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Sample records for nighttime stomatal conductance

  1. Interspecific variation in nighttime transpiration and stomatal conductance in a mixed New England deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Daley, Michael J; Phillips, Nathan G

    2006-04-01

    Transpiration is generally assumed to be insignificant at night when stomata close in response to the lack of photosynthetically active radiation. However, there is increasing evidence that the stomata of some species remain open at night, which would allow for nighttime transpiration if there were a sufficient environmental driving force. We examined nighttime water use in co-occurring species in a mixed deciduous stand at Harvard Forest, MA, using whole-tree and leaf-level measurements. Diurnal whole-tree water use was monitored continuously with Granier-style sap flux sensors in paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.). An analysis was conducted in which nighttime water flux could be partitioned between refilling of internal water stores and transpiration. Substantial nighttime sap flux was observed in all species and much of this flux was attributed to the refilling of depleted water stores. However, in paper birch, nighttime sap flux frequently exceeded recharge estimates. Over 10% of the total daily sap flux during the growing season was due to transpiration at night in paper birch. Nighttime sap flux was over 8% of the total daily flux in red oak and 2% in red maple; however, this flux was mainly associated with recharge. On nights with elevated vapor pressure deficit, sap flux continued through the night in paper birch, whereas it reached zero during the night in red oak and red maple. Measurements of leaf-level gas exchange on a night with elevated vapor pressure deficit showed stomatal conductance dropping by only 25% in paper birch, while approaching zero in red oak and red maple. The study highlighted differences in ecophysiological controls on sap flux exerted by co-occurring species. Paper birch is a fast-growing, shade-intolerant species with an earlier successional status than red oak and red maple. Risking water loss through nighttime transpiration may provide paper birch with an ecological

  2. Canopy stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, D.D.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1989-07-14

    Stomata are major conduits for the diffusion of many trace gas species between leaves and the atmosphere. The role of the stomata on controlling gas exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere at the landscape, meso- and global-scales has only recently been recognized. Further advances in modelling large-scale trace gas exchange will depend on our ability to understand and model stomatal mechanics at the scale of the pertinent sub-unit, which is typically that of the canopy. This paper describes two approaches for estimating canopy stomatal conductance. One approach is based on 'bottom-up' scaling. This approach computes canopy stomatal conductance by integrating detailed leaf-level and environmentally-driven, physiological processes with the use of a detailed canopy micrometeorology model. The other approach is based on 'top-down' scaling. It interprets the integrated canopy stomatal conductance from measured fluxes of trace gas exchange. Frameworks for extending these scaling approaches to non-idea conditions are given. 96 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Differential daytime and night-time stomatal behavior in plants from North American deserts.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kiona; Lucas, Richard W; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Cable, Jessica M; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Griffith, Alden; Ignace, Danielle; Jenerette, G Darrel; Tyler, Anna; Huxman, Travis E; Loik, Michael E; Smith, Stanley D; Tissue, David T

    2012-04-01

    Night-time stomatal conductance (g(night)) occurs in many ecosystems, but the g(night) response to environmental drivers is relatively unknown, especially in deserts. Here, we conducted a Bayesian analysis of stomatal conductance (g) (N=5013) from 16 species in the Sonoran, Chihuahuan, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts (North America). We partitioned daytime g (g(day)) and g(night) responses by describing g as a mixture of two extreme (dark vs high light) behaviors. Significant g(night) was observed across 15 species, and the g(night) and g(day) behavior differed according to species, functional type and desert. The transition between extreme behaviors was determined by light environment, with the transition behavior differing between functional types and deserts. Sonoran and Chihuahuan C(4) grasses were more sensitive to vapor pressure difference (D) at night and soil water potential (Ψ(soil)) during the day, Great Basin C(3) shrubs were highly sensitive to D and Ψ(soil) during the day, and Mojave C(3) shrubs were equally sensitive to D and Ψ(soil) during the day and night. Species were split between the exhibition of isohydric or anisohydric behavior during the day. Three species switched from anisohydric to isohydric behavior at night. Such behavior, combined with differential D, Ψ(soil) and light responses, suggests that different mechanisms underlie g(day) and g(night) regulation. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  5. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  6. Enhanced Stomatal Conductance by a Spontaneous Arabidopsis Tetraploid, Me-0, Results from Increased Stomatal Size and Greater Stomatal Aperture.

    PubMed

    Monda, Keina; Araki, Hiromitsu; Kuhara, Satoru; Ishigaki, Genki; Akashi, Ryo; Negi, Juntaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Sho; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

    2016-03-01

    The rate of gas exchange in plants is regulated mainly by stomatal size and density. Generally, higher densities of smaller stomata are advantageous for gas exchange; however, it is unclear what the effect of an extraordinary change in stomatal size might have on a plant's gas-exchange capacity. We investigated the stomatal responses to CO2 concentration changes among 374 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes and discovered that Mechtshausen (Me-0), a natural tetraploid ecotype, has significantly larger stomata and can achieve a high stomatal conductance. We surmised that the cause of the increased stomatal conductance is tetraploidization; however, the stomatal conductance of another tetraploid accession, tetraploid Columbia (Col), was not as high as that in Me-0. One difference between these two accessions was the size of their stomatal apertures. Analyses of abscisic acid sensitivity, ion balance, and gene expression profiles suggested that physiological or genetic factors restrict the stomatal opening in tetraploid Col but not in Me-0. Our results show that Me-0 overcomes the handicap of stomatal opening that is typical for tetraploids and achieves higher stomatal conductance compared with the closely related tetraploid Col on account of larger stomatal apertures. This study provides evidence for whether larger stomatal size in tetraploids of higher plants can improve stomatal conductance.

  7. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange.

  8. Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C3 desert annual.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Fulco; Jewitt, Rebecca A; Donovan, Lisa A

    2006-06-01

    Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients (low and high) were applied factorially during the growing season to naturally occurring seedlings of the annual Helianthus anomalus. Plant height and biomass were greatest in the treatment where both water and nutrients were added, confirming resource limitations in this habitat. Plants from all treatments showed significant night-time g (approximately 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and E (approximately 1.5 mol m(-2) s(-1)). In July, water and nutrient additions had few effects on day- or night-time gas exchange. In August, however, plants in the nutrient addition treatments had lower day-time photosynthesis, g and E, paralleled by lower night-time g and E. Lower predawn water potentials and higher integrated photosynthetic water-use efficiency suggests that the nutrient addition indirectly induced a mild water stress. Thus, soil resources can affect night-time g and E in a manner parallel to day-time, although additional factors may also be involved.

  9. Nocturnal and daytime stomatal conductance respond to root-zone temperature in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Daytime root-zone temperature may be a significant factor regulating water flux through plants. Water flux can also occur during the night but nocturnal stomatal response to environmental drivers such as root-zone temperature remains largely unknown. Methods Here nocturnal and daytime leaf gas exchange was quantified in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) exposed to three root-zone temperatures from budburst to fruit-set, for a total of 8 weeks in spring. Key Results Despite lower stomatal density, night-time stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were greater for plants grown in warm root-zones. Elevated root-zone temperature resulted in higher daytime stomatal conductance, transpiration and net assimilation rates across a range of leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficits, air temperatures and light levels. Intrinsic water-use efficiency was, however, lowest in those plants with warm root-zones. CO2 response curves of foliar gas exchange indicated that the maximum rate of electron transport and the maximum rate of Rubisco activity did not differ between the root-zone treatments, and therefore it was likely that the lower photosynthesis in cool root-zones was predominantly the result of a stomatal limitation. One week after discontinuation of the temperature treatments, gas exchange was similar between the plants, indicating a reversible physiological response to soil temperature. Conclusions In this anisohydric grapevine variety both night-time and daytime stomatal conductance were responsive to root-zone temperature. Because nocturnal transpiration has implications for overall plant water status, predictive climate change models using stomatal conductance will need to factor in this root-zone variable. PMID:23293018

  10. Smaller, faster stomata: scaling of stomatal size, rate of response, and stomatal conductance

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Maximum and minimum stomatal conductance, as well as stomatal size and rate of response, are known to vary widely across plant species, but the functional relationship between these static and dynamic stomatal properties is unknown. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses: (i) operating stomatal conductance under standard conditions (g op) correlates with minimum stomatal conductance prior to morning light [g min(dawn)]; (ii) stomatal size (S) is negatively correlated with g op and the maximum rate of stomatal opening in response to light, (dg/dt)max; and (iii) g op correlates negatively with instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE) despite positive correlations with maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc max) and light-saturated rate of electron transport (J max). Using five closely related species of the genus Banksia, the above variables were measured, and it was found that all three hypotheses were supported by the results. Overall, this indicates that leaves built for higher rates of gas exchange have smaller stomata and faster dynamic characteristics. With the aid of a stomatal control model, it is demonstrated that higher g op can potentially expose plants to larger tissue water potential gradients, and that faster stomatal response times can help offset this risk. PMID:23264516

  11. Estimating maximum mean canopy stomatal conductance for use in models

    Treesearch

    Brent E. Ewers; Ram Oren; Kurt H. Johnsen; J.J Landsberg

    2001-01-01

    Fertilized (F) and irrigated and fertilized (IF) stands of Pinus taeda L. produced twice the leaf area index of irrigated (I) and control (C) stands. Based on sap flux-scaled mean stomatal conductance (GS), we found that stomatal conductance in F was half that in other treatments. During the growing season, GS was related to...

  12. Estimating stomatal conductance with thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Grant, O M; Tagliavia, C P P; Chaves, M M; Jones, H G

    2006-08-01

    Most thermal methods for the study of drought responses in plant leaves are based on the calculation of 'stress indices'. This paper proposes and compares three main extensions of these for the direct estimation of absolute values of stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) using infrared thermography (IRT). All methods use the measured leaf temperature and two environmental variables (air temperature and boundary layer resistance) as input. Additional variables required, depending on the method, are the temperatures of wet and dry reference surfaces, net radiation and relative humidity. The methods were compared using measured gs data from a vineyard in Southern Portugal. The errors in thermal estimates of conductance were of the same order as the measurement errors using a porometer. Observed variability was also compared with theoretical estimates of errors in estimated gs determined on the basis of the errors in the input variables (leaf temperature, boundary layer resistance, net radiation) and the partial derivatives of the energy balance equations used for the gs calculations. The full energy balance approach requires accurate estimates of net radiation absorbed, which may not be readily available in field conditions, so alternatives using reference surfaces are shown to have advantages. A new approach using a dry reference leaf is particularly robust and recommended for those studies where the specific advantages of thermal imagery, including its non-contact nature and its ability to sample large numbers of leaves, are most apparent. Although the results suggest that estimates of the absolute magnitude of gs are somewhat subjective, depending on the skill of the experimenter at selecting evenly exposed leaves, relative treatment differences in conductance are sensitively detected by different experimenters.

  13. Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides

    PubMed Central

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Milla, Rubén; Pieruschka, Roland; Kjaer, Katrine H.; Bolger, Marie; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fiorani, Fabio; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf gas exchange is influenced by stomatal size, density, distribution between the leaf adaxial and abaxial sides, as well as by pore dimensions. This study aims to quantify which of these traits mainly underlie genetic differences in operating stomatal conductance (gs) and addresses possible links between anatomical traits and regulation of pore width. Methods Stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, gs-related anatomical traits of each leaf side and estimated gs (based on these traits) were determined for 54 introgression lines (ILs) generated by introgressing segments of Solanum pennelli into the S. lycopersicum ‘M82’. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for stomatal traits was also performed. Key Results A wide genetic variation in stomatal responsiveness to desiccation was observed, a large part of which was explained by stomatal length. Operating gs ranged over a factor of five between ILs. The pore area per stomatal area varied 8-fold among ILs (2–16 %), and was the main determinant of differences in operating gs between ILs. Operating gs was primarily positioned on the abaxial surface (60–83 %), due to higher abaxial stomatal density and, secondarily, to larger abaxial pore area. An analysis revealed 64 QTLs for stomatal traits in the ILs, most of which were in the direction of S. pennellii. Conclusions The data indicate that operating and maximum gs of non-stressed leaves maintained under stable conditions deviate considerably (by 45–91 %), because stomatal size inadequately reflects operating pore area (R2 = 0·46). Furthermore, it was found that variation between ILs in both stomatal sensitivity to desiccation and operating gs is associated with features of individual stoma. In contrast, genotypic variation in gs partitioning depends on the distribution of stomata between the leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermis. PMID:25538116

  14. Enhanced Stomatal Conductance by a Spontaneous Arabidopsis Tetraploid, Me-0, Results from Increased Stomatal Size and Greater Stomatal Aperture1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Monda, Keina; Araki, Hiromitsu; Kuhara, Satoru; Ishigaki, Genki; Akashi, Ryo; Negi, Juntaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Sho; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

    2016-01-01

    The rate of gas exchange in plants is regulated mainly by stomatal size and density. Generally, higher densities of smaller stomata are advantageous for gas exchange; however, it is unclear what the effect of an extraordinary change in stomatal size might have on a plant’s gas-exchange capacity. We investigated the stomatal responses to CO2 concentration changes among 374 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes and discovered that Mechtshausen (Me-0), a natural tetraploid ecotype, has significantly larger stomata and can achieve a high stomatal conductance. We surmised that the cause of the increased stomatal conductance is tetraploidization; however, the stomatal conductance of another tetraploid accession, tetraploid Columbia (Col), was not as high as that in Me-0. One difference between these two accessions was the size of their stomatal apertures. Analyses of abscisic acid sensitivity, ion balance, and gene expression profiles suggested that physiological or genetic factors restrict the stomatal opening in tetraploid Col but not in Me-0. Our results show that Me-0 overcomes the handicap of stomatal opening that is typical for tetraploids and achieves higher stomatal conductance compared with the closely related tetraploid Col on account of larger stomatal apertures. This study provides evidence for whether larger stomatal size in tetraploids of higher plants can improve stomatal conductance. PMID:26754665

  15. Optimized stomatal conductance and the climate sensitivity to carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, A.

    2007-07-01

    Stomatal conductance shapes the exchange of water and carbon of vegetated land surfaces. Previous studies have demonstrated that optimized stomatal functioning that maximizes productivity provides a realistic description of how stomata operate. Here I investigate the role of optimum stomatal functioning for the sensitivity of terrestrial productivity and land surface climate to concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO 2). I conduct sensitivity simulations with a coupled vegetation-climate system model with different values of maximum stomatal conductance at different prescribed levels of pCO 2. The optimum in stomatal conductance shifts to lower values with increasing pCO 2, which is consistent with observed sensitivities of stomatal density of leaves. If this change in optimum conditions is not taken into account, the climate sensitivity shows (1) a general underestimation of terrestrial productivity under altered pCO 2, and (2) different sensitivities of key climatic variables to pCO 2. The climate sensitivity of land temperature for a doubling of pCO 2 ranges from ΔT = 2.7 K to ΔT = 3.2 K, depending on whether stomata adapt optimally or not at all. These results demonstrate that the assumed ability of vegetation to adapt to its environment can have important consequences for the simulated climate system sensitivity to pCO 2.

  16. Remote sensing of vegetation canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, R. B.; Ganapol, B. D.; Asrar, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of remote sensing the canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies is investigated with the aid of one- and three-dimensional radiative transfer methods coupled to a semi-empirical mechanistic model of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Desertlike vegetation is modeled as clumps of leaves randomly distributed on a bright dry soil with partial ground cover. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy photosynthetic (Ep), and stomatal efficiencies (Es) are calculated for various geometrical, optical, and illumination conditions. The contribution of various radiative fluxes to estimates of Ep is evaluated and the magnitude of errors in bulk canopy formulation of problem parameters are quantified. The nature and sensitivity of the relationship between Ep and Es to NDVI is investigated, and an algorithm is proposed for use in operational remote sensing.

  17. Representing nighttime and minimum conductance in CLM4.5: global hydrology and carbon sensitivity analysis using observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, Danica L.; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere regulates climate through carbon, water, and energy exchanges with the atmosphere. Land-surface models estimate plant transpiration, which is actively regulated by stomatal pores, and provide projections essential for understanding Earth's carbon and water resources. Empirical evidence from 204 species suggests that significant amounts of water are lost through leaves at night, though land-surface models typically reduce stomatal conductance to nearly zero at night. Here, we test the sensitivity of carbon and water budgets in a global land-surface model, the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5, to three different methods of incorporating observed nighttime stomatal conductance values. We find that our modifications increase transpiration by up to 5 % globally, reduce modeled available soil moisture by up to 50 % in semi-arid regions, and increase the importance of the land surface in modulating energy fluxes. Carbon gain declines by up to ˜ 4 % globally and > 25 % in semi-arid regions. We advocate for realistic constraints of minimum stomatal conductance in future climate simulations, and widespread field observations to improve parameterizations.

  18. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L.D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; H. M. Cambridge; C. M. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; M. Schaub; D. de la Torre

    2007-01-01

    A multiplicative and a semi-mechanistic, BWB-type [Ball, J.T., Woodrow, I.E., Berry, J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Biggens, J. (Ed.), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol. IV. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224.] algorithm for calculating...

  19. Populus species from diverse habitats maintain high night-time conductance under drought.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Damián; Equiza, María Alejandra; Lieffers, Victor James; Tyree, Melvin Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the interspecific variability in nocturnal whole-plant stomatal conductance under well-watered and drought conditions in seedlings of four species of Populus from habitats characterized by abundant water supply (mesic and riparian) or from drier upland sites. The study was carried out to determine whether (i) nocturnal conductance varies across different species of Populus according to their natural habitat, (ii) nocturnal conductance is affected by water stress similarly to daytime conductance based on species habitat and (iii) differences in conductance among species could be explained partly by differences in stomatal traits. We measured whole-plant transpiration and conductance (G) of greenhouse-grown seedlings using an automated high-resolution gravimetric technique. No relationship was found between habitat preference and daytime G (GD), but night-time G (GN) was on average 1.5 times higher in riparian and mesic species (P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. and P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) than in those from drier environments (P. tremuloides Michx. and P. × petrowskyana Schr.). GN was not significantly reduced under drought in riparian species. Upland species restricted GN significantly in response to drought, but it was still at least one order of magnitude greater that the cuticular conductance until leaf death was imminent. Under both well-watered and drought conditions, GN declined with increasing vapour pressure deficit (D). Also, a small increase in GN towards the end of the night period was observed in P. deltoides and P. × petrowskyana, suggesting the involvement of endogenous regulation. The anatomical analyses indicated a positive correlation between G and variable stomatal pore index among species and revealed that stomata are not likely to be leaky but instead seem capable of complete occlusion, which raises the question of the possible physiological role of the significant GN observed under drought. Further comparisons among

  20. Fertilization effects on mean stomatal conductance are mediated through changes in the hydraulic attributes of mature Norway spruce trees.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Jarvis, Paul G; Linder, Sune

    2008-04-01

    Stomatal conductance was quantified with sap flux sensors and whole-tree chambers in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees after 3 years of exposure to elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) in a 13-year nutrient optimization experiment. The long-term nutrient optimization treatment increased tree height by 3.7 m (67%) and basal diameter by 8 cm (68%); the short-term elevated [CO(2)] exposure had no effect on tree size or allometry. Nighttime transpiration was estimated as approximately 7% of daily transpiration in unchambered trees; accounting for the effect of nighttime flux on the processing of sap flux signals increased estimated daily water uptake by approximately 30%. Crown averaged stomatal conductance (g(s)) was described by a Jarvis-type model. The addition of a stomatal response time constant (tau) and total capacitance of stored water (C(tot)) improved the fit of the model. Model estimates for C(tot) scaled with sapwood volume of the bole in fertilized trees. Hydraulic support-defined as a lumped variable of leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and water potential gradient (K(l)DeltaPsi) -was estimated from height, sapwood-to-leaf area ratio (A(s):A(l)) and changes in tracheid dimensions. Hydraulic support explained 55% of the variation in g(s) at reference conditions for trees across nutrient and [CO(2)] treatments. Removal of approximately 50% of A(l) from three trees yielded results suggesting that stomatal compensation (i.e., an increase in g(s)) after pruning scales inversely with K(l)DeltaPsi, indicating that the higher the potential hydraulic support after pruning, the less complete the stomatal compensation for the increase in A(s):A(l).

  1. Nocturnal stomatal conductance responses to rising [CO2], temperature and drought.

    PubMed

    Zeppel, Melanie J B; Lewis, James D; Chaszar, Brian; Smith, Renee A; Medlyn, Belinda E; Huxman, Travis E; Tissue, David T

    2012-03-01

    The response of nocturnal stomatal conductance (g(s,n)) to rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is currently unknown, and may differ from responses of daytime stomatal conductance (g(s,d)). Because night-time water fluxes can have a significant impact on landscape water budgets, an understanding of the effects of [CO(2)] and temperature on g(s,n) is crucial for predicting water fluxes under future climates. Here, we examined the effects of [CO(2)] (280, 400 and 640 μmol mol(-1)), temperature (ambient and ambient + 4°C) and drought on g(s,n,) and g(s,d) in Eucalyptus sideroxylon saplings. g(s,n) was substantially higher than zero, averaging 34% of g(s,d). Before the onset of drought, g(s,n) increased by 85% when [CO(2)] increased from 280 to 640 μmol mol(-1), averaged across both temperature treatments. g(s,n) declined with drought, but an increase in [CO(2)] slowed this decline. Consequently, the soil water potential at which g(s,n) was zero (Ψ(0)) was significantly more negative in elevated [CO(2)] and temperature treatments. g(s,d) showed inconsistent responses to [CO(2)] and temperature. g (s,n) may be higher in future climates, potentially increasing nocturnal water loss and susceptibility to drought, but cannot be predicted easily from g(s,d). Therefore, predictive models using stomatal conductance must account for both g(s,n) and g(s,d) when estimating ecosystem water fluxes. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Richards, James H

    2009-01-01

    Night-time stomatal opening in C(3) plants may result in significant water loss when no carbon gain is possible. The objective of this study was to determine if endogenous patterns of night-time stomatal opening, as reflected in leaf conductance, in Vicia faba are affected by photosynthetic conditions the previous day. Reducing photosynthesis with low light or low CO(2) resulted in reduced night-time stomatal opening the following night, irrespective of the effects on daytime stomatal conductance. Likewise, increasing photosynthesis with enriched CO(2) levels resulted in increased night-time stomatal opening the following night. Reduced night-time stomatal opening was not the result of an inability to regulate stomatal aperture as leaves with reduced night-time stomatal opening were capable of greater night-time opening when exposed to low CO(2). After acclimating plants to long or short days, it was found that night-time leaf conductance was greater in plants acclimated to short days, and associated with greater leaf starch and nitrate accumulation, both of which may affect night-time guard cell osmotic potential. Direct measurement of guard cell contents during endogenous night-time stomatal opening will help identify the mechanism of the effect of daytime photosynthesis on subsequent night-time stomatal regulation.

  3. Optimal Stomatal Behaviour Around the World: Synthesis of a Global Stomatal Conductance Database and Scaling from Leaf to Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration and a key element of the global water cycle, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycles, a global scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. We present a unique database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We employed a model of optimal stomatal conductance to assess differences in stomatal behaviour, and estimated the model slope coefficient, g1, which is directly related to the marginal carbon cost of water, for each dataset. We found that g1 varies considerably among PFTs, with evergreen savanna trees having the largest g1 (least conservative water use), followed by C3 grasses and crops, angiosperm trees, gymnosperm trees, and C4 grasses. Amongst angiosperm trees, species with higher wood density had a higher marginal carbon cost of water, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model. There was an interactive effect between temperature and moisture availability on g1: for wet environments, g1 was largest in high temperature environments, indicated by high mean annual temperature during the period when temperature above 0oC (Tm), but it did not vary with Tm across dry environments. We examine whether these differences in leaf-scale behaviour are reflected in ecosystem-scale differences in water-use efficiency. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of stomatal conductance across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of productivity and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  4. The contribution of photosynthesis to the red light response of stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Baroli, Irene; Price, G Dean; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2008-02-01

    To determine the contribution of photosynthesis on stomatal conductance, we contrasted the stomatal red light response of wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'W38') with that of plants impaired in photosynthesis by antisense reductions in the content of either cytochrome b(6)f complex (anti-b/f plants) or Rubisco (anti-SSU plants). Both transgenic genotypes showed a lowered content of the antisense target proteins in guard cells as well as in the mesophyll. In the anti-b/f plants, CO(2) assimilation rates were proportional to leaf cytochrome b(6)f content, but there was little effect on stomatal conductance and the rate of stomatal opening. To compare the relationship between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, wild-type plants and anti-SSU plants were grown at 30 and 300 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1) irradiance (low light and medium light [ML], respectively). Growth in ML increased CO(2) assimilation rates and stomatal conductance in both genotypes. Despite the significantly lower CO(2) assimilation rate in the anti-SSU plants, the differences in stomatal conductance between the genotypes were nonsignificant at either growth irradiance. Irrespective of plant genotype, stomatal density in the two leaf surfaces was 2-fold higher in ML-grown plants than in low-light-grown plants and conductance normalized to stomatal density was unaffected by growth irradiance. We conclude that the red light response of stomatal conductance is independent of the concurrent photosynthetic rate of the guard cells or of that of the underlying mesophyll. Furthermore, we suggest that the correlation of photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance observed under different light environments is caused by signals largely independent of photosynthesis.

  5. CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Cawas B; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas-exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense [CO2] changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in the CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars that perform better in a shifting climate.

  6. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  7. Changes in stomatal conductance along grass blades reflect changes in leaf structure.

    PubMed

    Ocheltree, T W; Nippert, J B; Prasad, P V V

    2012-06-01

    Identifying the consequences of grass blade morphology (long, narrow leaves) on the heterogeneity of gas exchange is fundamental to an understanding of the physiology of this growth form. We examined acropetal changes in anatomy, hydraulic conductivity and rates of gas exchange in five grass species (including C(3) and C(4) functional types). Both stomatal conductance and photosynthesis increased along all grass blades despite constant light availability. Hydraulic efficiency within the xylem remained constant along the leaf, but structural changes outside the xylem changed in concert with stomatal conductance. Stomatal density and stomatal pore index remained constant along grass blades but interveinal distance decreased acropetally resulting in a decreased path length for water movement from vascular bundle to stomate. The increase in stomatal conductance was correlated with the decreased path length through the leaf mesophyll. A strong correlation between the distance from vascular bundles to stomatal pores and stomatal conductance has been identified across species; our results suggest this relationship also exists within individual leaves.

  8. Tree-Level Hydrodynamic Approach for Improved Stomatal Conductance Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The land-surface models do not mechanistically resolve hydrodynamic processes within the tree. The Finite-Elements Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is based on the pervious FETCH model approach, but with finite difference numerics, and simplified single-beam conduit system. FETCH2 simulates water flow through the tree as a simplified system of porous media conduits. It explicitly resolves spatiotemporal hydraulic stresses throughout the tree's vertical extent that cannot be easily represented using other stomatal-conductance models. Empirical equations relate water potential at the stem to stomata conductance at leaves connected to the stem (through unresolved branches) at that height. While highly simplified, this approach bring some realism to the simulation of stomata conductance because the stomata can respond to stem water potential, rather than an assumed direct relationship with soil moisture, as is currently the case in almost all models. By enabling mechanistic simulation of hydrological traits, such as xylem conductivity, conductive area per DBH, vertical distribution of leaf area and maximal and minimal water content in the xylem, and their effect of the dynamics of water flow in the tree system, the FETCH2 modeling system enhanced our understanding of the role of hydraulic limitations on an experimental forest plot short-term water stresses that lead to tradeoffs between water and light availability for transpiring leaves in forest ecosystems. FETCH2 is particularly suitable to resolve the effects of structural differences between tree and species and size groups, and the consequences of differences in hydraulic strategies of different species. We leverage on a large dataset of sap flow from 60 trees of 4 species at our experimental plot at the University of Michigan Biological Station. Comparison of the sap flow and transpiration patterns in this site and an undisturbed control site shows significant difference in hydraulic strategies

  9. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling [Proceedings

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L. D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; G. Gerosa; C. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; D. De La Torre; J. -P. Tuovinen

    2006-01-01

    The ozone deposition model (D03SE) that has been developed and applied within the EMEP photooxidant model (Emberson et al., 2000, Simpson et al. 2003) currently estimates stomatal ozone flux using a stomatal conductance (gs) model based on the multiplicative algorithm initially developed by Jarvis (1976). This model links gs to environmental and phenological parameters...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND GENETICS INFLUENCE NIGHTTIME LEAF CONDUCTANCE IN THE C4 GRASS DISTICHLIS SPICATA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growing awareness of nighttime leaf conductance (gnight) in many species, as well as genetic variation in gnight within several species, has raised questions about how genetic variation and environmental stress interact to influence the magnitude of gnight. The objective of this study was to invest...

  11. Ozone exposure causes a decoupling of conductance and photosynthesis: implications for the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model.

    PubMed

    Lombardozzi, Danica; Sparks, Jed P; Bonan, Gordon; Levis, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Industrialization has significantly altered atmospheric chemistry by increasing concentrations of chemicals such as nitrogen oxides (NO( x )) and volatile organic carbon, which react in the presence of sunlight to produce tropospheric ozone (O(3)). Ozone is a powerful oxidant that causes both visual and physiological damage to plants, impairing the ability of the plant to control processes like photosynthesis and transpiration. Damage to photosynthesis and stomatal conductance does not always occur at the same rate, which generates a problem when using the Ball-Berry model to predict stomatal conductance because the calculations directly rely on photosynthesis rates. The goals of this work were to develop a modeling framework to modify Ball-Berry stomatal conductance predictions independently of photosynthesis and to test the framework using experimental data. After exposure to elevated O(3) in open-top chambers, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in tulip poplar changed at different rates through time. We were able to accurately model observed photosynthetic and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O(3) exposure in a Ball-Berry framework by adjusting stomatal conductance in addition to photosynthesis. This led to a significant improvement in the modeled ability to predict both photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to O(3).

  12. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Levis, S.; Bonan, G.; Sparks, J. P.

    2012-08-01

    Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3) concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM) to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP) and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb). Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  13. Photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the intact leaf

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Field, C.

    1982-08-01

    The photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the leaf was investigated in gas exchange experiments using monochromatic light provided by lasers. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured in attached leaves of Malva parviflora L. as a function of photon irradiance at 457.9 and 640.0 nanometers. Photosynthetic rates and quantum yields of photosynthesis were higher under red light than under blue, on an absorbed or incident basis. Stomatal conductance was higher under blue than under red light at all intensities. Based on a calculated apparent photon efficiency of conductance, blue and red light had similar effects on conductance at intensities higher than 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second, but blue light was several-fold more efficient at very low photon irradiances. Red light had no effect on conductance at photon irradiances below 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second. These observations support the hypothesis that stomatal conductance is modulated by two photosystems: a blue light-dependent one, driving stomatal opening at low light intensities and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)-dependent one operating at higher irradiances. When low intensity blue light was used to illuminate a leaf already irradiated with high intensity, 640 nanometers light, the leaf exhibited substantial increases in stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis changed only slightly. Additional far-red light increased net photosynthesis without affecting stomatal conductance. These observations indicate that under conditions where the PAR-dependent system is driven by high intensity red light, the blue light-dependent system has an additive effect on stomatal conductance.

  14. Isoprene Emission Rate and Intercellular Isoprene Concentration as Influenced by Stomatal Distribution and Conductance 1

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Ray; Monson, Russell K.

    1992-01-01

    Isoprene emission in relation to stomatal distribution and conductance was determined for the hypostomatous species, aspen and white oak, and the amphistomatous species, cottonwood. For aspen and oak, isoprene emission from the adaxial (nonstomatal) surface was <2% of that from the abaxial (stomatal) surface, even when stomata were closed by addition of abscisic acid (ABA). When treated with ABA, the total flux rate of isoprene emission from leaves of these two hypostomatous species was unchanged, despite decreases in stomatal conductance of over 90%. The lack of control over isoprene emission rate by stomatal conductance, despite the apparent movement of isoprene through the stomatal pores, was due to increases in the intercellular isoprene concentration that compensated for the decreased stomatal conductance and restored the equilibrium between the isoprene synthesis rate and emission rate. This relationship was demonstrated by (a) an experiment in which the decrease in the internal isoprene pool following the imposition of darkness took longer in the presence of ABA than in its absence, and (b) direct measurements of the internal isoprene concentration through vacuum extraction, which revealed substantially higher values in the presence of ABA than in its absence. In the amphistomatous species, cottonwood, isoprene was emitted from both surfaces and addition of ABA caused an increase in isoprene emission from one surface coupled with a decrease from the other surface. The specific surface exhibiting an increase varied among leaves, with some leaves exhibiting an increase from the adaxial surface and other leaves from the abaxial surface. We interpret this as indicating nonuniform stomatal closure with concomitant emission of isoprene at the greatest rate from the surface with the highest stomatal conductance. We also observed an increase in the total isoprene emission rate from cottonwood leaves following treatment with ABA. We interpret this as indicating a

  15. Relationship between 18O enrichment in leaf biomass and stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Sheshshayee, Madavalam Sreeman; Bindumadhava, Hanumantha Rao; Ramesh, Rengaswamy; Prasad, Trichy Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2010-03-01

    Models that explain the oxygen isotope enrichment in leaf water (and biomass) treat the relationship between the kinetic fractionation that occurs during evapotranspiration and the stomatal conductance in an empirical way. Consequently, the isotopic enrichment is always predicted to decrease with increasing stomatal conductance, regardless of the experimental evidence to the contrary. We explain why and suggest an alternative method to reconcile theory and experiment. We support this with our experimental data on rice and groundnut plants.

  16. Respiratory complex I deficiency induces drought tolerance by impacting leaf stomatal and hydraulic conductances.

    PubMed

    Djebbar, Reda; Rzigui, Touhami; Pétriacq, Pierre; Mauve, Caroline; Priault, Pierrick; Fresneau, Chantal; De Paepe, Marianne; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Benhassaine-Kesri, Ghouziel; Streb, Peter; Gakière, Bertrand; Cornic, Gabriel; De Paepe, Rosine

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the role of plant mitochondria in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation was compared between Nicotiana sylvestris wild type (WT) plants and the CMSII respiratory complex I mutant, which has low-efficient respiration and photosynthesis, high levels of amino acids and pyridine nucleotides, and increased antioxidant capacity. We show that the delayed decrease in relative water content after water withholding in CMSII, as compared to WT leaves, is due to a lower stomatal conductance. The stomatal index and the abscisic acid (ABA) content were unaffected in well-watered mutant leaves, but the ABA/stomatal conductance relation was altered during drought, indicating that specific factors interact with ABA signalling. Leaf hydraulic conductance was lower in mutant leaves when compared to WT leaves and the role of oxidative aquaporin gating in attaining a maximum stomatal conductance is discussed. In addition, differences in leaf metabolic status between the mutant and the WT might contribute to the low stomatal conductance, as reported for TCA cycle-deficient plants. After withholding watering, TCA cycle derived organic acids declined more in CMSII leaves than in the WT, and ATP content decreased only in the CMSII. Moreover, in contrast to the WT, total free amino acid levels declined whilst soluble protein content increased in CMSII leaves, suggesting an accelerated amino acid remobilisation. We propose that oxidative and metabolic disturbances resulting from remodelled respiration in the absence of Complex I activity could be involved in bringing about the lower stomatal and hydraulic conductances.

  17. A feasibility study for conducting unattended night-time operations at WMKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Gajadhar, Sarah; Dahm, Scott; Jordan, Carolyn; Nordin, Tom

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, W. M. Keck Observatory conducted a study of the feasibility of conducting nighttime operations on Maunakea without any staff on the mountain. The study was motivated by the possibility of long term operational costs savings as well as other expected benefits. The goals of the study were to understand the technical feasibility and risk as well as to provide labor and cost estimates for implementation. The results of the study would be used to inform a decision about whether or not to fund and initiate a formal project aimed at the development of this new unattended nighttime operating capability. In this paper we will describe the study process as well as a brief summary of the results including the identified viable design alternative, the risk analysis, and the scope of work. We will also share the decisions made as a result of the study and current status of related follow-on activity.

  18. A test of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme within the CABLE land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kauwe, M. G.; Kala, J.; Lin, Y.-S.; Pitman, A. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R. A.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.-P.; Miralles, D. G.

    2015-02-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) affects the fluxes of carbon, energy and water between the vegetated land surface and the atmosphere. We test an implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance model within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model (LSM). In common with many LSMs, CABLE does not differentiate between gs model parameters in relation to plant functional type (PFT), but instead only in relation to photosynthetic pathway. We constrained the key model parameter "g1", which represents plant water use strategy, by PFT, based on a global synthesis of stomatal behaviour. As proof of concept, we also demonstrate that the g1 parameter can be estimated using two long-term average (1960-1990) bioclimatic variables: (i) temperature and (ii) an indirect estimate of annual plant water availability. The new stomatal model, in conjunction with PFT parameterisations, resulted in a large reduction in annual fluxes of transpiration (~ 30% compared to the standard CABLE simulations) across evergreen needleleaf, tundra and C4 grass regions. Differences in other regions of the globe were typically small. Model performance against upscaled data products was not degraded, but did not noticeably reduce existing model-data biases. We identified assumptions relating to the coupling of the vegetation to the atmosphere and the parameterisation of the minimum stomatal conductance as areas requiring further investigation in both CABLE and potentially other LSMs. We conclude that optimisation theory can yield a simple and tractable approach to predicting stomatal conductance in LSMs.

  19. A test of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme within the CABLE Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kauwe, M. G.; Kala, J.; Lin, Y.-S.; Pitman, A. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R. A.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.-P.; Miralles, D. G.

    2014-10-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) affects the fluxes of carbon, energy and water between the vegetated land surface and the atmosphere. We test an implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance model within the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model (LSM). In common with many LSMs, CABLE does not differentiate between gs model parameters in relation to plant functional type (PFT), but instead only in relation to photosynthetic pathway. We therefore constrained the key model parameter "g1" which represents a plants water use strategy by PFT based on a global synthesis of stomatal behaviour. As proof of concept, we also demonstrate that the g1 parameter can be estimated using two long-term average (1960-1990) bioclimatic variables: (i) temperature and (ii) an indirect estimate of annual plant water availability. The new stomatal models in conjunction with PFT parameterisations resulted in a large reduction in annual fluxes of transpiration (~ 30% compared to the standard CABLE simulations) across evergreen needleleaf, tundra and C4 grass regions. Differences in other regions of the globe were typically small. Model performance when compared to upscaled data products was not degraded, though the new stomatal conductance scheme did not noticeably change existing model-data biases. We conclude that optimisation theory can yield a simple and tractable approach to predicting stomatal conductance in LSMs.

  20. Modelling stomatal conductance in Acacia caven: A two way approach to understand vapor fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, N.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration fluxes from semi arid ecosystems show a strong interannual variability and dependence on water availability. Usually this variable is regarded as very small but at local scale could substantially affect water balance at basin level. Climate Change scenarios for these regions are a source of concern as they project an increase in temperature, leading to a greater atmospheric water demand. In addition, precipitation is expected to decrease, increasing pressure for this kind of ecosystems. At a plant level, a rise on the actual atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to improve photosynthetic performance and water use efficiency. However, as stomatal conductance is the main pathway for water vapor flux, from the leaf to the atmosphere, and CO2 entrance to the substomatal cavity, a larger control of the stomatal opening, due to a severe water control lost from the plant, could lead to shortages in net assimilation, jeopardizing the behavior of Semi Arid ecosystems as natural carbon sinks. Stoma is also one of the main lock of the soil-plant-water continuum, thus finally controlling the rate of soil water depletion. Its modeling presents a key role in determining future groundwater availability and net ecosystem exchange. There are several approaches for stomatal conductance modeling, from mechanistic models, based on the physiological functioning of the stomata, to empirical models where the stomatal behavior is correlated with environmental conditions. We modeled stomatal conductance for a Chilean typical Mediterranean Savannanh, dominated by Acacia caven, comparing two different empirical approaches. We used a Shuttleworth and Wallace model for sparse canopies combined with an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. This model allowed us to link stomatal conductance to evapotranspiration. The second approach was based on a multiplicative model for stomatal conductance based on environmental limitation, following Jarvis's model

  1. Genetic variability for stomatal conductance in Pima cotton and its relation to improvements of heat adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Radin, J W; Lu, Z; Percy, R G; Zeiger, E

    1994-01-01

    Responses of stomata to environment have been intensively studied, but little is known of genetic effects on stomatal conductance or their consequences. In Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), a crop that is bred for irrigated production in very hot environments, stomatal conductance varies genetically over a wide range and has increased with each release of new higher-yielding cultivars. A cross between heat-adapted (high-yielding) and unadapted genotypes produced F2 progeny cosegregating for stomatal conductance and leaf temperature. Within segregating populations in the field, conductance was negatively correlated with foliar temperature because of evaporative cooling. Plants were selected from the F2 generation specifically and solely for differing stomatal conductance. Among F3 and F4 populations derived from these selections, conductance and leaf cooling were significantly correlated with fruiting prolificacy during the hottest period of the year and with yield. Conductance was not associated with other factors that might have affected yield potential (single-leaf photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential). As breeders have increased the yield of this crop, genetic variability for conductance has allowed inadvertent selection for "heat avoidance" (evaporative cooling) in a hot environment. PMID:11607487

  2. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: An atmospheric modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avissar, Roni

    1993-03-01

    Plant stomata play a key role in the redistribution of energy received on vegetated land into sensible and latent heat. As a result, they have a considerable impact on the atmospheric planetary boundary layer, the hydrologic cycle, the climate, and the weather. Current parameterizations of the stomatal mechanism in state-of-the-art atmospheric models are based on empirical relations that are established at the leaf scale between stomatal conductance and environmental conditions. In order to evaluate these parameterizations, an experiment was carried out on a potato field in New Jersey during the summer of 1989. Stomatal conductances were measured within a small homogeneous area in the middle of the potato field and under a relatively broad range of atmospheric conditions. A large variability of stomatal conductances was observed. This variability, which was associated with the variability of micro-environmental and physiological conditions that is found even in a homogeneous canopy, cannot be simulated explicitly on the scale of a single agricultural field and, a fortiori, on the scale of atmospheric models. Furthermore, this variability could not be related to the environmental conditions measured at a height of 2 m above the plant canopy simultaneously with the conductances, reinforcing the concept of scale decoupling suggested by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986) and McNaughton and Jarvis (1991). Thus, for atmospheric modeling purposes, a parameterization of stomatal conductance at the canopy scale using external environmental forcing conditions seems more appropriate than a parameterization based on leaf-scale stomatal conductance, as currently adopted in state-of-the-art atmospheric models. The measured variability was characterized by a lognormal probability density function (pdf) that remained relatively stable during the entire measuring period. These observations support conclusions by McNaughton and Jarvis (1991) that, unlike current parameterizations, a

  3. Canopy Stomatal Conductance Unlocks Partitioning of Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon and Water Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R. A.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Stomata are a key nexus in biosphere-atmosphere interactions: the gateway for both carbon gain and water loss by plant canopies. Accurate quantification of canopy stomatal conductance enables partitioning of both evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE)—the latter via CO2 isotope flux measurements. To those ends, we determined the behavior of canopy stomatal conductance in a temperate deciduous forest based on heat and water vapor flux measurements, and validated that determination based on uptake of carbonyl sulfide, which also passes through the stomata. We found that the canopy stomatal conductance followed a simple empirical function of leaf area index, light intensity, diffuse light fraction, and leaf-air water vapor gradient. The dependence on light intensity was highly linear, in contrast to the leaf scale, and in contrast to the behavior of canopy photosynthesis. Using canopy stomatal conductance, we partitioned ET and found that evaporation in this ecosystem peaks at the time of the year when soils are driest and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is low—because soil temperature is an important driver. As stomatal conductance impacts not only the rate of photosynthesis but also the fractionation of carbon isotopes by photosynthesis, we were also able to combine canopy stomatal conductance with CO2 isotope flux measurements in order to partition NEE. We found that: (1) canopy respiration is much less during the day than at night, likely due to the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (that is, the Kok effect), and (2) canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency does not decline through the summer, in contrast to standard estimates. These results clarify how leaf-level physiological dynamics impact ecosystem-atmosphere gas exchange, and demonstrate the utility of combining multiple tracers to constrain the processes underlying that exchange.

  4. The temperature sensitivity of guard cell respiration CO- segregates with stomatal conductances in a F2 population of pima cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenmin; Quinones, M.A.; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-05-01

    Stomatal conductances in lines of Pima cotton selected for higher yields and heat resistance increase as a function of selection. Lines with contrasting rates of stomatal conductances also have contrasting rates of guard cell respiration and proton pumping. In this work, we studied stomatal conductances and guard cell respiration rates in a F2 population of a cross between S-6, a heat-resistant, high yielding line, and B368, a heat sensitive primitive cotton. F2 plants were grown in a greenhouse (temperature=30[degrees]C at noon) and a growth chamber (12 h light, 40[degrees]C/12 h dark 28[degrees]C). conductances were 3-fold higher at 40[degrees]C than at 25[degrees]C in greenhouse-grown plants and 4-fold higher in growth chamber-grown plants. The range of stomatal conductances in segregating F2 plants increased sharply with temperature, indicating that the genetic differences between the parental populations are better expressed at high temperature. Respiration rates of guard cells measured in mechanically isolated, enzymatically cleaned epidermis, co-segregated with stomatal conductances. Plants with high stomatal conductances had high rates of guard cell respiration. The slope of guard cell respiration as a function of temperature increased linearly with stomatal conductances. The co-segregation of rates of guard cell respiration and stomatal conductances indicates that both properties are under genetic control, and that guard cell respiration is a component of the sensory transduction of the stomatal response to temperature.

  5. Variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in an ozone-stressed ponderosa pine stand: light response

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.I.; Bingham, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The seasonal course (May to October 1977) of gross photosynthesis (from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and stomatal conductance) in a stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the San Bernardino National Forest was characterized as a function of light. Nine sapling trees, classified for comparative studies into three chronic injury classes (slight, moderate, severe) had experienced oxidant fumigations from California's South Coast Air Basin for approximately 18 years, since their establishment following fire. The CO/sub 2/-transfer pathway was partitioned into its stomatal and residual (mesophyll, carboxylation, excitation) resistance components, for conditions of light saturation and 20/sup 0/C. Light-saturated gross photosynthetic rates and photochemical conversion efficiencies were highest in the current-year needles and decreased with increasing needle age and oxidant injury. Maximum stomatal conductance and stomatal sensitivity to increasing light during stomatal opening followed a trend similar to that of photosynthesis, except for current-year needles, where conductance parameters were highest in the severely injured trees. This higher conductance may contribute to observed differential ozone sensitivity in ponderosa pine. Premature senesence and abscission of the 1-year (severely injured trees) and 2-year (slight to moderate injury) needles occurred at about the time CO/sub 2/ uptake dropped to 10% of the potential for current needles of slightly injured trees without foliar injury symptoms. The ratio of stomatal CO/sub 2/ resistance to the total CO/sub 2/ resistance decreased with increasing oxidant injury and needle age, suggesting that loss of photosynthetic capacity was primarily related to the loss of chloroplast function rather than to increased resistance of CO/sub 2/ diffusion through the stomata.

  6. Variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in an ozone-stressed Ponderosa pine stand: light response

    SciTech Connect

    Cooyne, P.I,; Bingham, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    The seasonal course (May to October 1977) of gross photosynthesis (from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and stomatal conductance) in a stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the San Bernardino National Forest was characterized as a function of light. Nine sapling trees, classified for comparative studies into three chronic injury classes (slight, moderate, severe) had experienced oxidant fumigations from California's South Coast Air Basin for approximately 18 years, since their establishment following fire. The CO/sub 2/-transfer pathway was partitioned into its stomatal and residual (mesophyll, carboxylation, excitation) resistance components, for conditions of light saturation and 20/sup 0/C. Light-saturated gross photosynthetic rates and photochemical conversion efficiencies were highest in the current-year needles and decreased with increasing needle age and oxidant injury. Maximum stomatal conductance and stomatal sensitivity to increasing light during stomatal opening followed a trend similar to that of photosynthesis, except for current-year needles, where conductance parameters were highest in the severely injured trees. This higher conductance may contribute to observed differential ozone sensitivity in ponderosa pine. Premature senesence and abscission of the 1-year (severely injured trees) and 2-year (slight to moderate injury) needles occurred at about the time CO/sub 2/ uptake dropped to 10 percent of the potential for current needles of slightly injured trees without foliar injury symptoms. The ratio of the stomatal CO/sub 2/ resistance to the total CO/sub 2/ resistance decreased with increasing oxidant injury and needle age, suggesting that loss of photosynthetic capacity was primarily related to the loss of chloroplast function rather than to increased resistance of CO/sub 2/ diffusion through the stomata.

  7. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening.

  8. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Lammertsma, Emmy I.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Dekker, Stefan C.; Dilcher, David L.; Lotter, André F.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the adaptation of vegetation to the expected anthropogenic rise in CO2. Short-term stomatal opening–closing responses of vegetation to increasing CO2 are described by free-air carbon enrichments growth experiments, and evolutionary adaptations are known from the geological record. However, to date the effects of decadal to centennial CO2 perturbations on stomatal conductance are still largely unknown. Here we reconstruct a 34% (±12%) reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax) per 100 ppm CO2 increase as a result of the adaptation in stomatal density (D) and pore size at maximal stomatal opening (amax) of nine common species from Florida over the past 150 y. The species-specific gsmax values are determined by different evolutionary development, whereby the angiosperms sampled generally have numerous small stomata and high gsmax, and the conifers and fern have few large stomata and lower gsmax. Although angiosperms and conifers use different D and amax adaptation strategies, our data show a coherent response in gsmax to CO2 rise of the past century. Understanding these adaptations of C3 plants to rising CO2 after decadal to centennial environmental changes is essential for quantification of plant physiological forcing at timescales relevant for global warming, and they are likely to continue until the limits of their phenotypic plasticity are reached. PMID:21330552

  9. The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J; Arkhipova, Tatyana; Kudoyarova, Guzel

    2011-05-01

    Competition decreased transpiration from young lettuce plants after 2 days, before any reductions in leaf area became apparent, and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) of lettuce and tomato plants was also reduced. Stomatal closure was not due to hydraulic signals or competition for nutrients, as soil water content, leaf water status and leaf nitrate concentrations were unaffected by neighbours. Competition-induced stomatal closure was absent in an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato mutant, flacca, indicating a fundamental involvement of ABA. Although tomato xylem sap ABA concentrations were unaffected by the presence of neighbours, ABA/pH-based stomatal modulation is still likely to underlie the response to competition, as soil and xylem sap alkalization was observed in competing plants. Competition also modulated leaf ethylene production, and treatment of lettuce plants with an ethylene perception inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene) diminished the difference in g(s) between single and competing plants grown in a controlled environment room, but increased it in plants grown in the greenhouse: ethylene altered the extent of the stomatal response to competition. Effects of competition on g(s) are discussed in terms of the detection of the absence of neighbours: increases in g(s) and carbon fixation may allow faster initial space occupancy within an emerging community/crop.

  10. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  11. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques

    Treesearch

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  12. Optimized stomatal conductance of vegetated land surfaces and its effects on simulated productivity and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, A.

