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Sample records for nigrostriatal dopaminergic system

  1. Mesolimbic and Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Systems: Behavioral Neuropharmacology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    methadone or chlorpromazine in the guinea-pig. Psychopharmacology 48:132-146 Elkhawad AO, Woodruff GN (1975) Studies on the behavioural pharmacology of a...Pharmacol Toxicol Suppl 4, 25:59 Fog RL, Randrup A, Pakkenberg H (1968) Neuroleptic action of quaternary chlorpromazine and related drugs injected into...concerning amphetamine effects.. Curr Dev Psychopharmacol 2:79-163 Mandel RJ, Randall PK (1985) Quantification of lesion induced dopaminergic supersensitivity

  2. Effects of HZE particle on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in a future Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yu; Frey, M A; Sahiar, F; Dodge, R; Mohler, S

    2005-02-01

    Because of long duration travel outside the Earth's magnetic field, the effect of iron-rich high charge and energy (HZE) particles in Galactic Cosmic Rays on human body is the major concern in radiation protection. Recently attention has been directed to effects on the central nervous system in addition to mutagenic effects. In particular, a reduction in striatal dopamine content on nigrostriatal dopaminergic system has been reported by investigators using accelerated iron ions in ground-based mammalian studies. In addition, studies of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease demonstrated that excess iron cause a reduction in the dopamine content in the substantia nigra. This suggests an intriguing possibility to explain the selective detrimental effects of HZE particles on the dopaminergic system. Should these particles have biochemical effects, possible options for countermeasures are: (1) nutritional prevention, (2) medication, and (3) surgical placement of a stimulator electrode at a specific anatomic site in the basal ganglia.

  3. Subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation in the cerebellar subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Esteban; Iranzo, Alex; Rauek, Sebastian; Lomeña, Francisco; Gallego, Judith; Ros, Doménec; Santamaría, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Nigrostriatal involvement is considered an additional feature in the new consensus criteria for the diagnosis of the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C). However, so far, only a few studies, which include a relative small number of patients, give support to this criterion. Our objective was to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation in patients with MSA-C without parkinsonism by use of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT). Thirteen patients that fulfilled criteria for possible or probable MSA-C and presented no parkinsonian signs, and 12 age-matched healthy controls underwent ((123)I-2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane ([(123)I]FP-CIT) SPECT. Patients were also evaluated through the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean duration of the cerebellar syndrome was 3.8 ± 1.7 years. DAT SPECT showed a significant decrease of striatal [(123)I]FP-CIT uptake ratios in patients (p < 0.001). Radiotracer uptake reduction was 21% in the entire striatum, 19% in putamen, and 24% in caudate nuclei. Striatal binding ratios were within the normal range in 3 patients. We did not find correlation between striatal uptake and disease duration, age of patients, UMSARS-II score, and pontine diameter. [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT shows that most but not all MSA-C patients without parkinsonism have subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation which is not related to disease duration, cerebellar dysfunction, or pontine atrophy.

  4. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function

    PubMed Central

    Porokuokka, Lauriina L.; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson’s disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson’s disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3’UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson’s disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3’UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct

  5. [Criteria of efficiency of transplantation of embryonic nervous tissue preparations in rats with 6-OHDA-impaired dopaminergic nigrostriatal system].

    PubMed

    Chekhonin, V P; Lebedev, S V; Dmitrieva, T B; Baklaushev, V P; Savchenko, E A; Lazarenko, I P; Gurina, O I; Belopasov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Effectiveness of transplantation of cells from embryonal nervous tissue of the ventral mesencephalon (VM ENT) and striatum (STR ENT) by apomorphin-induced motor asymmetry (APO-test), consolidation of the transplant (the degree of glyal reaction and amount of dopaminergic neurons) and blood serum levels of GFAP was studied for 3 months in Wistar rats with 6-OHDA-impaired dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Marked therapeutic effectiveness was registered in VM ENT transplantation in the denervated striatum and in combined transplantation of VM ENT into the lateral cerebral ventricle simultaneously with STR ENT transplantation in the striatum. Separate transplantation of VM ENT in the lateral ventricle and STR ENT in the striatum had no positive effect on recovery of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. A correlation was found between the degree of glial reaction of ENT transplants, severity of rotation asymmetry and serum levels of gliofibrillary protein (GFAP). GFAP in the serum for lifetime assessment of transplant consolidation and prognosis of neurotransplantation efficiency was assayed.

