATTS explored their satisfaction with the model. The CATTS ability to follow-up with patients worsened from patients requiring daily, weekly, monthly, to three-monthly home visits. Only 26% and 15% of them correctly home visited patients with drug side effects and a missed clinic appointment, respectively. Additionally, 83% visited stable pre-ART and ART patients (96%) more frequently than required. Six hundred eighty of the 3650 (18%) patients were lost to follow-up (LTFU) during the study period. The mean number of patients LTFU per CATTS was 40.5. Male (p = 0.005), worked for longer durations (p = 0.02), and had lower education (p = 0.005). An increased number of patients (p = 0.01) were associated with increased LTFU. Ninety-two percent of the CATTS felt the model could be improved by reducing the workload. CATTS who were HIV positive, female, not residing in the same village as their patients, more educated, married, on ART, and spent less time with the patients were rated better by their patients. The Reach-Out CHW model is labor-intensive. Triaged home visits could improve performance and allow CATTS time to focus on patients requiring more intensive follow-up.

  14. Beyond working time: factors affecting sleep behaviour in rail safety workers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica L; Dorrian, Jill; Clarkson, Larissa; Darwent, David; Ferguson, Sally A

    2012-03-01

    There are many factors that may affect the sleep behaviour and subsequent fatigue risk of shift workers. In the Australian rail industry the emphasis is primarily on the impact of working time on sleep. The extent to which factors other than working time might affect the sleep behaviour of employees in the large and diverse Australian rail industry is largely unknown. The present study used sleep, work and fatigue diaries completed for two weeks, in conjunction with actigraphy, to understand the contribution of demographic and health factors to sleep behaviour in 40 rail safety workers. Both shift type and having dependents were significant predictors of sleep duration (P<.05). Sleep duration was greatest prior to night shifts, followed by afternoon shifts and morning shifts. Participants with dependents got significantly less sleep than participants without dependents. Both timing of sleep and smoking were significant predictors of sleep quality (P<.05). Day sleeps were associated with lower subjective sleep quality than night sleeps and smokers reported poorer sleep quality than non-smokers. These findings indicate that factors other than working time have the potential to influence both the sleep duration and subjective sleep quality of rail safety workers.

  15. The effects of chronic photoperiod shifting on the physiology of female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; Himmler, Stephanie M; McDonald, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    As the prevalence of shift work is increasing, it is important to elucidate the impact that shift work has on health. Because of the alternating work schedules present in rotating shift work and working at night, shift workers are in a chronic state of circadian disruption. Animal models of circadian disruption are useful because they offer more experimental control than the largely correlational human shift work studies. The effects of chronic circadian disruption on food preference, glucose tolerance, corticosterone secretion, and performance in a stress-inducing task were investigated in female Long-Evans rats. A 64-day photoperiod shifting paradigm was used to induce circadian disruption. Surprisingly, neither the photoperiod shifted animals, nor the control animals demonstrated a preference for either an unhealthy or healthy diet. Nor was there a difference between the groups in weight gained during photoperiod shifting. However, the photoperiod shifted rats gained significantly more weight than control animals, without eating more food during discriminative fear conditioning to context (DFCTC). Surprisingly, chronic photoperiod shifting appeared to facilitate retention in the DFCTC task. The photoperiod shifted animals also had increased serum glucose values during fasting and after a glucose challenge test. The photoperiod shifted animals only had elevated corticosterone during the final two phases of photoperiod shifting. This study demonstrates that chronic photoperiod shifting elicits weight gain when exposed to a stressful event and impairs glucose tolerance in the same individual.

  16. [A study on stressful life events of workers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y; Uehata, T; Sekiya, E; Abe, M; Ishihara, S; Oikawa, S; Chida, T; Yamazaki, Y; Sugisawa, A; Sakano, J

    1994-06-01

    The experience rates of eighteen life events of Japanese workers were surveyed and the strength of each of the events was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. The fifteen professions surveyed included construction, transport, mailing, chemical production, banking, newspaper, TV services, commercial publishing, advertising, teaching and civil service. The number of workers who answered was 18,657 males and 4,443 females, aged 20 to 59 years. The male workers were divided and analysed in six job groups: clerical workers (n = 5,866), professionals (n = 3,696), blue collar day workers (n = 1,623), blue collar night or shift workers (n = 3,191), drivers (n = 1,663) and construction workers (n = 2,466). They were divided into groups and compared according to job, sex and five different age groups. The highest experience rate in each of the life events such as family trouble for both sexes, death of a family member, financial trouble and anxiety, death of a close friend, dissatisfactory transport to workplace or job, respectively. Comparing the experience rates between males and females we found no significant difference for five items. However, other items had higher experience rates for males than for females with the exception of family trouble. In regard to the age characteristics of each of the life events, as the age increased the experience rates of health-related life events such as the death of a spouse, child, family member or close friend and one's own illness or injury became higher. In contrast, the experience rates of items such as moving to a worse residence and failure in a school or training program became lower as the age increased for both sexes. Among job groups, construction workers had the highest experience rates of most life events except for the item of dissatisfactory transport to the workplace or job. Among other job groups, drivers had higher experience rates in the following four items: re-employment, death of spouse, divorce and

  17. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…

  18. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  19. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  20. Light intensity exposure, sleep duration, physical activity, and biomarkers of melatonin among rotating shift nurses.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Sanchez, Maria; Richardson, Harriet; Tranmer, Joan; Borugian, Marilyn; Graham, Charles H; Aronson, Kristan J

    2009-10-01

    Long-term, night shiftwork has been identified as a potential carcinogenic risk factor. It is hypothesized that increased light at night exposure during shiftwork reduces melatonin production, which is associated with increased cancer risk. Sleep duration has been hypothesized to influence both melatonin levels and cancer risk, and it has been suggested that sleep duration could be used as a proxy for melatonin production. Finally, physical activity has been shown to reduce cancer risk, and laboratory studies indicate it may influence melatonin levels. A cross-sectional study of light exposure, sleep duration, physical activity, and melatonin levels was conducted among 61 female rotating shift nurses (work schedule: two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, five days off). Light intensity was measured using a light-intensity data logger, and sleep duration and physical activity were self-reported in a study diary and questionnaire. Melatonin concentrations were measured from urine and saliva samples. The characteristics of nurses working day and night shifts were similar. Light intensity was significantly higher during sleep for those working at night (p< 0.0001), while urinary melatonin levels following sleep were significantly higher among those working days (p = 0.0003). Mean sleep duration for nurses working during the day (8.27 h) was significantly longer than for those working at night (4.78 h, p< 0.0001). An inverse association (p = 0.002) between light exposure and urinary melatonin levels was observed; however, this was not significant when stratified by shift group. There was no significant correlation between sleep duration and melatonin, and no consistent relationship between physical activity and melatonin. Analysis of salivary melatonin levels indicated that the circadian rhythms of night workers were not altered, meaning peak melatonin production occurred at night. This study indicates that two nights of rotating shift work may not change the timing of

  1. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from 8,000 a year to 300 per year.

  2. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  3. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

  4. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  5. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  6. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  7. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  8. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  9. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  10. Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Karlsen, Sashia; Stayner, Leslie; Andersen, Johnni; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Evidence of an effect of shift work on all-cause and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. This study aims to examine whether shift work is associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods We linked 28 731 female nurses (age ≥44 years), recruited in 1993 or 1999 from the Danish nurse cohort where they reported information on shift work (night, evening, rotating, or day), to the Danish Register of Causes of Death to identify deaths up to 2013. We used Cox regression models with age as the underlying scale to examine the associations between night, evening, and rotating shift work (compared to day shift work) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in models adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Results Of 18 015 nurses included in this study, 1616 died during the study time period from the following causes: cardiovascular disease (N=217), cancer (N= 945), diabetes (N=20), Alzheimer's disease or dementia (N=33), and psychiatric diseases (N=67). We found that working night [hazard ratio (HR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval 95% CI) 1.05-1.51] or evening (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49) shifts was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality when compared to working day shift. We found a significant association of night shift work with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.69) and diabetes (HR 12.0, 95% CI 3.17-45.2, based on 8 cases) and none with overall cancer mortality (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.81-1.35) or mortality from psychiatric diseases (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.47-2.92). Finally, we found strong association between evening (HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.62-11.3) and rotating (HR 5.39, 95% CI 2.35-12.3) shift work and mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia (based on 8 and 14 deaths among evening and rotating shift workers, respectively). Conclusions Women working night and evening shifts have increased all-cause, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's and dementia mortality.

  11. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    PubMed

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  12. The impact of a week of simulated night work on sleep, circadian phase, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, N; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; McCulloch, K; Holmes, A; Burgess, H; Fletcher, A; Dawson, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects participated in an adaptation and baseline night sleep, directly followed by seven simulated eight-hour night shifts (2300 to 0700 hours). At the end of each shift they were taken outside and exposed to natural light for 20 minutes. They then slept from approximately 0800 hours until they naturally awoke. Results: There was a significant increase in mean performance on a visual psychomotor vigilance task across the week. Daytime sleep quality and quantity were not negatively affected. Total sleep time (TST) for each of the daytime sleeps was reduced, resulting in an average cumulative sleep debt of 3.53 hours prior to the final night shift. TST for each of the daytime sleep periods did not significantly differ from the baseline night, nor did TST significantly vary across the week. There was a significant decrease in wake time after sleep onset and sleep onset latency across the week; sleep efficiency showed a trend towards greater efficiency across the consecutive daytime sleeps. Hours of wakefulness prior to each simulated night shift significantly varied across the week. The melatonin profile significantly shifted across the week. Conclusions: Results suggest that under optimal conditions, the sleep debt that accumulates during consecutive night shifts is relatively small and does not exacerbate decrements in night-time performance resulting from other factors. When sleep loss is minimised, adaptation of performance during consecutive night shifts can occur in conjunction with circadian adaptation. PMID:14573724

  13. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  14. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  15. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  16. Strangers in the Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene D.

    Strangers in the Night was written by a father and son team, the elder of whom is a cosmochemist. Probably because of this view-point, the book makes a few novel points about the evolution of thinking on the origin of life and extraterrestrial life. A notable example is the mention of the first synthesis of a biological molecule (urea) by Freidrich Wohler in 1828, as one of the turning points in the gradual acceptance of the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Another high point in the book is the discussion of the other “life in meteorites” controversy the debate in the early 1960s concerning “organized elements” in carbonaceous chondrites. This chapter in the history of meteoritics is not very widely known and is highlighted with good cause by the authors as a stern warning about interpretation of possible biological structures in meteorites.

  17. Breastfeeding experiences of Taiwan nurses on rotational shifts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Hua; Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of ten three-shift nurses, with particular focus on how they make arrangements regarding breastfeeding in relation to their workplaces and work breaks. Using a qualitative approach, data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with ten three-shift nurses who had breastfed for more than six months and who returned to work after childbirth. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants, each of whom was interviewed for 1.5-2 hours. Content analysis was used to synthesize interview transcripts. The following three predominant themes and nine sub-themes were identified: (1) managing to express milk--finding appropriate times to express milk during day shifts, learning the timing to express milk during night shifts, and expressing all milk from the breasts during early morning 'graveyard' shifts; (2) dealing with the conflict between work and expressing milk--learning to both take care of patients and express milk, coming back to work on time after expressing milk, and finding "good" places to express milk; and (3) viewing breastfeeding as part of life--being with the baby at home more than being out, turning cars into mobile breastfeeding and milk-expressing "rooms", and breastfeeding as an accomplishment. These findings can help nurses and other healthcare professionals provide anticipatory guidance to women who plan to continue to breastfeed after returning to work. Study results can provide a reference for shift workers who continue to breastfeed after they return to work.

  18. Circadian disruption and health: Shift work as a harbinger of the toll taken by electric lighting.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G

    Electric light is one of the signature inventions of human beings. A problem, however, is that electric light can confuse our endogenous circadian rhythmicity. It has now become apparent that circadian biology is fundamental to the functioning and adaptation of almost all life forms. In the modern world, everyone is exposed to electric light during the day and night, and thereby can experience some level of circadian disruption. Perhaps as a canary in the coal mine, study of people whose work hours include nighttime (shift workers) is beginning to yield insights on the adverse health effects of circadian disruption from electric light.

  19. Low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Bruno; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Dambre, Pieter; Lootens, Peter; Steppe, Kathy

    2011-06-01

    The capability of Phalaenopsis to acclimate its photosynthetic capacity and metabolic activity to cool night temperature conditions is crucial for improving orchid production in terms of efficient greenhouse heating. The extent to which Phalaenopsis possesses acclimation potential and the mechanistic background of the metabolic processes involved, have, however, not been studied before. Plants were subjected to a direct and gradual shift from a day to night temperature regime of 28/28-28/16°C, the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. In comparison with the cold stress treatment, the cold acclimation treatment led to a higher malate accumulation and a reduction in leaf net CO(2) uptake. Consistently, the contribution of respiratory CO(2) recycling to nocturnal malate synthesis was calculated to be 23.5 and 47.0% for the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. Moreover, the lower levels of starch measured in the cold acclimated leaves confirmed the suggested enhanced respiratory CO(2) recycling, implying that Phalaenopsis CAM operation evolved towards CAM idling. It is, however, plausible that this adjustment was not an effect of the low night temperature per se but a consequence of cool-root induced drought stress. Apart from that, at the start of the photoperiod, membrane stability showed a depression which was directly counteracted by an increased generation of glucose, fructose and sucrose. From these observations, it can be concluded that the observed plasticity in CAM operation and metabolic flexibility may be recognized as important steps in the low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

  20. The night before your surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - child; Preoperative - night before ... food after 11 p.m. the night before surgery. Your child should not eat or drink any ... child the night before or the day of surgery, call the doctor. Stop giving your child any ...