    2004-11-01

    The stomatal conductance of terrestrial vegetation affects the exchange fluxes of water and carbon at the land surface. Here, a dynamic vegetation model coupled to a climate model of intermediate complexity is used to demonstrate that an optimum stomatal conductance exists at which the rate of photosynthesis, and therefore vegetation productivity, is at a maximum. This maximum originates from two competing drivers that affect the rate of photosynthesis: (i) increased supply of atmospheric carbon dioxide with increased stomatal conductance and (ii) increased cloud cover, which reduces the supply of sunlight. The simulated climate with optimized stomatal conductance is close to the model's control simulation, but vegetation productivity is substantially enhanced. The existence of this optimum has potentially important implications for the adaptation of terrestrial productivity to different climates. If vegetation maintains this optimum not only in the present-day, but also adapts to it during past (and future) climates, not considering this optimum and how it changes leads to a general underestimation of terrestrial productivity under different climates.

  13. Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xerix and mesic habitats

    Treesearch

    R.N. Addington; L.A. Donovan; R.J. Mitchell; J.M. Vose; S.D. Pecot; S.B. Jack; U.G. Hacke; J.S. Sperry; R. Oren

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships between whole-tree hydranlic architecture and stomatal conductance in Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) across habitats that differed in soil properties and habitat structure. Trees occupying a xeric habitat (characterized by sandy, well-drained soils, higher nitrogen availability and lower overstory tree density)...

  14. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  15. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol

    2015-07-01

    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  16. Stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit and its relationship to hydraulic conductance in Pinus palustris.

    PubMed

    Addington, Robert N; Mitchell, Robert J; Oren, Ram; Donovan, Lisa A

    2004-05-01

    We studied the response of stomatal conductance at leaf (gS) and canopy (GS) scales to increasing vapor pressure deficit (D) in mature Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) growing in a sandhill habitat in the coastal plain of the southeastern USA. Specifically, we determined if variation in the stomatal response to D was related to variation in hydraulic conductance along the soil-to-leaf pathway (KL) over the course of a growing season. Reductions in KL were associated with a severe growing season drought that significantly reduced soil water content (theta) in the upper 90-cm soil profile. Although KL recovered partially following the drought, it never reached pre-drought values. Stomatal sensitivity to D was well correlated with maximum gS at low D at both leaf and canopy scales, and KL appeared to influence this response by controlling maximum gS. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that stomatal response to D occurs to regulate minimum leaf water potential, and that the sensitivity of this response is related to changes in whole-plant hydraulics.

  17. Surface Geometry and Stomatal Conductance Effects on Evaporation From Aquatic Macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Idso, Sherwood B.

    1987-06-01

    Evaporative water loss rates of several floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes were studied over a 4-year period through comparison of daily evaporative water losses from similar-sized vegetated (E) and open water (E0) surfaces. Two species with planate floating leaves (water fern and water lily) yielded E/E0 values of 0.90 for one and four growing seasons, respectively, and displayed stomatal regulation of potential evaporation. Water hyacinths grown in ponds with different diameters exhibited E/E0 ratios which decreased with increasing pond diameter for both short (0.06-0.36 m) and tall (0.63-0.81 m) plants, producing high linear correlations with amount of peripheral vegetative surface area. The latter relationships suggested an E/E0 value less than unity for a relatively extensive canopy of short water hyacinths and a value of the order of 1.4 for a tall canopy possessing similar two-dimensional surface area characteristics. The latter results were also demonstrated in a separate study utilizing polyurethane foam to insulate the peripheral exposure of tall water hyacinth canopies from advective energy. Finally, simultaneous stomatal conductance and daily E/E0 measurements on cattail and water hyacinth canopies with identical tank diameters indicated that although the mean stomatal conductance of the peripheral exposure of the cattail canopy was 72% less than that of the water hyacinth canopy, its total evaporative water loss was nearly equivalent, due to its greater height. Reducing the surface area of the peripheral cattail exposure by the fractional amount suggested by the stomatal conductance measurements harmonized its surface geometry-evaporation relationship with that of the water hyacinth canopy and once again demonstrated the reality of stomatal control of potential evaporation.

  18. Effects of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbonic anhydrase on stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.; Stimler, K.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The potential use of COS as tracer of the gross, one-way, CO2 flux into plants is based on its co-diffusion with CO2 into leaves without outflux stimulated research on COS-CO2 interactions during leaf gas exchange. We carried out gas exchange measurements of COS and CO2 in 22 plant species representing deciduous and evergreen trees, grasses, and shrubs, under a range of light intensities and ambient COS concentrations, using mid IR laser spectroscopy. A narrow range in the normalized ratio of the net uptake rates of COS (As) and CO2 (Ac; As/Ac*[CO2]/[COS]) was observed, with a mean value of 1.61±0.26. These results reflect the dominance of stomatal conductance over both COS and CO2 uptake, imposing a relatively constant ratio between the two fluxes (except under low light conditions when CO2, but not COS, metabolism is light limited). A relatively constant ratio under common ambient conditions will facilitate the application of COS as a tracer of gross photosynthesis from leaf to global scales. However, its effect on stomatal conductance may require a special attention. Increasing COS concentrations between 250 and 2800 pmol mol-1 (enveloping atmospheric levels) seems to stimulate stomatal conductance. We examined the stimulation of conductance by COS in a range of species and show that there is a large variation with some species showing almost no response while others are highly responsive (up to doubling stomatal conductance). Using C3 and C4 plants with antisense lines abolishing carbonic anhydrase activity, we show that the activity of this enzyme is essential for both the uptake of COS and the enhancement of stomatal conductance by COS. Since carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the conversion of COS to CO2 and H2S it seems likely that the stomata are responding to H2S produced in the mesophyll. In all natural species examined the uptake of COS and CO2 were highly correlated, and there was no relationship between the sensitivity of stomata and the rate of COS uptake

  19. [ABA accumulation and distribution during the leaf tissues shows its role stomatal conductance regulation under short-term salinity].

    PubMed

    Akhiiarova, G R; Fricke, W; Veselov, D S; Kudoiarova, G R; Veselov, S Iu

    2006-01-01

    The regulative role of ABA in the rapid plant stomatal reactions in response to salinity was investigated. The influence of the short-term salinity on the overall ABA accumulation and its distribution within the mature leaf (revealed by immunohystochemical technique) and stomatal conductance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were determined. Rapid bulk leaf ABA accumulation and increase in ABA immunolabeling in the mesophyl and guard cells of stomata were shown. The bulk ABA increasing in mature barley leaves coincided with stomatal closure induced by salt treatment indicating on the ABA contribution to the rapid stomatal closure.

  20. The dependence of leaf hydraulic conductance on irradiance during HPFM measurements: any role for stomatal response?

    PubMed

    Tyree, Melvin T; Nardini, Andrea; Salleo, Sebastiano; Sack, Lawren; El Omari, Bouchra

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the dependence of whole leaf hydraulic conductance to liquid water (K(L)) on irradiance when measured with a high pressure flowmeter (HPFM). During HPFM measurements, water is perfused into leaves faster than it evaporates hence water infiltrates leaf air spaces and must pass through stomates in the liquid state. Since stomates open and close under high versus low irradiance, respectively, the possibility exists that K(L) might change with irradiance if stomates close tightly enough to restrict water movement. However, the dependence of K(L) on irradiance could be due to a direct effect of irradiance on the hydraulic properties of other tissues in the leaf. In the present study, K(L) increased with irradiance for 6 of the 11 species tested. Whole leaf conductance to water vapour, g(L), was used as a proxy for stomatal aperture and the time-course of changes in K(L) and g(L) was studied during the transition from low to high irradiance and from high to low irradiance. Experiments showed that in some species K(L) changes were not paralleled by g(L) changes. Measurements were also done after perfusion of leaves with ABA which inhibited the g(L) response to irradiance. These leaves showed the same K(L) response to irradiance as control leaves. These experimental results and theoretical calculations suggest that the irradiance dependence of K(L) is more consistent with an effect on extravascular (and/or vascular) tissues rather than stomatal aperture. Irradiance-mediated stimulation of aquaporins or hydrogel effects in leaf tracheids may be involved.

  1. Co-ordination of hydraulic and stomatal conductances across light qualities in cucumber leaves.

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; Fanourakis, Dimitrios; van Ieperen, Wim

    2012-02-01

    Long-term effects of light quality on leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were studied in cucumber, and their joint impact on leaf photosynthesis in response to osmotic-induced water stress was assessed. Plants were grown under low intensity monochromatic red (R, 640 nm), blue (B, 420 nm) or combined red and blue (R:B, 70:30) light. K(leaf) and g(s) were much lower in leaves that developed without blue light. Differences in g(s) were caused by differences in stomatal aperture and stomatal density, of which the latter was largely due to differences in epidermal cell size and hardly due to stomatal development. Net photosynthesis (A(N)) was lowest in R-, intermediate in B-, and highest in RB- grown leaves. The low A(N) in R-grown leaves correlated with a low leaf internal CO(2) concentration and reduced PSII operating efficiency. In response to osmotic stress, all leaves showed similar degrees of stomatal closure, but the reduction in A(N) was larger in R- than in B- and RB-grown leaves. This was probably due to damage of the photosynthetic apparatus, which only occurred in R-grown leaves. The present study shows the co-ordination of K(leaf) and g(s) across different light qualities, while the presence of blue in the light spectrum seems to drive both K(leaf) and g(s) towards high, sun-type leaf values, as was previously reported for maximal photosynthetic capacity and leaf morphology. The present results suggest the involvement of blue light receptors in the usually harmonized development of leaf characteristics related to water relations and photosynthesis under different light environments.

  2. Co-ordination of hydraulic and stomatal conductances across light qualities in cucumber leaves

    PubMed Central

    Savvides, Andreas; Fanourakis, Dimitrios; van Ieperen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Long-term effects of light quality on leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) were studied in cucumber, and their joint impact on leaf photosynthesis in response to osmotic-induced water stress was assessed. Plants were grown under low intensity monochromatic red (R, 640 nm), blue (B, 420 nm) or combined red and blue (R:B, 70:30) light. Kleaf and gs were much lower in leaves that developed without blue light. Differences in gs were caused by differences in stomatal aperture and stomatal density, of which the latter was largely due to differences in epidermal cell size and hardly due to stomatal development. Net photosynthesis (AN) was lowest in R-, intermediate in B-, and highest in RB- grown leaves. The low AN in R-grown leaves correlated with a low leaf internal CO2 concentration and reduced PSII operating efficiency. In response to osmotic stress, all leaves showed similar degrees of stomatal closure, but the reduction in AN was larger in R- than in B- and RB-grown leaves. This was probably due to damage of the photosynthetic apparatus, which only occurred in R-grown leaves. The present study shows the co-ordination of Kleaf and gs across different light qualities, while the presence of blue in the light spectrum seems to drive both Kleaf and gs towards high, sun-type leaf values, as was previously reported for maximal photosynthetic capacity and leaf morphology. The present results suggest the involvement of blue light receptors in the usually harmonized development of leaf characteristics related to water relations and photosynthesis under different light environments. PMID:22121201

  3. Optimal stomatal conductance in relation to photosynthesis in climatically contrasting Eucalyptus species under drought.

    PubMed

    Héroult, Arnaud; Lin, Yan-Shih; Bourne, Aimee; Medlyn, Belinda E; Ellsworth, David S

    2013-02-01

    Models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) are based on coupling between g(s) and CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), and it is often assumed that the slope of this relationship ('g(1) ') is constant across species. However, if different plant species have adapted to different access costs of water, then there will be differences in g(1) among species. We hypothesized that g(1) should vary among species adapted to different climates, and tested the theory and its linkage to plant hydraulics using four Eucalyptus species from different climatic origins in a common garden. Optimal stomatal theory predicts that species from sub-humid zones have a lower marginal water cost of C gain, hence lower g(1) than humid-zone species. In agreement with the theory that g(1) is related to tissue carbon costs for water supply, we found a relationship between wood density and g(1) across Eucalyptus species of contrasting climatic origins. There were significant reductions in the parameter g(1) during drought in humid but not sub-humid species, with the latter group maintaining g(1) in drought. There are strong differences in stomatal behaviour among related tree species in agreement with optimal stomatal theory, and these differences are consistent with the economics involved in water uptake and transport for carbon gain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Stomatal conductance of Acer rubrum ecotypes under varying soil and atmospheric water conditions: predicting stomatal responses with an abscisic acid-based model.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Toler, Joe E; Wang, G Geoff

    2004-07-01

    A multiplicative model of stomatal conductance was developed and tested in two functionally distinct ecotypes of Acer rubrum L. (red maple). The model overcomes the main limitation of the commonly used Ball-Berry model (Ball et al. 1987) by accounting for stomatal behavior under soil drying conditions. We combined the Ball-Berry model with an integrated expression of abscisic acid (ABA)-based stomatal response to ABA concentration ([ABA]) in bulk leaf tissue (gfac), which coupled physiological changes at the leaf level with those in the root. The factor gfac = exp(-beta[ABA]L) incorporated the stomatal response to [ABA] into the Ball-Berry model by down regulating stomatal conductance (gs) in response to physiological changes in the root. The down regulation of gs is pertinent under conditions where soil drying may modify the delivery of chemical signals to leaf stomata. Model testing indicated that the multiplicative model was capable of predicting gs in red maple under wide ranges of soil and atmospheric conditions. Concordance correlation coefficients were high (between 0.59 and 0.94) for the tested ecotypes under three environmental conditions (atmospheric, rhizospheric and minimal stress). The study supported the use of gfac as a gas exchange function that controls water stress effects on gs and aids in the prediction of gs responses. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing

  5. Stomatal Conductance of Lettuce Grown Under or Exposed to Different Light Qualities

    PubMed Central

    KIM, HYEON-HYE; GOINS, GREGORY D.; WHEELER, RAYMOND M.; SAGER, JOHN C.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. • Methods Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red–blue (RB), red–blue–green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. • Key Results and Conclusions Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation. PMID:15347557

  6. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  7. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  8. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gil, Pilar M; Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone.

  9. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone. PMID:19649181

  10. A Modeling Approach to Quantify the Effects of Stomatal Behavior and Mesophyll Conductance on Leaf Water Use Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P.; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is considered as a determinant of yield under stress and a component of crop drought resistance. Stomatal behavior regulates both transpiration rate and net assimilation and has been suggested to be crucial for improving crop WUE. In this work, a dynamic model was used to examine the impact of dynamic properties of stomata on WUE. The model includes sub-models of stomatal conductance dynamics, solute accumulation in the mesophyll, mesophyll water content, and water flow to the mesophyll. Using the instantaneous value of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration rate were simulated using a biochemical model and Penman-Monteith equation, respectively. The model was parameterized for a cucumber leaf and model outputs were evaluated using climatic data. Our simulations revealed that WUE was higher on a cloudy than a sunny day. Fast stomatal reaction to light decreased WUE during the period of increasing light (e.g., in the morning) by up to 10.2% and increased WUE during the period of decreasing light (afternoon) by up to 6.25%. Sensitivity of daily WUE to stomatal parameters and mesophyll conductance to CO2 was tested for sunny and cloudy days. Increasing mesophyll conductance to CO2 was more likely to increase WUE for all climatic conditions (up to 5.5% on the sunny day) than modifications of stomatal reaction speed to light and maximum stomatal conductance. PMID:27379150

  11. QTLs Associated with Crown Root Angle, Stomatal Conductance, and Maturity in Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jose R; Erickson, John E; Munoz, Patricio; Saballos, Ana; Felderhoff, Terry J; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2017-07-01

    Three factors that directly affect the water inputs in cropping systems are root architecture, length of the growing season, and stomatal conductance to water vapor (). Deeper-rooted cultivars will perform better under water-limited conditions because they can access water stored deeper in the soil profile. Reduced limits transpiration rate () and thus throughout the vegetative phase conserves water that may be used during grain filling in water-limited environments. Additionally, growing early-maturing varieties in regions that rely on soil-stored water is a key water management strategy. To further our understanding of the genetic basis underlying root depth, growing season length, and we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study. A QTL for crown root angle (a proxy for root depth) new to sorghum was identified in chromosome 3. For , a QTL in chromosome seven was identified. In a follow-up field study it was determined that the QTL for was associated with reduced but not with net carbon assimilation rate () or shoot biomass. No differences in guard-cell length or stomatal density were observed among the lines, leading to the conclusion that the observed differences in must be explained by partial stomatal closure. The well-studied maturity gene was identified in the QTL for maturity. The transgressive segregation of the population was explained by the possible interaction of with other loci. Finally, the most probable position of the genes underlying the QTLs and candidate genes were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  12. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  13. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  14. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Yorio, N C; Sager, J C

    1999-03-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  15. Decoupling the influence of leaf and root hydraulic conductances on stomatal conductance and its sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit as soil dries in a drained loblolly pine plantation

    Treesearch

    J.-C. Domec; A. Noormets; Ge Sun; J. King; Steven McNulty; Michael Gavazzi; Johnny Boggs; Emrys Treasure

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between whole tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and the conductance in roots (Kroot) and leaves (Kleaf) in loblolly pine trees. In addition, the role of seasonal variations in Kroot and Kleaf in mediating stomatal...

  16. Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xeric and mesic habitats.

    PubMed

    Addington, R N; Donovan, L A; Mitchell, R J; Vose, J M; Pecot, S D; Jack, S B; Hacke, U G; Sperry, J S; Oren, R

    2006-04-01

    We investigated relationships between whole-tree hydraulic architecture and stomatal conductance in Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) across habitats that differed in soil properties and habitat structure. Trees occupying a xeric habitat (characterized by sandy, well-drained soils, higher nitrogen availability and lower overstory tree density) were shorter in stature and had lower sapwood-to-leaf area ratio (A(S):A(L)) than trees in a mesic habitat. The soil-leaf water potential gradient (psiS - psiL) and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (kL) were similar between sites, as was tissue-specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of roots. Leaf and canopy stomatal conductance (gs and Gs, respectively) were also similar between sites, and they tended to be somewhat higher at the xeric site during morning hours when vapour pressure deficit (D) was low. A hydraulic model incorporating tree height, A(S):A(L) and psiS-psiL accurately described the observed variation in individual tree G(Sref) (G(S) at D = 1 kPa) across sites and indicated that tree height was an important determinant of G(Sref) across sites. This, combined with a 42% higher root-to-leaf area ratio (A(R):A(L)) at the xeric site, suggests that xeric site trees are hydraulically well equipped to realize equal--and sometimes higher potential for conductance compared with trees on mesic sites. However, a slightly more sensitive stomatal closure response to increasing D observed in xeric site trees suggests that this potential for higher conductance may only be reached when D is low and when the capacity of the hydraulic system to supply water to foliage is not greatly challenged.

  17. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J

    2009-06-23

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  18. Dynamics of canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration, and evaporation in a temperate deciduous forest, validated by carbonyl sulfide uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, Richard; Commane, Róisín; Munger, J. William; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Saleska, Scott R.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface-atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed to further

  19. Dynamics of canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration, and evaporation in a temperate deciduous forest, validated by carbonyl sulfide uptake

    DOE PAGES

    Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Munger, J. William; ...

    2017-01-26

    Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed

  20. CO2-induced decrease of canopy stomatal conductance of mature conifer and broadleaved trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tor-ngern, P.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.; Palmroth, S.; McCarthy, H. R.; domec, J.

    2013-12-01

    Together with canopy leaf area, mean canopy stomatal conductance (GS) controls forest-atmosphere exchanges of energy and mass. Expectations for stomatal response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] (CO2E) based on seedling studies range from large decreases of conductance in foliage of broadleaved species to little or no response in conifers. These responses are not directly translatable to forest canopies, and their underlying mechanisms are ill-defined. The uncertainty of canopy-scale stomatal response to CO2E reduces confidence in modeled predictions of future forest productivity and carbon sequestration, and of partitioning of net radiation between latent and sensible heat flux. Thus, debates on the potential effects of CO2E-induced stomatal closure continue. We used a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in a 27-year-old, 25 m tall forest, to generate a whole-canopy CO2-response and test whether canopy-scale GS response to CO2E of widely distributed, fast growing shade-intolerant species, Pinus taeda (L.) and co-occurring broadleaved species dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua (L.), was indirectly affected by slow changes such as hydraulic adjustments and canopy development, as opposed to quickly responding to CO2 concentrations in the leaf-internal air space. Our results show indirect CO2E-induced reductions of GS of 10% and 30%, respectively, and no signs of a direct stomatal response even as CO2E was pushed to 685 μmol mol-1 (~1.8 of ambient). Modeling the effect of CO2E on the water, energy and carbon cycles of forests must consider slow-response indirect mechanisms producing large variation in the reduction of GS, such as the previously observed inconsistent CO2E effect on canopy leaf area and plant hydraulics. Moreover, the new generation of CO2E studies in forests must allow indirect effects caused by, e.g., hydraulic adjustments and canopy development, to play out. Such acclimation will be particularly prolonged in slowly developing ecosystems, such

  1. Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit reflect tissue-specific differences in hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Ocheltree, T W; Nippert, J B; Prasad, P V V

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressure deficit (D) of the atmosphere can negatively affect plant growth as plants reduce stomatal conductance to water vapor (g(wv)) in response to increasing D, limiting the ability of plants to assimilate carbon. The sensitivity of g(wv) to changes in D varies among species and has been correlated with the hydraulic conductance of leaves (K(leaf) ), but the hydraulic conductance of other tissues has also been implicated in plant responses to changing D. Among the 19 grass species, we found that K(leaf) was correlated with the hydraulic conductance of large longitudinal veins (K(lv), r(2) = 0.81), but was not related to K(root) (r(2) = 0.01). Stomatal sensitivity to D was correlated with K(leaf) relative to total leaf area (r(2) = 0.50), and did not differ between C3 and C4 species. Transpiration (E) increased in response to D, but 8 of the 19 plants showed a decline in E at high D, indicative of an 'apparent feedforward' response. For these individuals, E began to decline at lower values of D in plants with low K(root) (r(2) = 0.72). These results show the significance of both leaf and root hydraulic conductance as drivers of plant responses to evaporative demand.

  2. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance: potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Brilli, Federico; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Xu, Xiaobin; Bingemer, Heinz; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    The theoretical basis for the link between the leaf exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and water vapour (H(2)O) and the assumptions that need to be made in order to use COS as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance, are reviewed. The ratios of COS to CO(2) and H(2)O deposition velocities used to this end are shown to vary with the ratio of the internal to ambient CO(2) and H(2)O mole fractions and the relative limitations by boundary layer, stomatal and internal conductance for COS. It is suggested that these deposition velocity ratios exhibit considerable variability, a finding that challenges current parameterizations, which treat these as vegetation-specific constants. COS is shown to represent a better tracer for CO(2) than H(2)O. Using COS as a tracer for stomatal conductance is hampered by our present poor understanding of the leaf internal conductance to COS. Estimating canopy level CO(2) and H(2)O fluxes requires disentangling leaf COS exchange from other ecosystem sources/sinks of COS. We conclude that future priorities for COS research should be to improve the quantitative understanding of the variability in the ratios of COS to CO(2) and H(2)O deposition velocities and the controlling factors, and to develop operational methods for disentangling ecosystem COS exchange into contributions by leaves and other sources/sinks. To this end, integrated studies, which concurrently quantify the ecosystem-scale CO(2), H(2)O and COS exchange and the corresponding component fluxes, are urgently needed.

  3. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance: potential and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Brilli, F.; Hörtnagl, L.; Xu, X.; Bingemer, H.; Hansel, A.; Loreto, F.

    2011-12-01

    We review the theoretical basis for the link between the leaf exchange of COS, CO2 and H2O and the assumptions that need to be made in order to use COS as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities used to this end are shown to vary with the ratio of the internal to ambient CO2 and H2O mole fractions and the relative limitations by boundary layer, stomatal and internal conductance for COS. Back of the envelope calculations suggest these deposition velocity ratios to exhibit considerable variability, in accordance with available empirical literature data, a finding that challenges current parameterisations which treat these as vegetation specific constants. Due to the comparably more conservative nature of the internal to ambient CO2 mole fraction ratio we conclude that COS is a better tracer for CO2 than H2O. Using COS as a tracer for stomatal conductance is hampered by our present poor understanding of the leaf internal conductance to COS. Estimating canopy level CO2 and H2O fluxes requires disentangling leaf COS exchange from other sources/sinks of COS, in particular the soil. Some practical approaches to this end, in analogy to current practises of CO2 flux partitioning, are discussed. We conclude that future priorities for COS research should be to develop a better quantitative understanding of the variability in the ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities and the controlling factors and to develop operational methods for disentangling ecosystem COS exchange into contributions by leaves and other sources/sinks of COS. In order to test our present understanding of COS exchange and its relation to canopy photosynthesis and transpiration integrated studies are needed which concurrently quantify the ecosystem scale CO2, H2O and COS exchange and the corresponding component fluxes.

  4. Rapid and Specific Modulation of Stomatal Conductance by Blue Light in Ivy (Hedera helix) 12

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Assmann, Sarah M.

    1990-01-01

    Low intensity (0.015 millimole per square meter per second) blue light applied to leaves of Hedera helix under a high intensity red light background (0.50 millimole per square meter per second red light) induced a specific stomatal opening response, with rapid kinetics comparable to those previously reported for stomata with `grass type' morphology. The response of stomatal conductance to blue light showed a transient `overshoot' behavior at high vapor pressure difference (2.25 ± 0.15 kiloPascals), but not at low vapor pressure difference (VPD) (0.90 ± 0.10 kilo-Pascal). The blue light-induced conductance increase was accompanied by an increase in net photosynthetic carbon assimilation, mediated by an increase in the intercellular concentration of carbon dioxide. Values of assimilation once the blue light-stimulated conductance increase reached steady state were less than those at the peak of the overshoot, but the ratios of assimilation to transpiration (A/E) and blue light-stimulated ΔA/ΔE were greater during the steady-state response than during the overshoot. These results indicate that significant stomatal limitation of assimilation can occur, but that this limitation may improve water use efficiency under high VPD conditions. Under high intensity red light, the decline in A/E associated with an increase in VPD was minimized when conductance was stimulated by additional low intensity blue light. This effect indicates that the blue light response of stomata may be important in H. helix for the optimization of water use efficiency under natural conditions of high irradiance and VPD. PMID:16667732

  5. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance: potential and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Brilli, Federico; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Xu, Xiaobin; Bingemer, Heinz; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the link between the leaf exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) and the assumptions that need to be made in order to use COS as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance, are reviewed. The ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities used to this end are shown to vary with the ratio of the internal to ambient CO2 and H2O mole fractions and the relative limitations by boundary layer, stomatal and internal conductance for COS. It is suggested that these deposition velocity ratios exhibit considerable variability, a finding that challenges current parameterizations, which treat these as vegetation-specific constants. COS is shown to represent a better tracer for CO2 than H2O. Using COS as a tracer for stomatal conductance is hampered by our present poor understanding of the leaf internal conductance to COS. Estimating canopy level CO2 and H2O fluxes requires disentangling leaf COS exchange from other ecosystem sources/sinks of COS. We conclude that future priorities for COS research should be to improve the quantitative understanding of the variability in the ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities and the controlling factors, and to develop operational methods for disentangling ecosystem COS exchange into contributions by leaves and other sources/sinks. To this end, integrated studies, which concurrently quantify the ecosystem-scale CO2, H2O and COS exchange and the corresponding component fluxes, are urgently needed. We investigate the potential of carbonyl sulfide (COS) for being used as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance by examining the theoretical basis of the link between leaf COS, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) exchange. Our analysis identifies several limitations that need to be overcome to this end, however at present we lack appropriate ecosystem-scale field measurements for

  6. Role of leaf hydraulic conductance in the regulation of stomatal conductance in almond and olive in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Santana, Virginia; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Fernández, J Enrique; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The decrease of stomatal conductance (gs) is one of the prime responses to water shortage and the main determinant of yield limitation in fruit trees. Understanding the mechanisms related to stomatal closure in response to imposed water stress is crucial for correct irrigation management. The loss of leaf hydraulic functioning is considered as one of the major factors triggering stomatal closure. Thus, we conducted an experiment to quantify the dehydration response of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and its impact on gs in two Mediterranean fruit tree species, one deciduous (almond) and one evergreen (olive). Our hypothesis was that a higher Kleaf would be associated with a higher gs and that the reduction in Kleaf would predict the reduction in gs in both species. We measured Kleaf in olive and almond during a cycle of irrigation withholding. We also compared the results of two methods to measure Kleaf: dynamic rehydration kinetics and evaporative flux methods. In addition, determined gs, leaf water potential (Ψleaf), vein density, photosynthetic capacity and turgor loss point. Results showed that gs was higher in almond than in olive and so was Kleaf (Kmax = 4.70 and 3.42 mmol s(-1) MPa(-1) m(-2), in almond and olive, respectively) for Ψleaf > -1.2 MPa. At greater water stress levels than -1.2 MPa, however, Kleaf decreased exponentially, being similar for both species, while gs was still higher in almond than in olive. We conclude that although the Kleaf decrease with increasing water stress does not drive unequivocally the gs response to water stress, Kleaf is the variable most strongly related to the gs response to water stress, especially in olive. Other variables such as the increase in abscisic acid (ABA) may be playing an important role in gs regulation, although in our study the gs-ABA relationship did not show a clear pattern.

  7. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  8. Response of stomatal conductance to drought in ponderosa pine: implications for carbon and ozone uptake.

    PubMed

    Panek, J A; Goldstein, A H

    2001-03-01

    To gain insight into the limitations imposed by a typical Mediterranean-climate summer drought on the uptake of carbon and ozone in the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystem, we compared diurnal trends in leaf physiology of young trees in a watered and a control plot located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA (Blodgett Forest, 38 degrees 53' N, 120 degrees 37' W, 1315 m elevation). Predawn water potential of trees in the watered plot remained above -0.3 MPa throughout the growing season, whereas it dropped in the control plot from -0.24 to -0.52 MPa between late May and mid-August. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees in the watered plot were relatively insensitive to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), whereas gas exchange of trees in the control plot varied with changes in soil water, VPD and temperature. Although the 1998 growing season was abnormally wet, we saw a pronounced drought effect at the control site. Over the 2 months following the onset of watering, carbon and ozone uptake were measured on three days at widely spaced intervals. Carbon uptake per unit leaf area by 1-year-old foliage of trees in the control plot was 39, 35 and 30% less, respectively, than in the watered plot, and estimated ozone deposition per unit leaf area (ozone concentration times stomatal conductance) was 36, 46 and 41% less.

  9. Continent-Wide Decrease of Stomatal Conductance in Vegetation During Large Droughts of the Recent Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, W.; van der Velde, I.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K. M.; Tans, P. P.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.; van der Molen, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe droughts in the Northern Hemisphere caused widespread decline of agricultural yield, reduction of forest carbon uptake, and increased CO₂ growth rates in the atmosphere during the past decade. Plants respond to droughts by partially closing their stomata to limit their evaporative water loss, at the expense of carbon uptake by photosynthesis. Here we present new evidence on this drought response of terrestrial vegetation derived from year-to-year changes in the 13C/12C stable isotope ratio in atmospheric CO2. Observations from more than 50,000 flask samples from the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network suggest a strong decrease in stomatal conductance in vegetation that is highly correlated (see green line in the figure) with reductions of net carbon uptake over the Northern Hemisphere. This correlation is driven by severe drought conditions over areas several million km2 in size in Europe (2003, 2006), Russia (2010), and the United States (2002). This spatially integrated vegetation drought response at this scale can not be measured from laboratory experiments or field studies and the atmosphere thus offers a unique perspective on large-scale vegetation drought dynamics. A widely used stomatal conductance parameterization used in our study as well as many current climate models underestimate this observed decrease in carbon and water exchange during droughts (black and blue lines in the figure). The global δ13C record could provide a new opportunity to improve interannual drought dynamics in coupled vegetation-atmosphere models for CO2.

  10. A mutation that eliminates bundle sheath extensions reduces leaf hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Zsögön, Agustin; Negrini, Ana Clarissa Alves; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure whose distribution differs among species and ecosystems. The genetic control of BSE development is unknown, so BSE physiological function has not yet been studied through mutant analysis. We screened a population of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in the genetic background of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) model Micro-Tom and found a mutant lacking BSEs. The leaf phenotype of the mutant strongly resembled the tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv). We confirmed that obv lacks BSEs and that it is not allelic to our induced mutant, which we named obv-2. Leaves lacking BSEs had lower leaf hydraulic conductance and operated with lower stomatal conductance and correspondingly lower assimilation rates than wild-type leaves. This lower level of function occurred despite similarities in vein density, midvein vessel diameter and number, stomatal density, and leaf area between wild-type and mutant leaves, the implication being that the lack of BSEs hindered water dispersal within mutant leaves. Our results comparing near-isogenic lines within a single species confirm the hypothesised role of BSEs in leaf hydraulic function. They further pave the way for a genetic model-based analysis of a common leaf structure with deep ecological consequences.

  11. Assessment of Interactions Between Stomatal Conductance, Evapotranspiration, Carbon and Irrigated Soil Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Liang, X.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrological behavior and soil salinity are intricately linked in many agricultural environments. Fluxes of energy, water, and carbon dioxide are critical to the response of plants to soil salinity. A physically based plant water use model is developed to examine the problem of soil salinity as it relates to evapotranspiration and plant water uptake in an arid agricultural region. This model incorporates carbon dynamics and photosynthetic activity into the plant water use model, and examines the nonlinear manner in which plants respond to increased soil salinity. Higher soil osmotic pressure resulting from increased ionic presence increases the resistance to water flow through the plant; this change also impacts the assimilation of carbon dioxide through the stomatal opening. Canopy and ecosystem fluxes are now measured with such intensity as to allow comprehensive diurnal analysis of the effects of soil water and salt status on plant water, carbon, and energy fluxes. Initial results show that at higher salinity levels, non-linear and higher variable changes occur to stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration. Scaling these results to the daily or weekly level may be of great use to agricultural planners in their water management decisions.

  12. Hydraulic conductance and water potential gradients in squash leaves showing mycorrhiza-induced increases in stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Sams, Carl E; Nasim, Ghazala

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rates vary widely across plant species. Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) tends to change with g (s), to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent wide and potentially harmful fluctuations in transpiration-induced water potential gradients across the leaf (Delta Psi leaf). Because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often increases gs in the plant host, we tested whether the symbiosis affects leaf hydraulic homeostasis. Specifically, we tested whether k leaf changes with gs to maintain Delta Psi leaf or whether Delta Psi leaf differs when gs differs in AM and non-AM plants. Colonization of squash plants with Glomus intraradices resulted in increased gs relative to non-AM controls, by an average of 27% under amply watered, unstressed conditions. Stomatal conductance was similar in AM and non-AM plants with exposure to NaCl stress. Across all AM and NaCl treatments, k leaf did change in synchrony with gs (positive correlation of gs and k leaf), corroborating leaf tendency toward hydraulic homeostasis under varying rates of transpirational water loss. However, k leaf did not increase in AM plants to compensate for the higher gs of unstressed AM plants relative to non-AM plants. Consequently, Delta Psi leaf did tend to be higher in AM leaves. A trend toward slightly higher Delta Psi leaf has been observed recently in more highly evolved plant taxa having higher productivity. Higher Delta Psi leaf in leaves of mycorrhizal plants would therefore be consistent with the higher rates of gas exchange that often accompany mycorrhizal symbiosis and that are presumed to be necessary to supply the carbon needs of the fungal symbiont.

  13. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance related to reflectance on the canopy scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. B.; Sellers, P. J.; Walthall, C. L.; Hall, F. G.; Kim, J.; Goetz, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were analyzed in conjunction with reflectances obtained from a helicopter-mounted Modular Multiband Radiometer at a grassland study site during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment. These measurements are representative of the canopy scale and were made over a range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions during different stages in the annual life cycle of the prairie vegetation, and thus provide a good basis for investigating hpotheses/relationships potentially useful in remote sensing applications. We tested the hypothesis (Sellers, 1987) that the simple ratio vegetation index should be near-linearly related to the derivatives of the unstressed canopy stomatal conductance and the unstressed canopy photosynthesis with respect to photosynthetically active radiation. Even though there is some scatter in our data, the results seem to support this hypothesis.

  14. Environmental control of stomatal conductance in forest trees of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M C; Samuelson, L; Somers, G; Mays, A

    2000-11-01

    To determine if stomatal conductance (g(s)) of forest trees could be predicted from measures of leaf microclimate, diurnal variability in in situ g(s) was measured in black cherry (Prunus serotina), red maple (Acer rubrum), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Relative to overstory trees, understory saplings exhibited little diurnal variability in g(s) and ozone uptake. Depending on species and site, up to 30% of diurnal and seasonal variation in g(s )of overstory trees was explained by photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit. Daily maximum g(s) was significantly related to soil moisture in overstory northern red oak and black cherry (R(2) ranged from 33 to 65%). Although g(s) was not fully predicted using instantaneous measures of leaf microclimate, ozone uptake of large forest trees was reduced by low soil moisture.

  15. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance related to reflectance on the canopy scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. B.; Sellers, P. J.; Walthall, C. L.; Hall, F. G.; Kim, J.; Goetz, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were analyzed in conjunction with reflectances obtained from a helicopter-mounted Modular Multiband Radiometer at a grassland study site during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment. These measurements are representative of the canopy scale and were made over a range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions during different stages in the annual life cycle of the prairie vegetation, and thus provide a good basis for investigating hpotheses/relationships potentially useful in remote sensing applications. We tested the hypothesis (Sellers, 1987) that the simple ratio vegetation index should be near-linearly related to the derivatives of the unstressed canopy stomatal conductance and the unstressed canopy photosynthesis with respect to photosynthetically active radiation. Even though there is some scatter in our data, the results seem to support this hypothesis.

  16. The Effect of Drought on Stomatal Conductance in the Biosphere 2 Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, J. D.; Van Haren, J. L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is a major climate change concern for the Earth's rainforests; however little is currently known about how these forests and individual plants will respond to water stress. At the individual level, the ability of plants to regulate their stomatal conductance is an important preservation mechanism that helps to cool leaves, regulate water loss, and uptake carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem level, transpiration in rainforests is a major contributor to the positive feedback loop that returns moisture to the atmosphere for continued precipitation cycles. Nearly 60% of atmospheric moisture in the Amazon rain forests has been traced back to origins of transpiration from its plants. In relation to current climatic conditions, stomatal conductance rates are highly variable across rainforest species and environmental conditions. It is still unknown to what extent these rates will decrease at leaf and forest level in response to periods of drought. The University of Arizona's Biosphere 2 (B2) served as the study site for a simulated 4-week long drought because of its ability to mimic the micrometeorology of an Amazonian rainforest. Three species of plants were chosen at various levels in the canopy: Clitoria racemosa, Cissus sicyoides, and Hibiscus elatus. These plants were selected based on their relative abundance and distribution in the B2 forest. It was revealed that two out of the three species exhibited decreases in H20 efflux at each elevation, while one species (C. racemosa) proved much more resistant, at each elevation, to H20 loss. These results may be useful for future integrative modeling of how individual leaf level responses extend to entire ecosystem scales. It will be important to better understand how rainforests conserve, recycle, and lose water to gauge their response to warming climate, and increased periods of drought in the tropics.

  17. Stomatal response of an anisohydric grapevine cultivar to evaporative demand, available soil moisture and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Greer, Dennis H; Hatfield, Jo M; Hutton, Ron J; Clarke, Simon J; Hutchinson, Paul A; Somers, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Stomatal responsiveness to evaporative demand (air vapour pressure deficit (VPD)) ranges widely between species and cultivars, and mechanisms for stomatal control in response to VPD remain obscure. The interaction of irrigation and soil moisture with VPD on stomatal conductance is particularly difficult to predict, but nevertheless is critical to instantaneous transpiration and vulnerability to desiccation. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD and soil moisture was investigated in Semillon, an anisohydric Vitis vinifera L. variety whose leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) is frequently lower than that of other grapevine varieties grown under similar conditions in the warm grape-growing regions of Australia. A survey of Semillon vines across seven vineyards revealed that, regardless of irrigation treatment, midday Ψ(l) was dependent on not only soil moisture but VPD at the time of measurement. Predawn Ψ(l) was more closely correlated to not only soil moisture in dry vineyards but to night-time VPD in drip-irrigated vineyards, with incomplete rehydration during high night-time VPD. Daytime stomatal conductance was low only under severe plant water deficits, induced by extremes in dry soil. Stomatal response to VPD was inconsistent across irrigation regime; however, in an unirrigated vineyard, stomatal sensitivity to VPD-the magnitude of stomatal response to VPD-was heightened under dry soils. It was also found that stomatal sensitivity was proportional to the magnitude of stomatal conductance at a reference VPD of 1kPa. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to roots of Semillon vines growing in a hydroponic system induced stomatal closure and, in field vines, petiole xylem sap ABA concentrations rose throughout the morning and were higher in vines with low Ψ(l). These data indicate that despite high stomatal conductance of this anisohydric variety when grown in medium to high soil moisture, increased concentrations of ABA as a result of very limited soil moisture may augment

  18. Regulation of Photosynthesis of C3 Plants in Response to Progressive Drought: Stomatal Conductance as a Reference Parameter

    PubMed Central

    MEDRANO, H.; ESCALONA, J. M.; BOTA, J.; GULÍAS, J.; FLEXAS, J.

    2002-01-01

    We review the photosynthetic responses to drought in field‐grown grapevines and other species. As in other plant species, the relationship between photosynthesis and leaf water potential and/or relative water content in field‐grown grapevines depends on conditions during plant growth and measurements. However, when light‐saturated stomatal conductance was used as the reference parameter to reflect drought intensity, a common response pattern was observed that was much less dependent on the species and conditions. Many photosynthetic parameters (e.g. electron transport rate, carboxylation efficiency, intrinsic water‐use efficiency, respiration rate in the light, etc.) were also more strongly correlated with stomatal conductance than with water status itself. Moreover, steady‐state chlorophyll fluorescence also showed a high dependency on stomatal conductance. This is discussed in terms of an integrated down‐regulation of the whole photosynthetic process by CO2 availability in the mesophyll. A study with six Mediterranean shrubs revealed that, in spite of some marked interspecific differences, all followed the same pattern of dependence of photosynthetic processes on stomatal conductance, and this pattern was quite similar to that of grapevines. Further analysis of the available literature suggests that the above‐mentioned pattern is general for C3 plants. Even though the patterns described do not necessarily imply a cause and effect relationship, they can help our understanding of the apparent contradictions concerning stomatal vs. non‐stomatal limitations to photosynthesis under drought. The significance of these findings for the improvement of water‐use efficiency of crops is discussed. PMID:12102515

  19. Regulation of photosynthesis of C3 plants in response to progressive drought: stomatal conductance as a reference parameter.

    PubMed

    Medrano, H; Escalona, J M; Bota, J; Gulías, J; Flexas, J

    2002-06-01

    We review the photosynthetic responses to drought in field-grown grapevines and other species. As in other plant species, the relationship between photosynthesis and leaf water potential and/or relative water content in field-grown grapevines depends on conditions during plant growth and measurements. However, when light-saturated stomatal conductance was used as the reference parameter to reflect drought intensity, a common response pattern was observed that was much less dependent on the species and conditions. Many photosynthetic parameters (e.g. electron transport rate, carboxylation efficiency, intrinsic water-use efficiency, respiration rate in the light, etc.) were also more strongly correlated with stomatal conductance than with water status itself. Moreover, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence also showed a high dependency on stomatal conductance. This is discussed in terms of an integrated down-regulation of the whole photosynthetic process by CO2 availability in the mesophyll. A study with six Mediterranean shrubs revealed that, in spite of some marked interspecific differences, all followed the same pattern of dependence of photosynthetic processes on stomatal conductance, and this pattern was quite similar to that of grapevines. Further analysis of the available literature suggests that the above-mentioned pattern is general for C3 plants. Even though the patterns described do not necessarily imply a cause and effect relationship, they can help our understanding of the apparent contradictions concerning stomatal vs. non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis under drought. The significance of these findings for the improvement of water-use efficiency of crops is discussed.

  20. Factors influencing stomatal conductance in response to water availability in grapevine: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Sacco, Dario; Risse, Paul-André; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The main factors regulating grapevine response to decreasing water availability were assessed under statistical support using published data related to leaf water relations in an extensive range of scion and rootstock genotypes. Matching leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) and stomatal conductance (gs ) data were collected from peer-reviewed literature with associated information. The resulting database contained 718 data points from 26 different Vitis vinifera varieties investigated as scions, 15 non-V. vinifera rootstock genotypes and 11 own-rooted V. vinifera varieties. Linearised data were analysed using the univariate general linear model (GLM) with factorial design including biological (scion and rootstock genotypes), methodological and environmental (soil) fixed factors. The first GLM performed on the whole database explained 82.4% of the variability in data distribution having the rootstock genotype the greatest contribution to variability (19.1%) followed by the scion genotype (16.2%). A classification of scions and rootstocks according to their mean predicted gs in response to moderate water stress was generated. This model also revealed that gs data obtained using a porometer were in average 2.1 times higher than using an infra-red gas analyser. The effect of soil water-holding properties was evaluated in a second analysis on a restricted database and showed a scion-dependant effect, which was dominant over rootstock effect, in predicting gs values. Overall the results suggest that a continuum exists in the range of stomatal sensitivities to water stress in V. vinifera, rather than an isohydric-anisohydric dichotomy, that is further enriched by the diversity of scion-rootstock combinations and their interaction with different soils.

  1. Stomatal Conductance and Sulfur Uptake of Five Clones of Populus tremuloides Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Kozlowski, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Differences in LDC among the latter three clones were not significant. At 0.2 microliter per liter SO2, LDC decreased in the susceptible clone after 8 hours fumigation while the LDC of the other clones was not affected. Fumigation with 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 decreased LDC of all five clones during the fumigation. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Night LDC was higher in the susceptible clone than in the other clones. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO2 decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress. PMID:16661807

  2. Midday stomatal conductance is more related to stem rather than leaf water status in subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaf trees

    Treesearch

    Yong-Jiang Zhang; Frederick C. Meinzer; Qi Jin-Hua; Guillermo Goldstein; Cao. Kun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Midday depressions in stomatal conductance (gs/>) and photosynthesis are common in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the hydraulic determinants of midday gs, the coordination between leaf and stem hydraulics and whether regulation of midday gs/> differed between...

  3. Understanding changes of stomatal conductance under different atmospheric humidity levels for different tropical rainforest species in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornito, A. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of climate change is one of the biggest questions that scientists across the globe ask today. With understanding climate change comes the need to understand the ecological systems and how their biological and chemical processes contribute to climate change. As ocean ecosystems, rainforests are very productive systems and are responsible for most of the world's carbon budget. To maintain cooler conditions, tropical forests mitigate warming through evapotranspiration. The purpose of this project was to measure short-term plasticity by looking at stomatal conductance levels of different tropical rainforest species of plants in the rainforest, savannah, and desert habitats in the Biosphere 2 facility in Oracle, Arizona. It is known that stomatal conductance is affected by CO2, H2O, and light availability. It has been observed that temperature levels may not affect stomatal conductance because of the variability associated with it. Results indicated that there is a potential trend amongst these rainforest species when placed in different humidity percentage areas. By understanding stomatal conductance in response to humidity, we can better understand how productive rainforest systems are when humidity levels decrease, which may potentially occur as Earth undergoes global climate change.

  4. Scale effects on the controls on mountain grassland leaf stomatal and ecosystem surface conductance to water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslwanter, Alois; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are the major pathway by which plants exert control on the exchange of trace gases and water vapour with the aerial environment and thus provide a key link between the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the state and composition of the atmosphere. Understanding the nature of this control, i.e. how stomatal conductance differs between plant species and ecosystems and how it varies in response to external and internal forcings, is key to predicting feedbacks plants may be providing to changing climatic conditions. Despite a long history of research on stomatal functioning, a fully mechanistic understanding of how stomata function in response to biotic and abiotic controls is still elusive which has led to the development of a large number of (semi-)empirical models of varying complexity. Two of the most widely used models go back to Jarvis (1976) and Ball, Woodrow and Berry (1987), termed J-model and BWB-model, respectively, in the following. The J-model simulates stomatal conductance as some maximal value attenuated by a series of multiplicative functions which are bound between zero and unity, while the BWB-model predicts stomatal conductance as a linear function of photosynthesis, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration in the leaf boundary layer. Both models were developed for the prediction of leaf-scale stomatal conductance to water vapour, but have been applied for simulating ecosystem-scale surface conductance as well. The objective of the present paper is to compare leaf- and ecosystem-scale conductances to water vapour and to assess the respective controls using the two above-mentioned models as analysis frameworks. To this end leaf-level stomatal conductance has been measured by means of leaf-gas exchange methods and ecosystem-scale surface conductance by inverting eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates at a mountain grassland site in Austria. Our major findings are that the proportionality parameter in the BWB-model is

  5. High precision and continuous measurements of mesophyll and stomatal conductance to CO2 diffusion during photosynthesis using QCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, N.; Wada, R.; Nakayama, T.; Takemura, K.; Takahashi, K.; Hanba, Y. T.; Matsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The diffusion of CO2 within leaves during photosynthesis can be an important limiting factor for productivity. Mesophyll conductance had been thought to be infinite or constant over the time. Recent studies, however, have revealed that mesophyll conductance is altered by growth environment,and may respond rapidly to some environmental variables such as light and CO2 concentration. Mesophyll conductance has been suggested to be dependent on leaf anatomical and morphological structures, and aquaporin have been proven to play an important role in CO2 transport across cell membranes. In this study we used transgenic Eucalyptus overexpressing radish aquaporin PIP2 to investigate the effect of aquaporin on mesophyll conductance. We hypothesized that stomatal and mesophyll conductance may respond differently to environmental alterations. A mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometer (QCL; Aerodyne research Inc.) was coupled to a photosynthesis system to allow simultaneous measurement of exchange of CO2 and its isotopologues.We found that mesophyll conductance responded more rapidly to alteration of the light intensity compared to stomatal conductance, regardless of aquaporin expression. However, mesophyll conductance was higher in the leaves with higher aquaporin content. The mesophyll response was completed within 5 minutes, considerably faster than the stomatal response to the same perturbation.

  6. Maximal stomatal conductance to water and plasticity in stomatal traits differ between native and invasive introduced lineages of Phragmites australis in North America

    PubMed Central

    Douhovnikoff, V.; Taylor, S. H.; Hazelton, E. L. G.; Smith, C. M.; O'Brien, J.