  6. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography in healthy volunteer subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leenders, K.L.; Salmon, E.P.; Tyrrell, P.; Perani, D.; Brooks, D.J.; Sager, H.; Jones, T.; Marsden, C.D.; Frackowiak, R.S. )

    1990-12-01

    A group of healthy control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease were investigated using positron emission tomography and two tracers as indicators of different specific properties of the presynaptic dopaminergic system in caudate nucleus and putamen. The first tracer, 6-L-(18F)-fluorodopa, was used as an analog of levodopa to assess its regional brain uptake, conversion into, and retention as dopamine and further metabolites. The second tracer, (11C)-nomifensine was employed as an indicator of striatal monaminergic reuptake sites that are principally dopaminergic. We have used this tracer to assess dopaminergic nerve terminal density. In patients with Parkinson's disease, striatal uptake of both tracers was decreased, putamen being significantly more affected than caudate. Side-to-side differences of uptake in putamen, but not caudate, correlated with corresponding left-right differences of scored clinical motor performance. Both 6-L(18F)-fluorodopa and (11C)-nomifensine tracer uptake in putamen was decreased on average to 40% of normal values, suggesting that a substantial part of the cellular elements of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system is still intact in living parkinsonian patients. This is in contrast to the generally extreme depletion of endogenous dopamine in the putamen of patients found at postmortem. Our results lend support to the search for drug treatments that protect against further nigrostriatal cell loss and that could be exhibited as soon as the disease manifests clinically. If successful, a sufficient striatal nerve terminal pool would remain so that the effectiveness of levodopa as a dopamine repletor could persist.

  7. Acupuncture prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal death in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the rat Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hi-Joon; Lim, Sabina; Joo, Wan-Seok; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Jung Chul; Leem, Kanghyun; Son, Yang-Sun; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Yong-Sik; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2003-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, and it has been suggested that treatments promoting survival and functional recovery of affected dopaminergic neurons could have a significant and long-term therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture on the nigrostriatal system in rat unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 4 microg/microl, intrastriatal injection) using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, trkB, immunohistochemistries. Two weeks after the lesions were made, rats presented with asymmetry in rotational behavior (118.3 +/- 17.5 turns/h) following injection with apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist (0.5 mg/kg, sc). In contrast, acupunctural treatment at acupoints GB34 and LI3 was shown to significantly reduce this motor deficit (14.6 +/- 13.4 turns/h). Analysis via TH immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial loss of cell bodies in the substantia nigra (SN) (45.7% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA-induced lesion. However, acupunctural treatment resulted in the enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN (21.4% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum. Acupuncture also increased the expression of trkB significantly (35.6% increase) in the ipsilateral SN. In conclusion, we observed that only acupuncturing without the use of any drug has the neuroprotective effects against neuronal death in the rat PD model and these protective properties of acupuncture could be mediated by trkB.