  1. "Antigone" on the Night Shift: Classics in the Contemporary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devenish, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examines community college students' choices of favorite works after a one-year composition and literature course. Finds "Antigone" was the favorite. Claims Greek classical works put students in contact with a distant culture that they find intriguing. Suggests juxtaposing a classical work with one from another time and culture to avoid…

  2. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  3. Injuries in marginal workers and social trauma in female: Important cause of the paradigm shift in eye injury over a decade

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing profile of work force can give rise different types of injuries. Purpose: To analyse causative factors (Host-Agent-Event) in ocular trauma over last 15 years. Methods: Hospital based prospective study during 1997-2012. Detailed information on nature of trauma; agent and setting were recorded. Results: Cohort included 12365 eye injuries, 1241 serious cases. Prevalence – 0.45 /10000 Mean age 45.8 with bi- modal pattern of incidence, 3:1 male-female ratio. 80% closed globe, 48% workplace injury (90% in marginal labourers with an exponential annual increase). 10% cases from garage mechanics.60% of eye injuries in female were related to “social violence”. Multivariate analysis has detected new causative agents. Conclusion: Significant change in parameters of trauma (Host-Agent-Event) is resulting in paradigm shift in eye injury. Unorganised unaccustomed labour in workplace injury and “social trauma” in females has become an important cause of eye injury. PMID:26023270

  4. Night Myopia Studied with an Adaptive Optics Visual Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10−6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of −0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors. PMID:22768343

  5. Night airglow in RGB mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Podlesny, Stepan; Stoeva, Penka

    2016-09-01

    To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010-2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E) by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate the average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg*cm-2*s-1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings), we demonstrate the possibility of the quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum.

  6. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    most common nursing care omissions reported were related to nursing care plans. For the Global Sleep Quality score, difference were found between day and night shift workers. PMID:27496241

  7. TWAN: The World at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

  8. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  9. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  10. Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.

  11. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  12. Night work and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees over the time span 1984 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Nätti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Oinas, Tomi; Mustosmäki, Armi

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence showing that night work is associated with increased morbidity, but only a few studies have focused on its relation to mortality. This study investigates the relationship between the type of working-time arrangement (weekly night work/daytime work) and total and cause-specific mortality among men and women. The data consist of a representative working conditions survey of Finnish employees conducted in 1984 (2286 men/2216 women), which has been combined with register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland covering the years 1985-2008. In the 1984 survey, the employees were asked if they worked during the night (23:00-06:00 h) and if so, how often. In this study, the authors compare employees who worked at night (121 men/89 women) to daytime employees who did not do night work (1325 men/1560 women). The relative risk of death was examined by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for background (age, level of education, family situation, and county), health (longstanding illness, pain symptoms, smoking status, and psychological symptoms), and work-related factors (weekly working hours, physical and psychological demands, demands of learning at work, and perceived job insecurity). Female employees working at night had a 2.25-fold higher risk of mortality than female dayworkers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.20) after adjustment for background and health- and work-related factors. In addition to total mortality, night work was also associated with tumor mortality. Female night workers had a 2.82-fold higher risk of tumor mortality than female dayworkers (95% CI 1.20-6.65) in the adjusted model. Among men, no such significant association was observed. The present study indicated that female night workers had a higher risk of both total and tumor mortality compared to female daytime employees. Additional research on the potential factors and mechanisms behind the association between night work and mortality is required.

  13. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process

  14. Night Operations - The Soviet Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    Battle of Berlin reveal the purpose for the night tactic of il- * ilumination : surprise and psychological impact, both on the enemy and friendly forces. An...attack Ilumination by shell Tn in k* Illumination by flare a Tank In firing position Observation post Antitank missle in firing position APC C3 APC

  15. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P <0.001) and 49% higher among those on the afternoon shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891

  16. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    PubMed

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  17. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  18. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  19. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  20. Tips for Getting a Good Night's Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Tips for Getting A Good Night's Sleep Past ... in bed at night, you may have a sleep disorder. Your family healthcare provider or a sleep specialist ...

  1. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  2. Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the nurses' sleep health project.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Shoichi; Aritake, Sayaka; Komada, Yoko; Ozaki, Akiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-05-01

    Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on a sample of shiftworking nurses. Responses were obtained from 1202 nurses working at university hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, including 727 two-shift workers and 315 three-shift workers. The questionnaire included items relevant to age, gender, family structure, work environment, health-related quality of life (QOL), diurnal type, depressive symptoms, and SWD. Participants who reported insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness for at least 1 mo that was subjectively relevant to their shiftwork schedules were categorized as having SWD. The prevalence of SWD in the sampled shiftworking nurses was 24.4%; shiftworking nurses with SWD showed lower health-related QOL and more severe depressive symptoms, with greater rates of both actual accidents/errors and near misses, than those without SWD. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that more time spent working at night, frequent missing of nap opportunities during night work, and having an eveningness-oriented chronotype were significantly associated with SWD. The present study indicated that SWD might be associated with reduced health-related QOL and decreased work performance in shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules. The results also suggested that missing napping opportunities during night work, long nighttime working hours, and the delay of circadian rhythms are associated with the occurrence of SWD among shiftworking nurses on rapid-rotation schedules.

  3. Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate of the effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems. Although several studies have examined the effects of compressing work schedules by comparing 8 and 12 hour shift systems, there is little published research examining the various forms of 12 hour shift system. METHODS: An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of > 24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. For the purposes of the analysis, each of these two groups were further subdivided into those who started their morning shift at 0600 and those who started at 0700. RESULTS: Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, along with longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. These effects of changeover time were broadly in agreement with previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. It is conceded that the design of the study may have obscured some subtle differences between the shift systems. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the impact of distribution of rest days seems to be minor relative to previously found effects of other features of shift systems--for example, shift duration.   PMID:10448331

  4. Psychotherapy with night-terror patients.

    PubMed

    Kales, J C; Cadieux, R J; Soldatos, C R; Kales, A

    1982-07-01

    This is the first report of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating adult night-terror patients. Night terrors were eliminated or drastically reduced in two patients who completed psychotherapy. A third patient discontinued therapy and showed no improvement. Thus, the primary role of psychopathology in the production of night terrors in adulthood was illustrated.

  5. Contingent workers.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.

  6. Arsia Mons by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  7. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  8. Noctus Labyrinthus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  9. Meridiani Crater in Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will

  10. Ius Chasma by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  11. Gusev Crater by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  12. Albor Tholus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  13. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  14. A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended. PMID:24754917

  15. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  16. Night terrors: strategies for family coping.

    PubMed

    Gates, D; Morwessel, N

    1989-02-01

    This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.

  17. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  18. Night nursing – staff's working experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Campbell, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence. PMID:18976475

  19. Tactical Night Terrain Flight Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    an reverse aide It necesarmy and identify by block unmber) Terrain flight Night flight Surface nav’igation 20,. AW4~ACT ( C ~venoUa sov ero " eom a maa...were used on each test flight. The helicopter used for the low-level flights were equipped initially with a commercial radar altimeter with a single...indicator, which was later changed to a military AN/APN-209 radar altimeter with dual indicators. The second helicopter was used for command and

  20. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    PubMed

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors.

  1. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  2. Regulation of L1 expression and retrotransposition by melatonin and its receptor: implications for cancer risk associated with light exposure at night.

    PubMed

    deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T; Streva, Vincent A; Hill, Steven M; Hanifin, John P; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Belancio, Victoria P

    2014-07-01

    Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption.

  3. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  4. [Night work and health of nurses and midviwes--a review].

    PubMed

    Burdelak, Weronika; Peplońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Night shift work has been thought to play a role in the etiology of chronic diseases through a disruption of the circadian rhythm, decreased synthesis of melatonin and sleep deprivation. Our aim was to review the epidemiological studies on the association between night shift work and some pathologies in nurses and midwives. We reviewed publications available in the MEDLINE database and published before June 2012, describing the cross-sectional (almost two thirds of all papers) and cohort studies. In total, we identified 26 original papers, including 5 epidemiological studies addressing diseases or disorders of the digestive system, 3--metabolic syndrome, 2--type 2 diabetes, 9--cardiovascular diseases and (CVD risk factors, 5--obesity/overweight, 2--menstrual disorders and 3--poor pregnancy outcomes. The analysis of the literature indicates that night shift work of nurses and midwives is most strongly associated with a higher risk ofobesity/overweight. In each of the five studies, which we identified this association was observed (confirmed by the statistical significance of the results), also after adjustment for confounders. The results for type 2 diabetes and disorders of the menstrual cycle are also suggestive. Epidemiological data on the other disorders or pathologies discussed in this article seem to be less certain - their results are inconsistent or their number is too small to draw definite conclusions. Further epidemiological studies of nurses and midwives working on night shifts and prospective observations in particular are recommended to find out whether potential association between the night work and discussed health issues is causal.

  5. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  6. Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors.

    PubMed

    Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Bixler, E O; Ladda, R L; Charney, D S; Weber, G; Schweitzer, P K

    1980-08-01

    The families of 25 probands with sleepwalking and 27 probands with night terrors were studied. Eighty per cent of the sleepwalking pedigrees and 96 per cent of the night terror pedigrees included one or more individuals, other than the proband, who were affected by sleepwalking, night terrors, or both. Our data appear to fit a 'two threshold' multifactorial mode of inheritance. This finding supports the hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors share a common genetic predisposition, with sleepwalking being a more prevalent and less severe manifestation of the same substrate that underlies night terrors. Heritable factors predispose an individual to develop sleepwalking and/or night terrors, but expression of the trait may be influenced by environmental factors.

  7. Intermittent bright light and exercise to entrain human circadian rhythms to night work.

    PubMed

    Baehr, E K; Fogg, L F; Eastman, C I

    1999-12-01

    Bright light can phase shift human circadian rhythms, and recent studies have suggested that exercise can also produce phase shifts in humans. However, few studies have examined the phase-shifting effects of intermittent bright light, exercise, or the combination. This simulated night work field study included eight consecutive night shifts followed by daytime sleep/dark periods (delayed 9 h from baseline). There were 33 subjects in a 2 x 2 design that compared 1) intermittent bright light (6 pulses, 40-min long each, at 5,000 lx) versus dim light and 2) intermittent exercise (6 bouts, 15-min long each, at 50-60% of maximum heart rate) versus no exercise. Bright light and exercise occurred during the first 6 h of the first three night shifts. The circadian phase marker was the demasked rectal temperature minimum. Intermittent bright-light groups had significantly larger phase delays than dim-light groups, and 94% of subjects who received bright light had phase shifts large enough for the temperature minimum to reach daytime sleep. Exercise did not affect phase shifts; neither facilitating nor inhibiting phase shifts produced by bright light.

  8. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  9. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test by Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett, and Elizabeth S. Redden ARL-TR-3839 August...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-3839 August 2006 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716AH70 5e

  10. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  11. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  12. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  13. Civilian use of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Guillermo; Temme, Leonard; Antonio, J Charles

    2003-01-01

    Civil aviation operators have expressed an increased interest in conducting night operations with night vision imaging systems. The development of special operational concepts, hardware requirements, training requirements, and regulatory change and oversight is necessary to control for the known performance constraints associated with these devices. In 2001, the Aerospace Medical Association initiated an internal request to review the human factors issues concerning the use of night vision goggles (NVGs) in civilian flight operations. This paper provides some basic information on night vision imaging systems to highlight the Association's position for supporting the appropriate use of NVGs in civilian aviation while concurrently expressing the need for a judicious and studied approach to their deployment.

  14. Depth perception after prolonged usage of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J B; Wilkinson, M

    1989-06-01

    The present study was initiated following a report that a few helicopter pilots had failed a test of stereoscopic depth perception after a prolonged training flight employing night vision goggles (NVGs). In order to determine the cause of the loss, 12 helicopter pilots/copilots were assessed for depth perception, lateral and vertical phoria, and contrast sensitivity before and after training flights requiring the pilots to wear night vision goggles for the duration of the flight. Pilots flew one to three missions while wearing either PVS-5A or AN/AVS-6 goggles. Mission duration ranged from 1 to 4 h. The results indicate that contrast sensitivity and depth perception when monocular cues are present did not degrade over the course of the mission. Lateral phoria, however, did demonstrate an average exophoric shift of 1.5 prism diopters for 12 out of the 24 missions. The results indicate that the original report of a loss of depth perception based on a test of depth requiring stereopsis might have been caused by a shift in lateral phoria. It would be expected that as additional fusional effort is required, the minimum resolvable disparity degrades due to the increase in accommodation brought about through vergence accommodation. Possible causes for the phoria shift and future testing are discussed.

  15. [Night-to-night variability of the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Ouahchi, Y; Toujani, S; Snen, H; Ben Salah, N; Ben Hmida, A; Louzir, B; Mhiri, N; Cherif, J; Beji, M

    2016-11-01

    The apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) is the primary measurement used to characterize the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Despite its popularity, there are limiting factors to its application such as night-to-night variability.

  16. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  17. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  18. 77 FR 62147 - Night Definition; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-1043; Amdt. Nos. 1-1] Night Definition; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., the United States, and Canada. In 14 CFR 1.1 the definition of night refers to twilight times as... Administration amends chapter I of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 1--DEFINITIONS...

  19. The Night Sky on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. This time-lapse composite, acquired the evening of Spirit's martian sol 590 (Aug. 30, 2005) from a perch atop 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater, shows Phobos, the brighter moon, on the left, and Deimos, the dimmer moon, on the right. In this sequence of images obtained every 170 seconds, both moons move from top to bottom. The bright star Aldebaran forms a trail on the right, along with some other stars in the constellation Taurus. Most of the other streaks in the image mark the collision of cosmic rays with pixels in the camera.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the six images that make up this composite using Spirit's panoramic camera with the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically for acquiring images under low-light conditions.