    2016-01-01

    The fitness costs of reproduction by clonal growth can include a limited ability to adapt to environmental and temporal heterogeneity. Paradoxically, some facultatively clonal species are not only able to survive, but colonize, thrive and expand in heterogeneous environments. This is likely due to the capacity for acclimation (sensu stricto) that compensates for the fitness costs and complements the ecological advantages of clonality. Introduced Phragmites australis demonstrates great phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature, nutrient availability, geographic gradient, water depths, habitat fertility, atmospheric CO2, interspecific competition and intraspecific competition for light. However, no in situ comparative subspecies studies have explored the difference in plasticity between the non-invasive native lineage and the highly invasive introduced lineage. Clonality of the native and introduced lineages makes it possible to control for genetic variation, making P. australis a unique system for the comparative study of plasticity. Using previously identified clonal genotypes, we investigated differences in their phenotypic plasticity through measurements of the lengths and densities of stomata on both the abaxial (lower) and adaxial (upper) surfaces of leaves, and synthesized these measurements to estimate impacts on maximum stomatal conductance to water (gwmax). Results demonstrated that at three marsh sites, invasive lineages have consistently greater gwmax than their native congeners, as a result of greater stomatal densities and smaller stomata. Our analysis also suggests that phenotypic plasticity, determined as within-genotype variation in gwmax, of the invasive lineage is similar to, or exceeds, that shown by the native lineage. PMID:26819257

  7. Root hydraulic conductivity and adjustments in stomatal conductance: hydraulic strategy in response to salt stress in a halotolerant species

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Victoria; Bellati, Jorge; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás D.; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances at the molecular level are introducing a new scenario that needs to be integrated into the analysis of plant hydraulic properties. Although it is not yet clear to what extent this scenario alters the current proposal for the hydraulic circuit models, it introduces new insights when studying plants that are able to easily overcome water restrictions. In this context, our aim was to explore water adjustments in a halotolerant model (Beta vulgaris) by studying the coordination between the root in terms of root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and the shoot as reflected in the stomatal conductance (gs). The root water pathways were also analysed in terms of root suberization (apoplastic barrier) and aquaporin transcript levels (cell-to-cell pathway). Beta vulgaris showed the ability to rapidly lose (4 h) and gain (24 h) turgor when submitted to salt stress (200 mM). The reduction profile observed in Lpr and gs was consistent with a coupled process. The tuning of the root water flow involved small variations in the studied aquaporin's transcripts before anatomical modifications occurred. Exploring Lpr enhancement after halting the stress contributed to show not only a different profile in restoring Lpr but also the capacity to uncouple Lpr from gs. Beta vulgaris root plays a key role and can anticipate water loss before the aerial water status is affected. PMID:26602985

  8. How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (L/S) should decline during height (H) growth to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent stomatal conductance (g(s)) from declining. We contend that L/S should increase with H based on a numerical simulation, a mathematical analysis and a conceptual argument: (1) numerical simulation--a tree growth model, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is regulated to maximize C gain, predicts L/S should increase during most of H growth; (2) mathematical analysis--the formal criterion for optimal C allocation, applied to a simplified analytical model of whole tree carbon-water balance, predicts L/S should increase with H if leaf-level gas exchange parameters including g(s) are conserved; and (3) conceptual argument--photosynthesis is limited by several substitutable resources (chiefly nitrogen (N), water and light) and H growth increases the C cost of water transport but not necessarily of N and light capture, so if the goal is to maximize C gain or growth, allocation should shift in favor of increasing photosynthetic capacity and irradiance, rather than sustaining g(s). Although many data are consistent with the prediction that L/S should decline with H, many others are not, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies.

  9. Simulation of stomatal conductance for Aleppo pine to estimate its ozone uptake.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Susana; Alonso, Rocío; Gimeno, Benjamín S

    2007-04-01

    The data from a previous experiment carried out in open-top chambers to assess the effects of ozone (O3) exposure on growth and physiology of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) were re-assessed to test the performance of the EMEP O3 stomatal conductance model used to estimate tree O3 uptake at a European scale. Aleppo pine seedlings were exposed during three consecutive years to three different O3 treatments: charcoal filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l(-1). The results of the model using the default parameterisation already published for Mediterranean conifers showed a poor performance when compared to measured data. Therefore, modifications of g(max), f(min), and new f(VPD), f(temp) and f(phen) functions were developed according to the observed data. This re-parameterisation resulted in a significant improvement of the performance of the model when compared to its original version.

  10. Effects of height on treetop transpiration and stomatal conductance in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens).

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Anthony R; Sillett, Stephen C; Koch, George W; Van Pelt, Robert; Antoine, Marie E; Dawson, Todd E

    2010-10-01

    Treetops become increasingly constrained by gravity-induced water stress as they approach maximum height. Here we examine the effects of height on seasonal and diurnal sap flow dynamics at the tops of 12 unsuppressed Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. (coast redwood) trees 68-113 m tall during one growing season. Average treetop sap velocity (V(S)), transpiration per unit leaf area (E(L)) and stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (G(S)) significantly decreased with increasing height. These differences in sap flow were associated with an unexpected decrease in treetop sapwood area-to-leaf area ratios (A(S):A(L)) in the tallest trees. Both E(L) and G(S) declined as soil moisture decreased and vapor pressure deficit (D) increased throughout the growing season with a greater decline in shorter trees. Under high soil moisture and light conditions, reference G(S) (G(Sref); G(S) at D = 1 kPa) and sensitivity of G(S) to D (-δ; dG(S)/dlnD) significantly decreased with increasing height. The close relationship we observed between G(Sref) and -δ is consistent with the role of stomata in regulating E(L) and leaf water potential (Ψ(L)). Our results confirm that increasing tree height reduces gas exchange of treetop foliage and thereby contributes to lower carbon assimilation and height growth rates as S. sempervirens approaches maximum height.

  11. Does Low Stomatal Conductance or Photosynthetic Capacity Enhance Growth at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis?1

    PubMed Central

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K.; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if low stomatal conductance (g) increases growth, nitrate (NO3−) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) utilization at elevated CO2 concentration. Four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in g were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration under low and high NO3− supply as the sole source of N. Although g varied by 32% among NILs at elevated CO2, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration varied by only 4% and genotype had no effect on shoot NO3– concentration in any treatment. Low-g NILs showed the greatest CO2 growth increase under N limitation but had the lowest CO2 growth enhancement under N-sufficient conditions. NILs with the highest and lowest g had similar rates of shoot NO3– assimilation following N deprivation at elevated CO2 concentration. After 5 d of N deprivation, the lowest g NIL had 27% lower maximum carboxylation rate and 23% lower photosynthetic electron transport compared with the highest g NIL. These results suggest that increased growth of low-g NILs under N limitation most likely resulted from more conservative N investment in photosynthetic biochemistry rather than from low g. PMID:25583923

  12. An overview of models of stomatal conductance at the leaf level.

    PubMed

    Damour, Gaëlle; Simonneau, Thierry; Cochard, Hervé; Urban, Laurent

    2010-09-01

    Stomata play a key role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions as they control both water losses and CO(2) uptake. Particularly, in the context of global change, simulations of the consequences of drought on crop plants are needed to design more efficient and water-saving cropping systems. However, most of the models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) developed at the leaf level link g(s) to environmental factors or net photosynthesis (A(net)), but do not include satisfactorily the effects of drought, impairing our capacity to simulate plant functioning in conditions of limited water supply. The objective of this review was to draw an up-to-date picture of the g(s) models, from the empirical to the process-based ones, along with their mechanistic or deterministic bases. It focuses on models capable to account for multiple environmental influences with emphasis on drought conditions. We examine how models that have been proposed for well-watered conditions can be combined with those specifically designed to deal with drought conditions. Ideas for future improvements of g(s) models are discussed: the issue of co-regulation of g(s) and A(net); the roles of CO(2), absissic acid and H(2)O(2); and finally, how to better address the new challenges arising from the issue of global change.

  13. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance related to reflectance on the canopy scale

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, S.B.; Kim, J. ); Sellers, P.J.; Hall, F.G.; Goetz, S.J. ); Walthall, C.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were analyzed in conjunction with reflectances obtained from a helicopter-mounted Modular Multiband Radiometer (MMR) at a grassland study site during the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). These measurements are representative of the canopy scale and were made over a range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions during different stages in the annual life cycle of the prairie vegetation, and thus provide a good basis for investigating hypotheses/relationships potentially useful in remote sensing applications. The authors tested the hypothesis (Sellers, 1987) that the simple ratio vegetation index (SR) should be near-linearly related to the derivatives of the unstressed canopy stomatal conductance (g[sub c]*) and the unstressed canopy photosynthesis (P[sub c]*) with respect to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Even though there is some scatter in the data, the results seem to support this hypothesis. Further investigation, however, is needed before such relationships can be employed in satellite remote sensing applications.

  14. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Linda; Loewy, Zvi G

    2011-06-01

    Denture stomatitis, a common disorder affecting denture wearers, is characterized as inflammation and erythema of the oral mucosal areas covered by the denture. Despite its commonality, the etiology of denture stomatitis is not completely understood. A search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed electronic database (through November 2009) to identify relevant articles for inclusion in a review updating information on the epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis and the potential role of denture materials in this disorder. Epidemiological studies report prevalence of denture stomatitis among denture wearers to range from 15% to over 70%. Studies have been conducted among various population samples, and this appears to influence prevalence rates. In general, where reported, incidence of denture stomatitis is higher among elderly denture users and among women. Etiological factors include poor denture hygiene, continual and nighttime wearing of removable dentures, accumulation of denture plaque, and bacterial and yeast contamination of denture surface. In addition, poor-fitting dentures can increase mucosal trauma. All of these factors appear to increase the ability of Candida albicans to colonize both the denture and oral mucosal surfaces, where it acts as an opportunistic pathogen. Antifungal treatment can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms, but unless dentures are decontaminated and their cleanliness maintained, stomatitis will recur when antifungal therapy is discontinued. New developments related to denture materials are focusing on means to reduce development of adherent biofilms. These may have value in reducing bacterial and yeast colonization, and could lead to reductions in denture stomatitis with appropriate denture hygiene.

  15. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Johnson; David R. Woodruff; Katherien A. McCulloh; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure Kleaf, using a rehydration kinetics method, (1) in the laboratory (under controlled conditions) across a range of water potentials to construct vulnerability curves (VC) and (2) over the course of the day in the field along with leaf water potential and stomatal conductance. The results presented here...

  16. Stomata-controlled nighttime COS fluxes in a boreal forest: implications for the use of COS as a GPP tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulli; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Baker, Ian T.; Franchin, Alessandro; Kolari, Pasi; Sun, Wu; Keskinen, Helmi; Levula, Janne; Chen, Huilin

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) is a promising new tracer that can be used to partition the Net Ecosystem Exchange into gross primary production (GPP) and respiration. COS and CO2 vegetation fluxes are closely related as these gases share the same diffusion pathway into stomata. This close coupling is the fundamental principle for the use of COS as tracer for GPP. Nonetheless, in contrast to CO2 , the uptake of COS by vegetation is not light-dependent, and therefore the vegetative uptake of COS can continue during the night as long as stomata are open. Nighttime stomatal conductance is observed in a variety of studies, and also nighttime depletion of COS concentrations is reported several times but it is not confirmed with field measurements that the depletion of COS in the night is indeed driven by stomatal opening. In the summer of 2015 a campaign took place at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland to provide better constrained COS flux data for boreal forests using a combination of COS measurements, i.e. atmospheric profile concentrations up to 125 m, eddy-covariance fluxes and soil chamber fluxes, and collocated measurements of stomatal conductance and 222Radon. A high correlation between concentrations of 222Radon and COS implies that the radon-tracer method is a valuable tool to derive nighttime ecosystem COS fluxes. We find that soils contribute to 17% of the total ecosystem COS flux during nighttime in the peak growing season. Nighttime ecosystem COS fluxes show a correlation with stomatal conductance (R2 = 0.3), indicating that nighttime COS fluxes are primarily driven by vegetation. The COS vegetation fluxes will be compared with calculated fluxes from the Simple Biosphere model. Furthermore, the nighttime vegetative COS uptake covers a substantial fraction (25%) of the daily maximum COS uptake by vegetation. Accurate quantification of nighttime COS uptake is required to be able to use COS as a useful tracer for GPP.

  17. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Methods Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. Key Results There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below −1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Conclusions Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for

  18. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  19. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationships of Leaf Net Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, and Mesophyll Conductance to Primary Metabolism: A Multispecies Meta-Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Gago, Jorge; Daloso, Danilo de Menezes; Figueroa, Carlos María; Flexas, Jaume; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Plant metabolism drives plant development and plant-environment responses, and data readouts from this cellular level could provide insights in the underlying molecular processes. Existing studies have already related key in vivo leaf gas-exchange parameters with structural traits and nutrient components across multiple species. However, insights in the relationships of leaf gas-exchange with leaf primary metabolism are still limited. We investigated these relationships through a multispecies meta-analysis approach based on data sets from 17 published studies describing net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal (gs) and mesophyll (gm) conductances, alongside the 53 data profiles from primary metabolism of 14 species grown in different experiments. Modeling results highlighted the conserved patterns between the different species. Consideration of species-specific effects increased the explanatory power of the models for some metabolites, including Glc-6-P, Fru-6-P, malate, fumarate, Xyl, and ribose. Significant relationships of A with sugars and phosphorylated intermediates were observed. While gs was related to sugars, organic acids, myo-inositol, and shikimate, gm showed a more complex pattern in comparison to the two other traits. Some metabolites, such as malate and Man, appeared in the models for both conductances, suggesting a metabolic coregulation between gs and gm The resulting statistical models provide the first hints for coregulation patterns involving primary metabolism plus leaf water and carbon balances that are conserved across plant species, as well as species-specific trends that can be used to determine new biotechnological targets for crop improvement. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  2. Maximal stomatal conductance to water and plasticity in stomatal traits differ between native and invasive introduced lineages of Phragmites australis in North America.

    PubMed

    Douhovnikoff, V; Taylor, S H; Hazelton, E L G; Smith, C M; O'Brien, J

    2016-01-27

    The fitness costs of reproduction by clonal growth can include a limited ability to adapt to environmental and temporal heterogeneity. Paradoxically, some facultatively clonal species are not only able to survive, but colonize, thrive and expand in heterogeneous environments. This is likely due to the capacity for acclimation (sensu stricto) that compensates for the fitness costs and complements the ecological advantages of clonality. Introduced Phragmites australis demonstrates great phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature, nutrient availability, geographic gradient, water depths, habitat fertility, atmospheric CO2, interspecific competition and intraspecific competition for light. However, no in situ comparative subspecies studies have explored the difference in plasticity between the non-invasive native lineage and the highly invasive introduced lineage. Clonality of the native and introduced lineages makes it possible to control for genetic variation, making P. australis a unique system for the comparative study of plasticity. Using previously identified clonal genotypes, we investigated differences in their phenotypic plasticity through measurements of the lengths and densities of stomata on both the abaxial (lower) and adaxial (upper) surfaces of leaves, and synthesized these measurements to estimate impacts on maximum stomatal conductance to water (gwmax). Results demonstrated that at three marsh sites, invasive lineages have consistently greater gwmax than their native congeners, as a result of greater stomatal densities and smaller stomata. Our analysis also suggests that phenotypic plasticity, determined as within-genotype variation in gwmax, of the invasive lineage is similar to, or exceeds, that shown by the native lineage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  3. Optimization of stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under dynamic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Palmroth, Sari; Porporato, Amilcare; Katul, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Optimization theories explain a variety of forms and functions in plants. At the leaf scale, it is often hypothesized that carbon gain is maximized, thus providing a quantifiable objective for a mathematical definition of optimality conditions. Eco-physiological trade-offs and limited resource availability introduce natural bounds to this optimization process. In particular, carbon uptake from the atmosphere is inherently linked to water losses from the soil as water is taken up by roots and evaporated. Hence, water availability in soils constrains the amount of carbon that can be taken up and assimilated into new biomass. The problem of maximizing photosynthesis at a given water availability by modifying stomatal conductance, the plant-controlled variable to be optimized, has been traditionally formulated for short time intervals over which soil moisture changes can be neglected. This simplification led to a mathematically open solution, where the undefined Lagrange multiplier of the optimization (equivalent to the marginal water use efficiency, λ) is then heuristically determined via data fitting. Here, a set of models based on different assumptions that account for soil moisture dynamics over an individual dry-down are proposed so as to provide closed analytical expressions for the carbon gain maximization problem. These novel solutions link the observed variability in λ over time, across soil moisture changes, and at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to water use strategies ranging from intensive, in which all soil water is consumed by the end of the dry-down period, to more conservative, in which water stress is avoided by reducing transpiration.

  4. Analyses of assumptions and errors in the calculation of stomatal conductance from sap flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Brent E.; Oren, Ram

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed assumptions and measurement errors in estimating canopy transpiration (E(L)) from sap flux (J(S)) measured with Granier-type sensors, and in calculating canopy stomatal conductance (G(S)) from E(L) and vapor pressure deficit (D). The study was performed in 12-year-old Pinus taeda L. stands with a wide range in leaf area index (L) and growth rate. No systematic differences in J(S) were found between the north and south sides of trees. However, J(S) in xylem between 20 and 40 mm from the cambium was 50 and 39% of J(S) in the outer 20-mm band of xylem in slow- and fast-growing trees, respectively. Sap flux measured in stems did not lag J(S) measured in branches, and time and frequency domain analyses of time series indicated that variability in J(S) in stems and branches is mostly explained by variation in D. Therefore, J(S) was used to estimate transpiration, after accounting for radial patterns. There was no difference between D and leaf-to-air vapor pressure gradient, and D did not have a vertical profile in stands of either low or high L suggesting a strong canopy-atmosphere coupling. Therefore, D estimated at one point in the canopy can be used to calculate G(S) in such stands. Given the uncertainties in J(S), relative humidity, and temperature measurements, to keep errors in G(S) estimates to less than 10%, estimates of G(S) should be limited to conditions in which D >/= 0.6 kPa.

  5. Environmental constraints on transpiration and stomatal conductance in a Siberian Arctic boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, Heather; Loranty, Michael; Alexander, Heather D.; Berner, Logan T.; Natali, Susan M.; Spawn, Seth A.

    2017-03-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems are experiencing changes in plant productivity that are likely to continue with ongoing climate change. Transpiration (T) and canopy stomatal conductance (gc) are a key influence on plant productivity, and a better understanding of drivers and limitations of T and gc is necessary for constraining estimates of boreal ecosystem change. We describe patterns in T and gc of a deciduous conifer, Larix cajanderi, in an arctic boreal forest in northeastern Russia across three growing seasons from 2013 to 2015. We examine the influence of environmental drivers on gc using a phenomenological model. T was highly variable across days and varied between 0.03 and 0.75 L m-2 d-1. T and gc largely covaried with daily fluctuations in air temperature and vapor pressure deficit. gc was highly suppressed on days when the vapor pressure deficits exceeded 0.75 kPa with an average daily gc of 37.55 mmol m-2 s-1, and the average daily gc was almost double (71.25 mmol m-2 s-1) when vapor pressure deficits stayed below 0.75 kPa. Daily variation in gc was significantly related to air temperature, permafrost thaw depth, and past precipitation. The influence of past precipitation and permafrost thaw depth on gc indicates that belowground conditions relating to soil moisture status are a key limitation for T. Such limitations on gc and T suggest that soil water and plant water stress play an important role in plant productivity and water relations in far northeastern Siberia.

  6. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Hydraulics, and Multilayer Canopies: A New Paradigm for Earth System Models or Unnecessary Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture stress is a key regulator of canopy transpiration, the surface energy budget, and land-atmosphere coupling. Many land surface models used in Earth system models have an ad-hoc parameterization of soil moisture stress that decreases stomatal conductance with soil drying. Parameterization of soil moisture stress from more fundamental principles of plant hydrodynamics is a key research frontier for land surface models. While the biophysical and physiological foundations of such parameterizations are well-known, their best implementation in land surface models is less clear. Land surface models utilize a big-leaf canopy parameterization (or two big-leaves to represent the sunlit and shaded canopy) without vertical gradients in the canopy. However, there are strong biometeorological and physiological gradients in plant canopies. Are these gradients necessary to resolve? Here, I describe a vertically-resolved, multilayer canopy model that calculates leaf temperature and energy fluxes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential at each level in the canopy. In this model, midday leaf water stress manifests in the upper canopy layers, which receive high amounts of solar radiation, have high leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity, and have high stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (in the absence of leaf water stress). Lower levels in the canopy become water stressed in response to longer-term soil moisture drying. I examine the role of vertical gradients in the canopy microclimate (solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed), structure (leaf area density), and physiology (leaf nitrogen, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance) in determining above canopy fluxes and gradients of transpiration and leaf water potential within the canopy.

  7. Spatio-temporal decoupling of stomatal and mesophyll conductance induced by vein cutting in leaves of Helianthus annuus

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, David T.; Green, Laura E.; Pockman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of hydraulic conductance to the canopy has been shown to result in stomatal responses to limit transpiration. To test for similar responses to perturbations of the hydraulic network in leaves, we simultaneously measured leaf gas exchange with spatially explicit chlorophyll-a fluorescence and leaf temperature to examine the effects of cutting a primary leaf vein in Helianthus annuus. We repeated the leaf treatment at each of three different vapor pressure deficits and monitored the short-term dynamics of gas exchange following the treatment. Immediately after treatment, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance (gs) showed a transient “wrong way” response in which photosynthesis declined despite increased gs. Comparisons of fluorescence and temperature across the leaf showed that both photosynthesis and gs were transiently patchy across the measured leaf area, but that the patchiness of the two processes did not correspond in space or time. This suggests that photosynthesis and gs respond to vein cutting-induced cavitation via different mechanisms. Because the stomatal response varied by vapor pressure difference condition but photosynthesis did not, it is likely that gs, but not photosynthesis, responded to a hydraulic signal. In contrast, we hypothesize that photosynthesis declined due to a wound-induced electrical signal that has recently been shown to transiently decrease mesophyll conductance to CO2. The interaction of epidermal hydraulics and the electrical signal across the leaf likely created a patchy pattern of chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature that cannot be explained through the action of a single signal. PMID:24065972

  8. Optimizing Leaf Stomatal Conductance for Maximum Carbon Gain Under Salt Stressed and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how plants adapt to different stresses such as droughts, hypoxic or hyper-saline conditions is necessary to progress on the broader problem of how carbon and water exchange rates between the biosphere and atmosphere react to a changing climate. In this work, the effects of increased salinity on photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll conductances under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions are explored. A model based on stomatal optimization principles, according to which plants maximize carbon gain at a given water loss at the leaf scale, is generalized to include mesophyll conductance and its dependence on water salinity. The optimization problem is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function and both approaches are consistent with reported gas-exchange measurements in fresh water and in salt stressed conditions. It is shown here that an increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water (and reduced stomatal conductance) for the plant as it does under water stress conditions. However, these reductions in photosynthetic rates observed under increased salt stress conditions cannot be attributed to limitation of CO2 diffusion alone since salt stress did reduce the photosynthetic capacity of plants by 30-40%.

  9. Influence of the Asian Monsoon on the Couplings between Stomatal Conductance and Micrometeorological Variables of Forest Ecosystems in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Ruddell, B. L.; Yun, J.; Kim, S.; Cho, C. H.; Chun, J. H.; Hirano, T.; Yu, G.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    The performance of land surface models deteriorates under extreme climate conditions (e.g., drought) because of fundamental changes in the system structure. The ecohydrologic system is complex system in which the relationships between the variables in the system change depending on time and system state. A monsoon introduces a profound alteration in process which may define a shift in the system state. Transpiration in the ecohydrologic system is an important point of contact between water, carbon, and energy exchange subsystems, and the stomatal conductance is one of the key factors which controls transpiration. We utilized transfer entropy in a dynamical process network application to define changes in system state by observing changes in the couplings between this system's carbon, water, and energy subsystems. We quantified the transfer entropy from the micrometeorological variables of a flux tower i.e., solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, air temperature, and soil water content to the stomatal conductance for the five forest ecosystems in East Asia. The strength of this coupling increased significantly during and after the monsoon. Based on the result, we are modifying the parameterization of stomatal conductance to integrate the biological adaptation to the monsoon into the simulation of transpiration in a land surface model. Acknowledgment. This research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2014-3030.

  10. Detecting the Differences in Responses of Stomatal Conductance to Moisture Stresses between Deciduous Shrubs and Artemisia Subshrubs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management. PMID:24386351

  11. Phototropins but not cryptochromes mediate the blue light-specific promotion of stomatal conductance, while both enhance photosynthesis and transpiration under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, Hernán E; Giordano, Carla V; Ploschuk, Edmundo L; Piccoli, Patricia N; Bottini, Rubén; Casal, Jorge J

    2012-03-01

    Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. Since phot and cry are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors, they may be involved in the perception of the blue light-specific signal that induces the aperture of the stomatal pores. In leaf epidermal peels, the blue light-specific effect saturates at low irradiances; therefore, it is considered to operate mainly under the low irradiance of dawn, dusk, or deep canopies. Conversely, we show that both phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 have reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis, particularly under the high irradiance of full sunlight at midday. These mutants show compromised responses of stomatal conductance to irradiance. However, the effects of phot and cry on photosynthesis were largely nonstomatic. While the stomatal conductance phenotype of phot1 phot2 was blue light specific, cry1 cry2 showed reduced stomatal conductance not only in response to blue light, but also in response to red light. The levels of abscisic acid were elevated in cry1 cry2. We conclude that considering their effects at high irradiances cry and phot are critical for the control of transpiration and photosynthesis rates in the field. The effects of cry on stomatal conductance are largely indirect and involve the control of abscisic acid levels.

  12. Phototropins But Not Cryptochromes Mediate the Blue Light-Specific Promotion of Stomatal Conductance, While Both Enhance Photosynthesis and Transpiration under Full Sunlight12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Boccalandro, Hernán E.; Giordano, Carla V.; Ploschuk, Edmundo L.; Piccoli, Patricia N.; Bottini, Rubén; Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. Since phot and cry are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors, they may be involved in the perception of the blue light-specific signal that induces the aperture of the stomatal pores. In leaf epidermal peels, the blue light-specific effect saturates at low irradiances; therefore, it is considered to operate mainly under the low irradiance of dawn, dusk, or deep canopies. Conversely, we show that both phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 have reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis, particularly under the high irradiance of full sunlight at midday. These mutants show compromised responses of stomatal conductance to irradiance. However, the effects of phot and cry on photosynthesis were largely nonstomatic. While the stomatal conductance phenotype of phot1 phot2 was blue light specific, cry1 cry2 showed reduced stomatal conductance not only in response to blue light, but also in response to red light. The levels of abscisic acid were elevated in cry1 cry2. We conclude that considering their effects at high irradiances cry and phot are critical for the control of transpiration and photosynthesis rates in the field. The effects of cry on stomatal conductance are largely indirect and involve the control of abscisic acid levels. PMID:22147516

  13. Is optimality in stomatal conductance an endogenous process or an emergent property arising from interactions with the environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resco de Dios, Victor; Gessler, Arthur; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Bahn, Michael; Milcu, Alexandru; Tissue, David; Voltas, Jordi; Roy, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Plants are sessile and poikilothermic organisms that need to respond and adjust promptly to an ever-changing environment. Over a single 24 h period, a plant may experience the same level of variation in radiation as in its entire life-time and, in some climates, the oscillation in day-night temperature and vapor pressure deficit might be of similar magnitude to that experienced across a full year. Plants need to maintain a positive C balance without depleting soil water reserves in the face of such a diverse environment, and feedbacks between assimilation (A) and water losses (E) are thought to have evolved to optimize stomatal conductance (gs). In short, the optimal conductance hypothesis proposes that cross-talks between A and stomatal conductance gs lead to a constant marginal water use (λ) during a day, such that A is maximized and E minimized. The biological mechanism by which biochemical processes would feedback gs remains unknown, but multiple studies have shown empirical support for this hypothesis, leading to its current consideration of theory by many. Here we test whether optimal stomatal conductance is an endogenous property, that is, driven solely by factors internal to the plant, and in the absence of environmental fluctuations. After 5 days of entrainment, where monoculture canopies of bean and of cotton were subjected to the average environmental conditions of an August sunny day in Montpellier (at the CNRS European Ecotron, FR), we kept temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation constant for 48 h at the values observed at noon. During this period, we monitored leaf gas exchange continuously every two minutes, and canopy gas exchange every 15 minutes. We observed a periodic oscillation in λ, showing a 24 h period, and consistent with a circadian regulation of water use efficiency. Hourly variations in λ could thus not be explained by the optimal stomatal hypothesis. Moreover, the pattern of variation (of maximal water

  14. O3 flux-related responsiveness of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance of adult Fagus sylvatica to experimentally enhanced free-air O3 exposure.

    PubMed

    Löw, M; Häberle, K-H; Warren, C R; Matyssek, R

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance to cumulative ozone uptake (COU) is still scarce, and this is particularly the case for adult trees. The effect of ozone (O(3)) exposure on trees was examined with 60-year-old beech trees (FAGUS SYLVATICA) at a forest site of southern Germany. Trees were exposed to the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)) or an experimentally elevated twice-ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3)). The elevated 2 x O (3) regime was provided by means of a free-air O(3) canopy exposure system. The hypotheses were tested that (1) gas exchange is negatively affected by O(3) and (2) the effects of O(3) are dose-dependent and thus the sizes of differences between treatments are positively related to COU. Gas exchange (light-saturated CO(2) uptake rate A(max), stomatal conductance g (s), maximum rate of carboxylation Vc (max), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate turnover limited rate of photosynthesis J (max), CO(2) compensation point CP, apparent quantum yield of net CO(2) uptake AQ, carboxylation efficiency CE, day- and nighttime respiration) and chlorophyll fluorescence (electron transfer rate, ETR) were measured IN SITU on attached sun and shade leaves. Measurements were made periodically throughout the growing seasons of 2003 (an exceptionally dry year) and 2004 (a year with average rainfall). In 2004 Vc(max), J(max), and CE were lower in trees receiving 2 x O(3) compared with the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)). Treatment differences in Vc (max), J (max), CE were rather small in 2004 (i.e., parameter levels were lower by 10 - 30 % in 2 x O(3) than 1 x O(3)) and not significant in 2003. In 2004 COU was positively correlated with the difference between treatments in A (max), g (s), and ETR (i.e., consistent with the dose-dependence of O(3)'s deleterious effects). However, in 2003, differences in A(max), g (s), and ETR between the two O(3) regimes were smaller at the end of the dry summer 2003 (i.e., when COU was greatest). The

  15. Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.

    PubMed

    Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven tree species in northern Wisconsin over two years. These species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three species, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven species despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal

  16. Tree-Level Hydrodynamic Approach for Modeling Aboveground Water Storage and Stomatal Conductance Highlights the Effects of Tree Hydraulic Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Fatichi, S.; Frasson, R. P. M.; Schafer, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Finite-difference Ecosystem-scale Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a novel tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system and simulates water flow through the tree as a continuum of porous media conduits. It explicitly resolves xylem water potential throughout the tree's vertical extent. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land-surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal stemwater content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the inter-genera variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus-level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux than more conventional models.

  17. Tree level hydrodynamic approach for resolving aboveground water storage and stomatal conductance and modeling the effects of tree hydraulic strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat; Bohrer, Gil; Matheny, Ashley M.; Fatichi, Simone; Moraes Frasson, Renato Prata; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2016-07-01

    The finite difference ecosystem-scale tree crown hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is a tree-scale hydrodynamic model of transpiration. The FETCH2 model employs a finite difference numerical methodology and a simplified single-beam conduit system to explicitly resolve xylem water potentials throughout the vertical extent of a tree. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance of the leaves at each height throughout the crown. While highly simplified, this approach brings additional realism to the simulation of transpiration by linking stomatal responses to stem water potential rather than directly to soil moisture, as is currently the case in the majority of land surface models. FETCH2 accounts for plant hydraulic traits, such as the degree of anisohydric/isohydric response of stomata, maximal xylem conductivity, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content. We used FETCH2 along with sap flow and eddy covariance data sets collected from a mixed plot of two genera (oak/pine) in Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ, USA, to conduct an analysis of the intergeneric variation of hydraulic strategies and their effects on diurnal and seasonal transpiration dynamics. We define these strategies through the parameters that describe the genus level transpiration and xylem conductivity responses to changes in stem water potential. Our evaluation revealed that FETCH2 considerably improved the simulation of ecosystem transpiration and latent heat flux in comparison to more conventional models. A virtual experiment showed that the model was able to capture the effect of hydraulic strategies such as isohydric/anisohydric behavior on stomatal conductance under different soil-water availability conditions.

  18. Environmental controls on saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) transpiration and stomatal conductance and implications for determining evapotranspiration by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; morino, K.

    2012-12-01

    Saltcedar is an introduced, salt-tolerant shrub that now dominates many flow-regulated western U.S. rivers. Saltcedar control programs have been implemented to salvage water and to allow the return of native vegetation to infested rivers. However, there is much debate about how much water saltcedar actually uses and the range of ecohydrological niches it occupies. Ground methods for measuring riparian zone ET have improved and there is considerable interest in developing remote sensing methods for saltcedar to conduct wide-area monitoring of water use. Both thermal band and vegetation index methods have been used to estimate riparian ET. However, several problems present themselves in applying existing remote sensing methods to riparian corridors. First, many riparian corridors are narrow and are surrounded by arid uplands, hence they cannot be treated as energetically closed systems, an assumption of thermal band methods that calculate ET as a residual in the surface energy balance. Second, contrary to the assumption that riparian phreatophytes typically grow under unstressed conditions since they are rooted into groundwater, we find that saltcedar stands are under substantial degrees of apparent moisture stress, exhibiting midday depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance, and decreases in stomatal conductance over the growing season as depth to groundwater increases. Furthermore, the degree of stress is site-specific, depending on local soil texture, salinity of the groundwater and distance from the river. This violates a key assumption of vegetation index methods for estimating ET. The implications of these findings for arid-zone riparian ecohydrology and for remote sensing methods that assume either a constant daily evaporative fraction or rate of stomatal conductance will be discussed using saltcedar stands measured in the Cibola NWR on the lower Colorado River as a case study. Daily rates of saltcedar transpiration ranged from 1.6-3.0 mm/m2 leaf

  19. Effects of CO2 Concentration on Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance of Potatoes Grown Under Different Irradiance Levels and Photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Russet Burbank, Denali, and Norland, were grown in environmental rooms controlled at approx 350 micro mol/mol (ambient during years 1987/1988) and 1000 micro mol/mol (enriched) CO2 concentrations. Plants and electric lamps were arranged to provide two irradiance zones, 400 and 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and studies were repeated using two photoperiods (12-h light / 12-h dark and continuous light). Leaf photosynthetic rates and leaf stomatal conductance were measured using fully expanded, upper canopy leaves at weekly intervals throughout growth (21 through 84 days after transplanting). Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod increased leaf photosynthetic rates by 39% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 27% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under continuous light decreased leaf photosynthetic rates by 7% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 13% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod plants decreased stomatal conductance by an average of 26% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 42% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Under continuous light, CO2 enrichment resulted in a small increase (2%) of stomatal conductance at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF, and a small decrease (3%) at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment under the 12-h photoperiod showed the expected increase in photosynthesis and decrease in stomatal conductance for a C3 species like potato, but the decreases in leaf photosynthetic rates and minimal effect on conductance from CO2 enrichment under continuous light were not expected. The plant leaves under continuous light showed more chlorosis and some rusty flecking versus plants under the 12-h photoperiod, suggesting the continuous light was more stressful on the plants. The increased

  20. Microclimatological and Physiological Controls of Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration of Co-Occurring Seedlings with Varying Shade Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, C. M.; Levia, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a significant portion of fresh water to the hydrologic cycle through transpiration, the majority of which is supplied by saplings and mature trees. However, a smaller, yet measurable, proportion is also supplied by seedlings. The contribution of seedlings is dependent upon physiological characteristics of the species, whose range of habitat is ultimately controlled by microclimate. The objectives of this study were to (1) observe meteorological conditions of two forest microlimates and (2) assess the intra- and interspecific stomatal conductance and transpiration responses of naturally occurring seedlings of varying shade tolerance. Naturally established seedlings in a deciduous forest understory and an adjacent clearing were monitored throughout the 2008 growing season in southeastern Pennsylvania (39°49'N, 75°43'W). Clear spatial and temporal trends of stomatal conductance and transpiration were observed throughout this study. The understory microclimate conditions overall had a lower degree of variability and had consistently lower mean quantum flux density, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, volumetric water content, and soil temperature than the clearing plot. Shade tolerant understory seedlings (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) and Prunus serotina L. (black cherry)) had significantly lower mean monthly rates of water loss (p = 0.05) than shade intolerant clearing seedlings (P. serotina and Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar)). Additionally, water loss by shade grown P. serotina was significantly lower (p = 0.05) than by sun grown P. serotina. Significant intraspecific responses (p = 0.05) were also observed on a monthly basis, with the exception of L. tulipifera. These findings indicate that physiological differences, specifically shade tolerance, play an important role in determining rates of stomatal conductance and transpiration in tree seedlings. To a lesser degree, microclimate variability was also shown

  1. Effects of mid-season frost and elevated growing season temperature on stomatal conductance and specific xylem conductivity of the arctic shrub, Salix pulchra.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, Dennis M; Oberbauer, Steven F

    2002-10-01

    An increased risk of frost is expected during the growing season, as climate warming increases spring temperatures in the Arctic. Because deciduous species have a growth season limited in length and also have generally larger conduit volumes, they are more likely than evergreens to be injured by freeze-thaw-induced cavitation during the growing season. To test whether growth at elevated temperature increases susceptibility to freeze-thaw damage, we grew a deciduous arctic shrub species (Salix pulchra Cham.) in simulated Alaskan summer temperatures and at 5 degrees C above the ambient simulation (+5 degrees C plants) in controlled environments. Stem specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured in plants grown at both temperatures before and after a freeze treatment simulating a mid-season frost. Before the freeze treatment, specific xylem conductivity was 2.5 times higher and stomatal conductances were 1.3 times higher in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Reductions in hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance as a result of the freeze were 3.5 and 1.8 times greater respectively in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Many of the +5 degrees C plants showed extensive leaf damage. Plants grown in the two treatments also differed in comparative xylem anatomy; +5 degrees C plants had larger vessel diameters (25.4 versus 22.6 micro m) and higher vessel densities (71 versus 67.4 vessels mm(-2)) than ambient-grown plants. Our results suggest that higher growing season temperatures will increase the susceptibility of arctic deciduous shrubs to frost damage, which may offset their competitive growth advantage.

  2. Midday stomatal conductance is more related to stem rather than leaf water status in subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaf trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Meinzer, Frederick C; Qi, Jin-Hua; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Midday depressions in stomatal conductance (g(s) ) and photosynthesis are common in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the hydraulic determinants of midday g(s) , the coordination between leaf and stem hydraulics and whether regulation of midday g(s) differed between deciduous and evergreen broadleaf tree species in a subtropical cloud forest of Southwest (SW) China. We investigated leaf and stem hydraulics, midday leaf and stem water potentials, as well as midday g(s) of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen tree species. Midday g(s) was correlated positively with midday stem water potential across both groups of species, but not with midday leaf water potential. Species with higher stem hydraulic conductivity and greater daily reliance on stem hydraulic capacitance were able to maintain higher stem water potential and higher g(s) at midday. Deciduous species exhibited significantly higher stem hydraulic conductivity, greater reliance on stem capacitance, higher stem water potential and g(s) at midday than evergreen species. Our results suggest that midday g(s) is more associated with midday stem than with leaf water status, and that the functional significance of stomatal regulation in these broadleaf tree species is probably for preventing stem xylem dysfunction.

  3. Cavitation, stomatal conductance, and leaf dieback in seedlings of two co-occurring Mediterranean shrubs during an intense drought.

    PubMed

    Vilagrosa, A; Bellot, J; Vallejo, V R; Gil-Pelegrin, E

    2003-09-01

    Seedling shrubs in the Mediterranean semi-arid climate are subjected to intense droughts during summer. Thus, seedlings often surpass their limits of tolerance to water stress, resulting in the loss of hydraulic conductivity due to xylem cavitation. The response in terms of stomatal conductance, vulnerability to cavitation, leaf dieback, and survival were analysed in two co-occurring seedlings of mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) during an intense drought period. Both species reacted to drought with steep decreases in stomatal conductance before the critical water potential brought about the onset of cavitation events. Q. coccifera showed wider safety margins for avoiding runaway embolism than P. lentiscus and these differences could be related to the particular drought strategy displayed by each species: water saver or water spender. The limits for survival, resprout capacity and leaf dieback were also analysed in terms of loss of conductivity. By contrast with previous studies, the species showing higher seedling survival in the presence of drought also showed higher susceptibility to cavitation and operated with a lower safety margin for cavitation. Both species showed a leaf specific conductivity (LSC) threshold below which leaf biomass had to be regulated to avoid runaway embolism. However, each species displayed a different type of response: P. lentiscus conserved total leaf area up to 100% loss of LSC, whereas Q. coccifera continuously adjusted leaf biomass throughout the drought period in order to maintain the LSC very close to the maximum values recorded without loss of conductivity. Both species maintained the capacity for survival until the loss of conductivity was very nearly 100%.

  4. Ecophysiological parameters for a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance model derived from eddy covariance measurements in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Ichii, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Alberto, M. C. R.; Bret-Harte, M. S.; Edgar, C.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Harazono, Y.; Hirano, T.; Hirata, R.; Ide, R.; Kosugi, Y.; Machimura, T.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Ohta, T.; Ono, K.; Saigusa, N.; Saitoh, T. M.; Takagi, K.; Takanashi, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For better understanding carbon and water vapor fluxes in Asia, ecophysiological parameters of a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance big-leaf model (Farquhar et al., 1980; Ball and Berry, 1987) were inversely estimated using micrometeorological data at 48 sites in Asia. The data covered various ecosystems of arctic tundra, boreal, temperate, and tropical forests, grasslands, and croplands. We applied a global optimization method; shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) method (Duan et al., 1993). First stomatal conductance parameters (m and b in the Ball-Berry model) were optimized for evapotranspiration, and then photosynthetic parameters (maximum carboxylation rate at 25oC; Vcmax25) were optimized for gross primarily productivity (GPP). The canopy-scale parameters were then downscaled into the leaf-scale using a two-leaf radiative transfer models and leaf area index (LAI) by MODIS. In the presentation, we will show the spatial variability of the ecophysiological parameters in terms of environmental gradients, and ecosystem types. Implications and limitations of the synthesis will be discussed. References Ball and Berry, 1987: Progress in Photosynthesis Research, pp 221-224. Duan et al., 1993: J. Optimization Theory and Applications, 76, 501-521. Farquhar et al., 1980: Planta, 149, 78-90.

  5. Low doses of glyphosate enhance growth, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration in sugarcane and eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Nascentes, Renan F; Carbonari, Caio A; Simões, Plinio S; Brunelli, Marcela C; Velini, Edivaldo D; Duke, Stephen O

    2017-05-09

    Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO2 assimilation. Shoot dry weight in both species increased at both 40 and 60 days after application of 6.2 to 20.2 g a.e. ha(-1) glyphosate. The level of enhanced shoot dry weight was 11 to 37%, depending on the time after treatment and the species. Concomitantly, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration were increased by glyphosate doses similar to those that caused growth increases. Glyphosate applied at low doses increased the dry weight of sugarcane and eucalyptus plants in all experiments. This hormetic effect was related to low dose effects on CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, indicating that low glyphosate doses enhance photosynthesis of plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO21

    PubMed Central

    Drake, B.; Raschke, K.

    1974-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO2 exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO2 concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO2 concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO2 concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO2 concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO2; they responded to changes in CO2 concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter. PMID:16658795

  7. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D M; Woodruff, D R; McCulloh, K A; Meinzer, F C

    2009-07-01

    Adequate leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is critical for preventing transpiration-induced desiccation and subsequent stomatal closure that would restrict carbon gain. A few studies have reported midday depression of Kleaf (or petiole conductivity) and its subsequent recovery in situ, but the extent to which this phenomenon is universal is not known. The objectives of this study were to measure Kleaf, using a rehydration kinetics method, (1) in the laboratory (under controlled conditions) across a range of water potentials to construct vulnerability curves (VC) and (2) over the course of the day in the field along with leaf water potential and stomatal conductance (gs). Two broadleaf (one evergreen, Arbutus menziesii Pursh., and one deciduous, Quercus garryana Dougl.) and two coniferous species (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. and Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel]) were chosen as representative of different plant types. In addition, Kleaf in the laboratory and leaf water potential in the field were measured for three tropical evergreen species (Protium panamense (Rose), Tachigalia versicolor Standley and L.O. Williams and Vochysia ferruginea Mart) to predict their daily changes in field Kleaf in situ. It was hypothesized that in the field, leaves would close their stomata at water potential thresholds at which Kleaf begins to decline sharply in laboratory-generated VC, thus preventing substantial losses of Kleaf. The temperate species showed a 15-66% decline in Kleaf by midday, before stomatal closure. Although there were substantial midday declines in Kleaf, recovery was nearly complete by late afternoon. Stomatal conductance began to decrease in Pseudotsuga, Pinus and Quercus once Kleaf began to decline; however, there was no detectable reduction in gs in Arbutus. Predicted Kleaf in the tropical species, based on laboratory-generated VC, decreased by 74% of maximum Kleaf in Tachigalia, but only 22-32% in Vochysia and Protium. The results presented here, from the previous

  8. Evapotranspiration partitioning, stomatal conductance, and components of the water balance: A special case of a desert ecosystem in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Bing; Chang, Xuexiang; Yang, Qiyue; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Zhiling; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into its components reveals details of the processes that underlie ecosystem hydrologic budgets and their feedback to the water cycle. We measured rates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), canopy transpiration (Tc), soil evaporation (Eg), canopy-intercepted precipitation (EI), and patterns of stomatal conductance of the desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum in northern China to determine the water balance of this ecosystem. The ETa was 251 ± 8 mm during the growing period, while EI, Tc, and Eg accounted for 3.2%, 63.9%, and 31.3%, respectively, of total water use (256 ± 4 mm) during the growing period. In this unique ecosystem, groundwater was the main water source for plant transpiration and soil evaporation, Tc and exceeded 60% of the total annual water used by desert plants. ET was not sensitive to air temperature in this unique desert ecosystem. Partitioning ET into its components improves our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie adaptation of desert shrubs, especially the role of stomatal regulation of Tc as a determinant of ecosystem water balance.

  9. Simple models for stomatal conductance derived from a process model: cross-validation against sap flux data.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Adams, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Representation of stomatal physiology in models of plant-atmosphere gas exchange is minimal, and direct application of process-based models is limited by difficulty of parameter estimation. We derived simple models of stomatal conductance from a recent process-based model, and cross-validated them against measurements of sap flux (176-365 d in length) in 36 individual trees of two age classes for two Eucalyptus species across seven sites in the mountains of southeastern Australia. The derived models - which are driven by irradiance and evaporative demand and have two to four parameters that represent sums and products of biophysical parameters in the process model - reproduced a median 83-89% of observed variance in half-hourly and diurnally averaged sap flux, and performed similarly whether fitted using a random sample of all data or using 1 month of data from spring or autumn. Our simple models are an advance in predicting plant water use because their parameters are transparently related to reduced processes and properties, enabling easy accommodation of improved knowledge about how those parameters respond to environmental change and differ among species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Scaling Up Stomatal Conductance from Leaf to Canopy Using a Dual-Leaf Model for Estimating Crop Evapotranspiration

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Risheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Hao, Xinmei; Zhang, Yanqun

    2014-01-01

    The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET). Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc), an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called “big-leaf” model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1) the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2) leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3) a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98), with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s−1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL) agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  11. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Risheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Hao, Xinmei; Zhang, Yanqun

    2014-01-01

    The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET). Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc), an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1) the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2) leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3) a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98), with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL) agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and partitioning λET.

  12. CO2 enrichment modulates ammonium nutrition in tomato adjusting carbon and nitrogen metabolism to stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Vega-Mas, Izargi; Marino, Daniel; Sánchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Estavillo, Jose María; González-Moro, María Begoña

    2015-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4(+)) toxicity typically occurs in plants exposed to high environmental NH4(+) concentration. NH4(+) assimilating capacity may act as a biochemical mechanism avoiding its toxic accumulation but requires a fine tuning between nitrogen assimilating enzymes and carbon anaplerotic routes. In this work, we hypothesized that extra C supply, exposing tomato plants cv. Agora Hybrid F1 to elevated atmospheric CO2, could improve photosynthetic process and thus ameliorate NH4(+) assimilation and tolerance. Plants were grown under nitrate (NO3(-)) or NH4(+) as N source (5-15mM), under two atmospheric CO2 levels, 400 and 800ppm. Growth and gas exchange parameters, (15)N isotopic signature, C and N metabolites and enzymatic activities were determined. Plants under 7.5mM N equally grew independently of the N source, while higher ammonium supply resulted toxic for growth. However, specific stomatal closure occurred in 7.5mM NH4(+)-fed plants under elevated CO2 improving water use efficiency (WUE) but compromising plant N status. Elevated CO2 annulled the induction of TCA anaplerotic enzymes observed at non-toxic NH4(+) nutrition under ambient CO2. Finally, CO2 enrichment benefited tomato growth under both nutritions, and although it did not alleviate tomato NH4(+) tolerance it did differentially regulate plant metabolism in N-source and -dose dependent manner.

  13. Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO2 are the main limitations to photosynthesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown with excess zinc.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Vázquez, S; Florez-Sarasa, I D; Albacete, A; Ribas-Carbó, M; Flexas, J; Abadía, J; Morales, F

    2010-07-01

    *The effects of zinc (Zn) toxicity on photosynthesis and respiration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown hydroponically with 1.2, 100 and 300 microM Zn. *A photosynthesis limitation analysis was used to assess the stomatal, mesophyll, photochemical and biochemical contributions to the reduced photosynthesis observed under Zn toxicity. *The main limitation to photosynthesis was attributable to stomata, with stomatal conductances decreasing by 76% under Zn excess and stomata being unable to respond to physiological and chemical stimuli. The effects of excess Zn on photochemistry were minor. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in stomata and mesophyll tissue. Stomatal size and density were smaller, and stomatal slits were sealed in plants grown under high Zn. Moreover, the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) decreased by 48% under Zn excess, despite a marked increase in carbonic anhydrase activity. Respiration, including that through both cytochrome and alternative pathways, was doubled by high Zn. *It can be concluded that, in sugar beet plants grown in the presence of excess Zn, photosynthesis is impaired due to a depletion of CO(2) at the Rubisco carboxylation site, as a consequence of major decreases in stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO(2).