  8. Peripheral inflammation increases the deleterious effect of CNS inflammation on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Ma Carmen; Delgado-Cortés, M José; Sarmiento, Manuel; de Pablos, Rocío M; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana María; Argüelles, Sandro; Bández, Manuel J; Villarán, Ruth F; Mauriño, Raquel; Santiago, Marti; Venero, José L; Herrera, Antonio J; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Evidence supports the role of inflammation in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we are interested in inflammation as a risk factor by itself and not only as a factor contributing to neurodegeneration. We tested the influence of a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation (injection of carrageenan into the paws of rats) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in an animal model based on the intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammatory agent. Overall, the treatment with carrageenan increased the effect of the intranigral injection of LPS on the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN along with all the other parameters studied, including: serum levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and C-reactive protein; activation of microglia, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the adhesion molecule ICAM and the enzyme iNOS, loss of astrocytes and damage to the blood brain barrier (BBB). The possible implication of BBB rupture in the increased loss of dopaminergic neurons has been studied using another Parkinson's disease animal model based on the intraperitoneal injection of rotenone. In this experiment, loss of dopaminergic neurons was also strengthened by carrageenan, without affecting the BBB. In conclusion, our data show that a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation can exacerbate the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons caused by a harmful stimulus.

  9. Is there a role for ghrelin in central dopaminergic systems? Focus on nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways.

    PubMed

    Stievenard, Alicia; Méquinion, Mathieu; Andrews, Zane B; Destée, Alain; Chartier-Harlin, Marie-Christine; Viltart, Odile; Vanbesien-Mailliot, Christel C

    2017-02-01

    The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders. Dopamine regulates motivated behaviors, modulating reward processes, emotions and motor functions to enable the survival of individuals and species. Numerous dopamine-related disorders including Parkinson's disease or eating disorders like anorexia nervosa involve altered ghrelin levels. However, despite the growing interest for ghrelin in these pathological conditions, global integrative studies investigating its role in brain dopaminergic structures are still lacking. In this review, we discuss the role of ghrelin on dopaminergic neurons and its relevance in the search for new therapeutics for Parkinson's disease- and anorexia nervosa-related dopamine deficits.

  10. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Afrah A K; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J; Herrera, Antonio J; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2016-05-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Deficits in coordinated motor behavior and in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system ameliorated and VMAT2 expression up-regulated in aged male rats by administration of testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yingbo; Cui, Rui; Yan, Wensheng; Tan, Huibing; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Baiyila; Cui, Huixian; Shi, Geming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of testosterone propionate (TP) supplements on the coordinated motor behavior and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system were analyzed in aged male rats. The present study showed the coordinated motor behavioral deficits, the reduced activity of NSDA system and the decreased expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in 24 month-old male rats. Long term TP treatment improved the motor coordination dysfunction with aging. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter, as well as dopamine and its metabolites were found in the NSDA system of TP-treated 24 month-old male rats, indicative of the amelioratory effects of TP supplements on NSDA system of aged male rats. The enhancement of dopaminergic (DAergic) activity of NSDA system by TP supplements might underlie the amelioration of the coordinated motor dysfunction in aged male rats. TP supplements up-regulated VMAT2 expression in NSDA system of aged male rats. Up-regulation of VMAT2 expression in aged male rats following chronic TP treatment might be involved in the maintenance of DAergic function of NSDA system in aged male rats.

  12. A Current Review of Cypermethrin-Induced Neurotoxicity and Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anand Kumar; Tiwari, Manindra Nath; Prakash, Om; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Cypermethrin, a class II pyrethroid pesticide, is used to control insects in the household and agricultural fields. Despite beneficial roles, its uncontrolled and repetitive applications lead to unintended effects in non-target organisms. Cypermethrin crosses the blood-brain barrier and induces neurotoxicity and motor deficits. Cypermethrin prolongs the opening of sodium channel, a major site of its action, leading to hyper-excitation of the central nervous system. In addition to sodium channel, cypermethrin modulates chloride, voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels, alters the activity of glutamate and acetylcholine receptors and adenosine triphosphatases and induces DNA damage and oxidative stress in the neuronal cells. Cypermethrin also modulates the level of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine. It is one of the most commonly used pesticides in neurotoxicology research not only because of its variable responses depending upon the doses, time and routes of exposure and strain, age, gender and species of animals used across multiple studies but also owing to its ability to induce the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This article describes the effect of acute, chronic, developmental and adulthood exposures to cypermethrin in experimental animals. The article sheds light on cypermethrin-induced changes in the central nervous system, including its contribution in the onset of specific features, which are associated with the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Resemblances and dissimilarities of cypermethrin-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration with sporadic and chemicals-induced disease models along with its advantages and pitfalls are also discussed. PMID:22942879