  20. The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2008-08-01

    The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the

  1. Abrupt switch to migratory night flight in a wild migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Daniel; Falconer, Jade; Fudickar, Adam M.; Jensen, Willi; Schmidt, Andreas; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2016-01-01

    Every year, billions of wild diurnal songbirds migrate at night. To do so, they shift their daily rhythm from diurnality to nocturnality. In captivity this is observed as a gradual transition of daytime activity developing into nocturnal activity, but how wild birds prepare their daily rhythms for migration remains largely unknown. Using an automated radio-telemetry system, we compared activity patterns of free-living migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in a partially migratory population during the pre-migratory season. We found that activity patterns between migrant and resident birds did not differ during day and night. Migrants did not change their daily rhythm in a progressive manner as has been observed in captivity, but instead abruptly became active during the night of departure. The rapid shift in rhythmicity might be more common across migratory songbird species, but may not have been observed before in wild animals due to a lack of technology. PMID:27666200

  2. Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

    2008-08-01

    Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health

  3. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  4. Effects of Fatigue on Driving Safety: A Comparison of Brake Reaction Times in Night Float and Postcall Physicians in Training

    PubMed Central

    Talusan, Paul G.; Long, Theodore; Halim, Andrea; Guliani, Laura; Carroll, Nicole; Reach, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns about duty hour and resident safety have fostered discussion about postshift fatigue and driving impairment. Objective We assessed how converting to a night float schedule for overnight coverage affected driving safety for trainees. Methods Brake reaction times were measured for internal medicine and orthopaedic surgery resident volunteers after a traditional 28-hour call shift and after a night float shift. We conducted matched paired t tests of preshift and postshift reaction time means. Participants also completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale pre- and postshift. Results From June to July 2013, we enrolled 58 interns and residents (28 orthopaedic surgery, 30 internal medicine). We included 24 (41%) trainees on night float rotations and 34 (59%) trainees on traditional 28-hour call shifts. For all residents on night float rotations, there was no significant difference pre- and postshift. An increase in reaction times was noted among trainees on 28-hour call rotations. This included no effect on reaction times for internal medicine trainees pre- and postshift, and an increase in reaction times for orthopaedic trainees. For both night float and traditional call groups, there were significant increases in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions Trainees on traditional 28-hour call rotations had significantly worse postshift brake reaction times, whereas trainees on night float rotations had no difference. Orthopaedic trainees had significant differences in brake reaction times after a traditional call shift. PMID:26140113

  5. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  6. Decreasing Adverse Events through Night Talks: An Interdisciplinary, Hospital-Based Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    White, Christine; del Rey, Javier Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    Background: The majority of medical adverse events are secondary to errors in communication. The Joint Commission (known until 2007 as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) reports that 70% of sentinel events are the result of communication failures. Review of nonperioperative adverse events at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in 2007 found similar statistics: 57% were related to failure to recognize abnormal vital signs and to communicate or address parents’ or nurses’ concerns. Objective: To increase by 80% the number of days between near misses in pediatric neurosurgical patients because of failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns during the night shift. Materials and Methods: Baseline data on near misses from the previous night were collected with the use of a written questionnaire completed the next morning by the interns, patient-care facilitators or charge nurse, and attending physicians. Laminated cards with three standardized questions were created to guide a late-evening review of patients’ status by residents, attending physicians, and nurses: the Night Talks discussion. After initiation of Night Talks, data were collected for issues addressed by Night Talks as well as for preventable adverse events. Main Outcome Measure: Number of days between near misses. Results: During a two-month period before the introduction of Night Talks, there was an average of 3.8 days between near misses on neurosurgery patients. After the initiation of Night Talks, days between near misses due to the failure to address abnormal vital signs or parents’ or nurses’ concerns increased to 201 days, a 5360% change. Conclusion: Instituting standardized Night Talks substantially reduced near misses in neurosurgical patients at our institution at night. PMID:20740098

  7. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  8. Bedtime problems and night wakings in children.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa; Meltzer, Lisa J; Mindell, Jodi A

    2008-09-01

    Bedtime problems and night wakings in children are extremely common, and the treatment literature demonstrates strong empirical support for behavioral interventions. Empirically validated interventions for bedtime problems and night wakings include extinction, graduated extinction, positive routines, and parental education. Most children respond to behavioral interventions, resulting not only in better sleep for the child, but also better sleep and improved daytime functioning for the entire family. This article reviews the presentation of bedtime problems and night wakings, empirically validated interventions, and challenges to treatment in both typically developing and special populations of children.

  9. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  10. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  11. MSFC Catches Geminids In The Night Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows meteors captured by a wide-field camera at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the night of December 12. There are 141 events; at least 77 of these are Geminids, based on thei...

  12. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  13. Association between shift working and musculoskeletal symptoms among nursing personnel

    PubMed Central

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Raeisi, Saeed; Namvar, Mohamad; Golabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some health problems are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as one of the most common health-related problems that can cause disability among health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between shift working and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSs) among nursing personnel. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 454 health care workers including nurses and nurses’ aides in a general hospital in Iran. A Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of MSs. Logistic regression analysis with adjusting for confounding factors was performed to evaluate the associations between shift working and the prevalence of MSs. Results: Lower back, knees, and upper back symptoms with the prevalence of 57.4%, 48.4%, and 47%, respectively, were the most common MSs. The prevalence of MSs in eight regions of the body (lower back, neck, knees, upper back, shoulder, wrist, buttock, and ankle) was higher among shift workers than day workers. The differences were statistically significant only in the lower back and ankle regions (P < 0.05). Odds Ratio for lower back symptoms in shift workers was 1.94 compared to day workers (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested that shift working could be associated with increased prevalence of lower back disorders among nursing personnel. This study emphasizes on the importance of proper work planning and regulating working hours for nursing personnel. PMID:24949072

  14. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  15. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    may cause night blindness are glaucoma, progressive cone/rod dystrophies (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa , Stargardt’s disease), drug toxicity (e.g...Alabama, July 1989. 38. Berson EL, Rabin AR, Mehaffey L. Advances in night vision twchnology: A pocketscope for patients with retinitis pigmentosa ... retinal sensitivity to dim light. Regeneration of the photopigments occurs during dark adaptation. The fully dark-adapted eye, in which photopigment

  16. Is Transcriptomic Regulation of Berry Development More Important at Night than During the Day?

    PubMed Central

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T.; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far. PMID:24551177

  17. Interim-Night Integrated Goggle Head Tracking System (I-Nights). Volume 1. Ground Test Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    3 Figure 2. Honeywell I-NIGHTS System Drawing . . . . . . . . 4 Figure 3. Kaiser I-NIGHTS System Drawing . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 4. Spinal ...thoracolumbar spinal fracture during ejection seat use. The USAF use of the DRI to evaluate ejection seats is embodied in Military Specification: Seat Systems...probability of spinal injury. But, what WT/CG/force combinations are reasonably acceptable during ejection? The I-NIGHTS program helped establish an interim

  18. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  19. Changing the waveform of circadian rhythms: considerations for shift-work.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Elizabeth M; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24 h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  1. Jet Lag and Shift Work Disorder.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Abbott, Sabra M

    2015-12-01

    Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders resulting from behaviorally altering the sleep-wake schedule in relation to the external environment. Not everyone who experiences trans-meridian travel or performs shift work has a disorder. The prevalence of jet lag disorder is unclear, approximately 5%-10% of shift workers have shift work disorder. Treatment aims to realign the internal circadian clock with the external environment. Behavioral therapies include sleep hygiene and management of the light-dark and sleep schedule. Pharmacologic agents are used to treat insomnia and excessive sleepiness, and melatonin is used to facilitate sleep and circadian realignment.

  2. The impact of shift patterns on junior doctors' perceptions of fatigue, training, work/life balance and the role of social support

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M; Rapport, F; Hutchings, H; Dahlgren, A; Davies, G; Ebden, P

    2010-01-01

    Background The organisation of junior doctors' work hours has been radically altered following the partial implementation of the European Working Time Directive. Poorly designed shift schedules cause excessive disruption to shift workers' circadian rhythms. Method Interviews and focus groups were used to explore perceptions among junior doctors and hospital managers regarding the impact of the European Working Time Directive on patient care and doctors' well-being. Results Four main themes were identified. Under “Doctors shift rotas”, doctors deliberated the merits and demerits of working seven nights in row. They also discussed the impact on fatigue of long sequences of day shifts. “Education and training” focused on concerns about reduced on-the-job learning opportunities under the new working time arrangements and also about the difficulties of finding time and energy to study. “Work/life balance” reflected the conflict between the positive aspects of working on-call or at night and the impact on life outside work. “Social support structures” focused on the role of morale and team spirit. Good support structures in the work place counteracted and compensated for the effects of negative role stressors, and arduous and unsocial work schedules. Conclusions The impact of junior doctors' work schedules is influenced by the nature of specific shift sequences, educational considerations, issues of work/life balance and by social support systems. Poorly designed shift rotas can have negative impacts on junior doctors' professional performance and educational training, with implications for clinical practice, patient care and the welfare of junior doctors. PMID:21127102

  3. Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night

    SciTech Connect

    Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1998-12-01

    Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

  4. Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain; Touitou, David

    2017-03-15

    Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of "probable carcinogens to humans" since "they involve a circadian disorganization". Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.

  5. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  6. NightSkyLive.net: Bringing the Night Sky into Your Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live

    2004-12-01

    Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.

  7. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

  8. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  9. Night sweats: it may be hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding.

  10. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  11. Night sky brightness measurement at PERMATApintar observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. D.; Gopir, G.; Kamil, W. M. A. Wan Mohd; Mohamad, N. S.; Azmi, N. Che

    2016-11-01

    One of the quality parameter of an astronomical site testing is sky brightness. We measure the night sky brightness over PERMATApintar Observatory to obtain the first preliminary sky brightness reading. The measurement is done by using an Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) with a position pointing zenith. Six measurements have been done during the period of January to March 2016. The measurement is taken between approximately 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. on each of the night. The best (darken) night sky brightness reading is 19.54 mag/arcsec2 obtained on March 11th, 2016. The preliminary average reading of sky brightness is 17.20 mag/arcsec2. Comparison with previous similar measurement for the same type of area (suburban area) shows that our data is within the range of the sky brightness for suburban area, which is 19.5 to 20.7 mag/arcsec2.

  12. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  13. LINE-1 activity as molecular basis for genomic instability associated with light exposure at night.

    PubMed

    Belancio, Victoria P

    2015-01-01

    The original hypothesis that exposure to light at night increases risk of breast cancer via suppression of nocturnal melatonin production was proposed over 2 decades ago. In 2007, shift work that involves circadian disruption has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a probable human carcinogen. Our discovery of melatonin-dependent regulation of LINE-1 retrotransposon expression and mobilization is the latest addition to the list of cellular genes and processes that are affected by light exposure at night. This finding establishes an unexpected health relevant connection between this endogenous DNA damaging agent and environmental light exposure. It also offers an appealing hypothesis pertaining to the origin of genomic instability in the genomes of individuals with light at night- or age-associated disruption of melatonin signaling.

  14. [Blood transfusion practices: about transfusions at night].

    PubMed

    Roche, C; Théfenne, H; Hance, P; Garnotel, E

    2013-12-01

    Blood transfusion safety covers all stages from prescription of immuno-haematological examinations until the completion of the transfusion. According to the 05/11/2006 Afssaps' decision on good transfusion practices, transfusions should not be given at night unless the patient is actively bleeding or has some other urgent clinical need. A retrospective study was used to assess the proportion of transfusions at night. Through this professional practice evaluation, we analyze the reasons leading to perform transfusions at late hours, in order to reduce errors and improve safety for patients.

  15. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-09-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  16. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  17. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  18. Night-to-Night Sleep Variability in Older Adults with and Without Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Cheng, Yu; Germain, Anne; Moul, Douglas E.; Franzen, Peter L.; Fletcher, Mary; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify night-to-night variability in sleep behaviors and sleep measures among older chronic insomnia (CI) subjects and non-insomnia (NI) controls; 2) to investigate systematic temporal patterns of sleep behaviors and sleep measures across nights; and 3) to examine clinical correlates of sleep variability. Methods Sixty-one older adults with CI (71.4 years old, 67%F) and 31 older adults with NI (70.7 years old, 65%F) completed questionnaires and kept sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphs for two weeks. Mixed models were used to estimate within-subject mean and standard deviation values; these were then compared across groups. Mixed models were also used to determine associations across nights of sleep measures. Results CI and NI differed on mean values for clinical ratings and sleep diary measures, but not for actigraphy measures. CI also showed significantly greater variability than NI on most sleep diary measures and on actigraphically-measured wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency. Among CI, neither diary nor actigraphy measures from one night correlated with values from the previous night. Diary WASO and sleep time and actigraphy sleep latency and sleep time, however, positively correlated with values from the previous two nights. Variability measures were not correlated with other global clinical measures among CI. Conclusions Compared to NI, older adults with CI report worse sleep and greater night-tonight variability, which was confirmed with actigraphy. There was little evidence for positive or negative correlation of sleep measures across nights. Variability of sleep may be an important target for insomnia treatments. PMID:19962939

  19. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  20. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  1. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    a different methodology . The second study was prompted by the inconclusiveness of the first study. METHOD - STUDY ONE Observers The trained observers......3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  2. HH-60D night hawk helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

  3. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  4. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  5. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  6. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  7. Helicopter Night Vision System Simulation Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    mision safety. The enroute evaluation indicates a con- sistent preference for the 4HMD-PMD configuration. The copilot felt that the virtual HUD...pilot but never allowed Cho copilot to slow in a hover. In edsencer the night cranpore mision appears wo be a two pilot task with a t consant verbal

  8. Things That Go "Peent" in the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidich, Carole Louise

    1981-01-01

    Describes early spring night field trips by two naturalists and ten adults, armed with cameras and flashlights, in search of Spotted Salamanders performing ritual mating dances. Although dancing salamanders proved elusive, their habits and those of other pond life were examined and Spring American Woodcock nuptial flights were observed. (NEC)

  9. Education in the Night: A Serious Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Tangiwai Mere Appleton

    Education is one of the social institutions manipulated by New Zealand's European people to establish and perpetuate a painfully fragmented society. Po Ako is a community-based educational project where immigrant teachers, parents, and children from Tonga educate themselves at night about their own culture to better understand themselves and their…

  10. Urban planning and traffic safety at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Trusca, D.

    2016-08-01

    Urban planning including traffic signs serve vital functions, providing road users with regulatory, warning and guidance information about the roadway and surrounding environment. There are a large number of signs and even more guidelines on how these signs should be designed, installed, and maintained in concordance with on road surface traffic signs. More requirements for signs are made for night urban traffic, including appearance (size, shape, colour), placement (height, lateral, and longitudinal), maintenance (visibility, position, damage) and signs light and retroreflective. In the night, traffic signs visibility can interact by on pedestrian visibility and diminish urban traffic safety. The main aim of this paper are the scientific determination of an urban specific zone visibility for evaluate at night real conditions in case of a traffic accident in the Braşov city area. The night visibility study was made using PC-Rect version 4.2. Other goal of the paper was to modify some urban planning solution in order to increase the urban safety in Brașov.