  14. Contribution of PsbS Function and Stomatal Conductance to Foliar Temperature in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kulasek, Milena; Bernacki, Maciej Jerzy; Ciszak, Kamil; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Natural capacity has evolved in higher plants to absorb and harness excessive light energy. In basic models, the majority of absorbed photon energy is radiated back as fluorescence and heat. For years the proton sensor protein PsbS was considered to play a critical role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of light absorbed by PSII antennae and in its dissipation as heat. However, the significance of PsbS in regulating heat emission from a whole leaf has never been verified before by direct measurement of foliar temperature under changing light intensity. To test its validity, we here investigated the foliar temperature changes on increasing and decreasing light intensity conditions (foliar temperature dynamics) using a high resolution thermal camera and a powerful adjustable light-emitting diode (LED) light source. First, we showed that light-dependent foliar temperature dynamics is correlated with Chl content in leaves of various plant species. Secondly, we compared the foliar temperature dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, the PsbS null mutant npq4-1 and a PsbS-overexpressing transgenic line under different transpiration conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor. We found no direct correlations between the NPQ level and the foliar temperature dynamics. Rather, differences in foliar temperature dynamics are primarily affected by stomatal aperture, and rapid foliar temperature increase during irradiation depends on the water status of the leaf. We conclude that PsbS is not directly involved in regulation of foliar temperature dynamics during excessive light energy episodes. PMID:27273581

  15. Contribution of PsbS Function and Stomatal Conductance to Foliar Temperature in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Kulasek, Milena; Bernacki, Maciej Jerzy; Ciszak, Kamil; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-07-01

    Natural capacity has evolved in higher plants to absorb and harness excessive light energy. In basic models, the majority of absorbed photon energy is radiated back as fluorescence and heat. For years the proton sensor protein PsbS was considered to play a critical role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of light absorbed by PSII antennae and in its dissipation as heat. However, the significance of PsbS in regulating heat emission from a whole leaf has never been verified before by direct measurement of foliar temperature under changing light intensity. To test its validity, we here investigated the foliar temperature changes on increasing and decreasing light intensity conditions (foliar temperature dynamics) using a high resolution thermal camera and a powerful adjustable light-emitting diode (LED) light source. First, we showed that light-dependent foliar temperature dynamics is correlated with Chl content in leaves of various plant species. Secondly, we compared the foliar temperature dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, the PsbS null mutant npq4-1 and a PsbS-overexpressing transgenic line under different transpiration conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor. We found no direct correlations between the NPQ level and the foliar temperature dynamics. Rather, differences in foliar temperature dynamics are primarily affected by stomatal aperture, and rapid foliar temperature increase during irradiation depends on the water status of the leaf. We conclude that PsbS is not directly involved in regulation of foliar temperature dynamics during excessive light energy episodes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  16. Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar?

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Greer, Dennis H; Hutton, Ron J; Landsberg, Joe J

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that vines of the Semillon wine grape variety show anisohydric behaviour was tested, i.e. that tissue hydration is unstable under fluctuating environmental conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rates from leaves were measured during the day and at night. Leaf water potential (Psi(l)) in Semillon was negatively correlated to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) both predawn and during the day. Furthermore, Psi(l) fell to significantly lower values than in any of the nine other varieties examined. Night-time values of stomatal conductance (g(n)) and transpiration (E(n)) in Semillon were up to four times higher than in other varieties; plants enclosed in plastic bags overnight to reduce E(n) resulted in better plant-soil equilibration so that predawn Psi(l) in Semillon was the same as in Grenache. These data indicate that the hypothesis is supported, and that night-time transpiration contributes significantly to the low Psi(l) values in Semillon during warm, dry nights. The other contributing factor is daytime stomatal conductance (g(day)), which in Semillon leaves was higher than in other varieties, although the decline in g(day) with increasing VPD was greater in Semillon than in Shiraz or Grenache. The high values of g(day) were associated with high rates of transpiration (E(day)) by Semillon through a day when VPD reached 4.5 kPa. When compared to other varieties, Semillon was not unusual in terms of root length density, stomatal density, xylem sap abscisic acid, or leaf electrolyte leakage. Night-time and daytime water loss and insufficient stomatal regulation therefore account for the tendency to anisohydric behaviour shown by Semillon.

  17. Does night-time transpiration contribute to anisohydric behaviour in a Vitis vinifera cultivar?

    PubMed Central

    Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Greer, Dennis H.; Hutton, Ron J.; Landsberg, Joe J.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that vines of the Semillon wine grape variety show anisohydric behaviour was tested, i.e. that tissue hydration is unstable under fluctuating environmental conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rates from leaves were measured during the day and at night. Leaf water potential (Ψl) in Semillon was negatively correlated to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) both predawn and during the day. Furthermore, Ψl fell to significantly lower values than in any of the nine other varieties examined. Night-time values of stomatal conductance (gn) and transpiration (En) in Semillon were up to four times higher than in other varieties; plants enclosed in plastic bags overnight to reduce En resulted in better plant–soil equilibration so that predawn Ψl in Semillon was the same as in Grenache. These data indicate that the hypothesis is supported, and that night-time transpiration contributes significantly to the low Ψl values in Semillon during warm, dry nights. The other contributing factor is daytime stomatal conductance (gday), which in Semillon leaves was higher than in other varieties, although the decline in gday with increasing VPD was greater in Semillon than in Shiraz or Grenache. The high values of gday were associated with high rates of transpiration (Eday) by Semillon through a day when VPD reached 4.5 kPa. When compared to other varieties, Semillon was not unusual in terms of root length density, stomatal density, xylem sap abscisic acid, or leaf electrolyte leakage. Night-time and daytime water loss and insufficient stomatal regulation therefore account for the tendency to anisohydric behaviour shown by Semillon. PMID:19584116

  18. Suitability of a combined stomatal conductance and photosynthesis model for calculation of leaf-level ozone fluxes.

    PubMed

    Op de Beeck, M; Löw, M; Verbeeck, H; Deckmyn, G

    2007-03-01

    Currently, the most important source of uncertainty in stomatal ozone flux ( FO3) modelling is the stomatal conductance ( gst) factor. Hence FO3 model accuracy will strongly depend on the gst model being implemented. In this study the recently developed semi-empirical Gst model of Dewar was coupled to the widely known biochemical photosynthesis ( An) model of Farquhar. The Gst performance of this model combination was evaluated with a 4-month time series of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) measurements. The Gst model was hereto optimized in two steps to a 4-day and a 8-day period. A comparison between the modelled and measured gst to O(3) (gstO3) revealed a rather good overall performance (R(2)=0.77). Errors between the model combination and the measurements are thought to be largely caused by a moderate performance of the AN model, due to poor parameterization. Two 2-day periods with distinctly differing soil and meteorological conditions were chosen to give a picture of the daily gst performance. Although instant relative differences between modelled and measured gstO3 are sometimes high, the model combination is able to simulate the rough daily courses of gstO3 and hence FO3 reasonably well. Further improvement on full parameterization of the gst model and a well-parameterized An model to be linked to are needed to draw founded conclusions about its performance. Future efforts hereto are certainly justified since the model's mechanistic nature makes it a tool able to model gst variation in space and time, O(3) effects on gst, and effective FO3.

  19. Optimizing stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under water stress: A meta-analysis across plant functional types and climates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stomatal responses to environmental variables, in particular atmospheric CO2 concentration and soil water status, are needed for quantifying the controls on carbon and water exchanges between plants and the atmosphere. Building on previous leaf-scale gas exchange models and stomatal optimality theor...

  20. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of canopy trees of three temperate deciduous angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Nancy J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1998-07-01

    Patterns of water relations, xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and stomatal aperture were characterized and compared in drought-sensitive black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), less drought-sensitive sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and drought-tolerant white oak (Quercus alba L.) trees co-occurring in a second-growth forest in Missouri, USA. There were strong correlations among reduction in predawn leaf water potential, increased xylem sap [ABA] and stomatal closure in all species. Stomatal conductance was more closely correlated with xylem sap ABA concentration than with ABA flux or xylem sap pH and cation concentrations. In isohydric black walnut, increased concentrations of ABA in the xylem sap appeared to be primarily of root origin, causing stomatal closure in response to soil drying. In anisohydric sugar maple and white oak, however, there were reductions in midday leaf water potential associated with stomatal closure, making it uncertain whether drought-induced xylem sap ABA was of leaf or root origin. The role of root-originated xylem sap ABA in these species as a signal to the shoot of the water status of the roots is, therefore, less certain.

  1. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorol...

  2. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorol...

  3. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Treesearch

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  4. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Analyses of Assumptions and Erros in the Calculation of Stomatal Conductance from Sap Flux Measurements

    Treesearch

    Brent E. Ewers; Ram Oren

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed assumptions and measurement errors in estimating canopy transpiration (EL) from sap flux (JS) measured with Granier-type sensors, and in calculating canopy stomata1 conductance (GS) from EL...

  6. Effects of elevated ozone on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of two soybean varieties: a case study to assess impacts of one component of predicted global climate change.

    PubMed

    Singh, E; Tiwari, S; Agrawal, M

    2009-11-01

    Global climatic change scenarios predict a significant increase in future tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations. The present investigation was done to assess the effects of elevated O(3) (70 and 100 ppb) on electron transport, carbon fixation, stomatal conductance and pigment concentrations in two tropical soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties, PK 472 and Bragg. Plants were exposed to O(3) for 4 h.day(-1) from 10:00 to 14:00 from germination to maturity. Photosynthesis of both varieties were adversely affected, but the reduction was higher in PK 472 than Bragg. A comparison of chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics with carbon fixation suggested greater sensitivity of dark reactions than light reactions of photosynthesis to O(3) stress. The O(3)-induced uncoupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in PK 472 suggests the reduction in photosynthesis may be attributed to a factor other than reduced stomatal conductance. An increase in internal CO(2) concentration in both O(3)-treated soybean varieties compared suggests that the reduction in photosynthesis was due to damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to accumulation of internal CO(2) and stomatal closure. The adverse impact of O(3) stress increased at higher O(3) concentrations in both soybean varieties leading to large reductions in photosynthesis. This study suggests that O(3)-induced reductions in photosynthesis in tropical and temperate varieties are similar.

  7. Decoupling the Influence of Leaf and Root Hydraulic Conductances on Stomatal Conductance and its Sensitivity to Vapor Pressure Deficit as Soil Dries in a Drained Loblolly Pine Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domec, J.; Noormets, A.; King, J. S.; McNulty, S. G.; Sun, G.; Gavazzi, M. J.; Boggs, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The conversion of wetlands to intensively managed forest lands in eastern North Carolina is widespread and the consequences on plant hydraulic properties and water balances are not well studied. Precipitation and soil moisture in North America will be modified in the future and forest trees in the US will be challenged by warmer temperature, higher leaf-to-air water vapor pressure deficit (D), and more frequent summer droughts. Many studies have examined the relationships between whole tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and stomatal conductance (gs), but Ktree remains an ill-defined quantity because it depends on a series of resistances, mainly controlled by the conductance in roots (Kroot) and leaves (Kleaf). To explain the variation in Ktree, we characterized Kroot and Kleaf and how they responded to environmental drivers such as soil moisture availability and D. In addition, the role of dynamic variations in Kroot and Kleaf in mediating stomatal control of transpiration and its response to D was studied. The 2007 summer drought was used as a means to challenge the hydraulic system, allowing testing how broadly predictions about its behaviour hold outside the range of typical conditions. Roots and leaves were the weakest points in the whole tree hydraulic system, and contributed for more than 75% of the total tree hydraulic resistance. Effects of drought on Ktree altered the partitioning of the resistance between roots and leaves and as soil moisture declined below 50% relative extractable water (REW), Kroot declined faster than Kleaf and became the dominant hydraulic fuse regulating Ktree. Although Ktree depended on soil moisture, its dynamics was tempered by current-year needle elongation that increased significantly Kleaf during the dry months when REW was below 50%. To maintain the integrity of the xylem hydraulic continuum from roots to leaves, stomata were highly responsive in coordinating transpiration with dynamic variation in Ktree. Daily maximum gs and

  8. Canopy uptake dominates nighttime carbonyl sulfide fluxes in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Seibt, Ulli; Sun, Wu; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan; Kolari, Pasi; Aalto, Juho; Franchin, Alessandro; Vecchi, Roberta; Valli, Gianluigi; Chen, Huilin

    2017-09-01

    Nighttime vegetative uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) can exist due to the incomplete closure of stomata and the light independence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which complicates the use of COS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). In this study we derived nighttime COS fluxes in a boreal forest (the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland; 61°51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m a.s.l.) from June to November 2015 using two different methods: eddy-covariance (EC) measurements (FCOS-EC) and the radon-tracer method (FCOS-Rn). The total nighttime COS fluxes averaged over the whole measurement period were -6.8 ± 2.2 and -7.9 ± 3.8 pmol m-2 s-1 for FCOS-Rn and FCOS-EC, respectively, which is 33-38 % of the average daytime fluxes and 21 % of the total daily COS uptake. The correlation of 222Rn (of which the source is the soil) with COS (average R2 = 0.58) was lower than with CO2 (0.70), suggesting that the main sink of COS is not located at the ground. These observations are supported by soil chamber measurements that show that soil contributes to only 34-40 % of the total nighttime COS uptake. We found a decrease in COS uptake with decreasing nighttime stomatal conductance and increasing vapor-pressure deficit and air temperature, driven by stomatal closure in response to a warm and dry period in August. We also discuss the effect that canopy layer mixing can have on the radon-tracer method and the sensitivity of (FCOS-EC) to atmospheric turbulence. Our results suggest that the nighttime uptake of COS is mainly driven by the tree foliage and is significant in a boreal forest, such that it needs to be taken into account when using COS as a tracer for GPP.

  9. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Variation in stomatal conductance and its genetic correlation with crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2015-07-01

    Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and canopy temperature have been used to estimate plant water status in many crops. The behaviour of g(s) in sugarcane indicates that the internal leaf water status is controlled by regular opening and closing of stomata. A large number of g(s) measurements obtained across varying moisture regimes, locations, and crop cycles with a diverse sugarcane germplasm composed of introgression, and commercial clones indicated that there is a high genetic variation for g(s) that can be exploited in a breeding programme. Regardless of the environmental influences on the expression of this trait, moderate heritability was observed across 51 sets of individual measurements made on replicated trials over 3 years. The clone×water status interaction (G×E) variation was smaller than the clone (G) variation on many occasions. A wide range of genetic correlations (r(g)= -0.29 to 0.94) between g(s) and yield were observed across test environments in all three different production regions used. Canopy conductance (g(c)) based on g(s) and leaf area index (LAI) showed a stronger genetic correlation than the g(s) with cane yield (tonnes of cane per hectare; TCH) at 12 months (mature crop). The regression analysis of input weather data for the duration of measurements showed that the predicted values of r(g) correlated with the maximum temperature (r=0.47) during the measurements and less with other environmental variables. These results confirm that the g(c) could have potential as a criterion for early-stage selection of clones in sugarcane breeding programmes.

  10. Seasonal trends in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liukang; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2003-09-01

    Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO2 and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine Vcmax. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in Vcmax. The maximum value of Vcmax, 127 micromol m(-2) s(-1), was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, Vcmax declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 degrees C. The decline in Vcmax was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials (Psipd, approximately -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in Vcmax were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (Rd, 5-6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, Rd remained low, around 0.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1). In contrast to the strong seasonality of Vcmax, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain (partial partial differential E/ partial partial differential A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf Psipd dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of partial partial differential E/ partial partial differential A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  11. Seasonal changes in Cyclobalanopsis glauca transpiration and canopy stomatal conductance and their dependence on subterranean water and climatic factors in rocky karst terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuqing; Li, Xiankun; Zhang, Zhongfeng; He, Chengxin; Zhao, Ping; You, Yeming; Mo, Ling

    2011-05-01

    SummaryThe presence of forest on south China karst is presumed to increase perennial epikarst spring flow, partly because there is adequate storage in bedrock fractures underlying the shallow soil in the forest. If true, transpiration of the ecosystem would not be strongly reduced by temperate drought if trees develop deep roots to reach the perched epikarst water. Therefore, in karst ecosystem the epikarst-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (ESPAC) would be different from the SPAC in non-karst system. We measured transpiration and canopy conductance from a Cyclobalanopsis glauca (syn. Quercus glauca) stand on a rocky hill slope in South China during 2006-2007 by using the Granier's sap-flow method. Annual stand transpiration (836 mm y -1) accounted for 48.7% of the rainfall during the experimental year. Per month, daily stand transpiration ( E c) maximums varied between 2.1 mm d -1 in January (cool season) to 5.1 mm d -1 in July (hot season). In the driest months, September and October, E c of C. glauca was still high with maximum E c 3.82 mm d -1 and 2.96 mm d -1 respectively. Solar radiation ( PAR), vapor pressure deficiency ( VPD), and air temperature were simple influences on transpiration of C. glauca, which contributed to a quadratic power model, while soil water content ( SWC) moisture influence on transpiration was complicated, which SWC influenced E c greatly under higher VPD, but did not influence E c under low VPD. High stomatal openness occurred in C. glauca in the early morning and declined throughout the day. The relation coefficient between canopy stomatal conductance ( G c) and E c was high when VPD was more than 1.0 kPa, moderate when 0.5 kPa < VPD < 1.0 kPa, and low with VPD of less than 0.5 kPa. Under high VPD, stomatal control of transpiration is high. The pattern of seasonal change of transpiration and canopy stomatal conductance of the plant in karst regions is different from that in non-karst regions, with the stand transpiration and canopy

  12. Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Accurately predicting plant function and global biogeochemical cycles later in this century will be complicated if stomatal conductance (g(s)) acclimates to growth at elevated [CO(2)], in the sense of a long-term alteration of the response of g(s) to [CO(2)], humidity (h) and/or photosynthetic rate (A). If so, photosynthetic and stomatal models will require parameterization at each growth [CO(2)] of interest. Photosynthetic acclimation to long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)] occurs frequently. Acclimation of g(s) has rarely been examined, even though stomatal density commonly changes with growth [CO(2)]. Soybean was grown under field conditions at ambient [CO(2)] (378 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO(2)] (552 micromol mol(-1)) using free-air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE). This study tested for stomatal acclimation by parameterizing and validating the widely used Ball et al. model (1987, Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol IV, 221-224) with measurements of leaf gas exchange. The dependence of g(s) on A, h and [CO(2)] at the leaf surface was unaltered by long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)]. This suggests that the commonly observed decrease in g(s) under elevated [CO(2)] is due entirely to the direct instantaneous effect of [CO(2)] on g(s) and that there is no longer-term acclimation of g(s) independent of photosynthetic acclimation. The model accurately predicted g(s) for soybean growing under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] in the field. Model parameters under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] were indistinguishable, demonstrating that stomatal function under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] could be modelled without the need for parameterization at each growth [CO(2)].

  13. Evaluating stomatal ozone fluxes in WRF-Chem: Comparing ozone uptake in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydsaa, J. H.; Stordal, F.; Gerosa, G.; Finco, A.; Hodnebrog, Ø.

    2016-10-01

    The development of modelling tools for estimating stomatal uptake of surface ozone in vegetation is important for the assessment of potential damage induced due to both current and future near surface ozone concentrations. In this study, we investigate the skill in estimating ozone uptake in plants by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) V3.6.1, with the Wesely dry deposition scheme. To validate the stomatal uptake of ozone, the model simulations were compared with field measurements of three types of Mediterranean vegetation, over seven different periods representing various meteorological conditions. Some systematic biases in modelled ozone fluxes are revealed; the lack of an explicit and time varying dependency on plants' water availability results in overestimated daytime ozone stomatal fluxes particularly in dry periods. The optimal temperature in the temperature response function is likely too low for the woody species tested here. Also, too low nighttime stomatal conductance leads to underestimation of ozone uptake during night. We demonstrate that modelled stomatal ozone flux is improved by accounting for vapor pressure deficit in the ambient air. Based on the results of the overall comparison to measured fluxes, we propose that additional improvements to the stomatal conductance parameterization should be implemented before applying the modelling system for estimating ozone doses and potential damage to vegetation.

  14. Fine Mapping of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8, a Quantitative Trait Locus for Flag Leaf Nitrogen Content, Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Tanabata, Takanari; Sun, Jian; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sage, Rowan F.; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yonemaru, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H. Sequencing analysis revealed that the indica allele of CAR8 has a 1-bp deletion at 322 bp from the start codon, resulting in a truncated protein of 125 amino acids. In addition, CAR8 is identical to DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1, which was reported to control rice flowering date. The increase of A is largely due to an increase of RuBP regeneration rate via increased leaf nitrogen content, and partially explained by reduced stomatal limitation via increased stomatal conductance relative to A. This allele also increases hydraulic conductivity, which would promote higher stomatal conductance. This indicates that CAR8 affects multiple physiological aspects relating to photosynthesis. The detailed analysis of molecular functions of CAR8 would help to understand the association between photosynthesis and flowering and demonstrate specific genetic mechanisms that can be exploited to improve photosynthesis in rice and potentially other crops. PMID:28197156

  15. Fine Mapping of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8, a Quantitative Trait Locus for Flag Leaf Nitrogen Content, Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Tanabata, Takanari; Sun, Jian; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sage, Rowan F; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yonemaru, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H. Sequencing analysis revealed that the indica allele of CAR8 has a 1-bp deletion at 322 bp from the start codon, resulting in a truncated protein of 125 amino acids. In addition, CAR8 is identical to DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1, which was reported to control rice flowering date. The increase of A is largely due to an increase of RuBP regeneration rate via increased leaf nitrogen content, and partially explained by reduced stomatal limitation via increased stomatal conductance relative to A. This allele also increases hydraulic conductivity, which would promote higher stomatal conductance. This indicates that CAR8 affects multiple physiological aspects relating to photosynthesis. The detailed analysis of molecular functions of CAR8 would help to understand the association between photosynthesis and flowering and demonstrate specific genetic mechanisms that can be exploited to improve photosynthesis in rice and potentially other crops.

  16. Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO₂ in different plant groups: underrated factors for predicting leaf photosynthesis responses to climate change?

    PubMed

    Flexas, Jaume; Carriquí, Marc; Coopman, Rafael E; Gago, Jorge; Galmés, Jeroni; Martorell, Sebastià; Morales, Fermín; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The climate change conditions predicted for the end of the current century are expected to have an impact on the performance of plants under natural conditions. The variables which are foreseen to have a larger effect are increased CO2 concentration and temperature. Although it is generally considered CO2 assimilation rate could be increased by the increasing levels of CO2, it has been reported in previous studies that acclimation to high CO2 results in reductions of physiological parameters involved in photosynthesis, like the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc,max), stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm). On the one hand, most of the previous modeling efforts have neglected the potential role played by the acclimation of gm to high CO2 and temperature. On the other hand, the effect of climate change on plant clades other than angiosperms, like ferns, has received little attention, and there are no studies evaluating the potential impact of increasing CO2 and temperature on these species. In this study we predicted responses of several representative species among angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns to increasing CO2 and temperature. Our results show that species with lower photosynthetic capacity - such as some ferns and gymnosperms - would be proportionally more favored under these foreseen environmental conditions. The main reason for this difference is the lower diffusion limitation imposed by gs and gm in plants having high capacity for photosynthesis among the angiosperms, which reduces the positive effect of increasing CO2. However, this apparent advantage of low-diffusion species would be canceled if the two conductances - gs and gm - acclimate and are down regulated to high CO2, which is basically unknown, especially for gymnosperms and ferns. Hence, for a better understanding of different plant responses to future climate, studies are urged in which the actual photosynthetic response/acclimation to increased CO2 and temperature of

  17. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  18. A Negative Hydraulic Message from Oxygen-Deficient Roots of Tomato Plants? (Influence of Soil Flooding on Leaf Water Potential, Leaf Expansion, and Synchrony between Stomatal Conductance and Root Hydraulic Conductivity).

    PubMed Central

    Else, M. A.; Davies, W. J.; Malone, M.; Jackson, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Four to 10 h of soil flooding delayed and suppressed the normal daily increase in root hydraulic conductance (Lp) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Ailsa Craig) plants. The resulting short-term loss of synchrony between Lp and stomatal conductance decreased leaf water potential ([psi]L) relative to well-drained plants within 2 h. A decrease in [psi]L persisted for 8 h and was mirrored by decreased leaf thickness measured using linear displacement transducers. After 10 h of flooding, further closing of stomata and re-convergence of Lp in flooded and well-drained roots returned [psi]L to control values. In the second photoperiod, Lp in flooded plants exceeded that in well-drained plants in association with much increased Lp and decreased stomatal conductance. Pneumatic balancing pressure applied to roots of intact flooded plants to prevent temporary loss of [psi]L in the 1st d did not modify the patterns of stomatal closure or leaf expansion. Thus, the magnitude of the early negative hydraulic message was neither sufficient nor necessary to promote stomatal closure and inhibit leaf growth in flooded tomato plants. Chemical messages are presumed to be responsible for these early responses to soil flooding. PMID:12228649

  19. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception.

    PubMed

    Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Meldau, Stefan; Zavala, Jorge A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-07-01

    Herbivory-induced changes in photosynthesis have been documented in many plant species; however, the complexity of photosynthetic regulation and analysis has thwarted progress in understanding the mechanism involved, particularly those elicited by herbivore-specific elicitors. Here, we analysed the early photosynthetic gas exchange responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants after wounding and elicitation with Manduca sexta oral secretions and the pathways regulating these responses. Elicitation with M. sexta oral secretions rapidly decreased photosynthetic carbon assimilation (AC ) in treated and systemic (untreated, vascularly connected) leaves, which were associated with changes in stomatal conductance, rather than with changes in Rubisco activity and 1-5 ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate turnover. Phytohormone profiling and gas exchange analysis of oral secretion-elicited transgenic plants altered in phytohormone regulation, biosynthesis and perception, combined with micrografting techniques, revealed that the local photosynthetic responses were mediated by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, while the systemic responses involved interactions among jasmonates, cytokinins and abscisic acid signalling mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase 4. The analysis also revealed a role for cytokinins interacting with mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 in CO2 -mediated stomatal regulation. Hence, oral secretions, while eliciting jasmonic acid-mediated defence responses, also elicit 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid-mediated changes in stomatal conductance and AC , an observation illustrating the complexity and economy of the signalling that regulates defence and carbon assimilation pathways in response to herbivore attack. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differential responses of peach (Prunus persica) seedlings to elevated ozone are related with leaf mass per area, antioxidant enzymes activity rather than stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Pin; Shang, Bo; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Aizhen; Wang, Younian; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ozone (O3) sensitivity among peach tree (Prunus persica) cultivars widely planted in Beijing region and explore the possible eco-physiological response mechanisms, thirteen cultivars of peach seedlings were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 (E-O3, non-filtered ambient air plus 60 ppb) for one growing season in open-top chambers. Leaf structure, stomatal structure, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation were measured in three replicated chambers. Results showed that E-O3 significantly reduced abaxial epidemis thickness, but no effects on the thicknesses of adaxial epidemis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma. Stomatal area, density and conductance were not significantly affected by E-O3. E-O3 significantly accelerated leaf senescence, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and more declines in light-saturated photosynthetic rate and pigments contents. The reduced ascorbate content (ASC) was decreased but antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, APX and SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly increased by E-O3 among cultivars. The cultivars with visible symptoms also had more reductions in net photosynthetic rate than those without visible symptoms. Ozone sensitivity among cultivars was strongly linked to leaf mass per area (LMA), antioxidant enzymes activity e.g. SOD, APX rather than stomatal parameters (stomatal area, density and conductance) and ASC. Results could provide a theoretical basis for selecting and breeding the ozone-resistant cultivars of peach trees grown in high O3-polluted regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing model predictions and experimental data for the response of stomatal conductance and guard cell turgor to manipulations of cuticular conductance, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference and temperature: feedback mechanisms are able to account for all observations.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel T; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Shanahan, Steve; De Silva, Lionel

    2008-03-01

    Stomata respond to increasing leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (LAVPD) (D) by closing. The mechanism by which this occurs is debated. A role for feedback and peristomatal transpiration has been proposed. In this paper, we apply a recent mechanistic model of stomatal behaviour, and compare model and experimental data for the influence of increasing D on stomatal conductance. We manipulated cuticular conductance (g(c)) by three independent methods. First, we increased g(c) by using a solvent mixture applied to both leaf surfaces prior to determining stomatal responses to D; second, we increased g(c) by increasing leaf temperature at constant D; and third, we coated a small area of leaf with a light oil to decrease g(c). In all three experiments, experimental data and model outputs showed very close agreement. We conclude, from the close agreement between model and experimental data and the fact that manipulations of g(c), and hence cuticular transpiration, influenced g(s) in ways consistent with a feedback mechanism, that feedback is central in determining stomatal responses to D.

  2. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J

  3. Decreased photosynthesis in the erect panicle 3 (ep3) mutant of rice is associated with reduced stomatal conductance and attenuated guard cell development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyang; Murchie, Erik H.; González-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Pyke, Kevin A.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2015-01-01

    The ERECT PANICLE 3 gene of rice encodes a peptide that exhibits more than 50% sequence identity with the Arabidopsis F-box protein HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS). Ectopic expression of the Os02g15950 coding sequence, driven by the HWS (At3g61950) promoter, rescued the hws-1 flower phenotype in Arabidopsis confirming that EP3 is a functional orthologue of HWS. In addition to displaying an erect inflorescence phenotype, loss-of-function mutants of Os02g15950 exhibited a decrease in leaf photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance. Analysis of a range of physiological and anatomical features related to leaf photosynthesis revealed no alteration in Rubisco content and no notable changes in mesophyll size or arrangement. However, both ep3 mutant plants and transgenic lines that have a T-DNA insertion within the Os02g15950 (EP3) gene exhibit smaller stomatal guard cells compared with their wild-type controls. This anatomical characteristic may account for the observed decrease in leaf photosynthesis and provides evidence that EP3 plays a role in regulating stomatal guard cell development. PMID:25582452

  4. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Samuel C.V.; Daloso, Danilo M.; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Araújo, Wagner L.

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions. PMID:26542441

  5. Diversity in leaf anatomy, and stomatal distribution and conductance, between salt marsh and freshwater species in the C(4) genus Spartina (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Maricle, Brian R; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Thomasson, Joseph R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, and leaf conductance were studied in 10 species of Spartina (Poaceae) from low versus high salt marsh, and freshwater habitats. Internal structure, external morphology, cuticle structure, and stomatal densities were studied with light and electron microscopy. Functional significance of leaf structure was examined by measures of CO(2) uptake and stomatal distributions. All species have Kranz anatomy and C(4)delta(13)C values. Freshwater species have thin leaves with small ridges on adaxial sides and stomata on both adaxial and abaxial sides. By contrast, salt marsh species have thick leaves with very pronounced ridges on the adaxial side and stomata located almost exclusively on adaxial leaf surfaces. Salt marsh species also have a thicker cuticle on the abaxial than on the adaxial side of leaves, and CO(2) uptake during photosynthesis is restricted to the adaxial leaf surface. Salt marsh species are adapted to controlling water loss by having stomata in leaf furrows on the adaxial side, which increases the boundary layer, and by having large leaf ridges that fit together as the leaf rolls during water stress. Differences in structural-functional features of photosynthesis in Spartina species are suggested to be related to adaptations to saline environments.

  6. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Martins, Samuel C V; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Daloso, Danilo M; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Methanol Emission from Leaves (Enzymatic Detection of Gas-Phase Methanol and Relation of Methanol Fluxes to Stomatal Conductance and Leaf Development).

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; MacDonald, R. C.; Franzen, J. J.; Wojciechowski, C. L.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    We recently reported the detection of methanol emissions from leaves (R. MacDonald, R. Fall [1993] Atmos Environ 27A: 1709-1713). This could represent a substantial flux of methanol to the atmosphere. Leaf methanol production and emission have not been investigated in detail, in part because of difficulties in sampling and analyzing methanol. In this study we used an enzymatic method to convert methanol to a fluorescent product and verified that leaves from several species emit methanol. Methanol was emitted almost exclusively from the abaxial surfaces of hypostomatous leaves but from both surfaces of amphistomatous leaves, suggesting that methanol exits leaves via stomates. The role of stomatal conductance was verified in experiments in which stomates were induced to close, resulting in reduced methanol. Free methanol was detected in bean leaf extracts, ranging from 26.8 [mu]g g-1 fresh weight in young leaves to 10.0 [mu]g g-1 fresh weight in older leaves. Methanol emission was related to leaf development, generally declining with increasing leaf age after leaf expansion; this is consistent with volatilization from a cellular pool that declines in older leaves. It is possible that leaf emission could be a major source of methanol found in the atmosphere of forests. PMID:12228547

  8. Nighttime Lava Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This nighttime IR image is of lava flows from Arsia Mons, the southernmost of the three Tharsis Montes. Lava flow surfaces are generally rough, and trap sand and dust with time. The addition of sand/dust will affect the nighttime IR appearance of the surface [dust cools quickly and is darker than slow cooling rocks in the nighttime IR]. The rough, rockier surface of young flows are brighter than the older dust covered flows.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14, Longitude 247.4 East (112.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  10. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8’-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0–2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  11. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  12. Regulation of photosynthesis, fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under drought.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Raja Reddy, K

    2011-10-05

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that causes extensive losses to agriculture production worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of photosynthesis and water-use efficiency parameters in 15 cowpea genotypes under well-watered and drought condition. Photosynthesis (A) and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv'/Fm') declined linearly with decreasing soil water content whereas intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE) increased under drought stress, suggesting stomatal regulation was a major limitation to photosynthesis. However, under increasing drought conditions, increase in ratio of intercellular CO(2) to ambient CO(2) concentrations along with reduced WUE showed the role of non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. The resistant nature of Fv'/Fm' and electron transport rate under drought appeared to be important mechanisms for photoinhibition protection under drought stress. Oxidative stress was apparent due to drought-induced reduction in total chlorophyll and carotenoid which was accompanied with increased leaf wax contents. The accumulation of proline appeared to be in response of drought injury rather than a drought tolerance mechanism. A clear separation based on the genotypes site of origin among the genotypes for drought tolerance could not be established when analyzed using principal component analysis. The identified genotypes and physiological traits from this study may be useful for genetic engineering and breeding programs integrating drought adaptation in cowpea.

  13. Surface vapor conductance derived from the ETRHEQ: Dependence on environmental variables and similarity to Oren's stomatal stress model for vapor pressure deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Daily time series of evapotranspiration and surface conductance to water vapor were estimated using the ETRHEQ method (Evapotranspiration from Relative Humidity at Equilibrium). ETRHEQ has been previously compared with ameriflux site-level measurements of ET at daily and seasonal time scales, with watershed water balance estimates, and with various benchmark ET data sets. The ETRHEQ method uses meteorological data collected at common weather stations and estimates the surface conductance by minimizing the vertical variance of the calculated relative humidity profile averaged over the day. The key advantage of the ETRHEQ method is that it does not require knowledge of the surface state (soil moisture, stomatal conductance, leaf are index, etc.) or site-specific calibration. The daily estimates of conductance from 229 weather stations for 53 years were analyzed for dependence on environmental variables known to impact stomatal conductance and soil diffusivity: surface temperature, surface vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, antecedent precipitation (as a surrogate for soil moisture), and a seasonal vegetation greenness index. At each site the summertime (JJAS) conductance values estimated from ETRHEQ were fitted to a multiplicate Jarvis-type stress model. Functional dependence was not proscribed, but instead fitted using flexible piecewise-linear splines. The resulting stress functions reproduce the time series of conductance across a wide range of ecosystems and climates. The VPD stress term resembles that proposed by Oren (i.e., 1-m*log(VPD) ), with VPD measured in kilopascals. The equivalent value of m derived from our spline-fits at each station varied over a remarkably small range of 0.58 to 0.62, in agreement with Oren's original analysis based on leaf and tree-level measurements.

  14. Canopy Stomatal Conductance Following Drought, Disturbance, and Death in an Upland Oak/Pine Forest of the New Jersey Pine Barrens, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina Vera Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Stomatal conductance controls carbon and water fluxes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, its accurate characterization in land-surface flux models is necessary. Sap-flux scaled canopy conductance was used to evaluate the effect of drought, disturbance, and mortality of three oak species (Quercus prinus, Q. velutina, and Q. coccinea) in an upland oak/pine stand in the New Jersey Pine Barrens from 2005 to 2008. Canopy conductance (GC) was analyzed by performing boundary line analysis and selecting for the highest value under a given light condition. Regressing GC with the driving force vapor pressure deficit (VPD) resulted in reference canopy conductance at 1 kPa VPD (GCref). Predictably, drought in 2006 caused GCref to decline. Q. prinus GCref was least affected, followed by Q. coccinea, with Q. velutina having the highest reductions in GCref. A defoliation event in 2007 caused GCref to increase due to reduced leaf area and a possible increase in water availability. In Q. prinus, GCref quadrupled, while doubling in Q. velutina, and increasing by 50% in Q. coccinea. Tree mortality in 2008 led to higher GCref in the remaining Q. prinus but not in Q. velutina or Q. coccinea. Comparing light response curves of canopy conductance (GCref) and stomatal conductance (gS) derived from gas-exchange measurements showed marked differences in behavior. Canopy GCref failed to saturate under ambient light conditions whereas leaf-level gS saturated at 1,200 μmol m−2 s−1. The results presented here emphasize the differential responses of leaf and canopy-level conductance to saturating light conditions and the effects of various disturbances (drought, defoliation, and mortality) on the carbon and water balance of an oak-dominated forest. PMID:22639580

  15. Canopy stomatal conductance following drought, disturbance, and death in an upland oak/pine forest of the new jersey pine barrens, USA.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Karina Vera Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Stomatal conductance controls carbon and water fluxes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, its accurate characterization in land-surface flux models is necessary. Sap-flux scaled canopy conductance was used to evaluate the effect of drought, disturbance, and mortality of three oak species (Quercus prinus, Q. velutina, and Q. coccinea) in an upland oak/pine stand in the New Jersey Pine Barrens from 2005 to 2008. Canopy conductance (G(C)) was analyzed by performing boundary line analysis and selecting for the highest value under a given light condition. Regressing G(C) with the driving force vapor pressure deficit (VPD) resulted in reference canopy conductance at 1 kPa VPD (G(Cref)). Predictably, drought in 2006 caused G(Cref) to decline. Q. prinusG(Cref) was least affected, followed by Q. coccinea, with Q. velutina having the highest reductions in G(Cref). A defoliation event in 2007 caused G(Cref) to increase due to reduced leaf area and a possible increase in water availability. In Q. prinus, G(Cref) quadrupled, while doubling in Q. velutina, and increasing by 50% in Q. coccinea. Tree mortality in 2008 led to higher G(Cref) in the remaining Q. prinus but not in Q. velutina or Q. coccinea. Comparing light response curves of canopy conductance (G(Cref)) and stomatal conductance (g(S)) derived from gas-exchange measurements showed marked differences in behavior. Canopy G(Cref) failed to saturate under ambient light conditions whereas leaf-level g(S) saturated at 1,200 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results presented here emphasize the differential responses of leaf and canopy-level conductance to saturating light conditions and the effects of various disturbances (drought, defoliation, and mortality) on the carbon and water balance of an oak-dominated forest.

  16. Using modern plant trait relationships between observed and theoretical maximum stomatal conductance and vein density to examine patterns of plant macroevolution.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Jennifer C; Yiotis, Charilaos; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of geological-scale patterns in plant macroevolution is limited by a hesitancy to use measurable traits of fossils to infer palaeoecophysiological function. Here, scaling relationships between morphological traits including maximum theoretical stomatal conductance (gmax ) and leaf vein density (Dv ) and physiological measurements including operational stomatal conductance (gop ), saturated (Asat ) and maximum (Amax ) assimilation rates were investigated for 18 extant taxa in order to improve understanding of angiosperm diversification in the Cretaceous. Our study demonstrated significant relationships between gop , gmax and Dv that together can be used to estimate gas exchange and the photosynthetic capacities of fossils. We showed that acquisition of high gmax in angiosperms conferred a competitive advantage over gymnosperms by increasing the dynamic range (plasticity) of their gas exchange and expanding their ecophysiological niche space. We suggest that species with a high gmax (> 1400 mmol m(-2) s(-1) ) would have been capable of maintaining a high Amax as the atmospheric CO2 declined through the Cretaceous, whereas gymnosperms with a low gmax would experience severe photosynthetic penalty. Expansion of the ecophysiological niche space in angiosperms, afforded by coordinated evolution of high gmax , Dv and increased plasticity in gop , adds further functional insights into the mechanisms driving angiosperm speciation.

  17. How well do stomatal conductance models perform on closing plant carbon budgets? A test using seedlings grown under current and elevated air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, D.; Oren, R.; Kim, H.; Katul, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Future carbon and water fluxes within terrestrial ecosystems will be determined by how stomatal conductance (gs) responds to rising atmospheric CO2 and air temperatures. While both short- and long-term CO2 effects on gs have been repeatedly studied, there are few studies on how gs acclimates to higher air temperatures. Six gs models were parameterized using leaf gas exchange data from black spruce (Picea mariana) seedlings grown from seed at ambient (22/16 °C day/night) or elevated (30/24 °C) temperatures. Model performance was independently assessed by how well carbon gain from each model reproduced estimated carbon costs to close the seedlings' seasonal carbon budgets, an indicator of the model success at time scales commensurate with biomass changes. A model holding a constant intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration ratio and the Ball-Berry model (based on stomatal responses to relative humidity) could not close the carbon balance for either treatment, while a so-called Jarvis-Oren model (based on stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit, D) and a model assuming a constant gs each closed the carbon balance for one temperature treatment. Two models, both based on gs responses to D, performed best overall, estimating carbon uptake within 10% of carbon costs for both treatments: the Leuning model (a semi-empirical model that links gs to photosynthetic rates) and a linear optimization model that maximizes carbon gain per unit water loss. Since gs responses in the linear optimization model are not a priori assumed, this approach may be advantageous in modeling gs responses to temperature, especially in future climates.

  18. How well do stomatal conductance models perform on closing plant carbon budgets? A test using seedlings grown under current and elevated air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Danielle A.; Oren, Ram; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2011-12-01

    Future carbon and water fluxes within terrestrial ecosystems will be determined by how stomatal conductance (gs) responds to rising atmospheric CO2and air temperatures. While both short- and long-term CO2 effects on gs have been repeatedly studied, there are few studies on how gs acclimates to higher air temperatures. Six gs models were parameterized using leaf gas exchange data from black spruce (Picea mariana) seedlings grown from seed at ambient (22/16°C day/night) or elevated (30/24°C) air temperatures. Model performance was independently assessed by how well carbon gain from each model reproduced estimated carbon costs to close the seedlings' seasonal carbon budgets, a `long-term' indicator of success. A model holding a constant intercellular to ambient CO2ratio and the Ball-Berry model (based on stomatal responses to relative humidity) could not close the carbon balance for either treatment, while the Jarvis-Oren model (based on stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit,D) and a model assuming a constant gs each closed the carbon balance for one treatment. Two models, both based on gs responses to D, performed best overall, estimating carbon uptake within 10% of carbon costs for both treatments: the Leuning model and a linear optimization model that maximizes carbon gain per unit water loss. Since gsresponses in the optimization model are not a priori assumed, this approach can be used in modeling land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 and water in future climates.

  19. Measurement of Leaf Hydraulic Conductance and Stomatal Conductance and Their Responses to Irradiance and Dehydration Using the Evaporative Flux Method (EFM)

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Water is a key resource, and the plant water transport system sets limits on maximum growth and drought tolerance. When plants open their stomata to achieve a high stomatal conductance (gs) to capture CO2 for photosynthesis, water is lost by transpiration1,2. Water evaporating from the airspaces is replaced from cell walls, in turn drawing water from the xylem of leaf veins, in turn drawing from xylem in the stems and roots. As water is pulled through the system, it experiences hydraulic resistance, creating tension throughout the system and a low leaf water potential (Ψleaf). The leaf itself is a critical bottleneck in the whole plant system, accounting for on average 30% of the plant hydraulic resistance3. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf = 1/ leaf hydraulic resistance) is the ratio of the water flow rate to the water potential gradient across the leaf, and summarizes the behavior of a complex system: water moves through the petiole and through several orders of veins, exits into the bundle sheath and passes through or around mesophyll cells before evaporating into the airspace and being transpired from the stomata. Kleaf is of strong interest as an important physiological trait to compare species, quantifying the effectiveness of the leaf structure and physiology for water transport, and a key variable to investigate for its relationship to variation in structure (e.g., in leaf venation architecture) and its impacts on photosynthetic gas exchange. Further, Kleaf responds strongly to the internal and external leaf environment3. Kleaf can increase dramatically with irradiance apparently due to changes in the expression and activation of aquaporins, the proteins involved in water transport through membranes4, and Kleaf declines strongly during drought, due to cavitation and/or collapse of xylem conduits, and/or loss of permeability in the extra-xylem tissues due to mesophyll and bundle sheath cell shrinkage or aquaporin deactivation5-10. Because Kleaf can

  20. Measurement of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance and their responses to irradiance and dehydration using the Evaporative Flux Method (EFM).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine

    2012-12-31

    Water is a key resource, and the plant water transport system sets limits on maximum growth and drought tolerance. When plants open their stomata to achieve a high stomatal conductance (gs) to capture CO2 for photosynthesis, water is lost by transpiration(1,2). Water evaporating from the airspaces is replaced from cell walls, in turn drawing water from the xylem of leaf veins, in turn drawing from xylem in the stems and roots. As water is pulled through the system, it experiences hydraulic resistance, creating tension throughout the system and a low leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)). The leaf itself is a critical bottleneck in the whole plant system, accounting for on average 30% of the plant hydraulic resistance(3). Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf) = 1/ leaf hydraulic resistance) is the ratio of the water flow rate to the water potential gradient across the leaf, and summarizes the behavior of a complex system: water moves through the petiole and through several orders of veins, exits into the bundle sheath and passes through or around mesophyll cells before evaporating into the airspace and being transpired from the stomata. K(leaf) is of strong interest as an important physiological trait to compare species, quantifying the effectiveness of the leaf structure and physiology for water transport, and a key variable to investigate for its relationship to variation in structure (e.g., in leaf venation architecture) and its impacts on photosynthetic gas exchange. Further, K(leaf) responds strongly to the internal and external leaf environment(3). K(leaf) can increase dramatically with irradiance apparently due to changes in the expression and activation of aquaporins, the proteins involved in water transport through membranes(4), and K(leaf) declines strongly during drought, due to cavitation and/or collapse of xylem conduits, and/or loss of permeability in the extra-xylem tissues due to mesophyll and bundle sheath cell shrinkage or aquaporin deactivation(5

  1. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions.

  2. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

  3. Effects of Diffuse Light on Radiation Use Efficiency of Two Anthurium Cultivars Depend on the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Dynamic Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; van Noort, F. R.; Kaiser, Elias; Marcelis, Leo F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The stimulating effect of diffuse light on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of crops is often explained by the more homogeneous spatial light distribution, while rarely considering differences in temporal light distribution at leaf level. This study investigated whether diffuse light effects on crop RUE can be explained by dynamic responses of leaf photosynthesis to temporal changes of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Two Anthurium andreanum cultivars (‘Pink Champion’ and ‘Royal Champion’) were grown in two glasshouses covered by clear (control) and diffuse glass, with similar light transmission. On clear days, diffusing the light resulted in less temporal fluctuations of PPFD. Stomatal conductance (gs) varied strongly in response to transient PPFD in ‘Royal Champion,’ whereas it remained relatively constant in ‘Pink Champion.’ Instantaneous net leaf photosynthesis (Pn) in both cultivars approached steady state Pn in diffuse light treatment. In control treatment this only occurred in ‘Pink Champion.’ These cultivar differences were reflected by a higher RUE (8%) in ‘Royal Champion’ in diffuse light treatment compared with control, whereas no effect on RUE was observed in ‘Pink Champion.’ We conclude that the stimulating effect of diffuse light on RUE depends on the stomatal response to temporal PPFD fluctuations, which response is cultivar dependent. PMID:26870071

  4. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  5. Vesicular stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Letchworth, G J; Rodriguez, L L; Del cbarrera, J

    1999-05-01

    Vesicular stomatitis is a disease of livestock caused by some members of the Vesiculovirus genus (Family Rhabdoviridae), two of which are called 'vesicular stomatitis virus'. Clinical disease presents as severe vesiculation and/or ulceration of the tongue, oral tissues, feet, and teats, and results in substantial loss of productivity. Except for its appearance in horses, it is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease. Unlike foot-and-mouth disease, it is very infectious for man and can cause a temporarily debilitating disease. Vesicular stomatitis occurs seasonally every year in the southeastern USA, southern Mexico, throughout Central America and in northern South America, and emerges from tropical areas to cause sporadic epidemics in cooler climates during the summer months. Other Vesiculoviruses are endemic in India and Africa. Vesiculoviruses are arthropod-borne and it is possible they are actually well adapted insect viruses that incidentally infect mammals. Vesiculoviruses are relatively simple, having a linear, single stranded, negative sense RNA genome encased in a bullet-shaped virion made from only five proteins. Upon infection of cultured cells, viral products turn off cellular gene expression and seize the entire metabolic potential of the cell. They also depolymerize the cytoskeleton to cause rapid tissue destruction. Virus infection in animals provokes interferon and nitric oxide responses, which quickly control viral replication, and an antibody response that prevents further viral replication. Vesiculovirus genome replication is error-prone, resulting in viral progeny containing many variants. This allows rapid adaptation. Nevertheless, vesicular stomatitis virus genomic sequences appear relatively stable within single endemic areas, and vary progressively on a North-South axis in the Western Hemisphere. Numerous important fundamental discoveries in immunology and virology have come from recent studies of vesicular stomatitis virus

  6. Water deficit in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum primarily limits net photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chastain, Daryl R; Snider, John L; Collins, Guy D; Perry, Calvin D; Whitaker, Jared; Byrd, Seth A

    2014-11-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve irrigation efficiency and drought tolerance of agronomic crops; however, a clear understanding of the physiological mechanisms that interact to decrease source strength and drive yield loss has not been attained. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms contributing to inhibition of net carbon assimilation under drought stress, three cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum were grown in the field under contrasting irrigation regimes during the 2012 and 2013 growing season near Camilla, Georgia, USA. Physiological measurements were conducted on three sample dates during each growing season (providing a broad range of plant water status) and included, predawn and midday leaf water potential (ΨPD and ΨMD), gross and net photosynthesis, dark respiration, photorespiration, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. End-of-season lint yield was also determined. ΨPD ranged from -0.31 to -0.95MPa, and ΨMD ranged from -1.02 to -2.67MPa, depending upon irrigation regime and sample date. G. hirsutum responded to water deficit by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis, thereby limiting PN and decreasing lint yield (lint yield declines observed during the 2012 growing season only). Conversely, even extreme water deficit, causing a 54% decline in PN, did not negatively affect actual quantum yield, maximum quantum yield, or photosynthetic electron transport. It is concluded that PN is primarily limited in drought-stressed G. hirsutum by decreased stomatal conductance, along with increases in respiratory and photorespiratory carbon losses, not inhibition or down-regulation of electron transport through photosystem II. It is further concluded that ΨPD is a reliable indicator of drought stress and the need for irrigation in field-grown cotton.

  7. Soil phosphorous and endogenous rhythms exert a larger impact than CO2 or temperature on nocturnal stomatal conductance in Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Víctor Resco; Turnbull, Matthew H; Barbour, Margaret M; Ontedhu, Josephine; Ghannoum, Oula; Tissue, David T

    2013-11-01

    High nocturnal transpiration rates (5-15% of total water loss in terrestrial plants) may be adaptive under limited fertility, by increasing nutrient uptake or transport via transpiration-induced mass flow, but the response of stomata in the dark to environmental variables is poorly understood. Here we tested the impact of soil phosphorous (P) concentration, atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) during early and late periods in the night, as well as at midday in naturally, sun-lit glasshouse-grown Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Soil P was the main driver of nocturnal gs, which was consistently higher in low soil P (37.3-79.9 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than in high soil P (17.7-49.3 mmol m(-2)(-1)). Elevated temperature had only a marginal (P = 0.07) effect on gs early in the night (gs decreased from 34.7 to 25.8 mmol m(-2) s(-1) with an increase in temperature of 4 °C). The effect of CO2 depended on its interaction with temperature. Stomatal conductance responses to soil P were apparently driven by indirect effects of soil P on plant anatomy, since gs was significantly and negatively correlated with wood density. However, the relationship of gs with environmental factors became weaker late in the night, relative to early in the night, likely due to apparent endogenous processes; gs late in the night was two times larger than gs observed early in the night. Time-dependent controls over nocturnal gs suggest that daytime stomatal models may not apply during the night, and that different types of regulation may occur even within a single night. We conclude that the enhancement of nocturnal gs under low soil P availability is unlikely to be adaptive in our species because of the relatively small amount of transpiration-induced mass flow that can be achieved through rates of nocturnal water loss (3-6% of daytime mass flow).