  13. Effect of different doses of estrogen on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in two 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cordellini, Marcela Ferreira; Piazzetta, Giovana; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Matheussi, Francesca; Carolino, Ruither O G; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease results from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and it is more prevalent in men than in women. Estrogen has neuroprotective action of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) neurons. It was investigated whether differences in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) levels alter the degree of neuroprotection in NSDA neurons. Ovariectomized rats, implanted with subcutaneous capsules containing 400, 800 or 1,600 μg of E2 or corn oil, were injected with 1 μg of 6-OHDA in the SNpc or the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Striatal dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and plasma E2 levels were measured. Only at 400 μg, E2 protected striatal DA against lesion of the MFB. In the SNpc, E2 failed to prevent DA depletion, but increased DOPAC/DA ratio in the striatum. In an NSDA moderate lesion, E2 has a neuroprotective action. In a severe lesion, E2 could stimulate DA activity in remaining neurons.

  14. Chronic Deprivation of TrkB Signaling Leads to Selective Late-onset Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Baydyuk, Maryna; Nguyen, Madeline T.; Xu, Baoji

    2011-01-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the vast majority of cases the appearance of PD is sporadic, and its etiology remains unknown. Several postmortem studies demonstrate reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the SNc of PD patients. Application of BDNF promotes the survival of DA neurons in PD animal models. Here we show that BDNF signaling via its TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase is important for survival of nigrostriatal DA neurons in aging brains. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the TrkB receptor was expressed in DA neurons located in the SNc and ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, a significant loss of DA neurons occurred at 12-24 months of age only in the SNc but not in the VTA of TrkB hypomorphic mice in which the TrkB receptor was expressed at a quarter to a third of the normal amount. The neuronal loss was accompanied by a decrease in dopaminergic axonal terminals in the striatum and by gliosis in both the SNc and striatum. Furthermore, nigrostriatal DA neurons in the TrkB mutant mice were hypersensitive to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that selectively kills DA neurons. These results suggest that BDNF-to-TrkB signaling plays an important role in the long-term maintenance of the nigrostriatal system and that its deficiency may contribute to the progression of PD. PMID:21192928

  15. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. PMID:28349030

  16. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  17. Clinical Features Indicating Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Degeneration in Drug-Induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Han Kyeol; Lee, Young Gun; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lee, Myung Sik

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) may have nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. We studied the clinical features that may indicate nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP. Methods Forty-one DIP patients were classified into normal and abnormal [18F] FP-CIT scan groups. Differences in 32 clinical features and drug withdrawal effects were studied. Results Twenty-eight patients had normal (Group I) and 13 patients had abnormal (Group II) scans. Eight patients of Group I, but none of Group II, had taken calcium channel blockers (p = 0.040). Three patients of Group I and six of Group II had hyposmia (p = 0.018). After drug withdrawal, Group I showed greater improvement in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale total motor scores and subscores for bradykinesia and tremors than Group II. Only hyposmia was an independent factor associated with abnormal scans, but it had suboptimal sensitivity. Conclusion None of the clinical features were practical indicators of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP. PMID:28122428

  18. Functional Effects of AAV2-GDNF on the Dopaminergic Nigrostriatal Pathway in Parkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Eberling, Jamie L.; Kells, Adrian P.; Pivirotto, Philip; Beyer, Janine; Bringas, John; Federoff, Howard J.; Forsayeth, John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the safety and neuroregenerative potential of an adeno-associated virus (AAV2) containing human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in an MPTP primate model of Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic function was evaluated by positron emission tomography with 6-[18F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT) before and after AAV2-GDNF or phosphate-buffered saline infusion bilaterally into the putamen. FMT uptake was significantly increased bilaterally in the putamen of AAV2-GDNF but not phosphate-buffered saline-treated animals 6 months after infusion, indicating increased dopaminergic activity in the nigrostriatal pathways. AAV2-GDNF-treated animals also showed clinical improvement without adverse effects. These findings are consistent with our previous report in aged nonhuman primates that showed evidence of enhanced use of striatal dopamine and dopaminergic nigrostriatal innervation. Clinical improvement and evidence of functional recovery in the nigrostriatal pathway, and the absence of adverse effects, support the safety of this approach for the delivery of GDNF over a 6-month period. PMID:19254173