  11. PAVE LOW III: interior lighting reconfiguration for night lighting and night vision goggle compatibility.

    PubMed

    Task, H L; Griffin, L L

    1982-12-01

    The PAVE LOW III aircraft is a modified HH-53H helicopter that has a low altitude--below 30.48 m (100 ft)--night/day rescue mission. The desired night flying configuration is for the pilot to wear night vision goggles (NVGs) to fly the aircraft while the copilot, without NVGs, observes the video display and monitors the aircraft instruments. The problems of NVG incompatibility in the cockpit were successfully countered using several light control techniques. The light control modifications were evaluated on the ground in the PAVE LOW III helicopter at Kirtland AFB in April, 1980, by PAVE LOW instructor pilots. The evaluation results were extremely positive.

  12. Mixing processes within the polar night jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Grose, William L.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Lagrangian material line simulations are performed using U.K. Meteorological Office simulated winds and temperatures to examine mixing processes in the middle- and lower-stratospheric polar night jet during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring and Northern Hemisphere winter. The Lagrangian simulations are undertaken to provide insight into the effects of mixing within the polar night jet on observations of the polar vortex made by instruments onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during these periods. A moderate to strong kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic exchange, similar to the barrier identified in General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations, is identified during both of these periods. Characteristic timescales for mixing by large-scale isentropic motions within the polar night jet range from 20 days in the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere to years in the Northern Hemisphere middle stratosphere. The long mixing timescales found in the Northern Hemisphere polar night jet do not persist. Instead, the Northern Hemisphere kinematic barriers are broken down as part of the large-scale stratospheric response to a strong tropospheric blocking event. A series of Lagrangian experiments are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the kinematic barrier to diabatic effects and to small-scale inertial gravity wave motions. Differential diabatic descent is found to have a significant impact on mixing processes within the Southern Hemisphere middle-stratospheric jet core. The interaction between small-scale displacements by idealized, inertial gravity waves and the large-scale flow is found to have a significant impact on mixing within the polar night jet in both hemispheres. These sensitivity experiments suggest that scales of motion that are unresolved in global assimilated datasets may contribute to mass exchange across the kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic motion.

  13. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  14. Respiratory effects among rubberwood furniture factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriproed, Salakjit; Osiri, Pramuk; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chantanakul, Suttinun; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Ong-artborirak, Parichat; Woskie, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were examined among 89 rubberwood furniture factory workers. Acute and chronic irritant symptoms were assessed, lung function was measured both pre- and post-shift and personal inhalable dust exposure determined. The only symptoms with a significant increase among high dust level-exposed workers (>1 mg/m(3)) were those related to nasal irritation. High dust level-exposed workers had a significant cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) compared with low dust level-exposed workers and increases in inhalable dust concentration levels (mg/m(3)) were significantly associated with decreases in the peak expiratory flow (PEF) across the work shift. For percent predicted pulmonary function levels, a significant decrement in PEF was found for high versus low rubberwood dust level-exposed workers, after controlling for confounders. These findings suggest the need for an occupational standard for rubberwood dust in Thailand.

  15. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  16. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  17. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths.

    PubMed

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Fijen, Thijs P M

    2017-03-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand these declines, the question remains whether artificial light causes only increased mortality or also sublethal effects. We show that moths subjected to artificial night lighting spend less time feeding than moths in darkness, with the shortest time under light conditions rich in short wavelength radiation. These findings provide evidence for sublethal effects contributing to moth population declines. Because effects are strong under various types of light compared with dark conditions, the potential of spectral alterations as a conservation tool may be overestimated. Therefore, restoration and maintenance of darkness in illuminated areas is essential for reversing declines of moth populations.

  18. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  19. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2006-05-01

    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  20. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

    Note: this THEMIS infrared image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS

  1. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inclined by 3o from the true north-south direction, and the spacecraft is flying from north-to-south on the day side and from south-to-north on the night side of the planet. These images provide a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In these views the Cydonia region is seen to numerous interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face'. The 3-km long 'face' knob was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and the THEMIS visible and infrared cameras on Mars Odyssey have provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. Many of the knobs in Cydonia, including the 'face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today.

    Note: this THEMIS infrared image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS

  2. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  3. Effects of Extended Hypoxia on Night Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    and Krill (5) have reported a study of fundamental sig- nificance on the effects of stimulus paraneter; and retinal placement of the stimulus on night...by Ernest and Krill (5), that the early segment of the dark adaptation function was unaffected by hypoxia. This disagreement probably can be explained...in recovery capability, even after extended hypoxia. The clear implication of this relationship for practical operetions is that supplemental oxygen

  4. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    by optic nerve and pathways to Brodmann’s occipital areas 17 and 18). Perception occurs - vision Sensitive material ( retinal pigment) must be...clearly may be defined as glare. Glare becomes a problem in patients with opacities of the ocular media or with retinal diseases. 3 FME tN [I.I Sl IN FM...reduction of pupillary area caused by the drug. 3. Retinal causes of abnormal dark adaptation. a. Congenital stationary night blindness. b. etinitis

  5. The conformal transformation of the night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-12-01

    We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not use the four dimensionality of spacetime or spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.

  6. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  7. Sleep Physiology in Toddlers: Effects of Missing a Nap on Subsequent Night Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lassonde, Jonathan M; Rusterholz, Thomas; Kurth, Salome; Schumacher, Allyson M; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2016-10-01

    The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleep loss. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n=25; 11 males; ages 30-36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule for ≥5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13 h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap. Total slow-wave energy (SWE) was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75-4.5 Hz range) over time. Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.9 ± 8.7 versus 37.3 ± 22.1 min; d=1.6, p=0.01), slept longer (10.1 ± 0.7 versus 9.6 ± 0.6 h; d=0.7, p<0.01) and exhibited greater SWA (133.3 ± 37.5 versus 93.0 ± 4.7 %; d=0.9, p<0.01) compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequent night sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.1 ± 3872.9 versus 11588 ± 3270.8 µV(2*)h; d=0.6, p=0.12). However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.0±0.8 versus 10.9±0.5; d=3.1, p<0.01) and total sleep time (11.2±0.8 versus 10.1±0.7; d=1.4, p<0.01). Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration, and increased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged wakefulness. Whether toddlers

  8. Sleep Physiology in Toddlers: Effects of Missing a Nap on Subsequent Night Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Lassonde, Jonathan M.; Rusterholz, Thomas; Kurth, Salome; Schumacher, Allyson M.; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2016-01-01

    The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleep loss. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n=25; 11 males; ages 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule for ≥5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13 h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap. Total slow-wave energy (SWE) was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75–4.5 Hz range) over time. Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.9 ± 8.7 versus 37.3 ± 22.1 min; d=1.6, p=0.01), slept longer (10.1 ± 0.7 versus 9.6 ± 0.6 h; d=0.7, p<0.01) and exhibited greater SWA (133.3 ± 37.5 versus 93.0 ± 4.7 %; d=0.9, p<0.01) compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequent night sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.1 ± 3872.9 versus 11588 ± 3270.8 µV2*h; d=0.6, p=0.12). However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.0±0.8 versus 10.9±0.5; d=3.1, p<0.01) and total sleep time (11.2±0.8 versus 10.1±0.7; d=1.4, p<0.01). Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration, and increased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged wakefulness. Whether toddlers

  9. Agomelatine Efficacy in the Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (−5.5 kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

  10. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

  11. Calculation of day and night emittance values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.

  12. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  13. The Social Implications of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified andappropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

  14. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use the sharing ... JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when ...

  15. MONIM: the new Met Office Night Illumination Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, S. J.; Hignett, P.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a new model developed by the Met Office to predict night-time light levels. The Met Office Night Illumination Model (MONIM) predicts light levels both in the visible (photopic) range and in the waveband to which night vision goggles (NVGs) are sensitive. The model will be used operationally for support of night-time flying operations. The model is described in detail and its light-level forecasts are compared with observations.

  16. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  17. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

    1981-11-01

    Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1.

  18. Effects of Shift Work on Air Force Security Police Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Vieux . and P. Andlauer (New York: Pergamon Press. 1980), p. 220. p. J. Taylor, "Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other...Monk, and Mary C. Lobban, "Short and Long-Term Adjustment of Circadian Rhythms in ’Permanent’ Night Nurses," Ergonomics, 21, No. 10 (1978), pp. 785-797...Shift Work: Biological and Social Aspects, eds. A. Reinberg, N. Vieux , and P. Andlauer (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), p. 171. 62 Andris Freivalds

  19. Ford and Edison in a modern regulatory environment: the first-in-human trial of night-work and artificial light.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C; Shaw, David M; Wild, Ursula; Groß, J Valérie

    2017-01-01

    A thought experiment places Henry Ford and Thomas Alva Edison in a modern regulatory environment. In a utopian occupational world devoid of night-shifts or artificial light, Ford wants to experiment with "working through the night". To support Ford's project, Edison offers his patented electric lamps to "turn nights into days". An ethics committee [EC] does not approve the night-work experiment and Utopia's Food and Drug Administration [FDA] does not approve the potential medical device as safe for use by humans. According to the EC and FDA, complex effects on circadian biology and thus safety of work and light at night are not understood. The thought experiment conveys that we should pay more attention to possible risks of work and light at chronobiologically unusual times.

  20. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  1. Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin

  2. The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe

    1975-01-01

    State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

  3. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human

  4. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  5. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  6. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti

    2017-04-05

    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  7. 2010 National Observe the Moon Night!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

    2010-05-01

    We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

  8. Development of Temperature Patterns during Clear Nights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Karlsson, Maria; Bogren, Jörgen; Lindqvist, Sven

    1998-06-01

    This paper examines nocturnal air temperature structure development in complex terrain. Clear nights were studied in order to compare the cooling rate in different topographical areas with a variety of land cover. It was found that large variations in temperature developed over a very short time period after sunset and that in situ cooling was the dominant factor causing this in valleys and other wind-sheltered locations. Shelter can be provided both from valley sides and from nearby trees with the main effect being to reduce the vertical mixing.The nighttime increase in temperature difference between valley bottoms and nearby reference areas was interpreted to be due to cold airflows. This was also shown by the increasing lateral extension of cold air accumulating in valleys. This development was found only in open valley locations. Sheltered areas cooled at a much faster rate than exposed sites during early evening. Further cooling did not increase the lateral extension of cold air or result in larger temperature differences. This is attributed to lack of cold airflow. The rapid cooling was supported due to reduced mixing of warmer air from above. This hypothesis was further confirmed in this study by analysis of clear nights with low regional wind speed when it was found that sheltered locations differed significantly in temperature compared to wind-exposed areas.

  9. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  10. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  11. [Influence of work intensity on development of arterial hypertension in metal-mining workers].

    PubMed

    Ustinova, O Iu; Alekseev, V B; Rumiantseva, A N; Orehova, Ia V

    2013-01-01

    The article covers data on influence of working shifts duration and shift work intensity on cardiovascular system functioning in operators of mining excavators. Findings are that 8 hours shift with regular shift schedule (40 working hours per week) gives significant load on cardiovascular system of workers engaged into underground activities. 50% of mining excavator operators following this working schedule develop transitory arterial hypertension within 10 years. Longer work shift over 8 hours and more intensive shifting schedule over 40 hours per week causes stable arterial hypertension within 3 months in 60% of workers, in 10% of cases associated with lower functioning of sinus node.

  12. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  13. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  14. Night Shift: Ideas and Strategies for Homework. Pathfinder 20. A CILT Series for Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, David; Short, Mike

    A variety of ideas and strategies for homework assignments that can be stimulating and useful to second language learners are presented. Underlying principles are that homework can: give control; develop confidence; promote creativity; support differentiation by task and outcome; encourage pupil independence; support parent-school communication;…

  15. Shifting from Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: Different Roles of Early- and Late-Night Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Bataghva, Zhamak; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote the generation of explicit knowledge as indicated by the gain of insight into previously unrecognized task regularities. Here, we explored whether this generation of explicit knowledge depends on pre-sleep implicit knowledge, and specified the differential roles of slow-wave sleep (SWS) vs. rapid eye movement (REM)…

  16. Night shift: expansion of temporal niche use following reductions in predator density.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Douglas J; Hoffmann, Eva; Young, Hillary S; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-01-01

    Predation shapes many fundamental aspects of ecology. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether predators can influence patterns of temporal niche construction at ecologically relevant timescales. Partitioning of time is an important mechanism by which prey avoid interactions with predators. However, the traits that control a prey organism's capacity to operate during a particular portion of the diel cycle are diverse and complex. Thus, diel prey niches are often assumed to be relatively unlikely to respond to changes in predation risk at short timescales. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We report results that suggest that the anthropogenic depletion of daytime active predators (species that are either diurnal or cathemeral) in a coral reef ecosystem is associated with rapid temporal niche expansions in a multi-species assemblage of nocturnal prey fishes. Diurnal comparisons of nocturnal prey fish abundance in predator rich and predator depleted reefs at two atolls revealed that nocturnal fish were approximately six (biomass) and eight (density) times more common during the day on predator depleted reefs. Amongst these, the prey species that likely were the most specialized for nocturnal living, and thus the most vulnerable to predation (i.e. those with greatest eye size to body length ratio), showed the strongest diurnal increases at sites where daytime active predators were rare. While we were unable to determine whether these observed increases in diurnal abundance by nocturnal prey were the result of a numerical or behavioral response, either effect could be ecologically significant. These results raise the possibility that predation may play an important role in regulating the partitioning of time by prey and that anthropogenic depletions of predators may be capable of causing rapid changes to key properties of temporal community architecture.