  8. Inverse Estimation of Parameters for a Coupled Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance Model Using Eddy Covariance Measurements at a Black Spruce Forest in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Tahara, N.; Iwata, H.; Nagano, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For better understanding high-latitude carbon and water cycles, parameters of a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance big-leaf model (Farquhar et al., 1980; Ball and Berry, 1987; Baldocchi, 1994) were inversely estimated using gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration by eddy covariance measurements at a black spruce forest in interior Alaska (Iwata et al., 2012; Ueyama et al., 2014). We developed a sequential optimization method based on a global optimization technique; shuffled complex evolution (SCE-UA) method (Duan et al., 1993). First, photosynthetic parameters (maximum carboxylation and maximum electron transfer rate at 25oC; Vcmax25 and Jmax25) were optimized for GPP, and then stomatal conductance parameters (m and b in the Ball-Berry model) were optimized for evapotranspiration. Based on our optimization, Vcmax25, Jmax25, and m varied seasonally, but b value was almost constant throughout seasons. Vcmax25 and Jmax25 were higher in summer months than other months, which related to understory leaf area index. m was higher in winter months than other months, but did not significantly change throughout the growing season. Our results indicated that simulations using constant ecophysiological parameters could underestimate photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of high-latitude ecosystems. References Ball and Berry, 1987: Progress in Photosynthesis Research, pp 221-224. Baldocchi, 1994: Tree Physiol., 14, 1069-1079. Duan et al., 1993: J. Optimization Theory and Applications, 76, 501-521. Farquhar et al., 1980: Planta, 149, 78-90. Iwata et al., 2012: Agric. For. Meteorol., 161, 107-115. Ueyama et al., 2014: Global Change Biol., 20, 1161-1173.

  9. Model estimates of leaf area and reference canopy stomatal conductance suggest correlation between phenology and physiology in both trembling aspen and red pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phenological variations impact water and carbon fluxes, as evidenced by the large interannual variability of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET). In northern Wisconsin we observed daily variations of canopy transpiration from hardwoods from 1.0 to 1.7 mm/day during the leaf unfolding period and 1.7 to 2.6 mm/day with leaves fully out. Correlations between such flux rates and phenology have not been extensively tested and mechanistic connections are in their infancy. Some data suggest that stomatal conductance and photosynthesis increases up to full expansion. Moreover, in conifers, the interaction of phenology and physiology is more complicated than in deciduous trees because needles are retained for several years. Using inverse modeling with a coupled photosynthesis-transpiration model we estimated reference canopy stomatal conductance, Gsref, for red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Gsref and leaf area index, L, for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), using 30-min continuous sap flux data spanning a period from just prior to the start of leaf expansion to just after leaf senescence. The red pine showed Gsref ramp up from 105 to 179 mmol m-2 leaf s-1, which represented a 37 to 50 percent increase in Gsref after accounting for maximum possible changes in L. After full leaf out, the trembling aspen were almost immediately defoliated, and then reflushed after three weeks. Model estimates of L reflected this pattern and were consistent with measurements. However, Gsref never exceeded 45 mmol m-2 s-1 prior to defoliation, but peaked at 112 mmol m-2 s-1 after reflushing. These results support the need for further work that aims to separate phenology and physiology.

  10. Stomatal conductance at Duke FACE: Leveraging the lessons from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements for region-wide analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, E. J.; Bell, D.; Clark, J. S.; McCarthy, H. R.; Kim, H.; domec, J.; Noormets, A.; McNulty, D.; Sun, G.; Oren, R.

    2013-12-01

    A network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density was used to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (EL) and canopy-averaged stomatal conductance (GS) in Pinus taeda (L.) exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels (eCO2) and nitrogen fertilization as part of the Duke FACE study. Data from scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years indicated that P. taeda in eCO2 intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total EL and mean daytime GS. This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (AH), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which was linearly related to GS at reference conditions (GSR) during the growing season across years (R2=0.67). Overall, AH decreased a mean of 15% with eCO2 over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area. Throughout the southeastern U.S., other P. taeda stands have been monitored with TDPs, such as the US-NC2 Ameriflux site and four fertilizer × throughfall displacement studies recently begun as part of the PINEMAP research network in VA, GA, FL and OK. We will also discuss the challenges and benefits of using a common modeling platform to combine FACE TDP data with that from a diversity of sites and treatments to draw inferences about EL and GS responses to environmental drivers and climate change, as well as their relation to AH, across the range of P. taeda.

  11. Decreases in Stomatal Conductance of Soybean under Open-Air Elevation of [CO2] Are Closely Coupled with Decreases in Ecosystem Evapotranspiration12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, Carl J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Quarles, Devin R.; Long, Stephen P.; Ort, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Stomatal responses to atmospheric change have been well documented through a range of laboratory- and field-based experiments. Increases in atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) have been shown to decrease stomatal conductance (gs) for a wide range of species under numerous conditions. Less well understood, however, is the extent to which leaf-level responses translate to changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). Since many changes at the soil, plant, and canopy microclimate levels may feed back on ET, it is not certain that a decrease in gs will decrease ET in rain-fed crops. To examine the scaling of the effect of elevated [CO2] on gs at the leaf to ecosystem ET, soybean (Glycine max) was grown in field conditions under control (approximately 375 μmol CO2 mol−1 air) and elevated [CO2] (approximately 550 μmol mol−1) using free air CO2 enrichment. ET was determined from the time of canopy closure to crop senescence using a residual energy balance approach over four growing seasons. Elevated [CO2] caused ET to decrease between 9% and 16% depending on year and despite large increases in photosynthesis and seed yield. Ecosystem ET was linked with gs of the upper canopy leaves when averaged across the growing seasons, such that a 10% decrease in gs results in a 8.6% decrease in ET; this relationship was not altered by growth at elevated [CO2]. The findings are consistent with model and historical analyses that suggest that, despite system feedbacks, decreased gs of upper canopy leaves at elevated [CO2] results in decreased transfer of water vapor to the atmosphere. PMID:17114275

  12. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Species Distribution, and an Exploration of Rhizosphere Microbes and Mycorrhizae at a Deliberately Leakimg Experimental Carbon Sequestration Field (ZERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, B.; Apple, M. E.; Morales, S.; Zhou, X.; Holben, B.; Olson, J.; Prince, J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    One measure to reduce atmospheric CO2 is to sequester it in deep geological formations. Rapid surface detection of any CO2 leakage is crucial. CO2 leakage rapidly affects vegetation above sequestration fields. Plant responses to high CO2 are valuable tools in surface detection of leaking CO2. The Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental field for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010) from a 100m horizontal injection well, HIW, 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, VI, (6/3-6/24/2010). The vegetation includes Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), and other herbaceous plants. We collected soil and roots 1, 3 and 5 m from the VI to determine the responses of mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microbes to high CO2. Mycorrhizal fungi obtain C from root exudates, increase N and P availability, and reduce desiccation, while prokaryotic rhizosphere microbes fix atmospheric N and will be examined for abundance and expression of carbon and nitrogen cycling genes. We are quantifying mycorrhizal colonization and the proportion of spores, hyphae, and arbuscules in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in cleared and stained roots. Stomatal conductance is an important measure of CO2 uptake and water loss via transpiration. We used a porometer (5-40°C, 0-90% RH, Decagon) to measure stomatal conductivity in dandelion and orchard grass at 1, 3, and 5 m from the VI and along a transect perpendicular to the HIW. Dandelion conductance was highest close to the VI and almost consistently higher close to hot spots (circular regions with maximum CO2 and leaf dieback) at the HIW, with 23.2 mmol/m2/s proximal to the hot spot, and 10.8 mmol/m2/s distally. Average conductance in grass (50.3 mmol/m2/s) was higher than in dandelion, but grass did not have high conductance near hot spots. Stomata generally close at elevated CO2

  13. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy.

  14. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy. PMID:27223695

  15. Can the Responses of Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance to Water and Nitrogen Stress Combinations Be Modeled Using a Single Set of Parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyi; Li, Gang; Yu, Shanxiang; An, Dongsheng; Sun, Qian; Luo, Weihong; Yin, Xinyou

    2017-01-01

    Accurately predicting photosynthesis in response to water and nitrogen stress is the first step toward predicting crop growth, yield and many quality traits under fluctuating environmental conditions. While mechanistic models are capable of predicting photosynthesis under fluctuating environmental conditions, simplifying the parameterization procedure is important toward a wide range of model applications. In this study, the biochemical photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (the FvCB model) and the stomatal conductance model of Ball, Woodrow and Berry which was revised by Leuning and Yin (the BWB-Leuning-Yin model) were parameterized for Lilium (L. auratum × speciosum “Sorbonne”) grown under different water and nitrogen conditions. Linear relationships were found between biochemical parameters of the FvCB model and leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Na), and between mesophyll conductance and Na under different water and nitrogen conditions. By incorporating these Na-dependent linear relationships, the FvCB model was able to predict the net photosynthetic rate (An) in response to all water and nitrogen conditions. In contrast, stomatal conductance (gs) can be accurately predicted if parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model were adjusted specifically to water conditions; otherwise gs was underestimated by 9% under well-watered conditions and was overestimated by 13% under water-deficit conditions. However, the 13% overestimation of gs under water-deficit conditions led to only 9% overestimation of An by the coupled FvCB and BWB-Leuning-Yin model whereas the 9% underestimation of gs under well-watered conditions affected little the prediction of An. Our results indicate that to accurately predict An and gs under different water and nitrogen conditions, only a few parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model need to be adjusted according to water conditions whereas all other parameters are either conservative or can be adjusted according to

  16. Can the Responses of Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance to Water and Nitrogen Stress Combinations Be Modeled Using a Single Set of Parameters?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyi; Li, Gang; Yu, Shanxiang; An, Dongsheng; Sun, Qian; Luo, Weihong; Yin, Xinyou

    2017-01-01

    Accurately predicting photosynthesis in response to water and nitrogen stress is the first step toward predicting crop growth, yield and many quality traits under fluctuating environmental conditions. While mechanistic models are capable of predicting photosynthesis under fluctuating environmental conditions, simplifying the parameterization procedure is important toward a wide range of model applications. In this study, the biochemical photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (the FvCB model) and the stomatal conductance model of Ball, Woodrow and Berry which was revised by Leuning and Yin (the BWB-Leuning-Yin model) were parameterized for Lilium (L. auratum × speciosum "Sorbonne") grown under different water and nitrogen conditions. Linear relationships were found between biochemical parameters of the FvCB model and leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Na), and between mesophyll conductance and Na under different water and nitrogen conditions. By incorporating these Na-dependent linear relationships, the FvCB model was able to predict the net photosynthetic rate (An) in response to all water and nitrogen conditions. In contrast, stomatal conductance (gs) can be accurately predicted if parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model were adjusted specifically to water conditions; otherwise gs was underestimated by 9% under well-watered conditions and was overestimated by 13% under water-deficit conditions. However, the 13% overestimation of gs under water-deficit conditions led to only 9% overestimation of An by the coupled FvCB and BWB-Leuning-Yin model whereas the 9% underestimation of gs under well-watered conditions affected little the prediction of An. Our results indicate that to accurately predict An and gs under different water and nitrogen conditions, only a few parameters in the BWB-Leuning-Yin model need to be adjusted according to water conditions whereas all other parameters are either conservative or can be adjusted according to their

  17. Towards an improved and more flexible representation of water stress in coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance models; implications for simulated land surface fluxes and variables at various spatiotemporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea, G.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Black, E.; Van den Hoof, C.

    2012-04-01

    Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance (A-gs) models are commonly used in ecosystem models to represent the exchange rate of CO2 and H2O between vegetation and the atmosphere. The ways these models account for water stress differ greatly among modelling schemes. This study provides insight into the impact of contrasting model configurations of water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), the functional relationship among them and their ratio, the intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs), as soil dries. A simple, yet versatile, normalized soil moisture dependent function was used to account for the effects of water stress on gs, on mesophyll conductance (gm ) and on the biochemical capacity (Egea et al., 2011). Model output was compared to leaf-level values obtained from the literature. The sensitivity analyses emphasized the necessity to combine both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of A in coupled A-gs models to accurately capture the observed functional relationships A vs. gs and A/gs vs. gs in response to drought. Accounting for water stress in coupled A-gs models by imposing either stomatal or biochemical limitations of A, as commonly practiced in most ecosystem models, failed to reproduce the observed functional relationship between key leaf gas exchange attributes. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that the general pattern of C3 photosynthetic response to water stress can be represented in coupled A-gs models by imposing the highest limitation strength to mesophyll conductance, then to stomatal conductance and finally to the biochemical capacity. This more realistic representation of soil water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of A and gs was embedded in the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator; Best et al., 2011), model and tested for a number of vegetation types, for which driving and flux verification data were available. These simulations provide an insight into the

  18. Sap flux-upscaled canopy transpiration, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in an old growth forest in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianwu; Bolstad, Paul V.; Ewers, Brent E.; Desai, Ankur R.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Carey, Eileen V.

    2006-06-01

    Combining sap flux and eddy covariance measurements provides a means to study plant stomatal conductance and the relationship between transpiration and photosynthesis. We measured sap flux using Granier-type sensors in a northern hardwood-dominated old growth forest in Michigan, upscaled to canopy transpiration, and calculated canopy conductance. We also measured carbon and water fluxes with the eddy covariance method and derived daytime gross primary production (GPP). The diurnal patterns of sap flux and canopy transpiration were mainly controlled by vapor pressure deficit (D) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Daily sums of sap flux and canopy transpiration had exponential relationships to D that saturated at higher D and had linear relationships to PAR. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniesis) had higher sap flux per unit of sapwood area than eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), while sugar maple and hemlock had higher canopy transpiration per unit of leaf area than yellow birch. Sugar maple dominated canopy transpiration per ground area. Canopy transpiration averaged 1.57 mm d-1, accounting for 65% of total evapotranspiration in the growing season. Canopy conductance was controlled by both D and PAR, but the day-to-day variation in canopy conductance mainly followed a negatively logarithmic relationship with D. By removing the influences of PAR, half-hourly canopy conductance was also negatively logarithmically correlated with D. Water use efficiency (WUE) had a strong exponential relationship with D on a daily basis and approached a minimum of 4.4 mg g-1. WUE provides an alternative to estimate GPP from measurements of sap flux.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alters stomatal conductance of host plants more under drought than under amply watered conditions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2015-01-01

    Stomata regulate rates of carbon assimilation and water loss. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses often modify stomatal behavior and therefore play pivotal roles in plant productivity. The size of the AM effect on stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s ) has varied widely, has not always been apparent, and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis of 460 studies to determine the size of the AM effect under ample watering and drought and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Across all host and symbiont combinations under all soil moisture conditions, AM plants have shown 24 % higher g s than nonmycorrhizal (NM) controls. The promotion of g s has been over twice as great during moderate drought than under amply watered conditions. The AM influence on g s has been even more pronounced under severe drought, with over four times the promotion observed with ample water. Members of the Claroideoglomeraceae, Glomeraceae, and other AM families stimulated g s by about the same average amount. Colonization by native AM fungi has produced the largest promotion. Among single-AM symbionts, Glomus deserticola, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, and Funneliformis mosseae have had the largest average effects on g s across studies. Dicotyledonous hosts, especially legumes, have been slightly more responsive to AM symbiosis than monocotyledonous hosts, and C3 plants have shown over twice the AM-induced promotion of C4 plants. The extent of root colonization is important, with heavily colonized plants showing ×10 the g s promotion of lightly colonized plants. AM promotion of g s has been larger in growth chambers and in the field than in greenhouse studies, almost ×3 as large when plants were grown under high light than low light, and ×2.5 as large in purely mineral soils than in soils having an organic component. When AM plants have been compared with NM controls given NM pot culture, they have shown only half the promotion of g s as NM plants

  20. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  1. Genetic effects on transpiration, canopy conductance, stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit, and cavitation resistance in loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Michael J Aspinwall; John S King; Jean-Christophe Domec; Steven E McKeand; Isik Fikret

    2011-01-01

    Physiological uniformity and genetic effects on canopy-level gas-exchange and hydraulic function could impact loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation sustainability and ecosystem dynamics under projected changes in climate. Over a 1-year period, we examined genetic effects on mean and maximum mid-day canopy conductance (Gs, Gsmax...

  2. Fertilization intensifies drought stress: water use and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda in a midrotation fertilization and throughfall reduction experiment

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Ward; Jean-Christophe Domec; Marshall A. Laviner; Thomas R. Fox; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; John King; Asko Noormets

    2015-01-01

    While mid-rotation fertilization increases productivity in many southern pine forests, it remains unclear what impact such management may have on stand water use. We examined the impact of nutrient and water availability on stem volume, leaf area, transpiration per unit ground area (EC) and canopy conductance per unit leaf area (GS...

  3. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  4. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of young plants of four temperate deciduous angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Nancy J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1998-07-01

    Patterns of water relations, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration ([ABA]) and stomatal aperture were compared in drought-sensitive black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.), less drought-sensitive sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and drought-tolerant white oak (Quercus alba L.). Strong correlations among reduction in predawn water potential, increase in xylem sap [ABA] and stomatal closure were observed in all species. Stomatal response was more highly correlated with xylem [ABA] than with ABA flux. Xylem sap pH and ion concentrations appeared not to play a major role in the stomatal response of these species. Stomata were more sensitive to relative changes in [ABA] in drought-sensitive black walnut and black willow than in sugar maple and white oak. In the early stages of drought, increased [ABA] in the xylem sap of black walnut and black willow was probably of root origin and provided a signal to the shoot of the water status of the roots. In sugar maple and white oak, leaf water potential declined with the onset of stomatal closure, so that stomatal closure also may have occurred in response to the change in leaf water potential.

  5. Using combined measurements for comparison of light induction of stomatal conductance, electron transport rate and CO2 fixation in woody and fern species adapted to different light regimes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shau-Lian; Chen, Chung-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Wen; Weng, Jen-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai) with different light adaptation capabilities. Pot-grown materials received 100 and/or 10% sunlight according to their light adaptation capabilities. At least 4 months after light acclimation, CO(2) and H(2)O exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously by equipment in the laboratory. In plants adapted or acclimated to low light, dark-adapted leaves exposed to 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 30 min showed low gross photosynthetic rate (P(g)) and short time required to reach 90% of maximum P(g) (). At the initiation of illumination, two broad-leaved understory shrubs and the four ferns, especially ferns adapted to heavy shade, showed higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than pioneer tree species; materials with higher g(s) had short at both 500 and 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. With 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the g(s) for the three woody species increased from 2 to 30 min after the start of illumination, but little change in the g(s) of the four ferns. Thus, P(g) and g(s) were not correlated for all material measured at the same PPF and induction time. However, P(g) was positively correlated with ETR, even though CO(2) assimilation may be influenced by stomatal, biochemical and photoinhibitory limitations. In addition, was closely related to time required to reach 90% maximal ETR for all materials and with two levels of PPF combined. Thus, ETR is a good indicator for estimating the light induction of photosynthetic rate of species, across a wide taxonomic range and light adaptation and acclimation

  6. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O(3) effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial.

  7. A putative role for TIP and PIP aquaporins in dynamics of leaf hydraulic and stomatal conductances in grapevine under water stress and re-watering.

    PubMed

    Pou, Alicia; Medrano, Hipolito; Flexas, Jaume; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2013-04-01

    We examined the role of aquaporins (AQPs) in regulating leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ) in Vitis vinifera L. (cv Chardonnay) by studying effects of AQP inhibitors, and AQP gene expression during water stress (WS) and recovery (REC). Kleaf was measured after 3 h of petiole perfusion with different solutions and to introduce inhibitors. The addition of 0.1 mm HgCl2 to 15 mm KCl reduced Kleaf compared with perfusion in 15 mM KNO3 or KCl, and these solutions were used for leaves from control, WS and REC plants. Perfusion for 3 h did not significantly alter stomatal conductance (gs ) though expression of VvTIP1;1 was increased. WS decreased Kleaf by about 30% and was correlated with gs . The expression of VvTIP2;1 and VvPIP2;1 correlated with Kleaf , and VvTIP2;1 was highly correlated with gs . There was no association between the expression of particular AQPs during WS and REC and inhibition of Kleaf by HgCl2 ; however, HgCl2 treatment itself increased expression of VvPIP2;3 and decreased expression of VvPIP2;1. Inhibition by HgCl2 of Kleaf only at early stages of WS and then after REC suggested that apoplasmic pathways become more important during WS. This was confirmed using fluorescent dyes confined to apoplasm or preferentially accumulated in symplasm.

  8. Nighttime in dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Knoth, Inga Sophia

    2012-04-01

    Based on the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, a study was designed to examine whether time of day within the dream was related to dream emotions. A sample of 1,612 dreams reported by 444 participants was analyzed. As predicted, dream scenarios set at nighttime were associated with less positive and more negative emotions compared to dream scenarios set at other times of the day. In order to pursue this line of research, it would be fruitful to study the dreams of persons with specific nighttime fears.

  9. Characteristics of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the shrubland species manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) for the estimation of annual canopy carbon uptake.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Walcroft, Adrian S; Scott, Neal A; Townsend, Jacqueline A; Trotter, Craig M; Rogers, Graeme N D

    2004-07-01

    Responses of photosynthesis to carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure and irradiance were measured on leaves of 39-year-old trees of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides (A. Rich.) J. Thompson) at a field site, and on leaves of young trees grown at three nitrogen supply rates in a nursery, to determine values for parameters in a model to estimate annual net carbon uptake. These secondary successional species belong to the same family and commonly co-occur. Mean (+/- standard error) values of the maximum rate of carboxylation (hemi-surface area basis) (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) at the field site were 47.3 +/- 1.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and 94.2 +/- 3.7 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively, with no significant differences between species. Both Vcmax and Jmax were positively related to leaf nitrogen concentration on a unit leaf area basis, and the slopes of these relationships did not differ significantly between species or between the trees in the field and young trees grown in the nursery. Mean values of Jmax/Vcmax measured at 20 degrees C were significantly lower (P < 0.01) for trees in the field (2.00 +/- 0.05) than for young trees in the nursery with similar leaf nitrogen concentrations (2.32 +/- 0.08). Stomatal conductance decreased sharply with increasing air saturation deficit, but the sensitivity of the response did not differ between species. These data were used to derive parameters for a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model to scale estimates of photosynthesis from leaves to the canopy, incorporating leaf respiration at night, site energy and water balances, to estimate net canopy carbon uptake. Over the course of a year, 76% of incident irradiance (400-700 nm) was absorbed by the canopy, annual net photosynthesis per unit ground area was 164.5 mol m(-2) (equivalent to 1.97 kg C m(-2)) and respiration loss from leaves at night was 37.5 mol m(-2

  10. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amit; Shetty, Kishore V

    2011-02-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common oral ulcerative disease, affecting 10% to 15% of the general US population. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical presentations of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, including diagnosis and management.

  11. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Limei; Pleim, Jonathan; Song, Conghe; Band, Larry; Walker, John T.; Binkowski, Francis S.

    2017-02-01

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorology and air quality modeling system - WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecast model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model). The photosynthesis-based model for PX LSM (PX PSN) is evaluated at a FLUXNET site for implementation against different parameterizations and the current PX LSM approach with a simple Jarvis function (PX Jarvis). Latent heat flux (LH) from PX PSN is further evaluated at five FLUXNET sites with different vegetation types and landscape characteristics. Simulated ozone deposition and flux from PX PSN are evaluated at one of the sites with ozone flux measurements. Overall, the PX PSN simulates LH as well as the PX Jarvis approach. The PX PSN, however, shows distinct advantages over the PX Jarvis approach for grassland that likely result from its treatment of C3 and C4 plants for CO2 assimilation. Simulations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) rather than LAI measured at each site assess how the model would perform with grid averaged data used in WRF/CMAQ. MODIS LAI estimates degrade model performance at all sites but one site having exceptionally old and tall trees. Ozone deposition velocity and ozone flux along with LH are simulated especially well by the PX PSN compared to significant overestimation by the PX Jarvis for a grassland site.

  12. Instantaneous-to-daily GPP upscaling schemes based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model: correcting the overestimation of GPP by directly using daily average meteorological inputs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Black, T Andrew; Zhou, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Daily canopy photosynthesis is usually temporally upscaled from instantaneous (i.e., seconds) photosynthesis rate. The nonlinear response of photosynthesis to meteorological variables makes the temporal scaling a significant challenge. In this study, two temporal upscaling schemes of daily photosynthesis, the integrated daily model (IDM) and the segmented daily model (SDM), are presented by considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model. The two models, as well as a simple average daily model (SADM) with daily average meteorological inputs, were validated using the tower-derived gross primary production (GPP) to assess their abilities in simulating daily photosynthesis. The results showed IDM closely followed the seasonal trend of the tower-derived GPP with an average RMSE of 1.63 g C m(-2) day(-1), and an average Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) of 0.87. SDM performed similarly to IDM in GPP simulation but decreased the computation time by >66%. SADM overestimated daily GPP by about 15% during the growing season compared to IDM. Both IDM and SDM greatly decreased the overestimation by SADM, and improved the simulation of daily GPP by reducing the RMSE by 34 and 30%, respectively. The results indicated that IDM and SDM are useful temporal upscaling approaches, and both are superior to SADM in daily GPP simulation because they take into account the diurnally varying responses of photosynthesis to meteorological variables. SDM is computationally more efficient, and therefore more suitable for long-term and large-scale GPP simulations.

  13. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Long-distance signals regulating stomatal conductance and leaf growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants subjected to partial root-zone drying.

    PubMed

    Sobeih, Wagdy Y; Dodd, Ian C; Bacon, Mark A; Grierson, Donald; Davies, William J

    2004-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) plants were grown with roots split between two soil columns. After plant establishment, water was applied daily to one (partial root-zone drying-PRD) or both (well-watered control-WW) columns. Water was withheld from the other column in the PRD treatment, to expose some roots to drying soil. Soil and plant water status were monitored daily and throughout diurnal courses. Over 8 d, there were no treatment differences in leaf water potential (psileaf) even though soil moisture content of the upper 6 cm (theta) of the dry column in the PRD treatment decreased by up to 70%. Stomatal conductance (gs) of PRD plants decreased (relative to WW plants) when of the dry column decreased by 45%. Such closure coincided with increased xylem sap pH and did not require increased xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration ([X-ABA]). Detached leaflet ethylene evolution of PRD plants increased when of the dry column decreased by 55%, concurrent with decreased leaf elongation. The physiological significance of enhanced ethylene evolution of PRD plants was examined using a transgenic tomato (ACO1AS) with low stress-induced ethylene production. In response to PRD, ACO1AS and wild-type plants showed similar xylem sap pH, [X-ABA] and gs, but ACO1AS plants showed neither enhanced ethylene evolution nor significant reductions in leaf elongation. Combined use of genetic technologies to reduce ethylene production and agronomic technologies to sustain water status (such as PRD) may sustain plant growth under conditions where yield would otherwise be significantly reduced.

  15. Specific Genetic Influences on Nighttime Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Treiber, Frank A.; Vlietinck, Robert; Fagard, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Nighttime blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be superior to daytime BP in predicting hypertension related target organ damage and cardiac mortality. In our Georgia Cardiovascular Twin Study, we showed that apart from the genes that also influence daytime BP, specific genetic determinants explained 44% and 67% of the nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) heritabilities, respectively. Here, we determined whether these results could be confirmed in a much larger twin cohort of young adults with 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements. METHODS Ambulatory BP was available in 703 white twins (308 pairs and 87 singletons, aged 18–34 years, 50% males) from the Prenatal Programming Twin Study. A bivariate quantitative genetic twin model was used to analyze daytime and nighttime BP. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare and integrate results from the 2 twin cohorts. RESULTS Model fitting showed no sex differences for any of the measures. Heritabilities were 0.60 and 0.51 for SBP and 0.54 and 0.46 for DBP at daytime and nighttime. The specific heritability due to novel genetic effects emerging during the nighttime was 0.21 for SBP and 0.26 for DBP, which comprised 41% and 57% of the total nighttime heritability for SBP and DBP, respectively. Meta-analysis confirmed absence of cohort differences with very similar combined results. CONCLUSIONS In addition to genes that influence both daytime and nighttime BP, a large part of the heritability is explained by genes that specifically influence BP at night. PMID:25205800

  16. The evolution of the role of ABA in the regulation of water-use efficiency: From biochemical mechanisms to stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Negin, Boaz; Moshelion, Menachem

    2016-10-01

    Abscisic acid is found in a wide variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, ABA's role in mediating responses to abiotic stress has been conserved and enhanced throughout evolution. The emergence of plants to terrestrial environments required the development of mechanisms to cope with ongoing and severe abiotic stress such as drought and rapid changes in humidity and temperature. The common understanding is that terrestrial plants evolved strategies ranging from desiccation-tolerance mechanisms (mosses) to drought tolerance (CAM plants), to better exploit different ecological niches. In between these divergent water regulation strategies, ABA plays a significant role in managing plants' adaptation to new environments by optimizing water-use efficiency (WUE) under particular environmental conditions. ABA plays some very different roles in the regulation of WUE. ABA's role in the regulation of guard cells and transpiration has yielded a wide variety of WUE-regulation mechanisms, ranging from no sensitivity (ferns) to low sensitivity (anisohydric behavior) to hypersensitivity to ABA (isohydric behavior and putatively CAM plants). ABA also plays a role in the regulation of non-stomatal, biochemical mechanisms of WUE regulation. In angiosperms, this includes the control of osmotic adjustment and morphological changes, including changes in leaf size, stomatal density, stomatal size and root development. Under severe stress, ABA also appears to initiate leaf senescence via transcriptional regulation, to directly inhibit photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO(2) (free-air CO(2) enrichment) and N-fertilization.

    PubMed

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Palmroth, Sari; Ward, Eric; Maier, Chris A; Thérézien, M; Oren, Ram

    2009-11-01

    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)(a) and CO(2)(e), respectively). We also examined how K(leaf) varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (Psi(leaf-ref)) and stomatal conductance (g(s-ref)) calculated at vapour pressure deficit, D of 1 kPa. We detected significant reductions in K(leaf) caused by N and CO(2)(e), but neither treatment affected pre-dawn or midday Psi(leaf). We also detected a significant CO(2)(e)-induced reduction in g(s-ref) and Psi(leaf-ref). Among treatments, the sensitivity of K(leaf) to Psi(leaf) was directly related to a reference K(leaf) (K(leaf-ref) computed at Psi(leaf-ref)). This liquid-phase response was reflected in a similar gas-phase response, with g(s) sensitivity to D proportional to g(s-ref). Because leaves represented a substantial component of the whole-tree conductance, reduction in K(leaf) under CO(2)(e) affected whole-tree water use by inducing a decline in g(s-ref). The consequences of the acclimation of leaves to the treatments were: (1) trees growing under CO(2)(e) controlled morning leaf water status less than CO(2)(a) trees resulting in a higher diurnal loss of K(leaf); (2) the effect of CO(2)(e) on g(s-ref) was manifested only during times of high soil moisture.

  18. Reducing Dangerous Nighttime Events in Persons with Dementia Using a Nighttime Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; Kelly, Annette; Horne, Claydell; Lane, Steve; Campbell, Judy; Lehman, Brandy; Phipps, Chad; Keller, Meredith; Benito, Andrea Pe

    2009-01-01

    Background Nighttime activity, a common occurrence in persons with dementia, increases the risk for injury and unattended home exits, and impairs the sleep patterns of caregivers. Technology is needed that will alert caregivers of nighttime activity in persons with dementia to help prevent injuries and unattended exits. Methods As part of a product development grant, a randomized pilot study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a new night monitoring system designed for informal caregivers to use in the home. Data from 53 subjects were collected at 9 points in time over a 12-month period regarding injuries and unattended home exits that occurred while the caregiver slept. Nighttime activity frequently resulted in nursing home placement. Results The night monitoring system proved a reliable adjunct to assist caregivers in managing nighttime activity. A total of 9 events (injuries or unattended home exits) occurred during the study with 6 events occurring in the control group. Using intent-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups. However, in a secondary analysis based on use of the intervention, experimental subjects were 85% less likely to sustain an event than control subjects. Conclusion When nighttime activity occurred, it resulted in severe injuries sometimes associated with subsequent nursing home placement. The night monitoring system represents a new technology that caregivers can use to assist them in preventing nighttime injuries and unattended home exits in care recipients with dementia. PMID:19751921

  19. A New mouthwash for Chemotherapy Induced Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Miranzadeh, Sedigheh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Soleymanpoor, Leyla; Ehsani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stomatitis is a disturbing side-effect of chemotherapy that disturbs patients and causes difficulties in patient’s drinking, eating and talking, and may results in infection and bleeding. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Yarrow distillate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was conducted during 2013. The study population consisted of all cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced oral stomatitis referred to Shahid Beheshti Medical Center, Kashan, Iran. The data collection instrument had two-part; a demographic part and another part recording the severity of the stomatitis at the first, seventh, and 14th days of the intervention based on a WHO criteria checklist in 2005. In this study, 56 patients diagnosed with cancer were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups in similar blocks according to their stomatitis severity. The experimental group gargled 15 mL of a routine solution mixed with Yarrow distillate 4 times a day for 14 days while the control group gargled 15 mL of routine solution. The severity of stomatitis was assessed at the beginning of the intervention, and then after 7 and 14 days of the study. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Friedman tests using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: At first, the median score of stomatitis in the experimental group was 2.50 that significantly reduced to 1 and 0 in days 7 and 14 of the intervention, respectively (P value < 0.001). However, in the control group, the median score of stomatitis was 2.50, which significantly increased to 3 in days 7 and 14 (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Yarrow distillate-contained solution reduced stomatitis severity more than the routine solution. Therefore, we suggest using it in patients with chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. PMID:25699281

  20. Woody clockworks: circadian regulation of night-time water use in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Resco de Dios, Víctor; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Goulden, Michael L; Barton, Craig V M; Boer, Matthias M; Gessler, Arthur; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Tissue, David T

    2013-11-01

    The role of the circadian clock in controlling the metabolism of entire trees has seldom been considered. We tested whether the clock influences nocturnal whole-tree water use. Whole-tree chambers allowed the control of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity). Night-time stomatal conductance (gs ) and sap flow (Q) were monitored in 6- to 8-m-tall Eucalyptus globulus trees during nights when environmental variables were kept constant, and also when conditions varied with time. Artificial neural networks were used to quantify the relative importance of circadian regulation of gs and Q. Under a constant environment, gs and Q declined from 0 to 6 h after dusk, but increased from 6 to 12 h after dusk. While the initial decline could be attributed to multiple processes, the subsequent increase is most consistent with circadian regulation of gs and Q. We conclude that endogenous regulation of gs is an important driver of night-time Q under natural environmental variability. The proportion of nocturnal Q variation associated with circadian regulation (23-56%) was comparable to that attributed to vapor pressure deficit variation (25-58%). This study contributes to our understanding of the linkages between molecular and cellular processes related to circadian regulation, and whole-tree processes related to ecosystem gas exchange in the field. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. VLF nighttime data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    This paper documents a very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) Data Analysis task by the Naval Ocean Systems Center to improve the modeling of the nighttime ionosphere when making propagation predictions with the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) computer program. The task utilizes an extensive database of VLF measured data recorded during the 1985 to 1986 trips of the merchant ship GTS Callaghan in the North Atlantic area. By constraining the Callaghan data to those periods when both the ship and the distant transmitters were in time zones consistent with all-nighttime propagation, and by eliminating data from trips outside the principal area of interest, an aggregated set of recorded data was assembled for each frequency of concern. Four frequencies were examined: 16.0, 19.0, 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. Recorded data sets were graphed as signal vs. distance plots, computing distance from the transmitter for each ship's location. The LWPC program was then utilized to compute signal vs. distance along a typical path in the same ocean area, and the predicted and recorded data were compared. By changing the LWPC parameters different propagation predictions were compared with the recorded data until a best fit was obtained.

  2. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  3. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  4. Modelling of stomatal density response to atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Konrad, W; Roth-Nebelsick, A; Grein, M

    2008-08-21

    Stomatal density tends to vary inversely with changes in atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C(a)). This phenomenon is of significance due to: (i) the current anthropogenic rise in C(a) and its impact on vegetation, and (ii) the potential applicability for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric C(a) by using fossil plant remains. It is generally assumed that the inverse change of stomatal density with C(a) represents an adaptation of epidermal gas conductance to varying C(a). Reconstruction of fossil C(a) by using stomatal density is usually based on empirical curves which are obtained by greenhouse experiments or the study of herbarium material. In this contribution, a model describing the stomatal density response to changes in C(a) is introduced. It is based on the diffusion of water vapour and CO(2), photosynthesis and an optimisation principle concerning gas exchange and water availability. The model considers both aspects of stomatal conductance: degree of stomatal aperture and stomatal density. It is shown that stomatal aperture and stomatal density response can be separated with stomatal aperture representing a short-term response and stomatal density a long-term response. The model also demonstrates how the stomatal density response to C(a) is modulated by environmental factors. This in turn implies that reliable reconstructions of ancient C(a) require additional information concerning temperature and humidity of the considered sites. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the relationship between stomatal density and C(a) in order to identify critical parameters (= small parameter changes lead to significant changes of the results). Stomatal pore geometry (pore size and depth) represents a critical parameter. In palaeoclimatic studies, pore geometry should therefore also be considered.

  5. Nighttime Temperatures on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This infrared image of Jupiter's moon Ganymede, showing heat radiation from its surface at a wavelength of about 60 microns (millionths of a meter), provides the best view yet of nighttime temperatures on this hemisphere of Ganymede. Temperatures, derived from the brightness of the infrared radiation, can be determined from the colors by reference to the scale at the bottom of the image.

    The image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, shows most of Ganymede's nighttime hemisphere, centered on longitude 180 degrees, with north at the top. Irregular, diagonal dark stripes result from missing data, and are not real. Part of Ganymede's illuminated crescent, warmed by the late afternoon sun and appearing pink in this representation (indicating temperatures near 110 Kelvin (-260 F), is visible in the lower left, but most of the part of Ganymede that is seen here is in darkness, glowing only because it retains some heat from the previous day. Jupiter appears in the background behind Ganymede in the upper right part of the image. Although it is nighttime on this part of Jupiter, the planet remains much warmer at night than Ganymede does, with temperatures near 140 Kelvin (- 207 F), because Jupiter's atmosphere is too dense to cool down significantly during the night, and is also warmed by heat that flows up from Jupiter's interior. The coldest parts of Ganymede that are visible (appearing dark blue) are near the north and south poles, and have temperatures below 80 Kelvin (-315 F), while parts of the equator remain at temperatures up to 100 K (-279 F) through the night, and appear in bright blue and purple colors. This same side of Ganymede was seen in full sunlight on Galileo's first orbit around Jupiter, and similar measurements showed that noontime temperatures at the equator reached 150 K (-190 F), which is 90 degrees (Fahrenheit) warmer than the night-time temperatures seen here.

    The image was taken with Galileo's PPR (Photopolarimeter-Radiometer) instrument on

  6. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Wolf, Adam; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Choat, Brendan; Chmura, Daniel J; Jansen, Steven; Kolb, Thomas; Li, Shan; Meinzer, Frederick; Pita, Pilar; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Sperry, John S; Wolfe, Brett T; Pacala, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  7. Role of hysteresis in stomatal aperture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Stomata are pores responsible for gas exchange in leaves. Several experiments indicate that stomata synchronize into clusters or patches. The patches’ coordination may produce oscillations in stomatal conductance. Previous studies claim to reproduce some experimental results. However, none was able to explain the variety of behavior observed in the stomatal dynamics. Recently, Ferraz and Prado suggested a realistic geometry of vein distribution. Although it reproduces the patches, no oscillation was observed and the patches remain static. Without exploring significant details, the authors stated that hysteresis in stomatal aperture could explain several experimental features. In this paper, the hysteresis hypothesis is further explored through the concept of hysteretic operators. We have shown that the hysteresis assumption is sufficient to obtain dynamical patches and oscillations in stomatal conductance. The robustness of this hypothesis is tested by using different hysteresis operators. The model analysis reveals a dependence between the period of oscillation in stomatal conductance and the water deficit between the leaf and the environment. This underlying feature of the model might inspire further experiments to test this hypothesis.

  8. Phylogenetic and ecological patterns in nighttime transpiration among five members of the genus Rubus co-occurring in western Oregon

    PubMed Central

    McNellis, Brandon; Howard, Ava R

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime transpiration is a substantial portion of ecosystem water budgets, but few studies compare water use of closely related co-occurring species in a phylogenetic context. Nighttime transpiration can range up to 69% of daytime rates and vary between species, ecosystem, and functional type. We examined leaf-level daytime and nighttime gas exchange of five species of the genus Rubus co-occurring in the Pacific Northwest of western North America in a greenhouse common garden. Contrary to expectations, nighttime transpiration was not correlated to daytime water use. Nighttime transpiration showed pronounced phylogenetic signals, but the proportion of variation explained by different phylogenetic groupings varied across datasets. Leaf osmotic water potential, water potential at turgor loss point, stomatal size, and specific leaf area were correlated with phylogeny but did not readily explain variation in nighttime transpiration. Patterns in interspecific variation as well as a disconnect between rates of daytime and nighttime transpiration suggest that variation in nighttime water use may be at least partly driven by genetic factors independent of those that control daytime water use. Future work with co-occurring congeneric systems is needed to establish the generality of these results and may help determine the mechanism driving interspecific variation in nighttime water use. PMID:26380686

  9. Phylogenetic and ecological patterns in nighttime transpiration among five members of the genus Rubus co-occurring in western Oregon.

    PubMed

    McNellis, Brandon; Howard, Ava R

    2015-09-01

    Nighttime transpiration is a substantial portion of ecosystem water budgets, but few studies compare water use of closely related co-occurring species in a phylogenetic context. Nighttime transpiration can range up to 69% of daytime rates and vary between species, ecosystem, and functional type. We examined leaf-level daytime and nighttime gas exchange of five species of the genus Rubus co-occurring in the Pacific Northwest of western North America in a greenhouse common garden. Contrary to expectations, nighttime transpiration was not correlated to daytime water use. Nighttime transpiration showed pronounced phylogenetic signals, but the proportion of variation explained by different phylogenetic groupings varied across datasets. Leaf osmotic water potential, water potential at turgor loss point, stomatal size, and specific leaf area were correlated with phylogeny but did not readily explain variation in nighttime transpiration. Patterns in interspecific variation as well as a disconnect between rates of daytime and nighttime transpiration suggest that variation in nighttime water use may be at least partly driven by genetic factors independent of those that control daytime water use. Future work with co-occurring congeneric systems is needed to establish the generality of these results and may help determine the mechanism driving interspecific variation in nighttime water use.

  10. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) measurements as a tool to follow variations of net CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance during water-stress in C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Flexas, Jaume; Escalona, José Mariano; Evain, Sebastian; Gulías, Javier; Moya, Ismaël; Osmond, Charles Barry; Medrano, Hipólito

    2002-02-01

    Water stress experiments were performed with grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and other C3 plants in the field, in potted plants in the laboratory, and with detached leaves. It was found that, in all cases, the ratio of steady state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) normalized to dark-adapted intrinsic fluorescence (Fo) inversely correlated with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Also, at high irradiance, the ratio Fs/Fo was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation in air, with electron transport rate calculated from fluorescence, and with stomatal conductance, but no clear correlation was observed with qP. The significance of these relationships is discussed. The ratio Fs/Fo, measured with a portable instrument (PAM-2000) or with a remote sensing FIPAM system, provides a good method for the early detection of water stress, and may become a useful guide to irrigation requirements.

  11. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  12. Drought induces alterations in the stomatal development program in Populus.

    PubMed

    Hamanishi, Erin T; Thomas, Barb R; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2012-08-01

    Much is known about the physiological control of stomatal aperture as a means by which plants adjust to water availability. By contrast, the role played by the modulation of stomatal development to limit water loss has received much less attention. The control of stomatal development in response to water deprivation in the genus Populus is explored here. Drought induced declines in stomatal conductance as well as an alteration in stomatal development in two genotypes of Populus balsamifera. Leaves that developed under water-deficit conditions had lower stomatal indices than leaves that developed under well-watered conditions. Transcript abundance of genes that could hypothetically underpin drought-responsive changes in stomatal development was examined, in two genotypes, across six time points, under two conditions, well-watered and with water deficit. Populus homologues of STOMAGEN, ERECTA (ER), STOMATA DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 1 (SDD1), and FAMA had variable transcript abundance patterns congruent with their role in the modulation of stomatal development in response to drought. Conversely, there was no significant variation in transcript abundance between genotypes or treatments for the Populus homologues of YODA (YDA) and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). The findings highlight the role that could be played by stomatal development during leaf expansion as a longer term means by which to limit water loss from leaves. Moreover, the results point to the key roles played by the regulation of the homologues of STOMAGEN, ER, SDD1, and FAMA in the control of this response in poplar.

  13. Determinants of stomatal sluggishness in ozone-exposed deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Carriero, Giulia; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Yulong; Paoletti, Elena

    2014-05-15

    Our knowledge of ozone effects on dynamic stomatal response is still limited, especially in Asian tree species. We thus examined ozone effects on steady-state leaf gas exchange and stomatal dynamics in three common tree species of China (Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Platanus orientalis). Seedlings were grown and were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (42, 69, 100 nmol mol(-1) daylight average, from 09:00 to 18:00). At steady-state, ozone exposure induced an uncoupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as the former decreased while the latter did not. Dynamic stomatal response was investigated by cutting the leaf petiole after a steady-state stomatal conductance was reached. Ozone exposure increased stomatal sluggishness, i.e., slowed stomatal response after leaf cutting, in the following order of sensitivity, F. chinensis>A. altissima>P. orientalis. A restriction of stomatal ozone flux reduced the ozone-induced sluggishness in P. orientalis. The ozone-induced impairment of stomatal control was better explained by stomatal ozone flux per net photosynthesis rather than by stomatal ozone flux only. This suggests that ozone injury to stomatal control depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair. Leaf mass per area and the density of stomata did not affect stomatal sluggishness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of water circulation in a woody bamboo species: afternoon use and night-time recharge of culm water storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Goldstein, Guillermo; Sun, Mei; Ma, Ren-Yi; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-09-01

    To understand water-use strategies of woody bamboo species, sap flux density (Fd) in the culms of a woody bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland) was monitored using the thermal dissipation method. The daytime and night-time Fd were analyzed in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, diurnal changes in root pressure, culm circumference, and stomatal conductance (gs) were investigated to characterize the mechanisms used to maintain diurnal water balance of woody bamboos. Both in the dry and rainy seasons, daytime Fd responded to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in an exponential fashion, with a fast initial increase in Fd when VPD increased from 0 to 1 kPa. The Fd and gs started to increase very fast as light intensity and VPD increased in the morning, but they decreased sharply once the maximum value was achieved. The Fd response of this woody bamboo to VPD was much faster than that of representative trees and palms growing in the same study site, suggesting its fast sap flow and stomatal responses to changes in ambient environmental factors. The Fd in the lower and higher culm positions started to increase at the same time in the morning, but the Fd in the higher culm position was higher than that of the lower culm in the afternoon. Consistently, distinct decreases in its culm circumference in the afternoon were detected. Therefore, unlike trees, water storage of bamboo culms was not used for its transpiration in the morning but in the afternoon. Nocturnal sap flow of this woody bamboo was also detected and related to root pressure. We conclude that this bamboo has fast sap flow/stomatal responses to irradiance and evaporative demands, and it uses substantial water storage for transpiration in the afternoon, while root pressure appears to be a mechanism resulting in culm water storage recharge during the night.

  15. Mechanisms of stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, Lynn Jo; Torii, Keiko U

    2012-01-01

    The main route for CO(2) and water vapor exchange between a plant and the environment is through small pores called stomata. The accessibility of stomata and predictable division series that characterize their development provides an excellent system to address fundamental questions in biology. Stomatal cell-state transition and specification are regulated by a suite of transcription factors controlled by positional signaling via peptide ligands and transmembrane receptors. Downstream effectors include several members of the core cell-cycle genes. Environmentally induced signals are integrated into this essential developmental program to modulate stomatal development or function in response to changes in the abiotic environment. In addition, the recent identification of premitotic polarly localized proteins from both Arabidopsis and maize has laid a foundation for the future understanding of intrinsic cell polarity in plants. This review highlights the mechanisms of stomatal development through characterization of genes controlling cell-fate specification, cell polarity, cell division, and cell-cell communication during stomatal development and discusses the genetic framework linking these molecular processes with the correct spacing, density, and differentiation of stomata.

  16. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Zunt, Susan L

    2003-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis remains a commonly occurring cause of oral pain and ulceration. Although the ulcerations of RAS are multifactorial and of unknown cause, recognition of the role of patient and environmental factors may be helpful in developing recommendations for treatment and prevention of future ulcers.

  17. The Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid on Stomatal Development, Stomatal Mechanics, and Leaf Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2001-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters and stomatal physical properties were measured in Tradescantia virginiana plants grown under well-watered conditions and treated daily with either distilled water (control) or 3.0 mm abscisic acid (ABA). Photosynthetic capacity (CO2 assimilation rate for any given leaf intercellular CO2 concentration [ci]) and relative stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapor-pressure difference were unaffected by the ABA treatment. However, at an ambient CO2 concentration (ca) of 350 μmol mol−1, ABA-treated plants operated with significantly lower ci. ABA-treated plants had significantly smaller stomata and higher stomatal density in their lower epidermis. Stomatal aperture versus guard cell pressure (Pg) characteristics measured with a cell pressure probe showed that although the form of the relationship was similar in control and ABA-treated plants, stomata of ABA-treated plants exhibited more complete closure at Pg = 0 MPa and less than half the aperture of stomata in control plants at any given Pg. Scaling from stomatal aperture versus Pg to stomatal conductance versus Pg showed that plants grown under ABA treatment would have had significantly lower maximum stomatal conductance and would have operated with lower stomatal conductance for any given guard cell turgor. This is consistent with the observation of lower ci/ca in ABA-treated plants with a ca of 350 μmol mol−1. It is proposed that the ABA-induced changes in stomatal mechanics and stomatal conductance versus Pg characteristics constitute an improvement in water-use efficiency that may be invoked under prolonged drought conditions. PMID:11161050

  18. [Response of stomatal characteristics and its plasticity to different light intensities in leaves of seven tropical woody seedlings].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhiquan; Qi, Xin; Cao, Kunfang

    2004-02-01

    Stomatal characteristics and its plasticity in leaves of four canopy species, Shorea chinensis, Pometia tomentosa, Anthocephalus chinensis, Calophyllun polyanthum and three middle-layer species, Barringtonia pendula, Garcinia hanburyi, Horsfieldia tetratepala acclimated to different light conditions (8%, 25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) for more than one year were surveyed. All plant's stomata were distributed on the abaxial of leaves. Pometia tomentosa and Barringtonia pendula had higher stomatal density, and the guard cell length of Anthocephalus chinensis and Calophyllun polyanthum were much greater than others'. Stomatal density and stomatal index (ratio of stomatal numbers to epidermal cell number) were increased with growth irradiance increased, while numbers of stomata per leaf were higher in the low than the high relative PFD, and stomatal conductance of leaves was the highest in the 50% of sunlight except for Anthocephalus chinensis. The relative PFD had little effects on the guard cell length of all seven plants. There was a significant negative correlation between stomatal density and leaf area, but the stomatal conductance was not significantly positive with the stomatal conductance in some degree. The analysis of phenotypic plasticity of stomatal characteristics showed that plasticity index for stomatal index and numbers of stomatal per leaf were similar for canopy and middle-layer species, while the plasticity index of stomatal density and stomatal conductance were significantly greater for canopy species than middle-layer species. The high plasticity of canopy species was consistent with the hypothesis that specialization in a more favorable environment increases plasticity.