  19. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F.; Anis, Hiba K.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  20. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Anis, Hiba K; Dexter, David T

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection.

  1. Chronic organic manganese administration in the rat does not damage dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yong, V W; Perry, T L; Godolphin, W J; Jones, K A; Clavier, R M; Ito, M; Foulks, J G

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to produce an animal model of Parkinson's disease, we injected rats repeatedly with high doses of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a compound which has been reported to lower striatal dopamine content in mice. Chronic MMT administration for up to 5 months, even though it produced a substantial elevation in brain manganese content during the period of exposure, did not destroy dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This was assessed by measurements of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and contents of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and by histological examination of the substantia nigra. Our results differ from those of others who administered manganese chloride in drinking water to rats. This discrepancy is unlikely to be a consequence of differences in duration of exposure or route of administration. It could be due to our having used an organic rather than an inorganic manganese compound, or to a species difference in vulnerability to organic manganese between rats and mice.

  2. The nigrostriatal dopamine system of aging GFRalpha-1 heterozygous mice: neurochemistry, morphology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Vandana; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Rohrer, Baerbel; Moore, Alfred; Buhusi, Mona; Gerhardt, Greg A; Hoffer, Barry J; Middaugh, Lawrence D

    2008-10-01

    Given the established importance of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in maintaining dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, the nigrostriatal system and associated behaviors of mice with genetic reduction of its high-affinity receptor, GDNF receptor (GFR)alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1(+/-)), were compared with wild-type controls. Motor activity and the stimulatory effects of a dopamine (DA) D1 receptor agonist (SKF 82958) were assessed longitudinally at 8 and 18 months of age. Monoamine concentrations and dopaminergic nerve terminals in the striatum and the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were assessed. The results support the importance of GFRalpha-1 in maintaining normal function of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, with deficits being observed for GFRalpha-1(+/-) mice at both ages. Motor activity was lower and the stimulatory effects of the DA agonist were enhanced for the older GFRalpha-1(+/-) mice. DA in the striatum was reduced in the GFRalpha-1(+/-) mice at both ages, and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell numbers in the SN were reduced most substantially in the older GFRalpha-1(+/-) mice. The combined behavioral, pharmacological probe, neurochemical and morphological measures provide evidence of abnormalities in GFRalpha-1(+/-) mice that are indicative of an exacerbated aging-related decline in dopaminergic system function. The noted deficiencies, in turn, suggest that GFRalpha-1 is necessary for GDNF to maintain normal function of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Although the precise mechanism(s) for the aging-related changes in the dopaminergic system remain to be established, the present study clearly establishes that genetic reductions in GFRalpha-1 can contribute to the degenerative changes observed in this system during the aging process.

  3. Estrogenic modulation of delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol effects on nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity in the female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, A; Ferández-Ruiz, J J; Martín, M; De Fonseca, F R; De Miguel, R; Ramos, J A