  17. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Inês; Teixeira, Fátima; dos Santos, José Moutinho; Ferreira, António Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Avaliar a privação do sono e seus efeitos sobre os jovens médicos relativamente à capacidade de concentração e desempenho psicomotor. Material e Métodos: Dezoito médicos, com idades entre 26 - 33 anos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo sem privação de sono (sem trabalho nocturno) e grupo com privação de sono (no mínimo 12 horas de trabalho nocturno / semana). Aplicámos o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh para rastrear a presença de patologia do sono e a Escala de Sonolência Epworth para avaliar subjectivamente a sonolência diurna; usamos actigrafia e o diário de sono para avaliar a higiene do sono e os ciclos de sono-vigília. Para demonstrar os efeitos da privação do sono, foi aplicado o teste de Toulouse-Piéron (teste de concentração) e uma bateria de trêstestes de tempo de reação após o período de trabalho nocturno. Resultados: O grupo com privação de sono apresentou maior sonolência diurna na Escala de Sonolência Epworth (p < 0,05) e durante a semana a privação de sono foi maior (p < 0,010). A duração média do sono durante o período de trabalho nocturno foi de 184,2 minutos para o grupo com privação de sono e 397,7 minutos para grupo sem privação de sono (p < 0,001). No teste Toulouse-Piéron o grupo com privação de sono apresentou maior número de omissões (p < 0,05) com um pior resultado no índice de concentração (p < 0,05). Os testes psicomotores que avaliaram a resposta a estímulos simples revelaram maior latência na resposta (p < 0,05) e mais erros (p < 0,05) no grupo com privação de sono; no teste de reacção a instrução o e grupo com privação de sono apresentou pior índice de perfeição (p < 0,05); no teste de movimentos finos não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Discussão: A privação de sono aguda resultante do trabalho nocturno em profissões médicas está associada a uma diminuição da atenção e concentração e no atraso de resposta a estímulos. Isto pode comprometer o atendimento ao paciente, bem como a saúde e a qualidade de vida do próprio médico. Conclusão: Ã essencial estudar os efeitos da privação aguda de sono sobre a capacidade cognitiva e de desempenho dos profissionais de saúde.

  18. Using Controlled Daylight Exposure and Sleep Timing in the Prevention of Shift Lag During Night Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Aanonsen, 1964; Angersbach et al., 1980). As a group, shiftworkers generally experience degraded sleep quality, increased fatigue levels, and lapses in...Sleep and Alertness: chronobioloaical. behavioral, and medical aspects of napping. New York, NY: Raven Press. Angersbach , D., Knauth, P., Loskant

  19. Immunological and respiratory changes in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Kanceljak, B

    1981-01-01

    Immunological status and respiratory function were studied in a group of 45 coffee workers. Skin tests with coffee allergens demonstrated the highest percentage of positive reactions to dust collected during emptying bags (40.0%), followed by dust of green (12%) and then roasted coffee (8.9%). Among 34 skin-tested control workers, 14.7% had positive skin reaction to dust collected during emptying bags, but none had positive skin reaction to green or roasted coffee. Serum levels of total IgE were increased in 24.4% of coffee workers and in 5.9% of control subjects. The prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee workers than in control subjects. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergen had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough (63.6%) and chronic phlegm (72.7%) than those with negative skin tests (32.4% and 23.5% respectively). There was a significant mean decrease over the Monday work shift in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50: -7.9%) and at 25% vital capacity (MEF25: -17.8%), suggesting an obstructive effect mostly in smaller airways. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergens had larger acute reductions in flow rates than those with negative skin tests but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:7292386

  20. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  1. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kelly C.; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; O’Reardon, John P.; Geliebter, Allan; Gluck, Marci E.; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Mitchell, James E.; Schenck, Carlos H.; Howell, Michael J.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott; Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Mahowald, Mark W.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose criteria for diagnosis of the night eating syndrome (NES). Method An international research meeting was held in April 2008, and consensus criteria for NES diagnosis were determined. Results The core criterion is an abnormally increased food intake in the evening and nighttime, manifested by (1) consumption of at least 25% of intake after the evening meal, and/or (2) nocturnal awakenings with ingestions at least twice per week. Awareness of the eating episodes is required, as is distress or impairment in functioning. Three of five modifiers must also be endorsed. These criteria must be met for a minimum duration of 3 months. Discussion These criteria help standardize the definition of NES. Additional aspects of the nosology of NES yet to be fully elaborated include its relationship to other eating and sleep disorders. Assessment and analytic tools are needed to assess these new criteria more accurately. PMID:19378289

  2. Visual evoked potentials through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-04-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) have widespread use in military and civilian environments. NVG's amplify ambient illumination making performance possible when there is insufficient illumination for normal vision. While visual performance through NVG's is commonly assessed by measuring threshold functions such as visual acuity, few attempts have been made to assess vision through NVG's at suprathreshold levels of stimulation. Such information would be useful to better understand vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus conditions. In this study visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were used to evaluate vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus contrasts. The amplitude and latency of the VEP varied linearly with log contrast. A comparison of VEP's recorded with and without NVG's was used to estimate contrast attenuation through the device. VEP's offer an objective, electrophysiological tool to assess visual performance through NVG's at both threshold and suprathreshold levels of visual stimulation.

  3. Flicker detection through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-02-01

    Visual performance through night vision goggles (NVG's) is commonly assessed with letter charts or other static displays. Few attempts have been made to evaluate dynamic aspects of vision through NVG's. Such information may be used to better predict human performance and guide the development of improved devices. In this study, contrast thresholds for detection of flickering targets were measured through NVG's across a range of ambient conditions. A comparison of measurements with and without NVG's indicated that flicker detection is limited by the contrast and luminance of the NVG display. The contrast limitation is largely independent of stimulus flicker frequency. Increasing the transfer of static contrast and/or luminance through NVG's will also improve dynamic visual performance.

  4. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  5. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  6. [Optimizing visual work of pilot wearing night vision glasses].

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V; Golosov, S Iu; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Riabinin, V A

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with results of experimental studies on optimizing visual work conditions of pilot in night vision glasses. Prevention of visual fatigue during work in night vision glasses was proved to be contributed mostly by the image brightness (in range of 0.7-1.8 candle/m2) adjustable by the pilot, precise individual settings of optic system in night vision glasses (by viewer's eye base) and regulation of the work duration.

  7. Evaluation of respiratory system in textile-dyeing workers

    PubMed Central

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mojahede; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Rahimian, Masoud; Ghove Nodoushan, Mohamad ali; Jafari Nodoushan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the presence of many textile and dyeing plants in Iran, we couldn’t find similar studies in this country. Forthermore, considering progress in the dyeing process and engineering controls, assessment of respiratory system is important for these workers. The present study was performed to evaluate the respiratory system in dyeing workers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 101 dyeing workers (all dyeing workers in yazd) and 90 workers without respiratory exposures (control group), were evaluated. A questionnaire was filled for each participant included Venables questionnaire and some other questions about age, work experience, personal or familial history of asthma or atopy, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms; Then spirometry was performed before and after the shift work Results: The frequency of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher among dyeing workers than controls. According to the Venables questionnaire, 11.9% of the dyeing workers suffered from asthma. Means of FVC and FEV1 of pre-shift spirometry were lower than control (p< 0.001). Across-shift spirometry showed significant reduction of FVC (p< 0.001), FEV1 (p< 0.001), FEF25-75% (p= 0.05) and FEF25% (p= 0.007) in dyeing workers compared to the control group. Conclusion: Evaluation of dyeing workers’ respiratory system in this study showed that despite development in dyeing processes and engineering controls, workers in this job show more prevalent acute and chronic symptoms, and across-shift changes in spirometric parameters were significantly higher in this work group than the control group. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the control of respiratory exposures in this job. PMID:25664289

  8. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  9. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  10. Light-at-night-induced circadian disruption, cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Vinogradova, Irina A; Panchenko, Andrei V; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that "shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis

  11. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  12. Shining a Light on Task-Shifting Policy

    PubMed Central

    Katende, Godfrey; Donnelly, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In terms of disease burden, many low- and middle-income countries are currently experiencing a transition from infectious to chronic diseases. In Uganda, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have increased significantly in recent years; this challenge is compounded by the healthcare worker shortage and the underfunded health system administration. Addressing the growing prevalence of NCDs requires evidence-based policies and strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality rates; however, the integration and evaluation of new policies and processes pose many challenges. Task-shifting is the process whereby specific tasks are transferred to health workers with less training and fewer qualifications. Successful implementation of a task-shifting policy requires appropriate skill training, clearly defined roles, adequate evaluation, an enhanced training capacity and sufficient health worker incentives. This article focuses on task-shifting policy as a potentially effective strategy to address the growing burden of NCDs on the Ugandan healthcare system. PMID:27226906

  13. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-01-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  14. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P; Kecklund, Göran; Almansa, Josue; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2016-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results.

  15. The impact of changing night vision goggle spectral response on night vision imaging system lighting compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Harry L.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2004-09-01

    The defining document outlining night-vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting, MIL-L-85762A, was written in the mid 1980's, based on what was then the state of the art in night vision and image intensification. Since that time there have been changes in the photocathode sensitivity and the minus-blue coatings applied to the objective lenses. Specifically, many aviation night-vision goggles (NVGs) in the Air Force are equipped with so-called "leaky green" or Class C type objective lens coatings that provide a small amount of transmission around 545 nanometers so that the displays that use a P-43 phosphor can be seen through the NVGs. However, current NVIS compatibility requirements documents have not been updated to include these changes. Documents that followed and replaced MIL-L-85762A (ASC/ENFC-96-01 and MIL-STD-3009) addressed aspects of then current NVIS technology, but did little to change the actual content or NVIS radiance requirements set forth in the original MIL-L-85762A. This paper examines the impact of spectral response changes, introduced by changes in image tube parameters and objective lens minus-blue filters, on NVIS compatibility and NVIS radiance calculations. Possible impact on NVIS lighting requirements is also discussed. In addition, arguments are presented for revisiting NVIS radiometric unit conventions.

  16. Circadian rhythms of European and African-Americans after a large delay of sleep as in jet lag and night work

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Charmane I.; Tomaka, Victoria A.; Crowley, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Jet travel and night shift work produce large changes in when people sleep, work and eat; a challenge that was not encountered during most of our evolution. Successful adaptation would require the internal, master, circadian clock to make large phase shifts to reduce the circadian misalignment between circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work and meals. We compared African-Americans and non-Hispanic European-Americans in how much their circadian clocks shifted after a 9 hour phase delay of the light/dark, sleep/wake and meal schedule, which has similarities to flying west or sleeping in the daytime after night shifts. We also measured their free-running circadian periods using a forced desynchrony protocol with a 5-h day. European-Americans had longer free-running periods and larger phase delays than African-Americans. Correlations (among all subjects, just African-Americans and just European-Americans) showed that longer circadian periods were associated with larger phase delays. Larger phase delays, facilitated by longer circadian periods, reduce jet lag after westward travel and make it easier to work night shifts and sleep during the daytime after night work. On the other hand, a shorter circadian period, which makes one more of a morning-type person, is better for most people given our early-bird dominated society. PMID:27819313

  17. Gear shift control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, D.A.

    1987-03-10

    A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  19. Mortality among rubber workers: V. processing workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1982-07-01

    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.

  20. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  1. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  2. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  3. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  4. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  5. Drax's Reading in Neverwinter Nights: With a Tutor as Henchman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This is an account of what a teacher educator learned from using the video game Neverwinter Nights with Drax, a high school student whose reading is like that of an elementary school student. Neverwinter Nights is a role-playing adventure game that requires reading print along with other meaningful signs such as sounds, artefacts, color, maps,…

  6. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  7. Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

  8. Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

  9. Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

    2009-01-01

    For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

  10. Night Vision Goggles in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    corrected with certain types of bifocal spectacles that compensate for the inadequate accommodative power of the eye lenses . Niqht Myopia. Myopic...5 1.1. 6 Dark Adaptation ..................... ............. 7 1.1.7 Night Vision Protection ...night flight. Special corrective lenses can be prescribed to correct for myopia. Astiqmatism. Astigmatism is an irregularity of the shape of the cornea

  11. HMD digital night vision system for fixed wing fighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bobby D.

    2013-05-01

    Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.

  12. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  13. Objectively measured night-to-night sleep variations are associated with body composition in very elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between objectively measured sleep patterns and body composition in very elderly community-dwelling women. Participants included 191 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 years (mean age: 83.4 ± 2.6 years; age range: 80-92 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored via accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) during at least five consecutive 24-h periods. Night-to-night sleep pattern variability across all nights of recording was assessed using standard deviations (SDs). Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. The mean number of nights with usable actigraphy data was 7.3 ± 1.3. On average, participants went to bed at 22:57 hours (SD: 1.11 h) and rose from bed at 6:27 hours (SD: 1.01 h). Night-to-night bedtime, sleep duration and sleep timing mid-point variations correlated slightly with the percentage body fat and percentage lean mass (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of night-to-night bedtime variations and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns with all body composition indices after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including mean nightly sleep duration, self-reported nap duration and daily physical activity. After further adjusting for night-to-night wake time, sleep timing mid-point and sleep duration variations, greater bedtime variability remained associated significantly with all body composition indices except lean/fat mass ratio. Inconsistent sleep-wake patterns were associated independently with an increased fat mass and decreased lean mass among very elderly women. These findings suggest that in most elderly individuals, sleep patterns might be an important modifiable factor associated with obesity and sarcopenia development.

  14. {GUVI} Observations of Night Time Ionospheric Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C. M.; Christensen, A. B.; Walterscheid, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Meng, C. I.; Craven, J. D.; Meier, R. R.; Strickland, D. J.; Crowley, G.

    2002-05-01

    The TIMED spacecraft is currently mapping the nighttime Earth disk and limb with the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI). Images are made in the OI 135.6 nm line which is excited by the recombination of O+ ions. The intensity in these disk images is related to the total electron content of the ionosphere and density profiles can be recovered from the limb scans. Prominent in these images are UV signatures of the Equatorial Anomaly that was first imaged by the DE-1 satellite. Data is currently available from essentially the same local time and is suitable for the study of the longitudinal dependence of the Anomalies. It is known that the Earth's ionosphere shows the occurrence large longitudinal and latitudinal variations in the F-region plasma density that change with season and solar cycle. These plasma density fluctuations occur over a very large range of scale sizes and have been observed by for about three decades by satellites [e.g., ISIS 2, ESRO-4, Atmosphere Explorers, Dynamics Explorer-2, San Marco II, DMSP, etc.]. Their morphology, origin, day-to-day variability, and predictability are still not well understood. The GUVI night data that gives insight into these largest scale structures will be discussed.