  19. Nighttime Intensivist Staffing and Mortality among Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David J.; Angus, Derek C.; Barnato, Amber E.; Kramer, Andrew A.; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hospitals are increasingly adopting 24-hour intensivist physician staffing as a strategy to improve intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes. However, the degree to which nighttime intensivists are associated with improvements in the quality of ICU care is unknown. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving ICUs that participated in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) clinical information system from 2009 through 2010, linking a survey of ICU staffing practices with patient-level outcomes data from adult ICU admissions. Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between nighttime intensivist staffing and in-hospital mortality among ICU patients, with adjustment for daytime intensivist staffing, severity of illness, and case mix. We conducted a confirmatory analysis in a second, population-based cohort of hospitals in Pennsylvania from which less detailed data were available. RESULTS The analysis with the use of the APACHE database included 65,752 patients admitted to 49 ICUs in 25 hospitals. In ICUs with low-intensity daytime staffing, nighttime intensivist staffing was associated with a reduction in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio for death, 0.62; P = 0.04). Among ICUs with high-intensity daytime staffing, nighttime intensivist staffing conferred no benefit with respect to risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.08; P = 0.78). In the verification cohort, there was a similar relationship among daytime staffing, nighttime staffing, and in-hospital mortality. The interaction between nighttime staffing and daytime staffing was not significant (P = 0.18), yet the direction of the findings were similar to those in the APACHE cohort. CONCLUSIONS The addition of nighttime intensivist staffing to a low-intensity daytime staffing model was associated with reduced mortality. However, a reduction in mortality was not seen in ICUs with high-intensity daytime staffing. (Funded by the

  20. Effects of atmospheric VPD, plant canopies, and low-water years on leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency in fifteen potential crop species for use in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.

    2011-12-01

    When evaluating the potential for growing alternative crop species in arid environments, high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) that could potentially inhibit crop productivity by limiting stomatal conductance and CO2 uptake must be considered. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of VPD and irrigation levels on leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE) for a range of alternative crop species for aridland agriculture. We evaluated fifteen alternative crops in a field trial in the northern Nevada Walker River Basin. Plots of each species were subjected to two irrigation treatments, 4 and 2 acre-feet per growing season, to simulate normal-year and dry-year irrigation levels. We quantified gs and photosynthesis (A) under decreasing relative humidity (RH) (increasing VPDs) in 10% increments, from about 75% to 2%. About seventeen leaves per species were measured throughout the 2010 growing season over eleven days of samplings. Canopy air temperature and RH were logged in experimental plots to calculate diel and seasonal patterns in canopy VPD. Volumetric water content was also collected to quantify the effects of irrigation treatments on soil moisture and leaf gas exchange. Species varied in their gs and PWUE responses to increasing VPD. Stomatal conductance (gs) of leaves of all species generally increased initially as RH was lowered but then decreased at differing rates as RH dropped further. Average gs (across all measurement VPDs), maximum gs, maximum PWUE, and corresponding VPDs differed among species and between irrigation treatments. Some species (Medicago sativa, Leymus racemosus) showed higher gs across the range of measurement VPDs than other species (Bothrichloa ischaemum, Sorghastrum nutans), while some species exhibited maximum gs and maximum PWUE at higher VPDs (Erograstis tef, Calamovilfa longifolia) than other species (Leymus cinereus, Sorghastrum nutans). These results suggest that some species may

  1. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Natalie Rose; Saleh, Dahlia; Miller, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Aphthous stomatitis is a painful and often recurrent inflammatory process of the oral mucosa that can appear secondary to various well-defined disease processes. Idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is referred to as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent aphthous ulcerations is extensive and ranges from idiopathic benign causes to inherited fever syndromes, to connective tissue disease, or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A thorough history and review of systems can assist the clinician in determining whether it is related to a systemic inflammatory process or truly idiopathic. Management of aphthous stomatitis is challenging. For recurrent aphthous stomatitis or recalcitrant aphthous stomatitis from underlying disease, first-line treatment consists of topical medications with use of systemic medications as necessary. Herein, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment ladder of aphthous stomatitis as described in the literature.

  2. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Dahlia; Miller, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Aphthous stomatitis is a painful and often recurrent inflammatory process of the oral mucosa that can appear secondary to various well-defined disease processes. Idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is referred to as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent aphthous ulcerations is extensive and ranges from idiopathic benign causes to inherited fever syndromes, to connective tissue disease, or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A thorough history and review of systems can assist the clinician in determining whether it is related to a systemic inflammatory process or truly idiopathic. Management of aphthous stomatitis is challenging. For recurrent aphthous stomatitis or recalcitrant aphthous stomatitis from underlying disease, first-line treatment consists of topical medications with use of systemic medications as necessary. Herein, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment ladder of aphthous stomatitis as described in the literature. PMID:28360966

  3. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    DOE PAGES

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; ...

    2016-12-19

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260–300 K andmore » at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. In conclusion, the effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.« less

  4. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  5. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean -Francois; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-19

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260–300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. In conclusion, the effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  6. Urban legends: recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Baccaglini, L; Lalla, R V; Bruce, A J; Sartori-Valinotti, J C; Latortue, M C; Carrozzo, M; Rogers, R S

    2011-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common idiopathic intraoral ulcerative disease in the USA. Aphthae typically occur in apparently healthy individuals, although an association with certain systemic diseases has been reported. Despite the unclear etiopathogenesis, new drug trials are continuously conducted in an attempt to reduce pain and dysfunction. We investigated four controversial topics: (1) Is complex aphthosis a mild form of Behçet's disease (BD)? (2) Is periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome a distinct medical entity? (3) Is RAS associated with other systemic diseases [e.g., celiac disease (CD) and B12 deficiency]? (4) Are there any new RAS treatments? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review of RAS trials, suggested the following: (1) Complex aphthosis is not a mild form of BD in North America or Western Europe; (2) Diagnostic criteria for PFAPA have low specificity and the characteristics of the oral ulcers warrant further studies; (3) Oral ulcers may be associated with CD; however, these ulcers may not be RAS; RAS is rarely associated with B12 deficiency; nevertheless, B12 treatment may be beneficial, via mechanisms that warrant further study; (4) Thirty-three controlled trials published in the past 6 years reported some effectiveness, although potential for bias was high.

  7. Stomatal control of transpiration.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C

    1993-08-01

    The role of stomata in regulating transpiration from vegetation has historically been controversial among those working either at the single leaf, or at the extensive canopy scales. Recently, the role of unstirred air layers surrounding leaves and canopies in limiting the impact of stomatal movements on transpiration has received renewed recognition. This has led to notable progress in quantitatively describing the effectiveness of stomata in controlling transpiration and in reconciling contrasting viewpoints concerning the role of stomata at the leaf, stand and regional scales. Considerable progress has also been made in understanding how variations in aerial factors such as evaporative demand and edaphic factors such as soil water availability are sensed and transduced into appropriate stomatal regulatory responses. These developments indicate that studies carried out at multiple scales of observation are needed to understand how external environmental factors and intrinsic plant properties interact to determine the role of stomata in regulating transpiration from different types of vegetation.

  8. A safety vs efficiency trade-off identified in the hydraulic pathway of grass leaves is decoupled from photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ocheltree, Troy W; Nippert, Jesse B; Prasad, P V Vara

    2016-04-01

    A common theme in plant physiological research is the trade-off between stress tolerance and growth; an example of this trade-off at the tissue level is the safety vs efficiency hypothesis, which suggests that plants with the greatest resistance to hydraulic failure should have low maximum hydraulic conductance. Here, we quantified the leaf-level drought tolerance of nine C4 grasses as the leaf water potential at which plants lost 50% (P50 × RR ) of maximum leaf hydraulic conductance (Ksat ), and compared this trait with other leaf-level and whole-plant functions. We found a clear trade-off between Ksat and P50 × RR when Ksat was normalized by leaf area and mass (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). However, no trade-off existed between P50 × RR and gas-exchange rates; rather, there was a positive relationship between P50 × RR and photosynthesis (P = 0.08). P50 × RR was not correlated with species distributions based on precipitation (P = 0.70), but was correlated with temperature during the wettest quarter of the year (P < 0.01). These results suggest a trade-off between safety and efficiency in the hydraulic system of grass leaves, which can be decoupled from other leaf-level functions. The unique physiology of C4 plants and adaptations to pulse-driven systems may provide mechanisms that could decouple hydraulic conductance from other plant functions.

  9. Zeaxanthin concentrations co-segregate with the magnitude of the blue light response of adaxial guard cells and leaf stomatal conductances in an F2 population of pima cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, M.A.; Lu Zhenmin; Zeiger, E. )

    1993-05-01

    A blue light (BL) response of adaxial (AD) guard cells was investigated in two cotton lines with contrasting rates of stomatal conductances (g). This response is expressed as an enhancement of the red light-induced chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching by BL, and has an action spectrum indicative of a carotenoid photoreceptor. Ad guard cell from the high g, advanced line Pima S-6 have a higher carotenoid content and a larger BL response than those from the low g, primitive cotton, B368. In a growth chamber-grown F2 population of a cross between the two lines (n=30), g of individual plants segregated over a range exceeding the average g of the parental populations. Carotenoid content and the BL response of ad guard cell also segregated. There was a positive, strong correlation (r=0.71) between leaf g and the magnitude of the BL response of ad guard cells, indicating that both parameters are under genetic control, and that the BL response of guard cells contributes to the modulation of g. The concentration of all xanthopylls and [beta]-carotene in the ad guard cells correlated poorly with the BL response, except for zeaxanthin (r=0.71). In all green systems, xanthophylls are located inside the chloroplast which suggests that zeaxanthin functions in these organelle as a blue light photoreceptor for cotton guard cells.

  10. Environmental Influences on Open Stomates of a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant, Agave deserti1

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.; Hartsock, Terry L.

    1979-01-01

    The major short term stomatal response of Agave deserti was to temperature; increases in leaf temperature led to decreases in water vapor conductance for stomatal opening during the daytime (C3 mode) as well as at night (Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM mode). Hourly changes in the water vapor concentration drop from leaf to air had no significant stomatal effect in either mode. Stomatal responses to external CO2 levels up to 800 microliters per liter were not significant after 15 minutes and only moderate after a few hours, suggesting that CO2 effects on open stomates of this succulent were indirect in both CAM and C3 modes. PMID:16660695

  11. Nighttime temperature and human sleep loss in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Obradovich, Nick; Migliorini, Robyn; Mednick, Sara C; Fowler, James H

    2017-05-01

    Human sleep is highly regulated by temperature. Might climate change-through increases in nighttime heat-disrupt sleep in the future? We conduct the inaugural investigation of the relationship between climatic anomalies, reports of insufficient sleep, and projected climate change. Using data from 765,000 U.S. survey respondents from 2002 to 2011, coupled with nighttime temperature data, we show that increases in nighttime temperatures amplify self-reported nights of insufficient sleep. We observe the largest effects during the summer and among both lower-income and elderly respondents. We combine our historical estimates with climate model projections and detail the potential sleep impacts of future climatic changes. Our study represents the largest ever investigation of the relationship between sleep and ambient temperature and provides the first evidence that climate change may disrupt human sleep.

  12. Effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and PIP gene expression of tomato seedlings subject to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Y; Yan, F; Hu, L P; Zhou, X T; Zou, Z R; Cui, L R

    2015-06-11

    The effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on photosynthesis, plant growth, and the expression of two aquaporin genes in tomato seedlings under control and salinity conditions were investigated. Exogenous ALA application significantly improved net photosynthetic rate (Pn), total chlorophyll content, and plant biomass accumulation of tomato seedlings under salinity stress. As revealed by real-time PCR analyses, after treatment with ALA alone, expression of both LePIP1 and LePIP2 in the two tomato cultivars was up-regulated at 2 h and subsequently decreased to normal levels. Under salinity stress, transcript levels of LePIP1 in both leaves and roots of salt-sensitive cultivars (cv. Zhongza No.9) increased significantly and were considerably higher than in cultivars exposed to ALA alone. In contrast, the expression levels of LePIP1 and LePIP2 in cvs. Jinpeng No.1 cultivars were slightly lower under salinity stress than under ALA treatment. In addition, transcript levels of both LePIP1 and LePIP2 in the roots of Jinpeng No. 1 cultivars were considerably lower than those in the roots of Zhongza No. 9 cultivars under salinity stress, regardless of ALA supplementation, implying that Jinpeng No. 1 cultivars had a better capacity to maintain membrane intrinsic protein stability. Further, ALA application distinctly counteracted the up- or down-regulation of LePIP1 and LePIP2 in both cultivars under salinity stress, in accordance with the improvements instomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and Pn of tomato leaves. The results presented here indicate that ALA controls aquaporin expression, thus, presumably ALA regulates water homeostasis and enhances salt tolerance of tomato seedlings.

  13. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; ...

    2015-03-02

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbonmore » cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model1 and the leaf and wood economics spectrum2,3. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. In conclusion, these findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.« less

  14. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Wang, Han; Baig, Sofia; Eamus, Derek; de Dios, Victor Resco; Mitchell, Patrick; Ellsworth, David S.; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan; Tarvainen, Lasse; Linderson, Maj-Lena; Cernusak, Lucas A.; Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Tissue, David T.; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Rogers, Alistair; Warren, Jeff M.; De Angelis, Paolo; Hikosaka, Kouki; Han, Qingmin; Onoda, Yusuke; Gimeno, Teresa E.; Barton, Craig V. M.; Bennie, Jonathan; Bonal, Damien; Bosc, Alexandre; Löw, Markus; Macinins-Ng, Cate; Rey, Ana; Rowland, Lucy; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Drake, John E.; Freeman, Michael; Ghannoum, Oula; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Kelly, Jeff W.; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kolari, Pasi; Koyama, Kohei; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Meir, Patrick; Lola da Costa, Antonio C.; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Salinas, Norma; Sun, Wei; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-02

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model1 and the leaf and wood economics spectrum2,3. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. In conclusion, these findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  15. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Wang, Han; Baig, Sofia; Eamus, Derek; de Dios, Victor Resco; Mitchell, Patrick; Ellsworth, David S.; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan; Tarvainen, Lasse; Linderson, Maj-Lena; Cernusak, Lucas A.; Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Tissue, David T.; Martin-Stpaul, Nicolas K.; Rogers, Alistair; Warren, Jeff M.; de Angelis, Paolo; Hikosaka, Kouki; Han, Qingmin; Onoda, Yusuke; Gimeno, Teresa E.; Barton, Craig V. M.; Bennie, Jonathan; Bonal, Damien; Bosc, Alexandre; Löw, Markus; Macinins-Ng, Cate; Rey, Ana; Rowland, Lucy; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Drake, John E.; Freeman, Michael; Ghannoum, Oula; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Kelly, Jeff W.; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kolari, Pasi; Koyama, Kohei; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Meir, Patrick; Lola da Costa, Antonio C.; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Salinas, Norma; Sun, Wei; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model and the leaf and wood economics spectrum. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  16. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Akintoye, Sunday O.; Greenberg, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease affecting the oral mucosa. It occurs mostly in healthy individuals and has atypical clinical presentation in immunocompromised individuals. The etiology of RAS is still unknown, but several local, systemic, immunologic, genetic, allergic, nutritional, and microbial factors, as well as immunosuppressive drugs, have been proposed as causative agents. Clinical management of RAS is based on severity of symptoms, frequency, size and number of lesions using topical and systemic therapies. The goals of therapy are to decrease pain and ulcer size, promote healing and decrease frequency of recurrence. PMID:24655523

  17. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, Sunday O; Greenberg, Martin S

    2014-04-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease affecting the oral mucosa. RAS occurs mostly in healthy individuals and has an atypical clinical presentation in immunocompromised individuals. The etiology of RAS is still unknown, but several local, systemic, immunologic, genetic, allergic, nutritional, and microbial factors, as well as immunosuppressive drugs, have been proposed as causative agents. Clinical management of RAS using topical and systemic therapies is based on severity of symptoms and the frequency, size, and number of lesions. The goals of therapy are to decrease pain and ulcer size, promote healing, and decrease the frequency of recurrence.

  18. Stomatal function, density and pattern, and CO2 assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana tmm1 and sdd1-1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Vráblová, M; Vrábl, D; Hronková, M; Kubásek, J; Šantrůček, J

    2017-09-01

    Stomata modulate the exchange of water and CO2 between plant and atmosphere. Although stomatal density is known to affect CO2 diffusion into the leaf and thus photosynthetic rate, the effect of stomatal density and patterning on CO2 assimilation is not fully understood. We used wild types Col-0 and C24 and stomatal mutants sdd1-1 and tmm1 of Arabidopsis thaliana, differing in stomatal density and pattern, to study the effects of these variations on both stomatal and mesophyll conductance and CO2 assimilation rate. Anatomical parameters of stomata, leaf temperature and carbon isotope discrimination were also assessed. Our results indicate that increased stomatal density enhanced stomatal conductance in sdd1-1 plants, with no effect on photosynthesis, due to both unchanged photosynthetic capacity and decreased mesophyll conductance. Clustering (abnormal patterning formed by clusters of two or more stomata) and a highly unequal distribution of stomata between the adaxial and abaxial leaf sides in tmm1 mutants also had no effect on photosynthesis. Except at very high stomatal densities, stomatal conductance and water loss were proportional to stomatal density. Stomatal formation in clusters reduced stomatal dynamics and their operational range as well as the efficiency of CO2 transport. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes carbon and water balance of temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Katata, Genki; Deushi, Makoto; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Paoletti, Elena

    2015-05-06

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased by 60-100% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 19(th) century. The phytotoxic nature of ozone can impair forest productivity. In addition, ozone affects stomatal functions, by both favoring stomatal closure and impairing stomatal control. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness, i.e., a delay in stomatal responses to fluctuating stimuli, has the potential to change the carbon and water balance of forests. This effect has to be included in models for ozone risk assessment. Here we examine the effects of ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness on carbon assimilation and transpiration of temperate deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2009 by combining a detailed multi-layer land surface model and a global atmospheric chemistry model. An analysis of results by ozone FACE (Free-Air Controlled Exposure) experiments suggested that ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness can be incorporated into modelling based on a simple parameter (gmin, minimum stomatal conductance) which is used in the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal model. Our simulation showed that ozone can decrease water use efficiency, i.e., the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to transpiration, of temperate deciduous forests up to 20% when ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness is considered, and up to only 5% when the stomatal sluggishness is neglected.

  20. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes carbon and water balance of temperate deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Katata, Genki; Deushi, Makoto; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Paoletti, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased by 60-100% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 19th century. The phytotoxic nature of ozone can impair forest productivity. In addition, ozone affects stomatal functions, by both favoring stomatal closure and impairing stomatal control. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness, i.e., a delay in stomatal responses to fluctuating stimuli, has the potential to change the carbon and water balance of forests. This effect has to be included in models for ozone risk assessment. Here we examine the effects of ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness on carbon assimilation and transpiration of temperate deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2009 by combining a detailed multi-layer land surface model and a global atmospheric chemistry model. An analysis of results by ozone FACE (Free-Air Controlled Exposure) experiments suggested that ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness can be incorporated into modelling based on a simple parameter (gmin, minimum stomatal conductance) which is used in the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal model. Our simulation showed that ozone can decrease water use efficiency, i.e., the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to transpiration, of temperate deciduous forests up to 20% when ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness is considered, and up to only 5% when the stomatal sluggishness is neglected.

  1. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes carbon and water balance of temperate deciduous forests

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Katata, Genki; Deushi, Makoto; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Paoletti, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased by 60–100% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 19th century. The phytotoxic nature of ozone can impair forest productivity. In addition, ozone affects stomatal functions, by both favoring stomatal closure and impairing stomatal control. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness, i.e., a delay in stomatal responses to fluctuating stimuli, has the potential to change the carbon and water balance of forests. This effect has to be included in models for ozone risk assessment. Here we examine the effects of ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness on carbon assimilation and transpiration of temperate deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2009 by combining a detailed multi-layer land surface model and a global atmospheric chemistry model. An analysis of results by ozone FACE (Free-Air Controlled Exposure) experiments suggested that ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness can be incorporated into modelling based on a simple parameter (gmin, minimum stomatal conductance) which is used in the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal model. Our simulation showed that ozone can decrease water use efficiency, i.e., the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to transpiration, of temperate deciduous forests up to 20% when ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness is considered, and up to only 5% when the stomatal sluggishness is neglected. PMID:25943276

  2. The energy balance of the nighttime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The discrepancy between the input from the day hemisphere and the observed loss rates is discussed in terms of ion-neutral processes and gravity wave inputs. There has been considerable speculation as to the energy balance of the thermosphere and in particular about the fraction of the total energy input supplied by ultraviolet radiation. The problem is considerably simplified by considering the energy balance of the nighttime hemisphere alone. Sunrise and sunset vapor trail measurements provide data on the wind systems at the terminator boundary, and temperature measurements provide information on the vertical energy conduction. North-south winds from high latitude vapor trail measurements provide a measure of the energy input from auroral processes.

  3. Observations on the Stomatal Control of NO2 Exchange.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Chaparro-Suarez, I. G.; Meixner, F. X.

    2005-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides play a central role in tropospheric chemistry especially in the formation of tropospheric ozone, acid rain and hydroxyl radical as well as in CH4 and CO oxidation processes. NO2 can be assimilated and emitted by the plant leaves as well. We investigated the impact of the stomatal regulation with four tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus ilex und Pinus sylvestris) by exposure of leaves to the hormone abscisic acid inducing stomatal closure. The results showed that the NO2 uptake was strongly dependent on stomatal aperture. The uptake correlated linearly with stomatal (leaf) conductance in case of all four tree species investigated. In contrast an NO2 emission was observed with beech in the dark when stomata were basically closed.

  4. Cinnamon contact stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, Eleni A

    2010-11-19

    Cinnamon contact stomatitis (CCS) is a rare reaction to the use of products containing artificial cinnamon flavor ingredients. Such products are gums, toothpastes and mouthwashes. A 20-year-old female patient presented with white elevated mucosal patches in the right lateral board of her tongue. Based on anamnesis, the intitial diagnosis of allergy to cinnamon gum was established. Clinical differential diagnosis included hairy leukoplakia, leukoplakia and lichenoid reaction. The patient was advised to completely avoid the use of cinnamon flavoured chewing gums. On re-examination later she had a normal tongue appearance. Clinicians who treat patients with oral conditions should be aware of CCS in order to be able to correctly diagnose and manage this condition.

  5. A new stomatal paradigm for earth system models? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2013-12-01

    The land component of climate, and now earth system, models has simulated stomatal conductance since the introduction in the mid-1980s of the so-called second generation models that explicitly represented plant canopies. These second generation models used the Jarvis-style stomatal conductance model, which empirically relates stomatal conductance to photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentration, and other factors. Subsequent models of stomatal conductance were developed from a more mechanistic understanding of stomatal physiology, particularly that stomata are regulated so as to maximize net CO2 assimilation (An) and minimize water loss during transpiration (E). This concept is embodied in the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model, which relates stomatal conductance (gs) to net assimilation (An), scaled by the ratio of leaf surface relative humidity to leaf surface CO2 concentration, or the Leuning variant which replaces relative humidity with a vapor pressure deficit term. This coupled gs-An model has been widely used in climate and earth system models since the mid-1990s. An alternative approach models stomatal conductance by directly optimizing water use efficiency, defined as the ratio An/gs or An/E. Conceptual developments over the past several years have shown that the Ball-Berry style model can be derived from optimization theory. However, an explicit optimization model has not been tested in an earth system model. We compare the Ball-Berry model with an explicit optimization model, both implemented in a new plant canopy parameterization developed for the Community Land Model, the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The optimization model is from the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model, which integrates plant and soil hydraulics, carbon assimilation, and gas diffusion. The canopy parameterization is multi-layer and resolves profiles of radiation, temperature, vapor pressure, leaf water stress

  6. Hourly and seasonal variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of soybean grown at future CO(2) and ozone concentrations for 3 years under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Heady, Lindsey E; Morgan, Patrick B; Dohleman, Frank G; McGrath, Justin M; Gillespie, Kelly M; Wittig, Victoria E; Rogers, Alistair; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2006-11-01

    It is anticipated that enrichment of the atmosphere with CO(2) will increase photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants. Analysis of controlled environment studies conducted to date indicates that plant growth at concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) anticipated for 2050 ( approximately 550 micromol mol(-1)) will stimulate leaf photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) by 20 to 40%. Simultaneously, concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O(3)]) are expected to increase by 2050, and growth in controlled environments at elevated [O(3)] significantly reduces A. However, the simultaneous effects of both increases on a major crop under open-air conditions have never been tested. Over three consecutive growing seasons > 4700 individual measurements of A, photosynthetic electron transport (J(PSII)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured on Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean). Experimental treatments used free-air gas concentration enrichment (FACE) technology in a fully replicated, factorial complete block design. The mean A in the control plots was 14.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1). At elevated [CO(2)], mean A was 24% higher and the treatment effect was statistically significant on 80% of days. There was a strong positive correlation between daytime maximum temperatures and mean daily integrated A at elevated [CO(2)], which accounted for much of the variation in CO(2) effect among days. The effect of elevated [CO(2)] on photosynthesis also tended to be greater under water stress conditions. The elevated [O(3)] treatment had no statistically significant effect on mean A, g(s) or J(PSII) on newly expanded leaves. Combined elevation of [CO(2)] and [O(3)] resulted in a slightly smaller increase in average A than when [CO(2)] alone was elevated, and was significantly greater than the control on 67% of days. Thus, the change in atmospheric composition predicted for the middle of this century will, based on the results of a 3 year open-air field experiment, have smaller

  7. Spatiotemporal variation of crown-scale stomatal conductance in an arid Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot vineyard: direct effects of hydraulic properties and indirect effects of canopy leaf area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqun; Oren, Ram; Kang, Shaozhong

    2012-03-01

    Vineyards were planted in the arid region of northwest China to meet the local economic strategy while reducing agricultural water use. Sap flow, environmental variables, a plant characteristic (sapwood-to-leaf area ratio, A(s)/A(l)) and a canopy characteristic (leaf area index, L) were measured in a vineyard in the region during the growing season of 2009, and hourly canopy stomatal conductance (G(si)) was estimated for individual vines to quantify the relationships between G(si) and these variables. After accounting for the effects of vapor pressure deficit (D) and solar radiation (R(s)) on G(si), much of the remaining variation of reference G(si) (G(siR)) was driven by that of leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity, which in turn was driven by that of A(s)/A(l). After accounting for that effect on G(siR), appreciable temporal variation remained in the decline rate of G(siR) with decreasing vineyard-averaged relative extractable soil water (θ(E)). This variation was related to the differential decline ofθ(E) near each monitored vine, decreasing faster between irrigation events near vines where L was greater, thus adding to the spatiotemporal variation of G(siR) observed in the vineyard. We also found that the vines showed isohydric-like behavior whenθ(E) was low, but switched to anisohydric-like behavior with increasingθ(E). Modeledθ(E) and associated G(s) of a canopy with even L (1.9 m(2) m(-2)) were greater than that of the same average L but split between the lowest and highest L observed along sections of rows in the vineyard (1.2 and 2.6 m(2) m(-2)) by 6 and 12%, respectively. Our results suggest that managing sectional L near the average, rather than allowing a wide variation, can reduce soil water depletion, maintaining G(s) higher, thus potentially enhancing yield.

  8. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation.

  9. [Recurrent aphthous stomatitis in Rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Riera Matute, Gabriel; Riera Alonso, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis consists on recurring oral ulcers of unknown etiology. Oral ulcers may be different in number and size depending on the clinical presentation, which also determines the time needed for healing. Moreover, there are factors associated to outbreaks but not implicated in its etiopathogenesis. When oral aphthosis has a known etiology, it is not considered as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The severity and the clinical presentation helps in the differential diagnosis. Treatment is symptomatic in recurrent aphthous stomatitis while, if there is an underlying systemic disease, the treatment of such disease is need in addition to topical treatment.

  10. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  11. Chilean Volcanic Eruption Nighttime View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-27

    The April 18, 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano in Chile, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, led to the evacuation of thousands of citizens near the summit, blanketed nearby towns with a layer of ash, and disrupted air traffic. One week later, on April 26, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired this nighttime thermal infrared image of Calbuco. Hot eruptive material at the summit appears in white (hot), with a purple plume streaming to the right, indicating that it is ash-laden. The image covers an area of 3.1 by 4.1 miles (5 by 6.6 kilometers), and is located at 41.3 degrees south, 72.5 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19382

  12. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO2 (free-air CO2 enrichment) and N-fertilizationpce

    Treesearch

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Sari Palmroth; Eric Ward; Chris Maier; M. Therezien; Ram Oren

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations CO2 a and CO2 e, respectively). We also examined how Kleaf varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (...

  13. To what extent do current and projected increases in surface ozone affect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees? A meta-analytic review of the last 3 decades of experiments.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Victoria E; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Long, Stephen P

    2007-09-01

    The surface concentration of ozone ([O(3)]) has risen from less than 10 ppb prior to the industrial revolution to a day-time mean concentration of approximately 40 ppb over much of the northern temperate zone. If current global emission trends continue, surface [O(3)] is projected to rise a further 50% over this century, with larger increases in many locations including Northern Hemisphere forests. This review uses statistical meta-analysis to determine mean effects, and their confidence limits, of both the current and projected elevations of [O(3)] on light-saturated photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (A(sat)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in trees. In total, 348 measurements of A(sat) from 61 studies and 266 measures of g(s) from 55 studies were reviewed. Results suggested that the elevation of [O(3)] that has occurred since the industrial revolution is depressing A(sat) and g(s) by 11% (CI 9-13%) and 13% (CI 11-15%), respectively, where CI is the 95% confidence interval. In contrast to angiosperms, gymnosperms were not significantly affected. Both drought and elevated [CO(2)] significantly decreased the effect of ambient [O(3)]. Younger trees (<4 years) were affected less than older trees. Elevation of [O(3)] above current levels caused progressively larger losses of A(sat) and g(s), including gymnosperms. Results are consistent with the expectation that damage to photosynthesis depends on the cumulative uptake of ozone (O(3)) into the leaf. Thus, factors that lower g(s) lessen damage. Where both g(s) and [O(3)] were recorded, an overall decline in A(sat) of 0.21% per mmol m(-2) of estimated cumulative O(3) uptake was calculated. These findings suggest that rising [O(3)], an often overlooked aspect of global atmospheric change, is progressively depressing the ability of temperate and boreal forests to assimilate carbon and transfer water vapour to the atmosphere, with significant potential effects on terrestrial carbon sinks and regional hydrologies.

  14. Effects of experimental warming on stomatal traits in leaves of maize (Zea may L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunpu; Xu, Ming; Hou, Ruixing; Shen, Ruichang; Qiu, Shuai; Ouyang, Zhu

    2013-09-01

    We examined the warming effects on the stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture size and shape, and their spatial distribution pattern of maize (Zea may L.) leaves using a light microscope, an electron scanning microscope, and geostatistic techniques. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate canopy temperature by 2.08°C, on average. We found that experimental warming had little effect on stomatal density, but significantly increased stomatal index due to the reduction in the number of epidermal cells under the warming treatment. Warming also significantly decreased stomatal aperture length and increased stomatal aperture width. As a result, warming significantly increased the average stomatal aperture area and stomatal aperture circumference. In addition, warming dramatically changed the stomatal spatial distribution pattern with a substantial increase in the average nearest neighbor distance between stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The spatial distribution pattern of stomata was scale dependent with regular patterns at small scales and random patterns at larger scales on both leaf surfaces. Warming caused the stomatal distribution to become more regular on both leaf surfaces with smaller L(t) values (Ripley's K-function, L(t) is an expectation of zero for any value of t) in the warming plots than the control plots.

  15. Effects of experimental warming on stomatal traits in leaves of maize (Zea may L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunpu; Xu, Ming; Hou, Ruixing; Shen, Ruichang; Qiu, Shuai; Ouyang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We examined the warming effects on the stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture size and shape, and their spatial distribution pattern of maize (Zea may L.) leaves using a light microscope, an electron scanning microscope, and geostatistic techniques. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate canopy temperature by 2.08°C, on average. We found that experimental warming had little effect on stomatal density, but significantly increased stomatal index due to the reduction in the number of epidermal cells under the warming treatment. Warming also significantly decreased stomatal aperture length and increased stomatal aperture width. As a result, warming significantly increased the average stomatal aperture area and stomatal aperture circumference. In addition, warming dramatically changed the stomatal spatial distribution pattern with a substantial increase in the average nearest neighbor distance between stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The spatial distribution pattern of stomata was scale dependent with regular patterns at small scales and random patterns at larger scales on both leaf surfaces. Warming caused the stomatal distribution to become more regular on both leaf surfaces with smaller L(t) values (Ripley's K-function, L(t) is an expectation of zero for any value of t) in the warming plots than the control plots. PMID:24101997

  16. Stomatal closure is induced by hydraulic signals and maintained by ABA in drought-stressed grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Frioni, Tommaso; Soccolini, Marta; Zadra, Claudia; Farinelli, Daniela; Poni, Stefano; Palliotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water saving under drought stress is assured by stomatal closure driven by active (ABA-mediated) and/or passive (hydraulic-mediated) mechanisms. There is currently no comprehensive model nor any general consensus about the actual contribution and relative importance of each of the above factors in modulating stomatal closure in planta. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of passive (hydraulic) vs active (ABA mediated) mechanisms of stomatal closure in V. vinifera plants facing drought stress. Leaf gas exchange decreased progressively to zero during drought, and embolism-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in petioles peaked to ~50% in correspondence with strong daily limitation of stomatal conductance. Foliar ABA significantly increased only after complete stomatal closure had already occurred. Rewatering plants after complete stomatal closure and after foliar ABA reached maximum values did not induced stomatal re-opening, despite embolism recovery and water potential rise. Our data suggest that in grapevine stomatal conductance is primarily regulated by passive hydraulic mechanisms. Foliar ABA apparently limits leaf gas exchange over long-term, also preventing recovery of stomatal aperture upon rewatering, suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism of long-term down-regulation of transpiration to favor embolism repair and preserve water under conditions of fluctuating water availability and repeated drought events. PMID:26207993

  17. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    PubMed

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Responses of leaf stomatal density to water status and its relationship with photosynthesis in a grass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Responses of plant leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthesis to water deficit have been extensively reported; however, little is known concerning the relationships of stomatal density with regard to water status and gas exchange. The responses of stomatal density to leaf water status were determined, and correlation with specific leaf area (SLA) in a photosynthetic study of a perennial grass, Leymus chinensis, subjected to different soil moisture contents. Moderate water deficits had positive effects on stomatal number, but more severe deficits led to a reduction, described in a quadratic parabolic curve. The stomatal size obviously decreased with water deficit, and stomatal density was positively correlated with stomatal conductance (g(s)), net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(n)), and water use efficiency (WUE). A significantly negative correlation of SLA with stomatal density was also observed, suggesting that the balance between leaf area and its matter may be associated with the guard cell number. The present results indicate that high flexibilities in stomatal density and guard cell size will change in response to water status, and this process may be closely associated with photosynthesis and water use efficiency.

  19. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    PubMed Central

    Eamus, D; Shanahan, ST

    2002-01-01

    Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D) – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses. PMID:12153703

  20. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Christopher; Turner, Carla; Landim, Marcela Guimaraes; Cameron, Duncan; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development. PMID:27275842

  1. Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; K.A. McCulloh; J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; B.L. Gartner

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms involved in the regulation of stomatal closure in Douglas-fir and evaluated the potential compensatory adjustments in response to increasing tree height. Stomatal closure was initiated at values of leaf water potential corresponding to nearly complete loss of leaf hydraulic conductance. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopic images...

  2. Modeled hydraulic redistribution by Helianthus annuus L. matches observed data only after model modification to include nighttime transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.

  3. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.

  4. Daytime nap controls toddlers' nighttime sleep.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child's waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age.

  5. Daytime nap controls toddlers’ nighttime sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child’s waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age. PMID:27277329

  6. Nighttime chemistry in the Houston urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, Menachem; Valente, Ralph J.; Bairai, Solomon; Parkhurst, William J.; Tanner, Roger L.

    A late afternoon polluted air parcel transported from the Houston metropolitan area was monitored by an instrumented aircraft throughout the night of 21-22 July, 2005. Sampling was conducted during three flight segments over several downwind areas that were identified by a controllable meteorological balloon released from the Houston area at sundown. Samples were taken for approximately 2 h over each area. Using carbon monoxide as a tracer of the urban plume, it was revealed that the dilution inside the plume was relatively small. Ozone levels of up to 120 ppb were found in the plume at the furthest downwind distance, some 250 km northwest of Houston, with plume transport in the direction of the Dallas metropolitan area. The data further suggest that the nighttime conversion of NO x to NO z was very rapid, with complete (˜100%) conversion by the end of the night. At two locations the urban plume mixed with fresh emissions from power plants. At these sampling points ˜50% of the NO y had already been converted to NO z, thus indicating very rapid oxidation at night.

  7. Nighttime snacking, stress, and migraine activity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Porter, John A H; Martin, Vincent T; Houle, Timothy T

    2014-04-01

    Missing meals and fasting have long been reported as headache triggers. Stress also has received attention for its role in precipitating headaches. This study explored the effects of eating behaviors on new-onset headache. Analyzing only the 1070 of 1648 (64.9%) diary days that followed a non-headache day, the study included 34 migraineurs who contributed a median (25th, 75th percentile) of 28 (22, 40) days of diary entries. Multivariable survival modeling with random effects was conducted, and hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Nighttime snacking was associated with a 40% reduction in the odds of experiencing a headache compared to having no food (p=0.013). Eating a late dinner was associated with a 21% reduction in the odds of headache when compared to no additional food, but this association was not statistically significant (p=0. 22). These results demonstrate the potential for eating behaviors to be targeted in headache management, as regulated eating habits may have the potential to reduce the occurrence of headache. Although no causal relationship can be established, these results indicate that further research into the mechanisms of the association between eating behaviors and headache activity is warranted.

  8. Enhancement of leaf photosynthetic capacity through increased stomatal density in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yu; Sugano, Shigeo S; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-05-01

    Photosynthetic rate is determined by CO2 fixation and CO2 entry into the plant through pores in the leaf epidermis called stomata. However, the effect of increased stomatal density on photosynthetic rate remains unclear. This work investigated the effect of alteration of stomatal density on leaf photosynthetic capacity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Stomatal density was modulated by overexpressing or silencing STOMAGEN, a positive regulator of stomatal development. Leaf photosynthetic capacity and plant growth were examined in transgenic plants. Increased stomatal density in STOMAGEN-overexpressing plants enhanced the photosynthetic rate by 30% compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed increased stomatal conductance under ambient CO2 conditions and did not show alterations in the maximum rate of carboxylation, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthetic rate was caused by gas diffusion changes. A leaf photosynthesis-intercellular CO2 concentration response curve showed that photosynthetic rate was increased under high CO2 conditions in association with increased stomatal density. STOMAGEN overexpression did not alter whole plant biomass, whereas its silencing caused biomass reduction. Our results indicate that increased stomatal density enhanced leaf photosynthetic capacity by modulating gas diffusion. Stomatal density may be a target trait for plant engineering to improve photosynthetic capacity.

  9. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    PubMed

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  10. Gas valves, forests and global change: a commentary on Jarvis (1976) ‘The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field’

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic turgor-operated gas valves on leaf surfaces—stomata—facilitate gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, and respond to multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Collectively, stomatal activities affect everything from the productivity of forests, grasslands and crops to biophysical feedbacks between land surface vegetation and climate. In 1976, plant physiologist Paul Jarvis reported an empirical model describing stomatal responses to key environmental and plant conditions that predicted the flux of water vapour from leaves into the surrounding atmosphere. Subsequent theoretical advances, building on this earlier approach, established the current paradigm for capturing the physiological behaviour of stomata that became incorporated into sophisticated models of land carbon cycling. However, these models struggle to accurately predict observed trends in the physiological responses of Northern Hemisphere forests to recent atmospheric CO2 increases, highlighting the need for improved representation of the role of stomata in regulating forest–climate interactions. Bridging this gap between observations and theory as atmospheric CO2 rises and climate change accelerates creates challenging opportunities for the next generation of physiologists to advance planetary ecology and climate science. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750234

  11. Gas valves, forests and global change: a commentary on Jarvis (1976) 'The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field'.

    PubMed

    Beerling, David J

    2015-04-19

    Microscopic turgor-operated gas valves on leaf surfaces-stomata-facilitate gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, and respond to multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Collectively, stomatal activities affect everything from the productivity of forests, grasslands and crops to biophysical feedbacks between land surface vegetation and climate. In 1976, plant physiologist Paul Jarvis reported an empirical model describing stomatal responses to key environmental and plant conditions that predicted the flux of water vapour from leaves into the surrounding atmosphere. Subsequent theoretical advances, building on this earlier approach, established the current paradigm for capturing the physiological behaviour of stomata that became incorporated into sophisticated models of land carbon cycling. However, these models struggle to accurately predict observed trends in the physiological responses of Northern Hemisphere forests to recent atmospheric CO2 increases, highlighting the need for improved representation of the role of stomata in regulating forest-climate interactions. Bridging this gap between observations and theory as atmospheric CO2 rises and climate change accelerates creates challenging opportunities for the next generation of physiologists to advance planetary ecology and climate science. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  12. Circadian Rhythms in Stomatal Responsiveness to Red and Blue Light.

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, H. L.; Williams, W. E.; Assmann, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Stomata of many plants have circadian rhythms in responsiveness to environmental cues as well as circadian rhythms in aperture. Stomatal responses to red light and blue light are mediated by photosynthetic photoreceptors; responses to blue light are additionally controlled by a specific blue-light photoreceptor. This paper describes circadian rhythmic aspects of stomatal responsiveness to red and blue light in Vicia faba. Plants were exposed to a repeated light:dark regime of 1.5:2.5 h for a total of 48 h, and because the plants could not entrain to this short light:dark cycle, circadian rhythms were able to "free run" as if in continuous light. The rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the 1.5-h light periods was caused both by a rhythm in sensitivity to light and by a rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the preceding 2.5-h dark periods. Both rhythms peaked during the middle of the subjective day. Although the stomatal response to blue light is greater than the response to red light at all times of day, there was no discernible difference in period, phase, or amplitude of the rhythm in sensitivity to the two light qualities. We observed no circadian rhythmicity in net carbon assimilation with the 1.5:2.5 h light regime for either red or blue light. In continuous white light, small rhythmic changes in photosynthetic assimilation were observed, but at relatively high light levels, and these appeared to be attributable largely to changes in internal CO2 availability governed by stomatal conductance. PMID:12231947

  13. Patchy stomatal behavior during midday depression of leaf CO₂ exchange in tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Mai; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Okumura, Motonori; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-02-01

    We investigated effects of heterogeneous stomatal behavior on diurnal patterns of leaf gas exchange in 10 tree species. Observations were made in middle and upper canopy layers of potted tropical rainforest trees in a nursery at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia. Measurements were taken from 29 January to 3 February 2010. We measured in situ diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in three leaves of each species under natural light. In both top-canopy and sub-canopy species, midday depression of net assimilation rate occurred in late morning. Numerical analysis showed that patchy bimodal stomatal behavior occurred only during midday depression, suggesting that the distribution pattern of stomatal apertures (either uniform or non-uniform stomatal behavior) varies flexibly within single days. Direct observation of stomatal aperture using Suzuki's Universal Micro-Printing (SUMP) method demonstrated midday patchy stomatal closure that fits a bimodal pattern in Shorea leprosula Miq., Shorea macrantha Brandis. and Dipterocarpus tempehes V.Sl. Inhibition of net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance appears to be a response to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Variable stomatal closure with increasing VPD is a mechanism used by a range of species to prevent excess water loss from leaves through evapotranspiration (viz., inhibition of midday leaf gas exchange). Bimodal stomatal closure may occur among adjacent stomata within a single patch, rather than among patches on a single leaf. Our results suggest the occurrence of patches at several scales within single leaves. Further analysis should consider variable spatial scales in heterogeneous stomatal behavior between and within patches and within single leaves.

  14. An integrated model of stomatal development and leaf physiology.

    PubMed

    Dow, Graham J; Bergmann, Dominique C; Berry, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Stomatal conductance (g(s)) is constrained by the size and number of stomata on the plant epidermis, and the potential maximum rate of g(s) can be calculated based on these stomatal traits (Anatomical g(smax)). However, the relationship between Anatomical g(smax) and operational g(s) under atmospheric conditions remains undefined. • Leaf-level gas-exchange measurements were performed for six Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that have different Anatomical g(smax) profiles resulting from mutations or transgene activity in stomatal development. • We found that Anatomical g(smax) was an accurate prediction of g(s) under gas-exchange conditions that maximized stomatal opening, namely high-intensity light, low [CO₂], and high relative humidity. Plants with different Anatomical g(smax) had quantitatively similar responses to increasing [CO₂] when g(s) was scaled to Anatomical g(smax). This latter relationship allowed us to produce and test an empirical model derived from the Ball-Woodrow-Berry equation that estimates g(s) as a function of Anatomical g(smax), relative humidity, and [CO₂] at the leaf. • The capacity to predict operational g(s) via Anatomical g(smax) and the pore-specific short-term response to [CO₂] demonstrates a precise link between stomatal development and leaf physiology. This connection should be useful to quantify the gas flux of plants in past, present, and future CO₂ regimes based upon the anatomical features of stomata.

  15. [CORRELATION MATRIX OF CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC RECURRENT APHTHOUS STOMATITIS].

    PubMed

    Koridze, Kh; Aladashvili, L; Taboridze, I

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the correlation between the risk factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The research was conducted on 62 patients between ages of 40 and 70 years at Tbilisi Hospital for Veterans of War. The analysis was carried out by Spearman's Rank Correlation method using the statistical package SPSS 11.5. We investigated: harmful habits, professional factors, background and accompanying illnesses, pathology of teeth, focal infection, emotional stress, genetic factors. Correlation matrix between the significant risk factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is defined. Multiple correlations have the following factors: industrial dust, focal infections, emotional stress, anemia. Correlation diagram of etiological factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is helpful for providing professional and expert services.

  16. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Mahesh; Jain, Hansa; Diwan, Nikhil; Khedkar, Shivaji; Shete, Anagha; Durkar, Sachin

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common clinical condition producing painful ulcerations in oral cavity. The diagnosis of RAS is based on well-defined clinical characteristics but the precise etiology and pathogenesis of RAS remain unclear. The present article provides a detailed review of the current concepts and knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of RAS.

  17. Increasing water-use efficiency directly through genetic manipulation of stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; W Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Britton-Harper, Zoe J; Gray, Julie E

    2015-07-01

    Improvement in crop water-use efficiency (WUE) is a critical priority for regions facing increased drought or diminished groundwater resources. Despite new tools for the manipulation of stomatal development, the engineering of plants with high WUE remains a challenge. We used Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor (EPF) mutants exhibiting altered stomatal density to test whether WUE could be improved directly by manipulation of the genes controlling stomatal density. Specifically, we tested whether constitutive overexpression of EPF2 reduced stomatal density and maximum stomatal conductance (gw(max) ) sufficiently to increase WUE. We found that a reduction in gw(max) via reduced stomatal density in EPF2-overexpressing plants (EPF2OE) increased both instantaneous and long-term WUE without altering significantly the photosynthetic capacity. Conversely, plants lacking both EPF1 and EPF2 expression (epf1epf2) exhibited higher stomatal density, higher gw(max) and lower instantaneous WUE, as well as lower (but not significantly so) long-term WUE. Targeted genetic modification of stomatal conductance, such as in EPF2OE, is a viable approach for the engineering of higher WUE in crops, particularly in future high-carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) atmospheres.

  18. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    PubMed

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production.

  19. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2- and ABA-induced stomatal closing

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andish; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B.; Bargmann, Bastiaan O.R.; Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2]. [CO2] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard-cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard-cell specific enhancer trap-line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately ~ 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV′/FM′) were comparable to wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard-cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard-cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a “deflated” thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard-cell turgor production. PMID:26096271

  20. [Effects of nighttime warming on winter wheat root growth and soil nutrient availability].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Qian; Chen, Jin; Guo, Jia; Tian, Yun-Lu; Yang, Shi-Jia; Zhang, Li; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jian

    2013-02-01

    Climate warming has an obvious asymmetry between day and night, with a greater increment of air temperature at nighttime than at daytime. By adopting passive nighttime warming (PNW) system, a two-year field experiment of nighttime warming was conducted in the main production areas of winter wheat in China (Shijiazhuang of Hebei Province, Xuzhou of Jiangsu Province, Xuchang of Henan Province, and Zhenjiang of Jiangsu Province) in 2009 and 2010, with the responses of soil pH and available nutrient contents during the whole growth periods and of wheat root characteristics at heading stage determined. As compared with the control (no nighttime warming), nighttime warming decreased the soil pH and available nutrient contents significantly, and increased the root dry mass and root/shoot ratio to a certain extent. During the whole growth period of winter wheat, nighttime warming decreased the soil pH in Shijiazhuang, Xuzhou, Xuchang, and Zhenjiang averagely by 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 0.9%, the soil alkaline nitrogen content averagely by 8.1%, 8.1%, 7.1%, and 6.0%, the soil available phosphorus content averagely by 15.7%, 12.1%, 19.6%, and 25.8%, and the soil available potassium content averagely by 11.5%, 7.6%, 7.6% , and 10.1%, respectively. However, nighttime warming increased the wheat root dry mass at heading stage in Shijiazhuang, Xuzhou, and Zhenjiang averagely by 31. 5% , 27.0%, and 14.5%, and the root/shoot ratio at heading stage in Shijiazhuang, Xuchang, and Zhenjiang averagely by 23.8%, 13.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Our results indicated that nighttime warming could affect the soil nutrient supply and winter wheat growth via affecting the soil chemical properties.