    1992-08-01

    In this work we studied the possible estrogenic modulation of the effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity. Thus, we examined the effects of an acute dose of this cannabinoid: (i) during the three phases of the estrous cycle; (ii) after ovariectomy, chronic estrogen replacement, and/or tamoxifen (TMX)-induced blockade of cytosolic estrogenic receptors; and (iii) combined with a single and physiological injection of estradiol to ovariectomized rats, whose effects were measured early, with no time for genomic induction. THC increased the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum of ovariectomized rats implanted with estradiol-filled Silastic capsules or ovariectomized rats. This effect: (i) depended on the presence of an intact estrogenic receptor mechanism, because it was prevented by pretreatment with TMX, and (ii) did not appear when THC was coadministered with estradiol, suggesting an inhibitory modulation of cannabinoid effect by the nongenomic mechanism of action of this steroid. The striatal content of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and its ratio with dopamine content, which can be used as an index of neuronal activity, also increased following acute THC administration. However, this effect was seen only in ovariectomized rats without estrogen replacement. The administration of THC in combination with a single estradiol injection or to estradiol-implanted ovariectomized rats was ineffective for both parameters. All these effects appeared after ovariectomy with/without estrogen replacement. However, we did not observe any statistically significant effects when THC was administered to normal cycling rats during each phase of the estrous cycle. This observation might be related to the fact that the affinity of striatal cannabinoid receptors, which are the main candidates to mediate cannabinoid effects on this area, significantly increased after ovariectomy compared with that measured in normal cycling rats. In

  4. Selective Vulnerability in Striosomes and in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Pathway After Methamphetamine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; O’Shea, Esther; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos; Colado, M. Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly abused psychostimulant, causes dopamine neurotoxicity in humans, rodents, and nonhuman primates. This study examined the selective neuroanatomical pattern of dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by METH in the mouse striatum. We examined the effect of METH on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity in the different compartments of the striatum and in the nucleus accumbens. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihidroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, as well as serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, were also quantified in the striatum. Mice were given three injections of METH (4 mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 h intervals and sacrificed 7 days later. This repeated METH injection induced a hyperthermic response and a decrease in striatal concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites without affecting 5-HT concentrations. In addition, the drug caused a reduction in TH- and DAT-immunoreactivity when compared to saline-treated animals. Interestingly, there was a significantly greater loss of TH- and DAT-immunoreactivity in striosomes than in the matrix. The predominant loss of dopaminergic terminals in the striosomes occurred along the rostrocaudal axis of the striatum. In contrast, METH did not decrease TH- or DAT-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens. These results provide the first evidence that compartments of the mouse striatum, striosomes and matrix, and mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways have different vulnerability to METH. This pattern is similar to that observed with other neurotoxins such as MPTP, the most widely used model of Parkinson’s disease, in early Huntington’s disease and hypoxic/ischemic injury, suggesting that these conditions might share mechanisms of neurotoxicity. PMID:19760475

  5. Paradoxical sleep deprivation modulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigrostriatal pathway and attenuates motor deficits induced by dopaminergic depletion.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo M S; Andersen, Monica L; Reksidler, Angela B; Ferraz, Anete C; Vital, Maria A B F; Tufik, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    The nigrostriatal pathway is very likely involved in sleep regulation, considering the occurrence and high prevalence of sleep-related disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Indeed, dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area were recently shown to fire in bursts during paradoxical sleep (PS), but little is known about the activity of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) cells in relation to PS. In view of that we hypothesized that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) may play a relevant role in nigrostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and, subsequently, in sleep rebound. The present study was designed to determine the effects of PSD in the nigrostriatal pathway in mice by means of neurochemical and behavioral approaches. Intraperitoneal reserpine (1 mg/kg) associated to α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMT) (250 mg/kg) to produce catecholamine depletion, or rotenone (10 mg/kg) to increase striatal DA turnover were injected 30 min before the 24 h of PSD. Catalepsy and open-field tests indicated that motor deficits induced by reserpine-αMT were counteracted by PSD, which, in contrast, potentiated the motor impairment induced by rotenone. Besides, PSD produced down-regulation on TH expression within the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum, without affecting the number or the optical density of dopaminergic neurons present in the respective areas. Interestingly, PSD potentiated the downregulation of TH expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum induced by the co-administration of reserpine-αMT. These results reinforce the notion of a strong participation of DA in PS, as a consequence of the modulation of TH protein expression in the nigrostriatal pathway.