  15. What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

  16. Night eating syndrome : diagnosis, epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    O'Reardon, John P; Peshek, Andrew; Allison, Kelly C

    2005-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. The core clinical feature appears to be a delay in the circadian timing of food intake. Energy intake is reduced in the first half of the day and greatly increased in the second half, such that sleep is disrupted in the service of food intake. The syndrome can be distinguished from bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder by the lack of associated compensatory behaviours, the timing of food intake and the fact that the food ingestions are small, amounting to repeated snacks rather than true binges. NES also differs from sleep-related eating disorder by the presence of full awareness, as opposed to parasomnic nocturnal ingestions. NES is of importance clinically because of its association with obesity. Its prevalence rises with increasing weight, and about half of those diagnosed with it report a normal weight status before the onset of the syndrome. The recognition and effective treatment of NES may be an increasingly important way to treat a subset of the obese population. Treatment of the syndrome, however, is still in its infancy. One clinical trial has reported efficacy with the SSRI sertraline. Other treatments, such as the anticonvulsant topiramate, phototherapy and other SSRIs, may also offer future promise.

  17. Spatial navigation using night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Michelle; Parush, Avi; Macuda, Todd; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

    2006-05-01

    While anecdotal reports suggest that Night Vision Goggles influence spatial navigation and wayfinding (Braithwaite, Douglass, Durnford, and Lucas, 1998), few studies have systematically characterized the nature of these effects. To address this issue, the current study examined the impact of NVGs on navigation and wayfinding performance. One group of participants were required to navigate a walking maze and retrieve target objects while wearing NVGs (experimental condition), while a second control group navigated the maze without NVGs. We measured several performance metrics of navigation and wayfinding. Our results show that navigation and wayfinding with NVGs (experimental group) appeared to be harder, with longer navigation durations and more navigational errors compared to not using NVGs (control group). However, a significant decrease in navigation duration over the course of the wayfinding trials occurred earlier with NVGs, in addition to significant decreases in navigational steps compared to the control group. These results support the notion that NVGs directly affect spatial navigation and wayfinding performance. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning and NVG training programs. Further research is necessary to expand our understanding of the impact of NVGs on spatial cognition.

  18. Night vision imaging system lighting evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.; Barbato, Maryann H.; Hausmann, Martha A.

    2005-05-01

    In order for night vision goggles (NVGs) to be effective in aircraft operations, it is necessary for the cockpit lighting and displays to be NVG compatible. It has been assumed that the cockpit lighting is compatible with NVGs if the radiance values are compliant with the limits listed in Mil-L-85762A and Mil-Std-3009. However, these documents also describe a NVG-lighting compatibility field test procedure that is based on visual acuity. The objective of the study described in this paper was to determine how reliable and precise the visual acuity-based (VAB) field evaluation method is and compare it to a VAB method that employs less expensive equipment. In addition, an alternative, objective method of evaluating compatibility of the cockpit lighting was investigated. An inexpensive cockpit lighting simulator was devised to investigate two different interference conditions and six different radiance levels per condition. This paper describes the results, which indicate the objective method, based on light output of the NVGs, is more precise and reliable than the visual acuity-based method. Precision and reliability were assessed based on a probability of rejection (of the lighting system) function approach that was developed specifically for this study.

  19. Visualization on the Day Night Year Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Vušković, Leposava; Popović, Svetozar; Popović, Jelena; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    The story about a properly oriented outdoor globe in the hands and minds of Eratosthenes, Jefferson, Milanković and science educators is presented. Having the same orientation in space as the Earth, the Day Night Year Globe (DING) shows in real time the pattern of illumination of the Earth’s surface and its diurnal and seasonal variations. It is an ideal object for the visualization of knowledge and increase in knowledge about: the form of the Earth, Earth’s rotation, Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the length of seasons, solstices, equinoxes, the longitude problem, the distribution of the Sun’s radiation over the Earth, the impact of this radiation on Earth’s climate, and how to use it efficiently. By attaching a movable vane to the poles, or adding pins around the equator to read time, DING becomes a spherical/globe-shaped sundial. So, the DING is simultaneously useful for teaching physics, geophysics, astronomy, use of solar energy and promoting an inquiry-based learning environment for students and the public.

  20. Psychophysical measurement of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Rachael L.; Marasco, Peter L.; Havig, Paul R.; Martinsen, Gary L.; Reis, George A.; Heft, Eric L.

    2003-09-01

    Pilots, developers, and other users of night-vision goggles (NVGs) have pointed out that different NVG image intensifier tubes have different subjective noise characteristics. Currently, no good model of the visual impact of NVG noise exists. Because it is very difficult to objectively measure the noise of a NVG, a method for assessing noise subjectively using simple psychophysical procedures was developed. This paper discusses the use of a computer program to generate noise images similar to what an observer sees through an NVG, based on filtered white noise. The images generated were based on 1/f (where f is frequency) filtered white noise with several adjustable parameters. Adjusting each of these parameters varied different characteristics of the noise. This paper discusses a study where observers compared the computer-generated noise images to true NVG noise and were asked to determine which computer-generated image was the best representation of the true noise. This method was repeated with different types of NVGs and at different luminance levels to study what NVG parameters cause variations in NVG noise.

  1. Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

  2. The Ecological Implications of Light at Night (LAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.Introduction: A casual glance at NASA images of the Earth at night1 reveals the lights of thousands of cities. The larger cities will contain millions of street lights, along with commercial, sports and decorative lighting. Most of these lights are on all night, every night, three hundred and sixty-five nights a year, (fig 1), so they must be having a measurable ecological and environmental effect. The most obvious effect of all this excessive lighting is the light pollution suffered by astronomers.

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  4. Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Christian; Michel, Ulrich; Randler, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    External zeitgebers synchronize the human circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Humans adapt their chronotype to the day-night cycle, the strongest external zeitgeber. The human circadian rhythm shifts to evening-type orientation when daylight is prolonged into the evening and night hours by artificial light sources. Data from a survey of 1507 German adolescents covering questions about chronotype and electronic screen media use combined with nocturnal satellite image data suggest a relationship between chronotype and artificial nocturnal light. Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. This result persisted when controlling for time use of electronic screen media, intake of stimulants, type of school, age, puberty status, time of sunrise, sex, and population density. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise. Adequate urban development design and parents limiting adolescents' electronic screen media use in the evening could help to adjust adolescents' zeitgeber to early school schedules when they provide appropriate lighting conditions for daytime and for nighttime.

  5. The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Navara, Kristen J; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result.

  6. The Adolescent Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; And Others

    The Adolescent Worker Study was designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the job experiences and related life histories of out-of-school working youth. To do this, a team of investigators first identified work sites across a range of industrial sectors that were currently engaged in hiring young workers between the ages of 17 and 21. Then, the…

  7. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  8. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  9. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  10. Workers' Education in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  11. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  12. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  13. Channel at Night in Thermal Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime thermal infrared image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows differences in temperature that are due to differences in the abundance of rocks, sand and dust on the surface. Rocks remain warm at night, as seen in the warm (bright) rim of the five kilometer (three mile) diameter crater located on the right of this image.

    The sinuous channel floor is cold, suggesting that it is covered by material that is more finely grained than the surrounding plains. The interior of the crater shows a great deal of thermal structure, indicating that the distribution of rocks, sand and dust varies across the floor.

    The presence of rocks on the rim and inner wall indicates that this crater maintains some of its original character, despite erosion and deposition by Martian winds. Nighttime infrared images such as this one will greatly aid in mapping the physical properties of Mars' surface.

    This image is centered at 2 degrees north, 0.4 degrees west, and was acquired at about 3:15 a.m. local Martian time. North is to the right of the image.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    PubMed

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work.

  15. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  16. Workplace bullying among healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-07-24

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  17. Lymphoedema management at night: views from patients across five countries.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Justine C

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a comprehensive insight into the use of night-time compression in the management of lymphoedema in patients who had been suffering from chronic lymphoedema for over 12 months. Data were collected and analysed from 94 patients, across five countries. Understanding user characteristics provided insight and understanding into how night-time compression regimens were initiated, products were used and benefits to the patient were reported. In addition to gaining an insight into user habits and night-time compression benefits, unmet needs were also identified. Positive outcomes from the use of night-time compression were reported, with all patients identifying benefits of using night-time compression. An increase in swelling was documented in 89% of all patients in this study group when night-time compression was not used. The study provided an opportunity to explore how lymphoedema affects patients, and how night-time compression can form part of a beneficial regime.

  18. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  19. Hands-free focus night vision technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute is currently developing a device to demonstrate a hands-free focus technology for head-mounted night vision sensors. The demonstrator device will integrate a computational imaging technique that increases depth of field with a digital night vision sensor. The goal of the demonstrator is to serve as a test bed for evaluating the critical performance/operational parameters necessary for the hands-free focus technology to support future tactical night vision concepts of operation. This paper will provide an overview of the technology studies and design analyses that have been performed to date as well as the current state of the demonstrator design.

  20. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  1. Error correction maintains post-error adjustments after one night of total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shulan; Tsai, Cheng-Yin; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2009-06-01

    Previous behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence indicates that one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs error monitoring, including error detection, error correction, and posterror adjustments (PEAs). This study examined the hypothesis that error correction, manifesting as an overtly expressed self-generated performance feedback to errors, can effectively prevent TSD-induced impairment in the PEAs. Sixteen healthy right-handed adults (seven women and nine men) aged 19-23 years were instructed to respond to a target arrow flanked by four distracted arrows and to correct their errors immediately after committing errors. Task performance and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected after normal sleep (NS) and after one night of TSD in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design. With the demand of error correction, the participants maintained the same level of PEAs in reducing the error rate for trial N + 1 after TSD as after NS. Corrective behavior further affected the PEAs for trial N + 1 in the omission rate and response speed, which decreased and speeded up following corrected errors, particularly after TSD. These results show that error correction effectively maintains posterror reduction in both committed and omitted errors after TSD. A cerebral mechanism might be involved in the effect of error correction as EEG beta (17-24 Hz) activity was increased after erroneous responses compared to after correct responses. The practical application of error correction to increasing work safety, which can be jeopardized by repeated errors, is suggested for workers who are involved in monotonous but attention-demanding monitoring tasks.

  2. [The effect of wood dust on the respiratory system. Medical examination of furniture factory workers].

    PubMed

    Milanowski, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, G; Cholewa, G; Sitkowska, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Fafrowicz

    1996-01-01

    The medical-environmental questionnaire, physical examination and pre-shift and post-shift spirometry have been performed in 48 furniture factory workers. The workers showed the work-related symptoms: cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, general malaise, skin symptoms, eye symptoms, rhinitis. No relationship was found between the spirometry values and the frequency of the symptoms. The exposed workers showed a significant post-shift reduction of the FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC and PEF (p < 0.001). The higher drops of the spirometric parameters occurred in younger workers. The presented data show that processing of wood may be associated with the work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases in exposed workers.

  3. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  4. Health care workers.

    PubMed

    Udasin, I G

    2000-12-01

    More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.

  5. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building.

  6. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  7. Firefighters' Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work.

    PubMed

    Chappel, Stephanie E; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2016-09-30

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters' physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters' activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time.

  8. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  9. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  10. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  11. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  12. Liquid crystal modulated optical amplifier for night vision imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenov, Alexander; Xia, X. Winston; Tengara, Indra; Win, Tin; Holmstedt, Jason; Rakuljic, Neven; Aye, Tin M.; Swinney, Mathew W.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2008-08-01

    Image intensifier tubes, as part of night vision devices, have been the primary devices for the detection and amplification of near infrared light for night vision operations. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel all-optical night vision amplifier device with a potential to replace the image intensifier tube in night vision goggles. This image amplifier is based on a novel structure of semiconductor and spectrally tunable liquid crystal (LC) materials within a thin cell. The LC reacts to near-infrared (NIR) radiation but is unaffected by visible light, allowing see-through capability including visible-wavelength cockpit light. The technology is made very attractive by its high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and contrast without expensive, bulky, and heavy optics or high-voltage components.

  13. Effects of street traffic noise in the night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.

  14. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  15. 5. Aurora Borealis Pass over the United States at Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video of the United States at night and the Aurora Borealis was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken September 29, 2011...

  16. Sleepless Nights Linked to Asthma Later in Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163394.html Sleepless Nights Linked to Asthma Later in Life Adults with chronic insomnia 3 ... HealthDay News) -- Insomnia may increase adults' risk of asthma, a new study suggests. People with chronic sleep ...

  17. Simultaneous prepubertal onset of panic disorder, night terrors, and somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Garland, E J; Smith, D H

    1991-07-01

    Concurrent acute onset of night terrors, somnambulism, and spontaneous daytime panic attacks meeting the criteria for panic disorder is reported in a 10-year-old boy with a family history of panic disorder. Both the parasomnias and the panic disorder were fully responsive to therapeutic doses of imipramine. A second case of night terrors and infrequent full symptom panic attacks is noted in another 10-year-old boy whose mother has panic disorder with agoraphobia. The clinical resemblance and reported differences between night terrors and panic attacks are described. The absence of previous reports of this comorbidity is notable. It is hypothesized that night terror disorder and panic disorder involve a similar constitutional vulnerability to dysregulation of brainstem altering systems.

  18. Night vision goggles resolution performance at low contrast levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrom, Lars

    1993-01-01

    NVG (Night Vision Goggle) resolution performance data is usually given as measured against high contrast, black and white, targets. When NVGs are used as night vision aids for visual night flight, the scene viewed by the pilot is in most cases dominated by low contrast. Therefore, NVG performance at low contrast levels is more relevant to the piloting task than NVG resolution at high contrast levels. A set of resolution targets with different contrast levels was designed and ground tests performed at various light levels outdoors at night. The results showed a marked loss of resolution at lower contrast levels. The presentation will describe the test method, give the results and discuss how the results may be explained. A method for using the test results as the basis for correlating piloting performance to light levels will be presented.

  19. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

  20. 78 FR 32464 - Amantea Nonwovens, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., Cincinnati, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of nonwoven diaper... shift in the production of nonwoven diaper components to China. Based on these findings, the...

  1. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  2. Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, S.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. Methods At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Results Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel, and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Conclusions Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk. PMID:19437315

  3. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Visser, Marcel E; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major) with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.