  1. Stomatal limitation to carbon gain in Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) and its reversal by blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Grivet, C.; Assmann, S.M.; Dietzer, G.F.; Hannegan, M.W.

    1985-02-01

    Leaves from Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) having achlorophyllous stomata, show reduced levels of stomatal conductance when irradiated with red light, as compared with either the related, chlorophyllous genus Phragmipedium or with their response to blue light. These reduced levels of stomatal conductance, and the failure of isolated Paphiopedilum stomata to open under red irradiation indicates that the small stomatal response measured in the intact leaf under red light is indirect. The overall low levels of stomatal conductance observed in Paphiopedilum leaves under most growing conditions and their capacity to increase stomatal conductance in response to blue light suggested that growth and carbon gain in Paphiopedilum could be enhanced in a blue light-enriched environment. To test that hypothesis, plants of Paphiopedilum acmodontum were grown in controlled growth chambers under daylight fluorescent light, with or without blue light supplementation. Blue light enrichment resulted in significantly higher growth rates over a 3 to 4 week growing period, with all evidence indicating that the blue light effect was a stomatal response. Manipulations of stomatal properties aimed at long-term carbon gains could have agronomic applications.

  2. Urban Legends Series: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baccaglini, Lorena; Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bruce, Alison J.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Latortue, Marie C.; Carrozzo, Marco; Rogers, Roy S.

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common idiopathic intraoral ulcerative disease in the USA. Aphthae typically occur in apparently healthy individuals, although an association with certain systemic diseases has been reported. Despite the unclear etiopathogenesis, new drug trials are continuously conducted in an attempt to reduce pain and dysfunction. We investigated four controversial topics: (1) Is complex aphthosis a mild form of Behçet’s disease (BD)? (2) Is periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome a distinct medical entity? (3) Is RAS associated with other systemic diseases (e.g., celiac disease and B12 deficiency)? (4) Are there any new RAS treatments? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review of RAS trials, suggested that: (1) Complex aphthosis is not a mild form of BD in North America or Western Europe; (2) Diagnostic criteria for PFAPA have low specificity and the characteristics of the oral ulcers warrant further studies; (3) Oral ulcers may be associated with celiac disease; however, these ulcers may not be RAS; RAS is rarely associated with B12 deficiency; nevertheless, B12 treatment may be beneficial, via mechanisms that warrant further study; (4) Thirty-three controlled trials published in the past 6 years reported some effectiveness, though potential for bias was high. PMID:21812866

  3. Electrical potentials in stomatal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Saftner, R.A.; Raschke, K.

    1981-06-01

    Guard cells of several species, but predominantly Commelina communis, were impaled by micropipette electrodes and potential differences measured that occurred between cell compartments and the flowing bathing medium. The wall developed a Donnan potential that was between -60 and -70 millivolt in 30 millimolar KC1 at pH 7. The density of the fixed charges ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 molar; its dependence on pH was almost identical with the titration curve of authentic polygalacturonic acid. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of Commelina communis L., Zea mays L., Nicotiana glauca Graham, Allium cepa L., and Vicia faba L. was between -40 and -50 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl when stomata were open and about -30 millivolt when stomata were closed. The vacuolar potential of guard cells of C. communis was almost linearly related to stomatal aperture and responded to changes in the ionic strength in the bathing medium in a Nernstian manner. No specificity for any alkali ion (except Li/sup +/), ammonium, or choline appeared. Lithium caused hyperpolarization. Calcium in concentrations between 1 and 100 millimolar in the medium led to stomatal closure, also caused hyperpolarization, and triggered transient oscillations in the intracellular potential. Gradients in the electrical potential existed across stomatal complexes with open pores. When stomata closed, these gradients almost disappeared or slightly reverted; all epidermal cells were then at potentials near -30 millivolt in 30 millimolar KCl.

  4. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species.

  5. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  6. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  7. Stomatal responses to humidity and temperature in darkness.

    PubMed

    Mott, Keith A; Peak, David

    2010-07-01

    Stomatal responses to leaf temperature (T(l)) and to the mole fractions of water vapour in the ambient air (w(a)) and the leaf intercellular air spaces (w(i)) were determined in darkness to remove the potential effects of changes in photosynthesis and intercellular CO(2) concentration. Both the steady-state and kinetic responses of stomatal conductance (g(s)) to w(a) in darkness were found to be indistinguishable from those in the light. g(s) showed a steep response to the difference (Deltaw) between w(a) and w(i) when w(a) was varied. The response was much less steep when w(i) was varied. Although stomatal apertures responded steeply to T(l) when Deltaw was held constant at 17 mmol mol(-1), the response was much less steep when Deltaw was held constant at about zero. Similar results were obtained in the light for Deltaw = 15 mmol mol(-1) and Deltaw approximately 0 mmol mol(-1). These results are discussed in the context of mechanisms for the stomatal response to humidity.

  8. Mesophyll photosynthesis and guard cell metabolism impacts on stomatal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Tracy; Simkin, Andrew J; Kelly, Gilor; Granot, David

    2014-09-01

    Stomata control gaseous fluxes between the internal leaf air spaces and the external atmosphere. Guard cells determine stomatal aperture and must operate to ensure an appropriate balance between CO2 uptake for photosynthesis (A) and water loss, and ultimately plant water use efficiency (WUE). A strong correlation between A and stomatal conductance (gs ) is well documented and often observed, but the underlying mechanisms, possible signals and metabolites that promote this relationship are currently unknown. In this review we evaluate the current literature on mesophyll-driven signals that may coordinate stomatal behaviour with mesophyll carbon assimilation. We explore a possible role of various metabolites including sucrose and malate (from several potential sources; including guard cell photosynthesis) and new evidence that improvements in WUE have been made by manipulating sucrose metabolism within the guard cells. Finally we discuss the new tools and techniques available for potentially manipulating cell-specific metabolism, including guard and mesophyll cells, in order to elucidate mesophyll-derived signals that coordinate mesophyll CO2 demands with stomatal behaviour, in order to provide a mechanistic understanding of these processes as this may identify potential targets for manipulations in order to improve plant WUE and crop yield. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Lane E.; Ball, Helen L.; McKenna, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help

  10. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  11. Model-based analysis of avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Resistance of plants to ozone stress can be classified as either avoidance or tolerance. Avoidance of ozone stress may be explained by decreased stomatal conductance during ozone exposure because stomata are the principal interface for entry of ozone into plants. In this study, a coupled photosynthesis–stomatal model was modified to test whether the presence of ozone can induce avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure. Methods The response of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata), a representative deciduous tree species, to ozone was studied in a free-air ozone exposure experiment in Japan. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured under ambient and elevated ozone. An optimization model of stomata involving water, CO2 and ozone flux was tested using the leaf gas exchange data. Key Results The data suggest that there are two phases in the avoidance of ozone stress via stomatal closure for Siebold's beech: (1) in early summer ozone influx is efficiently limited by a reduction in stomatal conductance, without any clear effect on photosynthetic capacity; and (2) in late summer and autumn the efficiency of ozone stress avoidance was decreased because the decrease in stomatal conductance was small and accompanied by an ozone-induced decline of photosynthetic capacity. Conclusions Ozone-induced stomatal closure in Siebold's beech during early summer reduces ozone influx and allows the maximum photosynthetic capacity to be reached, but is not sufficient in older leaves to protect the photosynthetic system. PMID:23904447

  12. Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Diehl, K; Rosychuk, R A

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions of the feline mouth are commonly encountered in small animal practice. Although the majority can be attributed to dental disease and a small percentage are due to autoimmune diseases, the eosinophilic granuloma complex, neoplasia, and other miscellaneous syndromes, many cases appear to be due to a gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex, which is likely multifactorial in origin. Viruses, bacterial infection, diet, dental disease, oral conformation, genetic predisposition, hypersensitivities, immunoinsufficiencies, and other defects in oral defense mechanisms may all be contributory. The complexities of this syndrome have made it one of the most challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in feline medicine.

  13. Daytime Sleep Aids and Nighttime Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    reproduction of technical data or portions thereof marked as limited rights data must also reproduce the markings. Any person, other than the...a sleep promoting or "No-Go" medication may be prescribed to promote a more restorative crew rest. This study compared two doses of the hypnotic ... hypnotic zolpidem, two doses of melatonin and placebo for their effects on daytime sleep, on nighttime cognitive performance and on mood in an

  14. Statistical analysis of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using airglow images and GPS observations over central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fuqing; Dou, Xiankang; Lei, Jiuhou; Lin, Jian; Ding, Feng; Zhong, Jiahao

    2016-09-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) for the first time by using airglow images and Global Positioning System (GPS) data over central China during 2013-2015. Our results show that the phase fronts of perturbations are aligned from northwest to southeast direction and propagate toward the southwest direction. The characteristics of the nighttime MSTIDs observed by OI 630.0 nm images are consistent with those of the nighttime MSTIDs obtained from the GPS data. The phase velocity, period, wavelength, and amplitude of nighttime MSTIDs are 50-150 m/s, 0.5-1.5 h, 150-400 km, and 2%-15%, respectively, as measured from 630.0 nm images and GPS data. In addition, we utilized the simultaneous observations from OI 630.0 nm and OI 557.7 nm images to explore the relationship between nighttime MSTIDs and gravity waves (<100 km) in the mesopause. It is found that the nighttime MSTIDs frequently occurred in the summer solstice, which was not consistent with the occurrence of gravity wave observed in the mesopause. Our results indicate that the nighttime MSTIDs may be generated by the coupling of electrodynamic processes rather than be trigged by gravity waves from the lower atmosphere.

  15. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  16. Monoterpene hydrocarbons in the nighttime troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.M.; Hahn, C.J.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Warnock, J.M.; Albritton, D.L.; Sievers, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Monoterpene hydrocarbons were measured during the night at a rural site in the Rocky Mountains. The compounds positively identified and quantified were ..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, ..delta../sup 3/-carene, and d-limonene. The average sum of the mixing ratios of the five compounds measured during the nighttime between July and Oct., 1982, was 0.63 ppb (volume), which was about twice the corresponding daytime average sum. No significant difference was observed between day and night in the relative concentrations of the individual monoterpenes. Increased atmospheric stability, with attendant reduced mixing and dilution during the night, was found to contribute to the large nighttime vs. daytime monoterpene mixing ratios. Nighttime atmospheric stability was also responsible for the observation of ozone diminution and a corresponding inverse relationship between monoterpene and ozone mixing ratios. The results indicate that, at this site, transport rather than chemistry determines the concentrations of the monoterpenes. The ultimate fate of the monoterpenes is chemical reaction with O/sub 3/, OH, or NO/sub 3/. Because of the differences in rate constants of reactions between the various monoterpenes and the above species, chemical reaction should cause systematic changes in relative concentrations of monoterpenes, which are characteristic of the reactant species involved.

  17. Scaling of stomatal size and density optimizes allocation of leaf epidermal space for gas exchange in angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2015-04-01

    Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.

  18. Contrasting responses of leaf stomatal characteristics to climate change: a considerable challenge to predict carbon and water cycles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2017-09-01

    Stomata control the cycling of water and carbon between plants and the atmosphere; however, no consistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the response of stomatal frequency to climate change. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 1854 globally obtained data series to determine the response of stomatal frequency to climate change, which including four plant life forms (over 900 species), at altitudes ranging from 0 to 4500 m and over a time span of more than one hundred thousand years. Stomatal frequency decreased with increasing CO2 concentration and increased with elevated temperature and drought stress; it was also dependent on the species and experimental conditions. The response of stomatal frequency to climate change showed a trade-off between stomatal control strategies and environmental factors, such as the CO2 concentration, temperature, and soil water availability. Moreover, threshold effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on stomatal frequency were detected, indicating that the response of stomatal density to increasing CO2 concentration will decrease over the next few years. The results also suggested that the stomatal index may be more reliable than stomatal density for determination of the historic CO2 concentration. Our findings indicate that the contrasting responses of stomata to climate change bring a considerable challenge in predicting future water and carbon cycles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dynamic stomatal behavior and its role in carbon gain during lightflecks of a gap phase and an understory Piper species acclimated to high and low light.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, Clara; Pearcy, Robert W

    1992-11-01

    Steady-state and dynamic stomatal and assimilation responses to light transients were characterized in sun- and shade-acclimated plants of Piper auritum, a pioneer tree, and Piper aequale a shade-tolerant shrub from a tropical forest at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México. Despite essentially identical steady-state responses of stomatal conductance to PFD of P. aequale and P. auritum shade plants, the dynamic responses to lightflecks were markedly different and depended on the growth regime. For both species from both growth environments, the increase in stomatal conductance occurring in response to a lightfleck continued long after the lightfleck itself so that the maximum stomatal conductance was not reached until 20-40 min after the lightfleck. Closing then occurred until stomatal conductance returned to near its original value before the lightfleck. Plants that were grown under light regimes similar to those of their natural habitat (high light for P. auritum and shade for P. aequale) had large maximum excursions of stomatal conductance and slower closing than opening responses. Plants grown under the opposite conditions had smaller excursions of stomatal conductance, especially in P. auritum, and more symmetrical opening and closing. The large and hysteretic response of stomatal conductance of P. aequale shade plants to a lightfleck was shown to improve carbon gain during subsequent lightflecks by 30-200%, depending on lightfleck duration. In contrast the very small stomatal response to lightflecks in P. auritum shade plants, resulted in no significant improvement in use of subsequent lightflecks.

  20. Temperatures on europa from galileo photopolarimeter-radiometer: nighttime thermal anomalies

    PubMed

    Spencer; Tamppari; Martin; Travis

    1999-05-28

    Galileo observations of Europa's thermal emission show low-latitude diurnal brightness temperatures in the range of 86 to 132 kelvin. Nighttime temperatures form an unexpected pattern, with high temperatures on the bright ejecta blanket of the crater Pwyll and an equatorial minimum in temperatures after sunset, uncorrelated with surface albedo or geology. The nighttime anomalies may be due to regional thermal inertia variations of an unknown origin, which are equivalent to a two- to threefold variation in thermal conductivity, or to endogenic heat fluxes locally reaching 1 watt per square meter. Endogenic heat flow at this high level, although consistent with some geological evidence, is theoretically unlikely.

  1. Stomatal factors and vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation in poplars.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Thomas, Barb R; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between the vulnerability of stem xylem to cavitation, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, and leaf and stem water potential were examined in six hybrid poplar (P38P38, Walker, Okanese, Northwest, Assiniboine and Berlin) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) clones. Stem xylem cavitation resistance was examined with the Cavitron technique in well-watered plants grown in the greenhouse. To investigate stomatal responses to drought, plants were subjected to drought stress by withholding watering for 5 (mild drought) and 7 (severe drought) days and to stress recovery by rewatering severely stressed plants for 30 min and 2 days. The clones varied in stomatal sensitivity to drought and vulnerability to stem xylem cavitation. P38P38 reduced stomatal conductance in response to mild stress while the balsam poplar clone maintained high leaf stomatal conductance under more severe drought stress conditions. Differences between the severely stressed clones were also observed in leaf water potentials with no or relatively small decreases in Assiniboine, P38P38, Okanese and Walker. Vulnerability to drought-induced stem xylem embolism revealed that balsam poplar and Northwest clones reached loss of conductivity at lower stem water potentials compared with the remaining clones. There was a strong link between stem xylem resistance to cavitation and stomatal responsiveness to drought stress in balsam poplar and P38P38. However, the differences in stomatal responsiveness to mild drought suggest that other drought-resistant strategies may also play a key role in some clones of poplars exposed to drought stress. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  2. Histopathological study of stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Kameswari, V R; Ramulu, C; Reddy, P G

    1971-09-01

    One hundred and thirteen biopsies of the palate in people accustomed to smoking cigars, most of them with the burning end of the cigar inside the mouth, have been studied.Thirty-eight of these showed mild to severe atypical changes in the epithelium. There were 19 lesions showing orthokeratosis and 53 showing hyperorthokeratosis.The earliest atypical change is seen in the mouths of the ducts of the glands.There were 3 cases showing microinvasive carcinomas.Pigmentation is a prominent feature in these cases.The papules with umbilication could be due to hyperplasia of the mucous glands.It is suggested that stomatitis nicotina occurring in men and women with the habit of reverse smoking is probably precancerous because of the presence of atypical changes in the epithelium and also the finding of 3 microinvasive carcinomas without any macroscopic evidence.There is no acceptable explanation why the soft palate escapes getting either stomatitis nicotina lesion or carcinoma in reverse smokers.

  3. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  4. Genetic manipulation of stomatal density influences stomatal size, plant growth and tolerance to restricted water supply across a growth carbon dioxide gradient

    PubMed Central

    Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Hunt, Lee; Franks, Peter J.; Beerling, David J.; Gray, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the impact of manipulating stomatal density, a collection of Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor (EPF) mutants with an approximately 16-fold range of stomatal densities (approx. 20–325% of that of control plants) were grown at three atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (200, 450 and 1000 ppm), and 30 per cent or 70 per cent soil water content. A strong negative correlation between stomatal size (S) and stomatal density (D) was observed, suggesting that factors that control D also affect S. Under some but not all conditions, mutant plants exhibited abnormal stomatal density responses to CO2 concentration, suggesting that the EPF signalling pathway may play a role in the environmental adjustment of D. In response to reduced water availability, maximal stomatal conductance was adjusted through reductions in S, rather than D. Plant size negatively correlated with D. For example, at 450 ppm CO2 EPF2-overexpressing plants, with reduced D, had larger leaves and increased dry weight in comparison with controls. The growth of these plants was also less adversely affected by reduced water availability than plants with higher D, indicating that plants with low D may be well suited to growth under predicted future atmospheric CO2 environments and/or water-scarce environments. PMID:22232766

  5. Genetic manipulation of stomatal density influences stomatal size, plant growth and tolerance to restricted water supply across a growth carbon dioxide gradient.

    PubMed

    Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Hunt, Lee; Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J; Gray, Julie E

    2012-02-19

    To investigate the impact of manipulating stomatal density, a collection of Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor (EPF) mutants with an approximately 16-fold range of stomatal densities (approx. 20-325% of that of control plants) were grown at three atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations (200, 450 and 1000 ppm), and 30 per cent or 70 per cent soil water content. A strong negative correlation between stomatal size (S) and stomatal density (D) was observed, suggesting that factors that control D also affect S. Under some but not all conditions, mutant plants exhibited abnormal stomatal density responses to CO(2) concentration, suggesting that the EPF signalling pathway may play a role in the environmental adjustment of D. In response to reduced water availability, maximal stomatal conductance was adjusted through reductions in S, rather than D. Plant size negatively correlated with D. For example, at 450 ppm CO(2) EPF2-overexpressing plants, with reduced D, had larger leaves and increased dry weight in comparison with controls. The growth of these plants was also less adversely affected by reduced water availability than plants with higher D, indicating that plants with low D may be well suited to growth under predicted future atmospheric CO(2) environments and/or water-scarce environments.

  6. Regolith thermal energy storage for lunar nighttime power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, Brian

    1992-01-01

    A scheme for providing nighttime electric power to a lunar base is described. This scheme stores thermal energy in a pile of regolith. Any such scheme must somehow improve on the poor thermal conductivity of lunar regolith in vacuum. Two previous schemes accomplish this by casting or melting the regolith. The scheme described here wraps the regolith in a gas-tight bag and introduces a light gas to enhance thermal conductivity. This allows the system to be assembled with less energy and equipment than schemes which require melting of regolith. A point design based on the new scheme is presented. Its mass from Earth compares favorably with the mass of a regenerative fuel cell of equal capacity.

  7. Pragmatic hydraulic theory predicts stomatal responses to climatic water deficits.

    PubMed

    Sperry, John S; Wang, Yujie; Wolfe, Brett T; Mackay, D Scott; Anderegg, William R L; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T

    2016-11-01

    Ecosystem models have difficulty predicting plant drought responses, partially from uncertainty in the stomatal response to water deficits in soil and atmosphere. We evaluate a 'supply-demand' theory for water-limited stomatal behavior that avoids the typical scaffold of empirical response functions. The premise is that canopy water demand is regulated in proportion to threat to supply posed by xylem cavitation and soil drying. The theory was implemented in a trait-based soil-plant-atmosphere model. The model predicted canopy transpiration (E), canopy diffusive conductance (G), and canopy xylem pressure (Pcanopy ) from soil water potential (Psoil ) and vapor pressure deficit (D). Modeled responses to D and Psoil were consistent with empirical response functions, but controlling parameters were hydraulic traits rather than coefficients. Maximum hydraulic and diffusive conductances and vulnerability to loss in hydraulic conductance dictated stomatal sensitivity and hence the iso- to anisohydric spectrum of regulation. The model matched wide fluctuations in G and Pcanopy across nine data sets from seasonally dry tropical forest and piñon-juniper woodland with < 26% mean error. Promising initial performance suggests the theory could be useful in improving ecosystem models. Better understanding of the variation in hydraulic properties along the root-stem-leaf continuum will simplify parameterization.

  8. Stomatal control of gas-exchange is related to assimilate transport from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikinmaa, E.; Holtta, T.; Sevanto, S.; Makela, A.; Hari, P.; Vesala, T.

    2009-04-01

    In land plants, the carbon fluxes are closely associated with those of water. The loss of water from leaves pulls water from soil in plants. High transpiration relative to compensating water flux from soil increases the tension of water column that may lead to its rupture and catastrophic dysfunction of the xylem if the transpiration rate is not regulated. Modification of the size of stomatal openings in leaves regulates the interconnected fluxes of water and carbon. Stomatal regulation of transpiration has direct influence also on the carbon transport from source leaves to sinks. Under given conditions, the water tension of xylem in leaves is linearly related to stomatal conductance while the assimilation rate, which is linked to the loading capacity, has saturating relationship with stomatal conductance. High sugar loading at source could compensate for the high water tension in xylem resulting from eg. high transpiration. However, excessive loading rate of the most commonly transported sugar, sucrose, causes rapid viscosity build up that effectively blocks the phloem transport. Assimilate transport from the shoot is a clear requirement for continuous photosynthetic production in leaves. Without transport the storage capacity of the leaves would be rapidly exhausted and accumulation of excess sugars in leaves lead to downregulation of photosynthesis. In this presentation we study the stomatal response to environment and its linkage to xylem and phloem tranport with dynamic model. We hypothesize that stomatal reaction to environment would maintain maximal assimilate transport in phloem under those conditions. We added to the xylem phloem transport model stomatal control of leaf gas-exchange, light and CO2 concentration dependent photosynthesis rate and carbon storage in leaf. For each time step we varied the stomatal conductance and selected the sollution that maximised the transport of assimilates in phloem. Our hypothesis reproduced realistically stomatal

  9. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Mocarski, Michelle; Zaiser, Erica; Trundell, Dylan; Make, Barry J; Hareendran, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background Nighttime symptoms can negatively impact the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI) was designed to measure the occurrence and severity of nighttime symptoms in patients with COPD, the impact of symptoms on nighttime awakenings, and rescue medication use. The objective of this study was to explore item reduction, inform scoring recommendations, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the NiSCI. Methods COPD patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial completed the NiSCI daily. Item analyses were conducted using weekly mean and single day scores. Descriptive statistics (including percentage of respondents at floor/ceiling and inter-item correlations), factor analyses, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to examine item performance and scoring. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the final instrument using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlations with assessments conducted during study visits were used to evaluate convergent and known-groups validity. Results Data from 1,663 COPD patients aged 40–93 years were analyzed. Item analyses supported the generation of four scores. A one-factor structure was confirmed with factor analysis and Rasch analysis for the symptom severity score. Test–retest reliability was confirmed for the six-item symptom severity (ICC, 0.85), number of nighttime awakenings (ICC, 0.82), and rescue medication (ICC, 0.68) scores. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the NiSCI, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, and Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms scores. Conclusion The results suggest that the NiSCI can be used to determine the severity of nighttime COPD symptoms, the number of nighttime awakenings due to COPD symptoms, and the nighttime use of rescue medication. The NiSCI is a reliable and valid instrument to

  10. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A.; Paine, Nicola J.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared to men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known, but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of nighttime SBP and endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared to women with normal nighttime SBP. Methods One-hundred postmenopausal women (mean age: 65.8 ± 7.5 years, body mass index: 28.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, hypertension: 47%, coronary artery disease: 51%, mean clinic BP 137 ± 17/67 ± 11 mm Hg, 34 with nighttime hypertension) underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessments. Results Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjusting for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95%±0.65 vs 5.52%±0.46, p = .002). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, nighttime hypertension was associated with reduced endothelial function. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of treating nighttime hypertension on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted. PMID:25563797

  11. Hormonal dynamics contributes to divergence in seasonal stomatal behaviour in a monsoonal plant community.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a primary regulator of plant transpiration, but its influence in determining seasonal stomatal behaviour in natural plant communities is poorly understood. We examined distantly related vascular plants growing together in a seasonally dry, monsoonal environment to determine whether ABA dynamics contributed to contrasting water use patterns in this natural setting. Regular sampling of angiosperm, cycad, conifer and fern species revealed characteristic seasonal patterns in ABA production, but these were highly distinct among species. Although no general relationship was observed between ABA levels, plant hydration or stomatal conductance among species, the seasonal dynamics in stomatal behaviour within species were predictable functions of either ABA or leaf water potential. Strong divergence in the seasonal role of ABA among species suggests that modification in ABA-stomatal interactions represents an important evolutionary pathway for adaptation in plant water use.

  12. Ionic partitioning and stomatal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sanoubar, Rabab; Orsini, Francesco; Gianquinto, Giorgio Prosdocimi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable grafting is commonly claimed to improve crop’s tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. Although the use of inter-specific graftings is relatively common, whether the improved salt tolerance should be attributed to the genotypic background rather than the grafting per se is a matter of discussion among scientists. It is clear that most of published research has to date overlooked the issue, with the mutual presence of self-grafted and non-grafted controls resulting to be quite rare within experimental evidences. It was recently demonstrated that the genotype of the rootstock and grafting per se are responsible respectively for the differential ion accumulation and partitioning as well as to the stomatal adaptation to the stress. The present paper contributes to the ongoing discussion with further data on the differences associated to salinity response in a range of grafted melon combinations. PMID:24309549

  13. Satellite Nighttime Imagery Assists in Flossie Track

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The enhanced capabilities of the Suomi NPP satellite's day-night band are really becoming clear, as was seen this week when Tropical Storm Flossie was heading toward Hawaii. On Monday, July 29th, the lack of organization of the system made it difficult to understand the storm’s central circulation. Infrared data, though able to provide cloud imagery during the night, is best at measuring cloud-top properties. Flossie, however, had a lower-level circulation that was evident in visible imagery earlier in the day. At nighttime that information was lost using traditional satellite technology, such as GOES West. The day-night-band on Suomi NPP provides visible-like information during nighttime hours when only moonlight is available. When Suomi NPP passed over the storm around 1:00am (local), the day-night band imagery allowed forecasters to identify a center of circulation that was more north than previously estimated. Two passes from Suomi NPP (at 11 and 12z, respectively) are shown here. The spiral of the lower level clouds and center of circulation can be seen northwest of Hawaii, whereas the more detailed and higher cloud top areas are due east of the Big Island. Also visible are the nighttime lights of Honolulu on Oahu, along with other cities throughout the island chain. Credit NASA/NOAA An unlabeled version may be downloaded here: 1.usa.gov/1bOjhN6 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Origins and Evolution of Stomatal Development.

    PubMed

    Chater, Caspar C C; Caine, Robert S; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2017-06-01

    The fossil record suggests stomata-like pores were present on the surfaces of land plants over 400 million years ago. Whether stomata arose once or whether they arose independently across newly evolving land plant lineages has long been a matter of debate. In Arabidopsis, a genetic toolbox has been identified that tightly controls stomatal development and patterning. This includes the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, FAMA, and ICE/SCREAMs (SCRMs), which promote stomatal formation. These factors are regulated via a signaling cascade, which includes mobile EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides to enforce stomatal spacing. Mosses and hornworts, the most ancient extant lineages to possess stomata, possess orthologs of these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal toolbox genes, and manipulation in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens has shown that the bHLH and EPF components are also required for moss stomatal development and patterning. This supports an ancient and tightly conserved genetic origin of stomata. Here, we review recent discoveries and, by interrogating newly available plant genomes, we advance the story of stomatal development and patterning across land plant evolution. Furthermore, we identify potential orthologs of the key toolbox genes in a hornwort, further supporting a single ancient genetic origin of stomata in the ancestor to all stomatous land plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Plasticity of stomatal distribution pattern and stem tracheid dimensions in Podocarpus lambertii: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Locosselli, Giuliano Maselli; Ceccantini, Gregório

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf and wood plasticity are key elements in the survival of widely distributed plant species. Little is known, however, about variation in stomatal distribution in the leaf epidermis and its correlation with the dimensions of conducting cells in wood. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that Podocarpus lambertii, a conifer tree, possesses a well-defined pattern of stomatal distribution, and that this pattern can vary together with the dimensions of stem tracheids as a possible strategy to survive in climatically different sites. Methods Leaves and wood were sampled from trees growing in a cold, wet site in south-eastern Brazil and in a warm, dry site in north-eastern Brazil. Stomata were thoroughly mapped in leaves from each study site to determine a spatial sampling strategy. Stomatal density, stomatal index and guard cell length were then sampled in three regions of the leaf: near the midrib, near the leaf margin and in between the two. This sampling strategy was used to test for a pattern and its possible variation between study sites. Wood and stomata data were analysed together via principal component analysis. Key Results The following distribution pattern was found in the south-eastern leaves: the stomatal index was up to 25 % higher in the central leaf region, between the midrib and the leaf margin, than in the adjacent regions. The inverse pattern was found in the north-eastern leaves, in which the stomatal index was 10 % higher near the midrib and the leaf margin. This change in pattern was accompanied by smaller tracheid lumen diameter and length. Conclusions Podocarpus lambertii individuals in sites with higher temperature and lower water availability jointly regulate stomatal distribution in leaves and tracheid dimensions in wood. The observed stomatal distribution pattern and variation appear to be closely related to the placement of conducting tissue in the mesophyll. PMID:22875814

  16. Oral medicine case book 65: Necrotising stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Khammissa, R A G; Ciya, R; Munzhelele, T I; Altini, M; Rikhotso, E; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

    2014-11-01

    Necrotising stomatitis is a fulminating anaerobic polybacterial infection affecting predominantly the oral mucosa of debilitated malnourished children or immunosuppressed HIV-seropositive subjects. It starts as necrotising gingivitis which progresses to necrotising periodontitis and subsequently to necrotising stomatitis. In order to prevent the progression of necrotising stomatitis to noma (cancrum oris), affected patients should be vigorously treated and may require admission to hospital. Healthcare personnel should therefore be familiar with the signs and symptoms of necrotising gingivitis/necrotising periodontitis, of their potential sequelae and of the need for immediate therapeutic intervention.

  17. Consistent allometric scaling of stomatal sizes and densities across taxonomic ranks and geologic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, H. J.; Price, C. A.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Dekker, S. C.; Veneklaas, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    Stomatal pores on plants leaves are an important link in the chain of processes that determine biosphere fluxes of water and carbon. Stomatal density (i.e. the number of stomata per area) and the size of the stomatal pore at maximum aperture are particularly relevant traits in this context because they determine the theoretical maximum diffusive stomatal conductance (gsmax) and thereby set an upper limit for leaf gas exchange. Observations on (sub)fossil leaves revealed that changes in stomatal densities are anti-correlated with changes in stomatal sizes at developmental and evolutionary timescales. Moreover, this anti-correlation appears consistently within single species, across multiple species in the extant plant community and at evolutionary time scales. The consistency of the relation between stomatal densities and sizes suggests that common mechanisms constrain the adaptation of these traits across the plant community. In an attempt to identify such potential generic constraints, we investigated the allometry between stomatal densities and sizes in the extant plant community and across geological time. As the size of the stomatal pore at maximum aperture is typically derived from the length of the stomatal pore, we considered the allometric scaling of pore length (lp) with stomatal density (Ds) as the power law: lp = k . Dsa in which k is a normalization constant and the exponent a is the slope of the scaling relation. Our null-hypothesis predicts that stomatal density and pore length scale along a constant slope of -1/2 based on a scale-invariant relation between pore length and the distance between neighboring pores. Our alternative hypothesis predicts a constant slope of -1 based on the idea that stomatal density and pore length scale along an invariant gsmax. To explore these scaling hypotheses in the extant plant community we compiled a dataset of combined observations of stomatal density and pore length on 111 species from published literature and new

  18. Nighttime air quality under desert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliff, Wendy S.; Luria, Menachem; Blake, Donald R.; Zielinska, Barbara; Hallar, Gannet; Valente, Ralph J.; Lawson, Charlene V.; Stockwell, William R.

    2015-08-01

    Nighttime concentrations of the gas phase nitrate radical (NO3) were successfully measured during a four week field campaign in an arid urban location, Reno Nevada, using long-path Differential Optical Absorbance Spectrometry (DOAS). While typical concentrations of NO3 ranged from 5 to 20 ppt, elevated concentrations were observed during a wildfire event. Horizontal mixing in the free troposphere was considerable because the sampling site was above the stable nocturnal boundary layer every night and this justified a box modeling approach. Process analysis of box model simulations showed NO3 accounted for approximately half of the loss of internal olefins, 60% of the isoprene loss, and 85% of the α-pinene loss during the nighttime hours during a typical night of the field study. The NO3 + aldehyde reactions were not as important as anticipated. On a polluted night impacted by wildfires upwind of the sampling location, NO3 reactions were more important. Model simulations overpredicted NO2 concentrations for both case studies and inorganic chemistry was the biggest influence on NO3 concentrations and on nitric acid formation. The overprediction may be due to additional NO2 loss processes that were not included in the box model, as deposition and N2O5 uptake had no significant effect on NO2 levels.

  19. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  20. Nighttime blood pressure in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Santos Lasaosa, Sonia; Navarro Calzada, Jorge; Velázquez Benito, Alba; Pérez Lázaro, Cristina

    2011-10-01

    It has been proposed that desaturation of oxygen during an apnea event is the trigger for cluster headache. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with a higher than normal cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients lack the sleep-related, nocturnal decrease, or "dip" in blood pressure, which is seen in normal individuals. The aim of this study is to assess whether this non-dipper pattern is present in cluster headache patients. A total of 30 normotensive cluster headache patients underwent an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. "Non dippers" were defined as patients with a nighttime mean blood pressure fall <10%. Fifteen cluster headache patients (50%) were non-dippers, a frequency higher than expected. The pattern of nocturnal non-dipping is associated with a higher body mass index. Non-dipper patients displayed higher mean nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure. No significant difference was observed in the mean 24-hour and daytime blood pressure. The high incidence (50%) of non-dipper pattern in both processes, cluster headache and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, provides support for the hypothesis of a relationship between theses 2 disorders. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  1. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  2. Nighttime ionospheric D region: Equatorial and nonequatorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Neil R.; McRae, Wayne M.

    2009-08-01

    Nighttime ionospheric D region parameters are found to be generally well modeled by the traditional H‧ and β as used by Wait and by the U.S. Navy in their Earth-ionosphere VLF radio waveguide programs. New comparisons with nonequatorial, mainly all-sea VLF path observations reported over several decades are shown to be consistent with the previously determined height H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and sharpness β ˜ 0.63 km-1. These paths include NPM (Hawaii) to Washington, D. C., Omega Hawaii and NLK (Seattle) to Japan, NWC (N.W. Australia) to Madagascar, and NBA (Panama) to Colorado. In marked contrast, transequatorial path observations (even when nearly all-sea) are found to be often not well modeled: for example, for Omega Japan and JJI (Japan) to Dunedin, New Zealand, the observed amplitudes are markedly lower than those which would be expected from H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and β ˜ 0.63 km-1, or any other realistic values of H‧ and β. Other transequatorial observations compared with modeling include NWC to Japan, Omega Hawaii to Dunedin, and NPM (Hawaii) to Dunedin. It is suggested that the effects of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet may extend down into the nighttime D region and so account for the observed equatorial VLF perturbations through scattering or mode conversion.

  3. On fate and flexibility in stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Wengier, D L; Bergmann, D C

    2012-01-01

    In plants, the development of the epidermis, and the specialized stomatal lineage within it, exemplifies an old developmental problem that is newly relevant in this current era of stem cell biology: How can a tissue maintain flexibility and change its development midcourse yet still reliably generate differentiated and patterned cells? In this perspective, we endeavor to create a conceptual framework for the widespread questions in development that are raised by observations of stomatal development pathways in "default" settings and in response to environmental challenges. These general issues are related to the molecular pathways and networks recently elucidated for Arabidopsis stomatal development. Finally, the utility of developmental approaches for solving problems of signaling specificity are explored, emphasizing the specific use of the stomatal lineage as an in vivo testing ground for hormone and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades.

  4. Three times greater weight of daytime than of night-time temperature on leaf unfolding phenology in temperate trees.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yongshuo H; Liu, Yongjie; De Boeck, Hans J; Menzel, Annette; Nijs, Ivan; Peaucelle, Marc; Peñuelas, Josep; Piao, Shilong; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-11-01

    The phenology of spring leaf unfolding plays a key role in the structure and functioning of ecosystems. The classical concept of heat requirement (growing degree days) for leaf unfolding was developed hundreds of years ago, but this model does not include the recently reported greater importance of daytime than night-time temperature. A manipulative experiment on daytime vs night-time warming with saplings of three species of temperate deciduous trees was conducted and a Bayesian method was applied to explore the different effects of daytime and night-time temperatures on spring phenology. We found that both daytime and night-time warming significantly advanced leaf unfolding, but the sensitivities to increased daytime and night-time temperatures differed significantly. Trees were most sensitive to daytime warming (7.4 ± 0.9, 4.8 ± 0.3 and 4.8 ± 0.2 d advancement per degree Celsius warming (d °C(-1) ) for birch, oak and beech, respectively) and least sensitive to night-time warming (5.5 ± 0.9, 3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.9 d °C(-1) ). Interestingly, a Bayesian analysis found that the impact of daytime temperature on leaf unfolding was approximately three times higher than that of night-time temperatures. Night-time global temperature is increasing faster than daytime temperature, so model projections of future spring phenology should incorporate the effects of these different temperatures. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Optimal stomatal behavior with competition for water and risk of hydraulic impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Adam; Anderegg, William R. L.; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    For over 40 y the dominant theory of stomatal behavior has been that plants should open stomates until the carbon gained by an infinitesimal additional opening balances the additional water lost times a water price that is constant at least over short periods. This theory has persisted because of its remarkable success in explaining strongly supported simple empirical models of stomatal conductance, even though we have also known for over 40 y that the theory is not consistent with competition among plants for water. We develop an alternative theory in which plants maximize carbon gain without pricing water loss and also add two features to both this and the classical theory, which are strongly supported by empirical evidence: (i) water flow through xylem that is progressively impaired as xylem water potential drops and (ii) fitness or carbon costs associated with low water potentials caused by a variety of mechanisms, including xylem damage repair. We show that our alternative carbon-maximization optimization is consistent with plant competition because it yields an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS)—species with the ESS stomatal behavior that will outcompete all others. We further show that, like the classical theory, the alternative theory also explains the functional forms of empirical stomatal models. We derive ways to test between the alternative optimization criteria by introducing a metric—the marginal xylem tension efficiency, which quantifies the amount of photosynthesis a plant will forego from opening stomatal an infinitesimal amount more to avoid a drop in water potential. PMID:27799540

  6. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  7. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  8. Stomatal Size, Speed, and Responsiveness Impact on Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency1[C

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Tracy; Blatt, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The control of gaseous exchange between the leaf and bulk atmosphere by stomata governs CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and transpiration, determining plant productivity and water use efficiency. The balance between these two processes depends on stomatal responses to environmental and internal cues and the synchrony of stomatal behavior relative to mesophyll demands for CO2. Here we examine the rapidity of stomatal responses with attention to their relationship to photosynthetic CO2 uptake and the consequences for water use. We discuss the influence of anatomical characteristics on the velocity of changes in stomatal conductance and explore the potential for manipulating the physical as well as physiological characteristics of stomatal guard cells in order to accelerate stomatal movements in synchrony with mesophyll CO2 demand and to improve water use efficiency without substantial cost to photosynthetic carbon fixation. We conclude that manipulating guard cell transport and metabolism is just as, if not more likely to yield useful benefits as manipulations of their physical and anatomical characteristics. Achieving these benefits should be greatly facilitated by quantitative systems analysis that connects directly the molecular properties of the guard cells to their function in the field. PMID:24578506

  9. [Denture stomatitis - definition, etiology, classification and treatment].

    PubMed

    Cubera, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Denture stomatitis pertains to a number of pathological symptoms in the oral cavity caused by wearing acrylic dentures. Etiological factors include: mucosal trauma, fungal infection and accumulation of denture plaque. All of these factors appear to increase the ability of Candida albicans to colonize both the denture and oral mucosal surfaces. Antifungal treatment can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms. Early diagnosis of the lesion is essential to assure rational therapy.

  10. Direct observation of reversible and irreversible stomatal responses of attached sunflower leaves to SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Omasa, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kramer, P.J.; Strain, B.R.; Aiga, I.; Kondo, J.

    1985-09-01

    The effects of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture of attached sunflower leaves were observed with a remote-control light microscope system that permitted continuous observation of stomatal responses over periods of several hours. The relationship between actual stomatal aperture and stomatal conductance, measured with a porometer, also was examined on leaves before and after exposure to SO/sub 2/. A distinction between uninjured and injured regions was clearly visible on leaves after exposure to 1.5 microliters per liter SO/sub 2/ for less than an hour. During the exposure, the mean value of apertures for many stomata, which indicates stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, tended to decrease simultaneously in the uninjured and injured regions. There was a good correlation between pore width and stomatal conductance measured with a porometer before exposure to SO/sub 2/. This correlation continued in leaves exposed to SO/sub 2/ until visible, irreversible injury occurred, but then it disappeared. The results of these experiments indicate the necessity of continuous observation of individual stomata under the microscope to understand the effects of air pollutants such as SO/sub 2/ on stomatal behavior.

  11. Patchy stomatal behavior in broad-leaved trees grown in different habitats.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Satoru; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Matsuo, Naoka; Tani, Makoto; Ohte, Nobuhito

    2006-12-01

    Effects of heterogeneity in stomatal behavior on gas-exchange characteristics of leaves from four tree species growing in different climates, including temperate, tropical monsoon and tropical rain forest, were investigated by combining gas-exchange measurements and the pressure-infiltration method. Field observations indicated linear relationships between whole-leaf conductance and the ratio of infiltrated to non-infiltrated leaf area (open stomata area) in Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. and Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) Ashton in a tropical rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia, whereas the ratio of infiltrated to non-infiltrated area rapidly increased up to the whole-leaf conductance at which the entire leaf was infiltrated in Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. in a temperate evergreen forest in Japan and in Azadirachta indica Juss. in a tropical monsoon area in Thailand. These results strongly suggest small ranges in bell-shaped stomatal conductance distributions in C. camphora and A. indica and bimodal stomatal conductance distributions in D. sublamellatus and N. heimii. The values of normalized maximum carboxylation rate at 25 degrees C (V(cmax25)) derived from gas-exchange measurements were not constant, but decreased with decreasing whole-leaf conductance in D. sublamellatus and N. heimii. A gas-exchange model analysis revealed a linear relationship between whole-leaf conductance and the ratio of infiltrated to non-infiltrated leaf area for bimodal stomatal conductance distributions, whereas for bell-shaped distributions, the relationships were nonlinear. Midday depression of apparent V(cmax25) in these species was mainly caused by bimodal stomatal closure. The bimodal stomatal distribution model could also explain diurnal changes in photosynthetic assimilation and transpiration rates in these species.

  12. Satellite instrument provides nighttime sensing capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    "This is not your father's low-light sensor," Steve Miller, senior research scientist and deputy director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, said at a 5 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting. He and others at the briefing were showing off the nighttime sensing capability of the day/night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Earth-observing research satellite, a joint NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite that was launched on 28 October 2011. Noting that low-light satellite technology has been available for about 40 years, Miller said that the VIIRS day/night band "is truly a paradigm shift in the technology and capability."

  13. The problem of nighttime stratospheric NO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the behavior of the NO3 column content as a function of time after sunset show that it takes nearly 2 hours to increase from daytime values of approximately 10 to the 11th/sq cm to nighttime values of 10 to the 14th/sq cm. These results appear to be in conflict with the measured NO3-concentration rise time of 40 min after sunset obtained from the 662-nm absorption data of Noxon et al. (1978). Changes in the rate constants affecting the NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5 system, the atmospheric temperature, and the amount of NO2 are not able to bring the calculated rise time for the NO3 column content into agreement with observations.

  14. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O3 fluxes in a forest stand.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A J; Cieslik, S; Metzger, U; Wieser, G; Matyssek, R

    2010-06-01

    Stomatal O3 fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O3 flux was 33% of the total O3 flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O3 flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O3 exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O3 flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O3 risk assessment in forests from O3 exposure towards flux-based concepts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evening media exposure reduces night-time sleep.

    PubMed

    Vijakkhana, Nakul; Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Ruedeekhajorn, Kitja; Pruksananonda, Chandhita; Chonchaiya, Weerasak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether evening media exposure, bedroom media use and night-time sleep duration at age 6 months are associated with night-time sleep duration in 12-month-old Thai infants. We enrolled 208 infants in this study at 6 months of age. They were followed-up at 12 months of age. A sleep diary was used to document the infant's sleep onset and wake time at each visit. Night-time sleep duration was then calculated at both ages. Screen media exposure in the household was assessed in depth at both visits. Infants who were exposed to screen media in the evening at 12 months of age had a 28-min decrease in 12-month night-time sleep duration on weekdays. Moreover, infants who were exposed to screen media in the evening at age 6 months and 12 months had shorter 12-month night-time sleep duration compared with those who were not exposed to screen media after 7 pm at both ages. Night-time sleep duration at 12 months of age was also directly related to 6-month night-time sleep duration. Infants exposed to screen media in the evening at 12 months of age had decreased 12-month night-time sleep duration. To promote good sleep hygiene and optimal sleep for infants at this age, screen media exposure after 7 pm should be avoided. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prototype active scanner for nighttime oil spill mapping and classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandness, G. A.; Ailes, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype, active, aerial scanner system was constructed for nighttime water pollution detection and nighttime multispectral imaging of the ground. An arc lamp was used to produce the transmitted light and four detector channels provided a multispectral measurement capability. The feasibility of the design concept was demonstrated by laboratory and flight tests of the prototype system.

  17. Impaired Stomatal Control Is Associated with Reduced Photosynthetic Physiology in Crop Species Grown at Elevated [CO2

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Matthew; Killi, Dilek; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops. Despite the large number of CO2-enrichment studies to date, there is relatively little information regarding the effect of elevated [CO2] on stomatal control. Five crop species with active physiological stomatal behavior were grown at ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (2000 ppm) [CO2]. We investigated the relationship between stomatal function, stomatal size, and photosynthetic capacity in the five species, and then assessed the mechanistic effect of elevated [CO2] on photosynthetic physiology, stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] and the effectiveness of stomatal closure to darkness. We observed positive relationships between the speed of stomatal response and the maximum rates of PN and Gs sustained by the plants; indicative of close co-ordination of stomatal behavior and PN. In contrast to previous studies we did not observe a negative relationship between speed of stomatal response and stomatal size. The sensitivity of stomata to [CO2] declined with the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate limited rate of PN at elevated [CO2]. The effectiveness of stomatal closure was also impaired at high [CO2]. Growth at elevated [CO2] did not affect the performance of photosystem II indicating that high [CO2] had not induced damage to the photosynthetic physiology, and suggesting that photosynthetic control of Gs is either directly impaired at high [CO2], sensing/signaling of environmental change is disrupted or elevated [CO2] causes some physical effect that constrains stomatal

  18. Impaired Stomatal Control Is Associated with Reduced Photosynthetic Physiology in Crop Species Grown at Elevated [CO2].

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Killi, Dilek; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Physiological control of stomatal conductance (Gs) permits plants to balance CO2-uptake for photosynthesis (PN) against water-loss, so optimizing water use efficiency (WUE). An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) will result in a stimulation of PN and reduction of Gs in many plants, enhancing carbon gain while reducing water-loss. It has also been hypothesized that the increase in WUE associated with lower Gs at elevated [CO2] would reduce the negative impacts of drought on many crops. Despite the large number of CO2-enrichment studies to date, there is relatively little information regarding the effect of elevated [CO2] on stomatal control. Five crop species with active physiological stomatal behavior were grown at ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (2000 ppm) [CO2]. We investigated the relationship between stomatal function, stomatal size, and photosynthetic capacity in the five species, and then assessed the mechanistic effect of elevated [CO2] on photosynthetic physiology, stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] and the effectiveness of stomatal closure to darkness. We observed positive relationships between the speed of stomatal response and the maximum rates of PN and Gs sustained by the plants; indicative of close co-ordination of stomatal behavior and PN. In contrast to previous studies we did not observe a negative relationship between speed of stomatal response and stomatal size. The sensitivity of stomata to [CO2] declined with the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate limited rate of PN at elevated [CO2]. The effectiveness of stomatal closure was also impaired at high [CO2]. Growth at elevated [CO2] did not affect the performance of photosystem II indicating that high [CO2] had not induced damage to the photosynthetic physiology, and suggesting that photosynthetic control of Gs is either directly impaired at high [CO2], sensing/signaling of environmental change is disrupted or elevated [CO2] causes some physical effect that constrains stomatal

  19. Nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-02-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears were compared with 32 non-fearful controls. Fears were assessed using child and parental reports. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real entities and situations, and were asked to report whether these were imaginary or could occur in real life. The results revealed that children with nighttime fears demonstrated more fantasy-reality confusion compared to their controls. These differences in fantasy-reality differentiation were more pronounced in younger children. Additional significant associations were found between fantasy-reality differentiation and age and specific characteristics of the stimuli. These preliminary findings, suggesting a developmental delay in fantasy-reality differentiation in children with nighttime fears, have significant theoretical and clinical implications.

  20. [Veterinary dentistry (11). Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex. Chronic/recurrent stomatitis in cats].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, A

    1995-10-01

    This is the fourth article in a series on veterinary dentistry in cats. This article describes the clinical signs, possible investigations, and differential diagnosis of the gingivitis-stomatitis pharyngitis complex (GSP complex), a complex and frequently occurring disease. Strategies for the treatment of feline chronic stomatitis complex, which is frequently idiopathic, are presented.