  6. MMP-3 contributes to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss, BBB damage, and neuroinflammation in an MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young Cheul; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Bok, Eugene; Yune, Tae Young; Maeng, Sungho; Jin, Byung Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) participates in the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease with blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and infiltration of peripheral immune cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining of brain sections from MPTP-treated mice showed that MPTP induced significant degeneration of nigrostriatal DA neurons. Moreover, FITC-labeled albumin detection and immunostaining revealed that MPTP caused damage to the BBB and increased the number of ED-1- and CD-3-immunopositive cells in the substantia nigra (SN). Genetic ablation of MMP-3 reduced the nigrostriatal DA neuron loss and improved motor function. This neuroprotective effect afforded by MMP-3 deletion was associated with the suppression of BBB disruption and a decrease in the number of ED-1- and CD-3-immunopositive cells in the SN. These data suggest that MMP-3 could play a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD in which BBB damage and neuroinflammation are implicated.

  7. Effect of prenatal lead exposure on nigrostriatal neurotransmission and hydroxyl radical formation in rat neostriatum: dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemysław; Szczerbak, Grazyna; Nitka, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Sitkiewicz, Tomasz; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-03

    The present study was designed to explore the role of ontogenetic lead (Pb(2+)) exposure on a putative dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway. Pregnant Wistar rats were given tap water containing 250-ppm lead acetate, for the duration of pregnancy, with regular tap water (without Pb(2+)) being substituted at birth. Control rats were derived from dams that consumed tap water throughout pregnancy, and had no exposure to Pb(2+) afterwards. At 12 weeks after birth in vivo microdialysis of the neostriatum was employed to demonstrate that maternal Pb(2+) exposure was without effect on the baseline dopamine (DA) microdialysate concentration as well as amphetamine (AMPH, 1.0mg/kg i.p.)-evoked release of striatal DA. Also, prenatal Pb(2+) exposure did not enhance AMPH- and 7-nitroindazole (neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (7-NI, 20mg/kg i.p.)-induced hydroxyl radical (HO) formation in the striatum, as indicated by analysis of the salicylate spin-trap product 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. However, in rats exposed prenatally to Pb(2+), the facilitatory effect of 7-NI on DA exocytosis was attenuated. On the basis of the current study we conclude that maternal Pb(2+) exposure distorts the dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway, but without involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Component Cyclophilin D Distinguishes Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Death Paradigms in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N.; Zhang, Steven F.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Ho, Daniel J.; Beal, M. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca2+ overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca2+ threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Innovation: Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 855–868. PMID:21529244

  9. Selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons does not alter [3H]-ryanodine binding in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Geurts, M; Maloteaux, J M

    2000-02-01

    Dopamine nigrostriatal neurons are important for motor control and may contain a particularly dense population of ryanodine receptors involved in the control of dopamine release. To test this hypothesis, we used a classical model of unilateral selective lesion of these neurons in rats based on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the substantia nigra. Binding of [3H]-GBR 12935, used as a presynaptic marker since it labels specifically the dopamine uptake complex, was dramatically decreased by 83-100% in striatum homogenates after 6-OHDA lesion. On the contrary, no reduction of [3H]-ryanodine binding was observed. The present data indicate that [3H]-ryanodine binding sites present in rat striatum are not preferentially localized in dopaminergic terminals.

  10. Regeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons after transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells and fibroblasts prevents fibrotic scar formation at the lesion site.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xichuan; Nagata, Isao; Li, Hong-Peng; Kimura-Kuroda, Junko; Sango, Kazunori; Kawamura, Koki; Raisman, Geoffrey; Kawano, Hitoshi