  4. More Dreams in Longer Night: United States China Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT MORE DREAMS IN LONGER NIGHT: UNITED STATES CHINA POLICY by Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon United States Air Force...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Dreams in Longer Night United States China... UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle,PA,17013-5050 8. PERFORMING

  5. Range gated active night vision system for automobiles.

    PubMed

    David, Ofer; Kopeika, Norman S; Weizer, Boaz

    2006-10-01

    Night vision for automobiles is an emerging safety feature that is being introduced for automotive safety. We develop what we believe is an innovative new night vision system using gated imaging principles. The concept of gated imaging is described and its basic advantages, including the backscatter reduction mechanism for improved vision through fog, rain, and snow. Evaluation of performance is presented by analyzing bar pattern modulation and comparing Johnson chart predictions.

  6. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major) with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night. PMID:27355354

  7. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  8. Icelandic herring-eating killer whales feed at night.

    PubMed

    Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.

  9. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec‑2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  10. Night-time symptoms: a forgotten dimension of COPD.

    PubMed

    Agusti, A; Hedner, J; Marin, J M; Barbé, F; Cazzola, M; Rennard, S

    2011-09-01

    Sleep quality is often poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these night-time symptoms are frequently unnoticed by physicians and/or not reported by patients themselves. Therefore, the prevalence and clinical impact of sleep disturbances and night-time symptoms in COPD is not well understood and has not been a clinical focus to date. To address this gap, an expert panel meeting was convened in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2011 to discuss the aetiology, evolution, burden, long-term clinical consequences and optimal management of night-time symptoms in COPD. The term "night-time symptoms" in COPD has not been distinctly defined in an objective sense but epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence of nocturnal symptoms and symptomatic sleep disturbance may exceed 75% in patients with COPD. The panel concluded that night-time symptoms in COPD are prevalent and bothersome; that their cause(s) are multiple and include demographic factors, such as age and obesity, pharmacotherapy, disease-specific symptoms and the presence of comorbid sleep disorders, and other medical conditions; and that potential long-term consequences can include lung function changes, increased exacerbation frequency, emergence or worsening of cardiovascular disease, cognitive effects, depression, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. To date, few interventional studies have investigated them, but emerging data suggest that bronchodilator therapy can improve them if deployed appropriately. In summary, night-time symptoms in COPD warrant further clinical investigation with validated tools.

  11. [Polysystemic assessment of the state of sanogenesis in workers employed in nuclear fuel plants. The analysis of metabolism regulation processes].

    PubMed

    Karganov, M Iu; Kovaleva, O I; Khlebnikova, N N; Dmitrieva, O S; Saenko, S A; Dovgusha, L V; Landa, S B

    2004-01-01

    Using the method of laser correlation spectroscopy of biological fluids (blood serum, urine, oropharyngeal washout fluid) we studied the types of metabolic shifts in workers employed in nuclear fuel complex plant. In was found that the incidence of catabolic shifts considerably increased in workers with higher level of occupational exposure. In individuals contacting with open radiation sources we found the contribution of anabolic immunomodifying shifts with predominance of autoimmune sensibilization. A risk group for blood diseases was identified.

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  13. 75 FR 10319 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... become totally or partially separated; (2) The sales or production, or both, of such firm have decreased... importantly to such workers' separation or threat of separation and to the decline in the sales or production...: (A) There has been a shift by the workers' firm to a foreign country in the production of articles...

  14. 76 FR 43350 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... firm or subdivision have decreased absolutely; and C. Increased imports of articles like or directly competitive with articles produced by such firm or subdivision have contributed importantly to such workers... a shift in production by such workers' firm or subdivision to a foreign country of articles like...

  15. English as a Second Language for the Workplace. Worker Education Program. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula; Keresztes-Nagy, Susan

    The guide outlines the curriculum designed for a workplace literacy program for about 500 members of a clothing and textile workers union in the Chicago (Illinois) area. The program is intended to prepare workers for the challenges of work in an environment of constantly changing demographics, new technology, and shifting global economy. An…

  16. Effect of carbohydrates and night temperature on night respiration in rice.

    PubMed

    Peraudeau, Sébastien; Lafarge, Tanguy; Roques, Sandrine; Quiñones, Cherryl O; Clement-Vidal, Anne; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Van Rie, Jeroen; Fabre, Denis; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Global warming causes night temperature (NT) to increase faster than day temperature in the tropics. According to crop growth models, respiration incurs a loss of 40-60% of photosynthate. The thermal sensitivity of night respiration (R(n)) will thus reduce biomass. Instantaneous and acclimated effects of NT on R(n) of leaves and seedlings of two rice cultivars having a variable level of carbohydrates, induced by exposure to different light intensity on the previous day, were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and growth chambers, with R(n) measured on the youngest fully expanded leaves or whole seedlings. Dry weight-based R(n) was 2.6-fold greater for seedlings than for leaves. Leaf R(n) was linearly related to starch (positive intercept) and soluble sugar concentration (zero intercept). Increased NT caused higher R(n) at a given carbohydrate concentration. The change of R(n) at NT increasing from 21 °C to 31 °C was 2.4-fold for the instantaneous response but 1.2- to 1.7-fold after acclimation. The maintenance component of R(n) (R(m)'), estimated by assimilate starvation, averaged 28% in seedlings and 34% in leaves, with no significant thermal effect on this ratio. The acclimated effect of increased NT on R(m)' across experiments was 1.5-fold for a 10 °C increase in NT. No cultivar differences were observed in R(n) or R(m)' responses. The results suggest that the commonly used Q10=2 rule overestimates thermal response of respiration, and R(n) largely depends on assimilate resources.

  17. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  18. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  19. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  20. Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Motohisa; Nishino, Masaki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth's magnetotail, Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids characterized the encounters. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. Similar night side ion/electron signatures were often observed at low altitude <~50km when Kaguya was in the magnetotail lobe. When Kaguya stayed in the hemisphere where lobe plasma convection direction was from lobe toward the night side of the Moon, MAP-PACE ion sensors found that the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon. The ExB drift motion by the dawn-to-dusk electric field facilitated the intrusion of the lobe cold ions. In addition, very cold ions flowing towards the Earth (towards the Moon) were observed in the opposite hemisphere. It was also found that the flow direction of the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon gradually changed from tailward to Earthward (Moonward) while slightly increasing their energy. Acceleration of the intruded cold ions by the electrostatic potential distributed on the night side of the Moon could explain the characteristics of the ions. The electron beams accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were also simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine both the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data.

  1. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Henneberger, P K; Martyny, J; Ellis, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers' clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers' hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 micrograms/ft2 on workers' hands and up to 714 micrograms/ft2 inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers' vehicles were found on the drivers' floor (GM = 19 micrograms/ft2, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  2. Instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Trumper, Isaac; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-11-28

    An instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry measurement method is presented and implemented by measuring a time varying deformable mirror with an iPhone ® 6. The instantaneous method is based on multiplexing phase shifted fringe patterns with color, and decomposing them in x and y using Fourier techniques. Along with experimental data showing the capabilities of the instantaneous deflectometry system, a quantitative comparison with the Fourier transform profilometry method, which is a distinct phase measuring method from the phase shifting approach, is presented. Sources of error, nonlinear color-multiplexing induced error correction, and hardware limitations are discussed.

  3. The research on projective visual system of night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shun-long

    2009-07-01

    Driven by the need for lightweight night vision goggles with good performance, we apply the projective lens into night vision goggles to act as visual system. A 40-deg FOV projection lens is provided. The useful diameter of the image intensifier is 16mm, and the Resolutions at Center and edge are both 60-lp/mm. The projection lens has a 28mm diameter and 20g weight. The maximum distortion of the system is less than 0.15%. The MTF maintained more than 0.6 at a 60-lp/mm resolution across the FOV. So the lens meets the requirements of the visual system. Besides, two types of projective visual system of night vision goggles are presented: the Direct-view projective visual system and the Seethrough projective visual system. And the See-through projective visual system enables us to observe the object with our eyes directly, without other action, when the environment becomes bright in a sudden. Finally we have reached a conclusion: The projective system has advantages over traditional eyepiece in night vision goggles. It is very useful to minish the volume, lighten the neck supports, and improve the imaging quality. It provides a new idea and concept for visual system design in night vision goggles.

  4. New device for monitoring the colors of the night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, Henk

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

  5. Sleepwalking and night terrors in adulthood clinical EEG findings.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, C R; Vela-Bueno, A; Bixler, E O; Schweitzer, P K; Kales, A

    1980-07-01

    This is the first controlled study to show a lack of relation between a positive history of sleepwalking or night terrors in adults and daytime EEG abnormalities. We recorded a standard clinical EEG on 35 adult sleepwalkers (SW), 35 adult night terror patients (NT), and 35 control subjects (CS). Three subjects in the SW group showed abnormalities: one during both the resting record (RR) and hyperventilation (HV), and two only during HV. None in the NT group showed any EEG abnormality. Two control subjects showed abnormalities of both RR and HV, and a third only during HV. The number of abnormal EEGs within each group was limited, and the three groups did not significantly differ from one another. Our results suggest that the daytime clinical EEG is of limited value in evaluating adults with the primary complaint of sleepwalking or night terrors. However, further all-night sleep EEG studies utilizing clinical montage are needed to investigate the temporal relationship of sleepwalking and night terror events to possible EEG abnormalities.

  6. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  7. Shift work, hCLOCK T3111C polymorphism, and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Jennifer L.; Holt, Victoria L.; Chen, Chu; Davis, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometriosis, a dysplastic disease affecting approximately 5-10% of U.S. reproductive-age women, has been linked in epidemiologic studies to exposures indicating high circulating estrogen levels. One such exposure may be night shift work, which has been associated with menstrual disruption and increased risk of two other estrogen-influenced diseases, breast cancer and adverse coronary events. Methods In this population-based case-control study, 235 health maintenance organization enrollees aged 18-49 first diagnosed with surgically-confirmed endometriotic disease between 4/1/1996 and 3/31/2001 were frequency-matched on age with 545 randomly selected female GH enrollees without history of endometriosis. Participants were asked about night shift work in all paid fulltime or part-time jobs worked from age 18 to the reference date. Genotypes for T3111C hClock were determined for a subset of 218 cases and 456 controls. Results Any night shift work was associated with a 50% increase in risk of endometriosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96, 2.29), and working more than half of shifts on a job at night was associated with a nearly doubled disease risk (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.01, 3.85.) Changing sleep patterns on days off was associated with further increases in disease risk. T3111C hClock polymorphism was unrelated to endometriosis status and did not modify the effect of shift work on endometriosis. Conclusions These findings suggest that some aspect of night shift work may influence the development of endometriosis. PMID:18379422

  8. Effects of Shift Work and Sustained Operations: Operator Performance in Remotely Piloted Aircraft (OP-REPAIR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    higher than the prevalence reported for shift workers in general (Czeisler et al., 2005; Drake, Roehrs , Richardson, Walsh, & Roth, 2004; Schorr, 2004... Roehrs , T., Richardson, G., Walsh, J.,K., & Roth, T. (2004). Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day

  9. Improved feedback shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.

    1972-01-01

    Design of feedback shift register with three tap feedback decoding scheme is described. Application for obtaining sequence synchronization patterns is examined. Operation of the circuitry is described and drawings of the systems are included.

  10. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  11. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  12. Shift Verification and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Tara M.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G; Johnson, Seth R.; Godfrey, Andrew T.

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  13. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  14. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  15. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  16. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  17. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

    2010-01-01

    Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

  19. Phase inversion of neural activity in the olfactory and visual systems of a night-migratory bird during migration.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Kumari, Yatinesh; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2011-07-01

    Olfactory and visual sensory mechanisms seem to play a critical role in migratory orientation and navigation. How these two mechanisms are functionally linked with other migratory processes is unknown. We investigated this, in relation to the profound behavioural shift that occurs during migration in the night-migratory blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala). Photosensitive unstimulated birds singly housed in activity cages were subjected to long days (LD 16/8). The activity of each bird was continuously monitored. Daily activity pattern defined the nonmigratory phase (no nocturnal activity) and migratory phase (intense nocturnal activity, Zugunruhe). Body mass and testis size were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Long days induced the migratory phenotype (body fattening and Zugunruhe) and testis maturation. The c-fos (Fos) immunoreactivity, as marker of the neural activity of the olfactory and visual subsystems, was measured at midday (8 h after lights-on) and midnight (4 h after lights-off) after the first seven long days (nonmigratory phase) and after seven nights of the Zugunruhe (migratory phase). In the nonmigratory phase, Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-lir) cells in the olfactory and visual subsystems were high in the day and low at night. In the migratory phase, this was reversed; Fos-lir cells were high at night and low in the day. The phase inversion of neural activity in the olfactory and visual systems in parallel with the behavioral shift suggests a functional coupling between the systems governing migratory flight (expressed as Zugunruhe) and migratory orientation and navigation.

  20. [Cholangiocarcinoma among printing workers].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    By June 2013, seventeen workers had suffered from intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) in an offset proof-printing company in Osaka and nine of the workers had died. Ages at diagnosis were 25 to 45 years old. Known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma were not found in the patients. All of the patients were exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane at high level for long-term and were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 7 to 20 years after the first exposure. Twelve of the patients were also exposed to dichloromethane. The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recognized the cancer to be an occupational disease.

  1. Rheumatism in Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J. S.; Molyneux, M. K.; Dingwall-Fordyce, Ianthe

    1966-01-01

    In order to investigate loss of work from rheumatic diseases in the metal trades, employees in 10 foundries were questioned. Of 325 foundry workers aged 35 to 74 years, who had worked for at least 10 years on the foundry floor, 299 were examined clinically and radiologically for evidence of rheumatic disease. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and dorsal and lumbar spine were taken as a routine, and the pelvis was included in those aged 45 and over. A comparison was made with a control series of radiographs, from men, matched for age, in a random population sample examined earlier in the town of Leigh. Rheumatic complaints in general were less frequent in the foundry workers than in the random sample, and the foundry workers less often gave a history of prolonged incapacity (three months or more) due to this cause. Radiological evidence of disc degeneration in the lumbar spine, however, was more frequent in the foundry workers than in the controls and was of greater severity. Further, the foundry workers more commonly had symptoms and signs of lumbar disc prolapse. On the other hand, the controls had more osteo-arthrosis of the hips and knees and lost more work from pain at these sites. This was associated with a difference of body habitus, obesity being less frequent in the foundry workers. Foundry workers directly exposed to hot conditions did not have less back or leg pain than those not so exposed despite a greater prevalence of disc degeneration. Measurements of air temperature, humidity, and radiant heat were made in a foundry while pouring was in progress. The air temperature rose from 18°C. to 26°C. and the humidity ranged from 70% to 54%. The mean intensity of radiation incident on the clothed surface of a foundry worker was 0·12 watt/cm.2. This was compared with conditions during therapeutic exposure to radiant heat. The radiant heat under conditions of `heat therapy' varied between 0·16 and 0·37 watt/cm.2. The possible influence of radiant heat on the

  2. Straddling a paradigm shift

    SciTech Connect

    Landgren, D.