  1. The Fate of Ozone at a Ponderosa Pine Plantation: Partitioning Between Stomatal and Non-stomatal Deposition Using Sap Flow and Eddy Covariance Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpius, M. R.; McKay, M. M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2001-12-01

    Major advances in quantifying ozone deposition to vegetated ecosystems have been made using above-canopy techniques -- such as eddy covariance -- that allow for the direct measure of ozone flux into natural systems. However, from above-canopy flux measurements alone, it is impossible to differentiate between deposition through stomatal openings of trees versus non-stomatal surfaces or within canopy chemical loss. Therefore, there is a need to partition ozone fluxes into plant stomatal and non-stomatal components. Sap flow measurements provide a direct measurement of stomatal conductance from which we can infer ozone uptake by trees: this represents a novel way to determine pollutant loading on stomatal surfaces of trees that is inexpensive, reliable, and can be deployed in a multitude of environments. Sap flow measurements were used to determine ozone uptake by ponderosa pine trees in the Sierra Nevada Mountains year-round starting in June 2000 at Blodgett Forest, an Ameriflux site located ~75 miles downwind of Sacramento, CA. Concurrently, total ecosystem ozone flux was measured using eddy covariance. Mean total ozone flux to the ecosystem was 46.6 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-15.1) in summer 2000, 27.6 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-14.2) in fall 2000, 8.2 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-5.1) in winter 2001, and 21.1 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-11.6) in spring 2001. Mean ozone flux through the stomata was 14.6 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-4.1) during summer 2000, 12.9 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-5.8) during fall 2000, 5.6 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-2.8) during winter 2001, and 12.7 μ mol m-2 h-1 (+/-3.7) during spring 2001. The percentage of total ozone deposition which occurred through the stomata was 31% in summer, 47% in fall, 69% but highly variable in winter, and 60% in spring. The difference between total ozone flux to the ecosystem and stomatal ozone flux to the trees varied exponentially with air temperature, suggesting that much of the non-stomatal deposition was actually due to chemical loss either on surfaces or within

  2. Stomatal and Nonstomatal Limitations to Net Photosynthesis in Seedlings of Woody Angiosperms 1

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing-Rui; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative responses of net photosynthesis (A) to water stress in woody species from a variety of habitats were studied to assess the relationship between photosynthetic attributes and drought tolerance. Stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to A were compared in three-month-old white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) seedlings during a drying cycle. Relative stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (I) was less than 50% in all species except for Q. stellata seedlings subjected to severe water stress. No significant changes in I were observed in Q. alba and J. nigra before, during, and after drought. In A. saccharum, I was generally low and decreased significantly under water stress. Under well-watered conditions, A was highest in Q. stellata, intermediate in Q. alba, and lower in A. saccharum and J. nigra. High A in well-watered Q. stellata was associated with high stomatal conductance and carboxylation efficiency, whereas low A was associated with low stomatal conductance and carboxylation efficiency in A. saccharum and low stomatal conductance, low carboxylation efficiency, and high CO2 compensation point in J. nigra. Under severe water stress, A, carboxylation efficiency, and stomatal conductance decreased substantially in all species; however, Q. stellata had the highest carboxylation efficiency and lowest CO2 compensation point under these conditions. After 5 days at high soil moisture after drought, stomatal and mesophyll components of A in A. saccharum and J. nigra had not recovered to predrought levels, whereas they had completely recovered in Q. stellata and Q. alba. The photosynthetic apparatus, especially mesophyll components, of drought-tolerant Quercus species showed either less inhibition under water stress, superior recovery to predrought capacity, or both. Exposure of the leaves to 14CO2 indicated apparent asymmetric stomatal closure for mildly water

  3. The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tao, Shuman; Rutayisire, Erigene; Chen, Yunxiao; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between screen time (ST), nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in a sample of preschool children in China. A sample of 8900 children aged 3-6 years was enrolled from 35 kindergartens, in four cities, in two provinces, in China to evaluate the relationships between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. Children's ST and nighttime sleep duration were assessed by questionnaires completed by parents or guardians. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS). Multivariate analysis was used to assess the associations between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. The total SDQ and CABS scores were higher in children with ST ≥2 h/day and sleep duration <9.15 h/day (a P < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for potential confounders, children with ST ≥2 h/day had a significantly increased risk of having total difficulties, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and prosocial problems, as well as behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Similar results were found in children with sleep duration <9.15 h/day. No significantly increased risk of emotional symptoms was observed for short sleep duration. Preschool children with more ST and short nighttime sleep duration were significantly more likely to have behavioural problems. These results may contribute to a better understanding of prevention and intervention for psychosocial problems in children.

  4. [Stomatitis in childhood, not always benign].

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, A M; Ramaker, C

    2000-10-14

    Two boys of 1 and 16 year had painful buccal lesions and were admitted for dehydration. The younger had finger and toe blisters; the older, severely ill, had conjunctivitis, urethritis and skin lesions. Only symptomatic treatment with lidocaine gel and paracetamol gave good recovery. A 5-year-old Turkish girl had recurrent painful buccal ulcers which each time cleared up spontaneously. Stomatitis is common in childhood. Viral infections are the most common causes of stomatitis, in particular infections with herpes simplex virus (herpes gingivostomatitis), Coxsackie virus (herpangina, hand-foot-mouth-disease), chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis. Bacterial infections are rare and mostly secondary to the viral infections. In infants oral candidiasis (thrush) is a common cause of stomatitis. Most infections are self-limiting and reassurance of parents is important. Dehydration is a common complication and admission to hospital can be prevented by analgesics. The most important non-infectious conditions that cause stomatitis in children are recurrent aphthous stomatitis, erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), Behçet's disease, malignancy (leukaemia), immune-mediated disorders (agranulocytosis, cyclic neutropenia), traumata, blistering disorders of the skin and lichen planus. A complete history and a thorough physical examination usually give the correct diagnosis and further investigations are seldom necessary.

  5. Stomatal architecture and evolution in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J

    2005-10-01

    Stomatal architecture-the number, form, and arrangement of specialized epidermal cells associated with stomatal guard cells-of 46 species of basal angiosperms representing all ANITA grade families and Chloranthaceae was investigated. Leaf clearings and cuticular preparations were examined with light microscopy, and a sample of 100 stomata from each specimen was coded for stomatal type and five other characters contributing to stomatal architecture. New stomatal types were defined, and many species were examined and illustrated for the first time. Character evolution was examined in light of the ANITA hypothesis using MacClade software. Analysis of character evolution, along with other evidence from this study and evidence from the literature on fossil angiosperms and other seed plant lineages, suggests that the ancestral condition of angiosperms can be described as anomo-stephanocytic, a system in which complexes lacking subdidiaries (anomocytic) intergrade with those having weakly differentiated subsidiaries arranged in a rosette (stephanocytic). From this ancestral condition, tangential divisions of contact cells led to the profusion of different types seen in early fossil angiosperms and Amborellaceae, Austrobaileyales, and derived Chloranthaceae, while the state in Nymphaeales is little modified. Formation of new, derived types by tangential division appears to be a recurrent theme in seed plant evolution.

  6. PYR/RCAR receptors contribute to ozone-, reduced air humidity-, darkness-, and CO2-induced stomatal regulation.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Laanemets, Kristiina; Hu, Honghong; Xue, Shaowu; Jakobson, Liina; Tulva, Ingmar; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Schroeder, Julian I; Broschè, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2013-07-01

    Rapid stomatal closure induced by changes in the environment, such as elevation of CO2, reduction of air humidity, darkness, and pulses of the air pollutant ozone (O3), involves the SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1). SLAC1 is activated by OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. OST1 activation is controlled through abscisic acid (ABA)-induced inhibition of type 2 protein phosphatases (PP2C) by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTOR (PYR/RCAR) receptor proteins. To address the role of signaling through PYR/RCARs for whole-plant steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal closure induced by environmental factors, we used a set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in ABA metabolism/signaling. The stomatal conductance values varied severalfold among the studied mutants, indicating that basal ABA signaling through PYR/RCAR receptors plays a fundamental role in controlling whole-plant water loss through stomata. PYR/RCAR-dependent inhibition of PP2Cs was clearly required for rapid stomatal regulation in response to darkness, reduced air humidity, and O3. Furthermore, PYR/RCAR proteins seem to function in a dose-dependent manner, and there is a functional diversity among them. Although a rapid stomatal response to elevated CO2 was evident in all but slac1 and ost1 mutants, the bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels was reduced in the dominant active PP2C mutants abi1-1 and abi2-1. Further experiments with a wider range of CO2 concentrations and analyses of stomatal response kinetics suggested that the ABA signalosome partially affects the CO2-induced stomatal response. Thus, we show that PYR/RCAR receptors play an important role for the whole-plant stomatal adjustments and responses to low humidity, darkness, and O3 and are involved in responses to elevated CO2.

  7. Sleep of preschool children with night-time fears.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2011-10-01

    Night-time fears are very common in preschool and early school years. However, to date, the links between night-time fears and sleep have not been assessed systematically. The aim of this study was to evaluate natural sleep patterns in children with night-time fears, and to assess the association between parental fear-related strategies and children's sleep disruptions. Sleep was assessed in a sample of 109 preschool children (64 boys and 45 girls) aged 4-6 years suffering from significant night-time fears, and in 30 healthy controls using actigraphy and parental reports. Controls slept significantly better than the children with night-time fears. The disrupted sleep patterns of the children with night-time fears were reflected in a higher number of actigraphic night wakings, shorter periods of continuous sleep, shorter true sleep time, and a lower percentage of actual sleep time. Similar findings were manifested in sleep measures reported by the parents. Parental fear-management strategies were found to be linked to impaired actigraphic sleep measurements. Children with night-time fears are at risk for developing poor sleep quality, which may further compromise their psychological well-being. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gingivitis/stomatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Aller, M S

    1992-11-01

    Any alteration in the balance of bacterial challenge versus the host's ability to resist and repair will result in oral lesions that are similar in appearance. The bacterial cause of gingivitis and periodontitis in humans and in all other animals in which it has been studied is firmly established, and specific species of predominantly gram-negative anaerobes have been implicated. Naturally occurring or acquired immunopathologies are likely to result in premature dental disease. When oral disease is associated with the accumulation of plaque, a positive response can be achieved by reducing the bacterial challenge to the host through the maintenance of oral hygiene by timely professional dental prophylaxis and home care. Disease that is the result of atypical immune responses, however, can be much more difficult to manage. Such oral disease can occur with either immune deficiencies or exaggerated immune responses, and it is likely that multiple mechanisms are active concurrently. In any case, gram-negative anaerobes present in plaque are likely to be a major contributing factor. Therefore patients with chronic refractory gingivitis-stomatitis must be considered to be plaque intolerant. Only with a frequent regimen of aggressive and thorough professional dental treatment plus meticulous oral home care on a daily basis can one expect to keep these cases in remission. Because this is often unrealistic, the only other way to keep these patients free of disease is by total dental extraction. The tissues that are colonized by the causative organisms must be eliminated. All root tips and bony sequestra must be removed and healing with intact epithelium accomplished before these cases will go into remission. Edentulous feline patients that continue to have signs of gingivostomatitis have been found to have an area of nonhealed bony sequestrum and chronic osteomyelitis. Once effective debridement has been accomplished and epithelial healing completed, nonresponsive cases can

  9. Stomatal differentiation: the beginning and the end.

    PubMed

    Torii, Keiko U

    2015-12-01

    Differentiation of stomata follows a series of stereotypical cell divisions and cell-state transitional steps specified by the master-regulatory transcription factors. The density and numbers of stomata are regulated by cell-cell signaling and flexibly modulated by environmental and physiological inputs. This review focuses on the latest breakthroughs in Arabidopsis elucidating the mechanisms behind the initiation of stomatal precursors, asymmetric cell division and stem cell behavior, and terminal differentiation of guard cells. I discuss new insights emerging from these studies: (i) competitive actions of signals and regulatory circuits initiating stomatal precursor pattern; (ii) a subcellular partitioning of signaling components determining the stomatal lineage stem-cell divisions; and (iii) epigenetic regulation maintaining the differentiated guard cell state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered stomatal dynamics in ascorbate oxidase over-expressing tobacco plants suggest a role for dehydroascorbate signalling.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; De Tullio, Mario C; Barnes, Jeremy; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2008-01-01

    Control of stomatal aperture is of paramount importance for plant adaptation to the surrounding environment. Here, we report on several parameters related to stomatal dynamics and performance in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Xanthi) over-expressing cucumber ascorbate oxidase (AO), a cell wall-localized enzyme of uncertain biological function that oxidizes ascorbic acid (AA) to monodehydroascorbic acid which dismutates yielding AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). In comparison to WT plants, leaves of AO over-expressing plants exhibited reduced stomatal conductance (due to partial stomatal closure), higher water content, and reduced rates of water loss on detachment. Transgenic plants also exhibited elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide and a decline in hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme activity. Leaf ABA content was also higher in AO over-expressing plants. Treatment of epidermal strips with either 1 mM DHA or 100 microM hydrogen peroxide resulted in rapid stomatal closure in WT plants, but not in AO-over-expressing plants. This suggests that signal perception and/or transduction associated with stomatal closure is altered by AO over-expression. These data support a specific role for cell wall-localized AA in the perception of environmental cues, and suggest that DHA acts as a regulator of stomatal dynamics.

  11. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Knox, J Paul; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2016-11-07

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape [1]. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils [2], our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO2, substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical study on thermography, as modern investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Iosif, Laura; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Murariu-Măgureanu, Cătălina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an infectious inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, with frequent recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess the use of infrared thermography as investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis (as inflammatory disorder of the maxillary denture bearing area), by comparing disease and non-disease groups. An observational study was conducted on maxillary edentulous patients treated by acrylic dentures, with and without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Diagnostic test methods used were clinical examination for denture stomatitis and conventional microbiological culture method for oral candidiasis. Thermography analysis of the maxillary denture bearing area was made using the ThermaCAM PM350 infrared camera (Inframetrics, Flir Systems) and ThermaGram Pro 95 software, data being acquired by usage of standard protocol of thermographic registrations. The sample included 52 patients, 21 with and 31 without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The temperature of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area was found to be statistically significantly higher in Candida-associated denture stomatitis (mean 36.20°C), compared to healthy oral mucosa (mean 34.85°C). The thermal threshold value of 35.44°C was identified as best differentiating a pathological from normal state of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area. In conclusion, infrared thermography, a rapid non-invasive investigation method, has the premises to bring valuable data in inflammatory disorders of the maxillary denture bearing area, as Candida-associated denture stomatitis that may be used for screening, diagnostic or monitoring purposes.

  13. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V.; Knox, J. Paul; Fleming, Andrew J.; Gray, Julie E.

    2016-10-06

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils, our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO2, substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology.

  14. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; ...

    2016-10-06

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils, our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins.more » We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO2, substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology.« less

  15. Stomagen positively regulates stomatal density in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Shigeo S; Shimada, Tomoo; Imai, Yu; Okawa, Katsuya; Tamai, Atsushi; Mori, Masashi; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2010-01-14

    Stomata in the epidermal tissues of leaves are valves through which passes CO(2), and as such they influence the global carbon cycle. The two-dimensional pattern and density of stomata in the leaf epidermis are genetically and environmentally regulated to optimize gas exchange. Two putative intercellular signalling factors, EPF1 and EPF2, function as negative regulators of stomatal development in Arabidopsis, possibly by interacting with the receptor-like protein TMM. One or more positive intercellular signalling factors are assumed to be involved in stomatal development, but their identities are unknown. Here we show that a novel secretory peptide, which we designate as stomagen, is a positive intercellular signalling factor that is conserved among vascular plants. Stomagen is a 45-amino-rich peptide that is generated from a 102-amino-acid precursor protein designated as STOMAGEN. Both an in planta analysis and a semi-in-vitro analysis with recombinant and chemically synthesized stomagen peptides showed that stomagen has stomata-inducing activity in a dose-dependent manner. A genetic analysis showed that TMM is epistatic to STOMAGEN (At4g12970), suggesting that stomatal development is finely regulated by competitive binding of positive and negative regulators to the same receptor. Notably, STOMAGEN is expressed in inner tissues (the mesophyll) of immature leaves but not in the epidermal tissues where stomata develop. This study provides evidence of a mesophyll-derived positive regulator of stomatal density. Our findings provide a conceptual advancement in understanding stomatal development: inner photosynthetic tissues optimize their function by regulating stomatal density in the epidermis for efficient uptake of CO(2).

  16. Internal coordination between hydraulics and stomatal control in leaves.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Jordan, Gregory J

    2008-11-01

    The stomatal response to changing leaf-atmospheric vapour pressure gradient (D(l)) is a crucial yet enigmatic process that defines the daily course of leaf gas exchange. Changes in the hydration of epidermal cells are thought to drive this response, mediated by the transpiration rate and hydraulic conductance of the leaf. Here, we examine whether species-specific variation in the sensitivity of leaves to perturbation of D(l) is related to the efficiency of water transport in the leaf (leaf hydraulic conductivity, K(leaf)). We found good correlation between maximum liquid (K(leaf)) and gas phase conductances (g(max)) in leaves, but there was no direct correlation between normalized D(l) sensitivity and K(leaf). The impact of K(leaf) on D(l) sensitivity in our diverse sample of eight species was important only after accounting for the strong relationship between K(leaf) and g(max). Thus, the ratio of g(max)/K(leaf) was strongly correlated with stomatal sensitivity to D(l). This ratio is an index of the degree of hydraulic buffering of the stomata against changes in D(l), and species with high g(max) relative to K(leaf) were the most sensitive to D(l) perturbation. Despite the potentially high adaptive significance of this phenomenon, we found no significant phylogenetic or ecological trend in our species.

  17. Current practice and challenges in night-time care for people with dementia living in care homes: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Kayleigh Marie; Khan, Zunera; Testad, Ingelin; Lawrence, Vanessa; Creese, Byron; Corbett, Anne

    2017-05-26

    To explore the current practices and challenges in night-time care for people with dementia living in care homes in the UK. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with care staff and family carers from five care homes in South London. To supplement the FGD data, an online survey was circulated to family carers (n = 16), and informal interviews were conducted with night-time care staff and nurses (n = 19). The questions for the online survey were designed to specifically explore the themes that emerged from the FGD. Thematic analysis revealed eight key themes in the management of sleep disturbance in people with dementia living in care homes: current night-time care practices, dissonance in perceived causes of sleep disturbances, inconsistencies in treatment options, insufficient staffing levels, working relationships between shifts, nurse burden and responsibility, communication as a critical challenge, connecting with residents and one overarching theme of balance. The findings of this study highlight the need for an evidence-based sleep disturbance management programme designed for use in care homes and informed by stakeholders. The key themes identified represent the major barriers to good quality care and areas which future programmes will need to address to improve the quality of night-time care in care homes. There are clearly opportunities for future examination of non-pharmacological night-time care management programmes for use in the population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Variations of nighttime enhancement in neutral and ion temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, H.; Lei, J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The midnight temperature maximum (MTM) over equatorial region has been reported since 1970s, while the recently reported enhancement of the nighttime thermospheric and ion temperatures at middle and high latitudes is suggested extending from the equatorial region. Recently, we used both ground-based and satellite measurements to investigate the solar activity, seasonal and latitudinal dependences of the nighttime temperature variation at different latitudes. It was found that the postmidnight enhancement occurred in neutral and ion temperatures over middle and high latitudes with a seasonal dependence. Moreover, the CHAMP neutral density data were used to reveal the averaged patterns of the signature of the MTM, which shows the extension of the nighttime enhancement from the equatorial region to higher latitudes. In this presentation, we will also compare the observed data with the results from the coupled ionosphere and thermosphere model to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for the nighttime temperature enhancements at different latitudes.

  19. The Evolution of Mechanisms Driving the Stomatal Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are a principal means by which vascular land plants regulate daytime transpiration. While much work has focused on characterizing and modeling this response, there remains no consensus as to the mechanism that drives it. Explanations range from passive regulation by leaf hydration to biochemical regulation by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). We monitored ABA levels, leaf gas exchange, and water status in a diversity of vascular land plants exposed to a symmetrical, mild transition in VPD. The stomata in basal lineages of vascular plants, including gymnosperms, appeared to respond passively to changes in leaf water status induced by VPD perturbation, with minimal changes in foliar ABA levels and no hysteresis in stomatal action. In contrast, foliar ABA appeared to drive the stomatal response to VPD in our angiosperm samples. Increased foliar ABA level at high VPD in angiosperm species resulted in hysteresis in the recovery of stomatal conductance; this was most pronounced in herbaceous species. Increased levels of ABA in the leaf epidermis were found to originate from sites of synthesis in other parts of the leaf rather than from the guard cells themselves. The transition from a passive regulation to ABA regulation of the stomatal response to VPD in the earliest angiosperms is likely to have had critical implications for the ecological success of this lineage. PMID:25637454

  20. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming.

    PubMed

    Marchin, Renée M; Broadhead, Alice A; Bostic, Laura E; Dunn, Robert R; Hoffmann, William A

    2016-10-01

    Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of 0.5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata, and thereby less efficient water use. Stomatal acclimation maintained homeostasis of leaf T and carbon gain despite increased VPD, revealing that short-term stomatal responses to VPD may not be representative of long-term exposure. Acclimation responses differ from expectations of decreasing gs with increasing VPD and may necessitate revision of current models based on this assumption.

  1. The evolution of mechanisms driving the stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are a principal means by which vascular land plants regulate daytime transpiration. While much work has focused on characterizing and modeling this response, there remains no consensus as to the mechanism that drives it. Explanations range from passive regulation by leaf hydration to biochemical regulation by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). We monitored ABA levels, leaf gas exchange, and water status in a diversity of vascular land plants exposed to a symmetrical, mild transition in VPD. The stomata in basal lineages of vascular plants, including gymnosperms, appeared to respond passively to changes in leaf water status induced by VPD perturbation, with minimal changes in foliar ABA levels and no hysteresis in stomatal action. In contrast, foliar ABA appeared to drive the stomatal response to VPD in our angiosperm samples. Increased foliar ABA level at high VPD in angiosperm species resulted in hysteresis in the recovery of stomatal conductance; this was most pronounced in herbaceous species. Increased levels of ABA in the leaf epidermis were found to originate from sites of synthesis in other parts of the leaf rather than from the guard cells themselves. The transition from a passive regulation to ABA regulation of the stomatal response to VPD in the earliest angiosperms is likely to have had critical implications for the ecological success of this lineage.

  2. Shifts in stomatal traits following the domestication of plant species.

    PubMed

    Milla, Rubén; de Diego-Vico, Natalia; Martín-Robles, Nieves

    2013-08-01

    Stomata are the major gates regulating substrate availability for photosynthesis and water loss. Although both processes are critical to yield and to resource-use efficiency, we lack a comprehensive picture on how domestication and further breeding have impacted on leaf stomata. To fill this gap, stomatal sizes and densities were screened in cultivated and wild ancestor representatives of a uniquely large group of 24 herbaceous crops. Anatomical data and gas-exchange models were combined to compute maximum potential conductance to water, separately for upper and lower leaf sides. The evolution of maximum conductance under domestication was diverse. Several crops increased, others decreased (noticeably high-conductance species), and others kept a similar potential conductance following domestication. It was found that the contribution of upper leaf sides to maximum conductance was statistically higher in cultivated than in wild ancestors. For crops showing this response, reduced stomatal density in the lower side of domesticated leaves was responsible for the observed 'adaxialization' of conductance. Increases in the size of stomata at the upper epidermis played a comparatively minor role. Nevertheless, this overall response was varied in magnitude and direction, signalling crop-wise specificities. Observed patterns reflect only potential conductances based on anatomical traits and should be used with care until actual physiological outcomes are measured. Together with advancements in the developmental genetics of stomata, our findings might hint at new breeding avenues, focused on stomata distribution. Provided urgent needs for increasing yields, the opportunities of enhancing traits of the physiological relevance of stomata should not be ignored.

  3. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  4. The Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions Project and the International Heliospherical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.; Lima, Jose P.; Miller, Ethan S.; Armstrong, Shaun J.

    2009-04-01

    We describe a new suite of instruments planned for deployment to Cape Verde as part of the International Heliospherical Year. The Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions (RENOIR) project consists of a bistatic Fabry-Perot interferometer system, an all-sky imaging system, a dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and an array of single-frequency GPS scintillation monitors. This instrumentation will allow for studying the low-latitude thermosphere/ionosphere (TI) system in great detail. Investigations to be conducted using this instrumentation while in Cape Verde include studying equatorial irregularity processes, the effects of neutral winds and gravity waves on irregularity development, the midnight temperature maximum, and ion-neutral coupling in the nighttime TI system. Initial observations from the RENOIR instrumentation during pre-deployment testing at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory are presented, as is the deployment scenario for the project in Cape Verde.

  5. NO3 Induced Nighttime Air Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliff, W. S.; Luria, M.; Stockwell, W. R.; Valente, R.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    In this study the role of nitrate radical (NO3) is evaluated and its effects on the transformation and removal of atmospheric compounds. This study provides the first continuous measurements of nitrate radical over a multi-day period in an arid urban location over the United States using a Differential Optical Absorbance Spectrometry (DOAS). The nitrate radical plays an important role in the nighttime chemistry of the troposphere. Formed through the reaction of NO2 with O3, nitrate reacts rapidly to oxidize aldehydes and alkenes, and converts reactive nitrogen oxides to unreactive nitric acid. Averaged over 24 hours, NO3 may be as important as daytime HO for direct oxidation of alkenes and aldehydes. The formation of NO3 can be an indirect sink of reactive nitrogen oxides if it reacts with NO2 to form dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5). If liquid water coated surfaces are present than the N2O5 will be converted to nitric acid and thus reduce N2O5 and consequently NO3 mixing ratios. Measurements made under arid conditions allow NO3 mixing ratios to be observed under conditions of lower relative humidity then possible elsewhere. Arid conditions are a new chemical regime for NO3 because its conversion to N2O5, which in turn reacts with liquid water, placing a significant limit on its lifetime. The Differential Optical Absorbance Spectrometry (DOAS) was also used to measure mixing ratios of NO2, HCHO and HONO in addition to instrumentation measuring ozone, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes), nitrogen oxides, SO2, SO42-, aerosol size and number density, and meteorological variables under desert conditions during the summer of 2008. Preliminary results are presented.

  6. Night-time symptoms: a forgotten dimension of COPD.

    PubMed

    Agusti, A; Hedner, J; Marin, J M; Barbé, F; Cazzola, M; Rennard, S

    2011-09-01

    Sleep quality is often poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these night-time symptoms are frequently unnoticed by physicians and/or not reported by patients themselves. Therefore, the prevalence and clinical impact of sleep disturbances and night-time symptoms in COPD is not well understood and has not been a clinical focus to date. To address this gap, an expert panel meeting was convened in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2011 to discuss the aetiology, evolution, burden, long-term clinical consequences and optimal management of night-time symptoms in COPD. The term "night-time symptoms" in COPD has not been distinctly defined in an objective sense but epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence of nocturnal symptoms and symptomatic sleep disturbance may exceed 75% in patients with COPD. The panel concluded that night-time symptoms in COPD are prevalent and bothersome; that their cause(s) are multiple and include demographic factors, such as age and obesity, pharmacotherapy, disease-specific symptoms and the presence of comorbid sleep disorders, and other medical conditions; and that potential long-term consequences can include lung function changes, increased exacerbation frequency, emergence or worsening of cardiovascular disease, cognitive effects, depression, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. To date, few interventional studies have investigated them, but emerging data suggest that bronchodilator therapy can improve them if deployed appropriately. In summary, night-time symptoms in COPD warrant further clinical investigation with validated tools.

  7. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  8. Responses of Hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  9. Ozone risk assessment for agricultural crops in Europe: Further development of stomatal flux and flux-response relationships for European wheat and potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleijel, H.; Danielsson, H.; Emberson, L.; Ashmore, M. R.; Mills, G.

    Applications of a parameterised Jarvis-type multiplicative stomatal conductance model with data collated from open-top chamber experiments on field grown wheat and potato were used to derive relationships between relative yield and stomatal ozone uptake. The relationships were based on thirteen experiments from four European countries for wheat and seven experiments from four European countries for potato. The parameterisation of the conductance model was based both on an extensive literature review and primary data. Application of the stomatal conductance models to the open-top chamber experiments resulted in improved linear regressions between relative yield and ozone uptake compared to earlier stomatal conductance models, both for wheat ( r2=0.83) and potato ( r2=0.76). The improvement was largest for potato. The relationships with the highest correlation were obtained using a stomatal ozone flux threshold. For both wheat and potato the best performing exposure index was AF st6 (accumulated stomatal flux of ozone above a flux rate threshold of 6 nmol ozone m -2 projected sunlit leaf area, based on hourly values of ozone flux). The results demonstrate that flux-based models are now sufficiently well calibrated to be used with confidence to predict the effects of ozone on yield loss of major arable crops across Europe. Further studies, using innovations in stomatal conductance modelling and plant exposure experimentation, are needed if these models are to be further improved.

  10. Nighttime Chemistry at a High Elevation Site above Hong Kong: Implications for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Tham, Y. J.; Wang, T.; Zha, Q.; Xu, Z.; Xue, L.; Poon, S.; Wang, Z.; Wang, X.; Tsui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Nighttime chemical processes of nitrogen oxides, including reactions of the nitrate radical (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), are important to numerous tropospheric chemical cycles, including the removal of NO­x, the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the heterogeneous activation of halogen species. These cycles influence regional ozone and aerosol pollution but remain uncertain. Although nitrogen oxide levels are highest in urban areas, nighttime chemistry is notoriously difficult to study in these regions due to surface level buildup of NO and consequent titration of O3, which suppress nighttime chemical reactions. Tai Mo Shan (TMS) is a high elevation site (950 m) situated between the cities of Hong Kong and Shenzhen, each of which has a population of approximately 7 million. Both lie within the Pearl River Delta, a regional megacity of population 45 million. TMS is ideally suited for the study of nighttime chemistry within a megacity because it is situated within the residual boundary layer at night and is influenced by regional pollution in the absence of strong local effects. During the fall season, the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong experience peak ozone due to meteorological pattern that brings polluted continental outflow over the coastal region of southern China. During November and December 2013, a small-scale field study was conducted at the TMS summit to investigate nighttime chemistry. Chemical instrumentation included cavity ring-down and mass spectrometric instruments for NO3, N2O5 and ClNO2, as well as instrumentation for measurement of NOx, NOy, O3, VOCs, aerosols, other trace gases and meteorological data. Regular late afternoon and evening outflow events from mainland China were observed at this site, including one event with extreme (12 ppbv) levels of N2O5. This presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the atmospheric chemical data and its relationship to meteorological regimes. It will also examine budgets for

  11. Brassinosteroids modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yunmi; Shang, Yun; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated how BRs affect stomatal movement alone and in combination with ABA. We demonstrate that brassinoslide (BL), the most active BR, promotes stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. Interestingly, BL also inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure when a high concentration of BL was added to ABA. Furthermore, we found that the induction of some genes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by ABA (AtrbohD, NIA1 and NIA2) and subsequent ROS production were repressed by BL treatment. The BR signaling mutant bri1-301 failed to inhibit ABA-induced stomatal closure upon BL treatment. However, BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants were hypersensitive to ABA during stomatal closure, and BL reversed ABA-induced stomatal closure more completely than in wild type plants. Taken together, these results suggest that BRs can positively and negatively modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure. Therefore, interactions between ABA and BR signaling are important for the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:27856707

  12. K+ starvation inhibits water-stress-induced stomatal closure via ethylene synthesis in sunflower plants.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-González, María; Romera, Javier; Cristescu, Simona; Harren, Fran; Fournier, José María; Benlloch, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    The effect of water stress on stomatal closure in sunflower plants has been found to be dependent on K(+) nutrient status. When plants with different internal K(+) content were subjected to a water-stress period, stomatal conductance was reduced more markedly in plants with an adequate K(+) supply than in K(+)-starved plants. K(+) starvation promoted the production of ethylene by detached leaves, as well as by the shoot of whole plants. Water stress had no significant effect on this synthesis. The effect on stomatal conductance of adding 5 microM cobalt (an ethylene synthesis inhibitor) to the growing medium of plants subjected to water stress was also dependent on their K(+) nutritional status: conductance was not significantly affected in normal K(+) plants whereas it was reduced in K(+)-starved plants. Cobalt had no harmful effects on growth, and did not alter the internal K(+) content in the plants. These results suggest that ethylene may play a role in the inhibiting effect of K(+) starvation on stomatal closure.

  13. Urban Dispersion Modelling and Experiments in the Daytime and Nighttime Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, Pasquale; Huq, Pablo

    2011-06-01

    An analytical model of atmospheric dispersion in urban areas in both daytime and nighttime conditions is presented. The model is based on a Gaussian formulation where the horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients are determined according to analytical theories. The model is validated with dispersion measurements from field experiments conducted in Oklahoma City, Salt Lake City, St. Louis and London, U.K. The theory is in good agreement with the data for both daytime and nighttime conditions. The data support the conclusion that the magnitude of the nighttime stratification in the urban atmosphere is weak; however, its effects on dispersion are not negligible. The predicted existence of two distinct dispersion regimes, in the near and in the far field, is also confirmed by the data. The good collapse of the data suggests that urban dispersion is governed by the characteristic length scales of atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence, rather than urban canopy length scales that are more likely to affect dispersion only in the vicinity of the source.

  14. Magnitude of nighttime transpiration does not affect plant growth or nutrition in well-watered Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mairgareth A; Donovan, Lisa A; Richards, James H

    2009-07-01

    Significant water loss occurs throughout the night via partially open stomata in many C(3) and C(4) plant species. Although apparently wasteful in terms of water use, nighttime transpiration (E(night)) is hypothesized to benefit plants by enhancing nutrient supply. We tested the hypothesis that plants with greater E(night) would have improved plant nutrient status and greater fitness, estimated as pre-bolting biomass, for Arabidopsis thaliana. Two very different levels of E(night) were generated in plants by exposing them to high vs low nighttime leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficits (VPD(leaf)) in controlled environment chambers. An assessment of responses of nighttime leaf conductance (g(night)) to VPD(leaf) indicated that E(night) differed by at least 80% between the treatments. This large difference in E(night), imposed over the entire vegetative growth phase of Arabidopsis, had no effect on leaf nutrient content (N, Ca, K) or pre-bolting rosette biomass. The lack of response to differences in E(night) held true for both a high and a low nitrogen (N) treatment, even though the low N treatment decreased leaf N and biomass by 40-60%. The N treatment had no effect on g(night). Thus, higher E(night) did not provide a nutrient or growth benefit to Arabidopsis, even when the plants were N-limited.

  15. Stomatal design principles in synthetic and real leaves.

    PubMed

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Haaning, Katrine S; Boyce, C Kevin; Jensen, Kaare H

    2016-11-01

    Stomata are portals in plant leaves that control gas exchange for photosynthesis, a process fundamental to life on Earth. Gas fluxes and plant productivity depend on external factors such as light, water and CO2 availability and on the geometrical properties of the stoma pores. The link between stoma geometry and environmental factors has informed a wide range of scientific fields-from agriculture to climate science, where observed variations in stoma size and density are used to infer prehistoric atmospheric CO2 content. However, the physical mechanisms and design principles responsible for major trends in stomatal patterning are not well understood. Here, we use a combination of biomimetic experiments and theory to rationalize the observed changes in stoma geometry. We show that the observed correlations between stoma size and density are consistent with the hypothesis that plants favour efficient use of space and maximum control of dynamic gas conductivity, and that the capacity for gas exchange in plants has remained constant over at least the last 325 Myr. Our analysis provides a new measure to gauge the relative performance of species based on their stomatal characteristics.

  16. Measuring nighttime spawning behavior of chum salmon using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The striking body coloration and morphology that Pacific salmon display during spawning coupled with elaborate courtship behaviors suggest that visual cues are important during their reproductive period. To date, virtually all existing information on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning behavior has been derived from studies conducted during the daytime, and has contributed to the assumption that salmon do not spawn at night. We tested this assumption using a new technology - a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) - to describe and measure nighttime spawning behavior of wild chum salmon in the Columbia River. The DIDSON produces detailed, video-like images using sound, which enabled us to collect behavioral information at night in complete darkness. The display of DIDSON images enabled fish movements and behaviors to be spatially quantified. We collected continuous observational data on 14 pairs of chum salmon in a natural spawning channel during the daytime and nighttime. Spawners of both genders were observed chasing intruders during nighttime and daytime as nests were constructed. Regardless of diel period, females were engaged in digging to both construct nests and cover eggs, and courting males exhibited the pre-spawning behavior of tail crossing. We observed a total of 13 spawning events, of which nine occurred at night and four occurred during the day. The behaviors we observed at night suggest the assumption that chum salmon do not spawn at night is false. Once chum salmon begin nest construction, visual cues are apparently not required for courtship, nest defense, and spawning. We speculate that non-visual cues (e.g. tactile and auditory) enable chum salmon to carry out most spawning behaviors at night. Our findings have implications for how nighttime flows from hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River are managed for power production and protection of imperiled salmon stocks.

  17. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Regules, Jason A; Beigel, John H; Paolino, Kristopher M; Voell, Jocelyn; Castellano, Amy R; Hu, Zonghui; Muñoz, Paula; Moon, James E; Ruck, Richard C; Bennett, Jason W; Twomey, Patrick S; Gutiérrez, Ramiro L; Remich, Shon A; Hack, Holly R; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Josleyn, Matthew D; Kwilas, Steven A; Van Deusen, Nicole; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Jing, Wang; Smith, Kirsten S; Shi, Meng; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Peel, Sheila A; Alimonti, Judie B; Hooper, Jay W; Silvera, Peter M; Martin, Brian K; Monath, Thomas P; Ramsey, W Jay; Link, Charles J; Lane, H Clifford; Michael, Nelson L; Davey, Richard T; Thomas, Stephen J

    2017-01-26

    Background The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. Methods We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Results The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. Conclusions This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a

  18. Photosynthesis-dependent/independent control of stomatal responses to CO2 in mutant barley with surplus electron transport capacity and reduced SLAH3 anion channel transcript.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Javier; Molina-Cano, José-Luis; Pérez, Pilar; Morcuende, Rosa; Moralejo, Marian; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 are yet to be fully understood. The role of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic factors in stomatal responses to CO2 was investigated in wild-type barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Graphic) and in a mutant (G132) with decreased photochemical and Rubisco capacities. The CO2 and DCMU responses of stomatal conductance (gs), gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and levels of ATP, with a putative transcript for stomatal opening were analysed. G132 had greater gs than the wild-type, despite lower photosynthesis rates and higher intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci). The mutant had Rubisco-limited photosynthesis at very high CO2 levels, and higher ATP contents than the wild-type. Stomatal sensitivity to CO2 under red light was lower in G132 than in the wild-type, both in photosynthesizing and DCMU-inhibited leaves. Under constant Ci and red light, stomatal sensitivity to DCMU inhibition was higher in G132. The levels of a SLAH3-like slow anion channel transcript, involved in stomatal closure, decreased sharply in G132. The results suggest that stomatal responses to CO2 depend partly on the balance of photosynthetic electron transport to carbon assimilation capacities, but are partially regulated by the CO2 signalling network. High gs can improve the adaptation to climate change in well-watered conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B; Boron, Walter F; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-10-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3 (-) concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3 (-) concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B.; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3− concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3− concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. PMID:26243620

  1. Nighttime OClO in the Winter Arctic Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canty, T.; Riviere, E. D.; Salawitch, R. J.; Berthet, G.; Renard, J. -B.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Dorf, M.; Butz, A.; Bosch, H.; Stimpfle, R. M.; hide

    2005-01-01

    We show that a nighttime profile of OClO in the Arctic vortex during the winter of 2000 is overestimated, by nearly a factor of 2, using an isentropic trajectory model constrained by observed profiles of ClOx (ClO + 2 X ClOOCl) and BrO. Calculated abundances of nighttime OClO are shown to be sensitive to the abundance of BrOx (BrO + BrCl), details of the air parcel history during the most recent sunrise/sunset transitions, and the BrCl yield from the reaction BrO + ClO. Many uncertainties are considered, and the discrepancy between measured and modeled nighttime OClO appears to be robust. This discrepancy suggests that production of OClO occurs more slowly than implied by standard photochemistry. If the yield of BrCl from the reaction of BrO + ClO is increased from 7% (JPL 2002 value) to 11% (near the upper limit of the uncertainty), good agreement is found between measured and modeled nighttime OClO. This study highlights the importance of accurate knowledge of BrO + ClO reaction kinetics as well as air parcel trajectories for proper interpretation of nighttime OClO. These factors have a considerably smaller impact on the interpretation of OClO observations obtained during twilight (90(deg) <=SZA <= 92(deg)), when photolytic processes are still active.

  2. Neurexin regulates nighttime sleep by modulating synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Huawei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zi Chao; Li, Yi; Han, Junhai

    2016-01-01

    Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep. We demonstrate that reduced nighttime sleep in neurexin mutants is due to impaired αβ neuronal output, and show that neurexin functionally couples calcium channels (Cac) to regulate synaptic transmission. Finally, we determine that αβ surface (αβs) neurons release both acetylcholine and short neuropeptide F (sNPF), whereas αβ core (αβc) neurons release sNPF to promote nighttime sleep. Our findings reveal that neurexin regulates nighttime sleep by mediating the synaptic transmission of αβ neurons. This study elucidates the role of synaptic transmission in sleep regulation, and might offer insights into the mechanism of sleep disturbances in patients with autism disorders. PMID:27905548

  3. Nighttime OClO in the Winter Arctic Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canty, T.; Riviere, E. D.; Salawitch, R. J.; Berthet, G.; Renard, J. -B.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Dorf, M.; Butz, A.; Bosch, H.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Wilmouth, D. M.; Richard, E. C.; Fahey, D. W.; Popp, P. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Lait, L. R.; Bui, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    We show that a nighttime profile of OClO in the Arctic vortex during the winter of 2000 is overestimated, by nearly a factor of 2, using an isentropic trajectory model constrained by observed profiles of ClOx (ClO + 2 X ClOOCl) and BrO. Calculated abundances of nighttime OClO are shown to be sensitive to the abundance of BrOx (BrO + BrCl), details of the air parcel history during the most recent sunrise/sunset transitions, and the BrCl yield from the reaction BrO + ClO. Many uncertainties are considered, and the discrepancy between measured and modeled nighttime OClO appears to be robust. This discrepancy suggests that production of OClO occurs more slowly than implied by standard photochemistry. If the yield of BrCl from the reaction of BrO + ClO is increased from 7% (JPL 2002 value) to 11% (near the upper limit of the uncertainty), good agreement is found between measured and modeled nighttime OClO. This study highlights the importance of accurate knowledge of BrO + ClO reaction kinetics as well as air parcel trajectories for proper interpretation of nighttime OClO. These factors have a considerably smaller impact on the interpretation of OClO observations obtained during twilight (90(deg) <=SZA <= 92(deg)), when photolytic processes are still active.

  4. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: genetic aspects of etiology

    PubMed Central

    Szponar, Elżbieta; Kowalska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS; recurrent aphthous ulcers – RAU; canker sores) is a chronic inflammatory, ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. Its prevalence in the general population ranges between 5% and 20%, depending on the method and group studied. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is considered to be multifactorial, but remains still not fully understood. In patients with RAS, an enhanced immunologic response occurs to some trigger factors that may include: mechanical injury, stress or bacterial and viral antigens. Higher prevalence of aphthae in relatives may also indicate the genetic background of the condition. The inheritance of some specific gene polymorphisms, especially those encoding proinflammatory cytokines, which play a role in the formation of aphthous ulcer, may predispose family members to RAS. The purpose of this paper was to present the main clinical features of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, epidemiologic data and crucial etiopathogenetic factors with a special emphasis on genetic background of the condition. PMID:24278055

  5. [How to cope with recurrent aphthous stomatitis].

    PubMed

    Madrid, C; Jaques, B; Bouferrrache, K; Broome, M

    2010-10-06

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral mucosa ailment. This condition is frequently considered as idiopathic due to the doubts about its etiology, probably related to a minor immunological dysregulation in a context of genetic predisposition. However, ulcers that resemble recurrent aphthous stomatitis in some respects can be found in systemic disorders that must be ruled out for the differential diagnosis of SAR, particularly when they appear after adolescence and/or when associated lesions exist out of the oral cavity. SAR management lies on the elimination of predisposing factors (drugs, oral trauma, food allergies...) and if needed, topical corticosteroids are the first choice regimen. More severe cases may require systemic regimens.

  6. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia-Forner, Nuria; Adams, Henry D.; Sevanto, Sanna; ...

    2015-08-08

    Here, relatively anisohydric species are predicted to be more predisposed to hydraulic failure than relatively isohydric species, as they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins. We subjected co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis trees to warming, reduced precipitation, or both, and measured their gas exchange and hydraulic responses. We found that reductions in stomatal conductance and assimilation by heat and drought were more frequent during relatively moist periods, but these effects were not exacerbated in the combined heat and drought treatment. Counter to expectations, both species exhibited similar gs temporal dynamics in response to drought. Further, whereas P.more » edulis exhibited chronic embolism, J. monosperma showed very little embolism due to its conservative stomatal regulation and maintenance of xylem water potential above the embolism entry point. This tight stomatal control and low levels of embolism experienced by juniper refuted the notion that very low water potentials during drought are associated with loose stomatal control and with the hypothesis that anisohydric species are more prone to hydraulic failure than isohydric species. Because direct association of stomatal behaviour with embolism resistance can be misleading, we advocate consideration of stomatal behaviour relative to embolism resistance for classifying species drought response strategies.« less

  7. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Forner, Nuria; Adams, Henry D.; Sevanto, Sanna; Collins, Adam D.; Dickman, Lee T.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Powers, Heath; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mcdowell, Nate G.

    2015-08-08

    Here, relatively anisohydric species are predicted to be more predisposed to hydraulic failure than relatively isohydric species, as they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins. We subjected co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis trees to warming, reduced precipitation, or both, and measured their gas exchange and hydraulic responses. We found that reductions in stomatal conductance and assimilation by heat and drought were more frequent during relatively moist periods, but these effects were not exacerbated in the combined heat and drought treatment. Counter to expectations, both species exhibited similar gs temporal dynamics in response to drought. Further, whereas P. edulis exhibited chronic embolism, J. monosperma showed very little embolism due to its conservative stomatal regulation and maintenance of xylem water potential above the embolism entry point. This tight stomatal control and low levels of embolism experienced by juniper refuted the notion that very low water potentials during drought are associated with loose stomatal control and with the hypothesis that anisohydric species are more prone to hydraulic failure than isohydric species. Because direct association of stomatal behaviour with embolism resistance can be misleading, we advocate consideration of stomatal behaviour relative to embolism resistance for classifying species drought response strategies.

  8. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Adams, Henry D; Sevanto, Sanna; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Hudson, Patrick J; Zeppel, Melanie J B; Jenkins, Michael W; Powers, Heath; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mcdowell, Nate G

    2016-01-01

    Relatively anisohydric species are predicted to be more predisposed to hydraulic failure than relatively isohydric species, as they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins. We subjected co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis trees to warming, reduced precipitation, or both, and measured their gas exchange and hydraulic responses. We found that reductions in stomatal conductance and assimilation by heat and drought were more frequent during relatively moist periods, but these effects were not exacerbated in the combined heat and drought treatment. Counter to expectations, both species exhibited similar gs temporal dynamics in response to drought. Further, whereas P. edulis exhibited chronic embolism, J. monosperma showed very little embolism due to its conservative stomatal regulation and maintenance of xylem water potential above the embolism entry point. This tight stomatal control and low levels of embolism experienced by juniper refuted the notion that very low water potentials during drought are associated with loose stomatal control and with the hypothesis that anisohydric species are more prone to hydraulic failure than isohydric species. Because direct association of stomatal behaviour with embolism resistance can be misleading, we advocate consideration of stomatal behaviour relative to embolism resistance for classifying species drought response strategies.

  9. Association genetics, geography and ecophysiology link stomatal patterning in Populus trichocarpa with carbon gain and disease resistance trade-offs.

    PubMed

    McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Quamme, Linda; Klápště, Jaroslav; La Mantia, Jonathan; Constabel, C P; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C; Zifkin, Michael; Azam, M S

    2014-12-01

    Stomata are essential for diffusive entry of gases to support photosynthesis, but may also expose internal leaf tissues to pathogens. To uncover trade-offs in range-wide adaptation relating to stomata, we investigated the underlying genetics of stomatal traits and linked variability in these traits with geoclimate, ecophysiology, condensed foliar tannins and pathogen susceptibility in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf stomatal traits were measured from 454 accessions collected throughout much of the species range. We calculated broad-sense heritability (H(2) ) of stomatal traits and, using SNP data from a 34K Populus SNP array, performed a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to uncover genes underlying stomatal trait variation. H(2) values for stomatal traits were moderate (average H(2) = 0.33). GWAS identified genes associated primarily with adaxial stomata, including polarity genes (PHABULOSA), stomatal development genes (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2) and disease/wound-response genes (GLUTAMATE-CYSTEINE LIGASE). Stomatal traits correlated with latitude, gas exchange, condensed tannins and leaf rust (Melampsora) infection. Latitudinal trends of greater adaxial stomata numbers and guard cell pore size corresponded with higher stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis (Amax ), faster shoot elongation, lower foliar tannins and greater Melampsora susceptibility. This suggests an evolutionary trade-off related to differing selection pressures across the species range. In northern environments, more adaxial stomata and larger pore sizes reflect selection for rapid carbon gain and growth. By contrast, southern genotypes have fewer adaxial stomata, smaller pore sizes and higher levels of condensed tannins, possibly linked to greater pressure from natural leaf pathogens, which are less significant in northern ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Use of infrared thermography for monitoring stomatal closure in the field: application to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hamlyn G; Stoll, Manfred; Santos, Tiago; de Sousa, Claudia; Chaves, M Manuela; Grant, Olga M

    2002-11-01

    This paper reviews and discusses strategies for the use of thermal imaging for studies of stomatal conductance in the field and compares techniques for image collection and analysis. Measurements were taken under a range of environmental conditions and on sunlit and shaded canopies to illustrate the variability of temperatures and derived stress indices. A simple procedure is presented for correcting for calibration drift within the images from the low-cost thermal imager used (SnapShot 225, Infrared Solutions, Inc.). The use of wet and dry reference surfaces as thresholds to eliminate the inclusion of non-leaf material in the analysis of canopy temperature is discussed. An index that is proportional to stomatal conductance was compared with stomatal measurements with a porometer. The advantages and disadvantages of a possible new approach to the use of thermal imagery for the detection of stomatal closure in grapevine canopies, based on an analysis of the temperature of shaded leaves, rather than sunlit leaves, are discussed. Evidence is presented that the temperature of reference surfaces exposed within the canopy can be affected by the canopy water status.

  11. Evaluating stomatal models and their atmospheric drought response in a land surface scheme: A multibiome analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, Jürgen; Werner, Christiane; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-10-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key variable in Earth system models as it regulates the transfer of carbon and water between the terrestrial biosphere and the lower atmosphere. Various approaches have been developed that aim for a simple representation of stomatal regulation applicable at the global scale. These models differ, among others, in their response to atmospheric humidity, which induces stomatal closure in a dry atmosphere. In this study, we compared the widely used empirical Ball-Berry and Leuning stomatal conductance models to an alternative empirical approach, an optimization-based approach, and a semimechanistic hydraulic model. We evaluated these models using evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) observations derived from eddy covariance measurements at 56 sites across multiple biomes and climatic conditions. The different models were embedded in the land surface model JSBACH. Differences in performance across plant functional types or climatic conditions were small, partly owing to the large variations in the observational data. The models yielded comparable results at low to moderate atmospheric drought but diverged under dry atmospheric conditions, where models with a low sensitivity to air humidity tended to overestimate gs. The Ball-Berry model gave the best fi