    1995-05-01

    Paul Meagher made a big mistake when he asked me about my speech. I asked him what I should talk about. He reiterated the title of the conference {open_quotes}Forecasting and DSM: Organizing for Success,{close_quotes} and said that whatever issues I wanted to cover were fine with him. As a result I will cover those areas I`ve been thinking about recently. It is hard for me to extract either Forecasting or Demand-Side Management out from the broader issues unwinding in the industry today. I`ve been around long enough to be involved in two major shifts in the industry. I call these paradigm shifts because as a planner I tend to build models in my mind to represent business or regulatory structure. Since a paradigm is defined as a clear model of something, I tend to talk about structural shifts in the industry as paradigm shifts. The first paradigm shift was brought about by the rapid escalation of energy prices in the 1970s. The second paradigm shift, brought about in part because of the first and because of growing concerns about the environment, ushered in the era of utility conservation and load management programs (components of a broader DSM concept - unfortunately today many people limit DSM to only these two pieces). The third paradigm shift is just starting, driven by partial deregulation and the subsequent increase in competition. My talk today will focus on issues related to the second paradigm, particularly in terms of utility planners getting more organized to deal with the synergies in the fields of forecasting, demand-side planning, and evaluation. I will also reflect on two new issues within the existing paradigm that influence these functional areas, namely beneficial electrification and integration of DSM into T&D planning. Finally I will talk about what I see coming as we go through another paradigm shift, particularly as it impacts forecasting and DSM.

  3. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  4. [Epidemiologic study of immunologic status of confectionary workers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegović, J

    1994-01-01

    Immunological and respiratory findings were studied in a group of 90 confectioners (mean age: 35 years; mean exposure: 11 years). Intradermal skin tests with different food allergens demonstrated the largest positive skin reaction to cocoa (63%), followed by chocolate (9%), cacao, nut and almond (6%) and sugar (2%). Increased IgE serum levels were found in 13.8% of the confectioners, and elevated IgM concentrations in 43.3%. The prevalence of occupational asthma and dyspnea (26.1%) in workers with positive skin tests was significantly higher than in those with negative skin tests (0%; 4.1%). There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift. Most of these complaints were more frequent in workers with positive than in those with negative skin tests. Lung function studies demonstrated significant mean acute across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity. Mean pre-shift FVC and FEF25 were significantly lower than predicted normal values. Pre-shift administration of disodium chromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25. Our data suggest that exposure to environmental factors in confectioneries may lead to immunological changes and the development of respiratory impairment in some workers.

  5. Association of eating behaviours with diurnal preference and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Kawano, Yukari; Noguchi, Osamu; Onishi, Junko; Teramoto, Reiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yuri; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Togo, Fumiharu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study examines differences in eating behaviour between day workers and rotating shift workers, and considers whether diurnal preference could explain the differences. Methods Japanese female nurses were studied (39 day workers and 123 rotating shift workers, aged 21–63 years) using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires assessed eating behaviours, diurnal preference and demographic characteristics. The questionnaire in the Guidelines for the management of obesity disease issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity was used to obtain scores for the levels of obesity-related eating behaviours, including cognition of constitution, motivation for eating, eating as a diversion, feeling of satiety, eating style, meal contents and temporal eating patterns. The Japanese version of the Morningness–Eveningness (ME) questionnaire was used to measure self-rated preference for the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening (ME). Results The scores for meal contents and temporal eating patterns in rotating shift workers were significantly higher than those in day workers. The ME score of rotating shift workers was significantly lower, indicating greater eveningness/less morningness among rotating shift workers. Multivariate linear regression revealed that the ME score was significantly negatively associated with temporal eating patterns and showed a negative association with the score for meal contents at a trend level, while current work shift was not significantly correlated with the scores. Conclusions These results suggest that eating behaviours for rotating shift workers are associated with a more unbalanced diet and abnormal temporal eating patterns and that the associations may be explained by diurnal preference rather than by rotating shift work. PMID:27895063

  6. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  7. Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Carrier, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether human mental processing actually slows down during the night hours, separately from the previously documented microsleeps, lapses in attention, and general slowing of motor responses. Eighteen healthy young adults were studied during 36 hours of constant wakeful bedrest. Every 2 hours, they performed a logical reasoning task. Items phrased in the negative voice took reliably longer to respond to than items phrased in the positive voice, indicating the need for more mental processing in those items. By subtracting "negative" from "positive" reaction times at each time of day, we were able to plot a circadian rhythm in the time taken for this extra mental processing to be done separately from microsleeps, psychomotor slowing, and inattention. The extra mental processing took longer at night and on the day following sleep loss than it did during the day before the sleep loss, suggesting that human mental processing slows down during the night under sleep deprivation.

  8. Flight Tests of the KO-1 Aircraft at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Kwang; Kim, Whan-Woo

    The KO-1 aircraft which has the functionality of tactical observation, was successfully developed in August of 2004 in South Korea. It is important for the KO-1 aircraft to achieve successful missions at nighttime as well as during daytime. The aircraft, equipped with interior and exterior lighting systems and lighting control panel modified from those of the KT-1 basic trainer, provides improved safety, operational effectiveness, and situational awareness during operation at night when used with night-vision goggles (NVGs). KO-1 is the first domestic aircraft that utilizes the night-vision imaging system (NVIS) technology in Korea. KO-1 NVIS was developed with the goal of defining the components of NVIS and establishing test and evaluation procedures for both the subsystems and main system. In this paper, we present the establishment of a KO-1 NVIS lighting system, NVIS component development, and representative ground and flight test results.

  9. Spatial contrast sensitivity through aviator's night vision imaging system.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Visual acuity is often used to assess vision through image intensifying devices such as night vision goggles (NVG's). Fewer attempts have been made to measure contrast sensitivity through NVG's. Such information would be useful to better understand contrast processing through NVG's under various stimulus conditions. In this study, computer-generated letter charts were used to measure contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's for a range of letter sizes. The red phosphor of a standard color monitor proved to be an effective stimulus for third generation devices. Different night sky conditions were simulated over a 3 log unit range. The results illustrate the profile of contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's over a range of night sky conditions. Comparison of measurements through NVG's to measurements obtained without the device but at the same luminance and color distinguish between effects of luminance and noise on contrast sensitivity.

  10. Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call.

    PubMed

    Ware, J Catesby; Risser, Mathew R; Manser, Thomas; Karlson, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    This study compared driving simulation performance after night call and after being off call in 22 medical residents and 1 medical student in a prospective within-subjects counterbalanced design. The results demonstrated an unexpected interaction between call and sex wherein men performed more poorly after night call than women as measured by lane variance and crash frequency. Secondary measures, including caffeine, actigraphy, and subjective total sleep time, did not differ between men and women. Collectively, results of this study and others suggest that medical residents are at risk when driving after a night on call and support the need for resident education to address sleep needs, consequences of sleep disruption, postcall recovery sleep, and countermeasures that may reduce residents' driving risks.

  11. Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.

    PubMed

    Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2014-04-20

    All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid.

  12. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  13. Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed。Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

  14. Microbial diversity and community respiration in freshwater sediments influenced by artificial light at night.

    PubMed

    Hölker, Franz; Wurzbacher, Christian; Weißenborn, Carsten; Monaghan, Michael T; Holzhauer, Stephanie I J; Premke, Katrin

    2015-05-05

    An increasing proportion of the Earth's surface is illuminated at night. In aquatic ecosystems, artificial light at night (ALAN) may influence microbial communities living in the sediments. These communities are highly diverse and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. We combined field and laboratory experiments using sediments from an agricultural drainage system to examine how ALAN affects communities and alters carbon mineralization. Two identical light infrastructures were installed parallel to a drainage ditch before the start of the experiment. DNA metabarcoding indicated that both sediment communities were similar. After one was lit for five months (July-December 2012) we observed an increase in photoautotroph abundance (diatoms, Cyanobacteria) in ALAN-exposed sediments. In laboratory incubations mimicking summer and winter (six weeks each), communities in sediments that were exposed to ALAN for 1 year (July 2012-June 2013) showed less overall seasonal change compared with ALAN-naive sediments. Nocturnal community respiration was reduced in ALAN-exposed sediments. In long-term exposed summer-sediments, we observed a shift from negative to positive net ecosystem production. Our results indicate ALAN may alter sediment microbial communities over time, with implications for ecosystem-level functions. It may thus have the potential to transform inland waters to nocturnal carbon sinks.

  15. Microbial diversity and community respiration in freshwater sediments influenced by artificial light at night

    PubMed Central

    Hölker, Franz; Wurzbacher, Christian; Weißenborn, Carsten; Monaghan, Michael T.; Holzhauer, Stephanie I. J.; Premke, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the Earth's surface is illuminated at night. In aquatic ecosystems, artificial light at night (ALAN) may influence microbial communities living in the sediments. These communities are highly diverse and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. We combined field and laboratory experiments using sediments from an agricultural drainage system to examine how ALAN affects communities and alters carbon mineralization. Two identical light infrastructures were installed parallel to a drainage ditch before the start of the experiment. DNA metabarcoding indicated that both sediment communities were similar. After one was lit for five months (July–December 2012) we observed an increase in photoautotroph abundance (diatoms, Cyanobacteria) in ALAN-exposed sediments. In laboratory incubations mimicking summer and winter (six weeks each), communities in sediments that were exposed to ALAN for 1 year (July 2012–June 2013) showed less overall seasonal change compared with ALAN-naive sediments. Nocturnal community respiration was reduced in ALAN-exposed sediments. In long-term exposed summer-sediments, we observed a shift from negative to positive net ecosystem production. Our results indicate ALAN may alter sediment microbial communities over time, with implications for ecosystem-level functions. It may thus have the potential to transform inland waters to nocturnal carbon sinks. PMID:25780242

  16. Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Pilling, M. J.; Bloss, W. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Read, K. A.

    2006-08-01

    Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured concentration of HO2 (within 30-40%) during the night 31 August-1 September and of HO2+RO2 (within 15-30%) during several nights of the campaign. The model always overestimated the NO3 measurements made by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) by up to an order of magnitude or more, but agreed with the NO3 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements to within 30-50%. The most likely explanation of the discrepancy between the two instruments and the model is reaction of the nitrate radical with inhomogeneously distributed NO, which was measured at concentrations of up to 10 ppt, even though this is not enough to fully explain the difference between the DOAS measurements and the model. A rate of production and destruction analysis showed that radicals were generated during the night mainly by the reaction of ozone with light alkenes. The cycling between HO2/RO2 and OH was maintained during the night by the low concentrations of NO and the overall radical concentration was limited by slow loss of peroxy radicals to form peroxides. A strong peak in [NO2] during the night 31 August-1 September allowed an insight into the radical fluxes and the connections between the HOx and the NO3 cycles.

  17. Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Pilling, M. J.; Bloss, W. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Read, K. A.

    2007-02-01

    Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured concentration of HO2 (within 30-40%) during the night 31 August-1 September and of HO2+RO2 (within 15-30%) during several nights of the campaign. The model always overestimated the NO3 measurements made by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) by up to an order of magnitude or more, but agreed with the NO3 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements to within 30-50%. The most likely explanation of the discrepancy between the two instruments and the model is the reaction of the nitrate radical with inhomogeneously distributed NO, which was measured at concentrations of up to 10 ppt, even though this is not enough to fully explain the difference between the DOAS measurements and the model. A rate of production and destruction analysis showed that radicals were generated during the night mainly by the reaction of ozone with light alkenes. The cycling between HO2/RO2 and OH was maintained during the night by the low concentrations of NO and the overall radical concentration was limited by slow loss of peroxy radicals to form peroxides. A strong peak in [NO2] during the night 31 August-1 September allowed an insight into the radical fluxes and the connections between the HOx and the NO3 cycles.

  18. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  19. Arabian sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) prefer the hottest nights?

    PubMed

    Roberts, D M

    1994-04-01

    A vehicle-mounted net was used to collect hourly samples of sandflies on 15 nights during June in northern Oman. Every half hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity were measured (there was no cloud or rainfall during this period). The sandflies caught were mainly Phlebotomus alexandri and Sergentomyia clydei. Their circadian activity increased rapidly after sunset (18.50 hours). The high level of activity was fairly constant during 9h of darkness until dawn, when it decreased rapidly. A few flies were still active at 07.00 hours, 1.5h after sunrise. A multiple regression showed that the main factor affecting sandfly activity was light intensity. When this factor was removed, by considering only the 135 catches collected during the 9h of darkness, the second most important factor was low relative humidity, followed by low wind velocity. Temperature was not a significant factor in the analysis, because of its strong negative correlation with humidity. However, when the effect of humidity was removed from the regression, high temperature became significant, but less important than wind. The regressions showed that, for flight activity, the optimum humidity was around 10%; the probable maximum wind velocity was 3.5 m s-1 and 11 degrees C was the probable minimum temperature. Thus, when the 4 nights with highest catches (200-260 flies/night) were compared with the 4 nights with lowest catches (50-120 flies/night), the best nights had a low humidity (10-25%) and low wind speed (< 0.3 m s-1) in combination with highest temperatures (31-43 degrees C).

  20. Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, Wayne; Estrera, Joseph P.

    2003-09-01

    The United States' armed forces continue to be presented with increased challenges in adverse operational environments with increasing risk and complexity - especially at night. To ensure continued operational success and battlefield superiority during darkness,