    2008-11-01

    The fibrotic scar formed after central nervous system injury has been considered an obstacle to axonal regeneration. The present study was designed to examine whether cell transplantation into a damaged central nervous system can reduce fibrotic scar formation and promote axonal regeneration. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons were unilaterally transected in rats and cultures of olfactory-ensheathing cells (OECs), and olfactory nerve fibroblasts were transplanted into the lesion site. In the absence of transplants, few tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axons extended across the lesion 2 weeks after the transection. Reactive astrocytes increased around the lesion, and a fibrotic scar containing type IV collagen deposits developed in the lesion center. The immunoreactivity of chondroitin sulfate side chains and core protein of NG2 proteoglycan increased in and around the lesion. One and 2 weeks after transection and simultaneous transplantation, dopaminergic axons regenerated across the transplanted tissues, which consisted of p75-immunoreactive OECs and fibronectin-immunoreactive fibroblasts. Reactive astrocytes and chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity increased around the transplants, whereas the deposition of type IV collagen and fibrotic scar formation were completely prevented at the lesion site. Transplantation of meningeal fibroblasts similarly prevented the formation of the fibrotic scar, although its effect on regeneration was less potent than transplantation of OECs and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. The present results suggest that elimination of the inhibitory fibrotic scar is important for neural regeneration.

  11. Acetyl-l-carnitine protects dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease in the rat.

    PubMed

    Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Bashiri, Keyhan; Kiasalari, Zahra; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Sedaghat, Reza; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms. In this experimental study, intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received ALC at doses of 100 or 200mg/kg/day for 1 week. ALC (200mg/kg) lowered apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry and reduced the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam test, reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA), increased catalase activity and glutathione (GSH) level, prevented reduction of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and striatal TH-immunoreactivity, and lowered striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its immunoreactivity as an indicator of astrogliosis, and nuclear factor NF-kappa B and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as reliable markers of neuroinflammation. Meanwhile, ALC at both doses mitigated nigral DNA fragmentation as a valuable marker of apoptosis. The results of this study clearly suggest the neuroprotective effect of ALC in 6-OHDA-induced model of PD through abrogation of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress and it may be put forward as an ancillary therapeutic candidate for controlling PD.

  12. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  13. PET studies of the striatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Piccini, P; Turjanski, N; Brooks, D J

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique which allows detection of biochemical and pharmacological dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and provides the opportunity to investigate living patients with PD. This paper reviews the contribution of PET studies to the understanding of neurochemical changes underlying Parkinson's disease.

  14. Regulatory T cells attenuate Th17 cell-mediated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Stone, David K.; Hutter, Jessica A.L.; Benner, Eric J.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrated alpha synuclein (N-α-syn) immunization elicits adaptive immune responses to novel antigenic epitopes that exacerbate neuroinflammation and nigrostriatal degeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that such neuroimmune degenerative activities, in significant measure, are Th17 cell-mediated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell (Treg) dysfunction seen amongst populations of N-α-syn induced T cells. In contrast, purified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-induced and natural Treg reversed N-α-syn T cell nigrostriatal degeneration. Combinations of adoptively transferred N-α-syn and VIP immunocytes or natural Treg administered to MPTP mice attenuated microglial inflammatory responses and led to robust nigrostriatal protection. Taken together, these results demonstrate a putative mechanism for Treg control of N-α-syn-induced neurodestructive immunity and as such provide a sound rationale for future PD immunization strategies. PMID:20118279

  15. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  16. GDNF-based therapies, GDNF-producing interneurons, and trophic support of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Implications for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Pascual, Alberto; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a well-established trophic agent for dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. GDNF is necessary for maintenance of neuronal morphological and neurochemical phenotype and protects DA neurons from toxic damage. Numerous studies on animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported beneficial effects of GDNF on nigrostriatal DA neuron survival. However, translation of these observations to the clinical setting has been hampered so far by side effects associated with the chronic continuous intra-striatal infusion of recombinant GDNF. In addition, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported any clinically relevant effect of GDNF on PD patients. In the past few years, experiments with conditional Gdnf knockout mice have suggested that GDNF is necessary for maintenance of DA neurons in adulthood. In parallel, new methodologies for exogenous GDNF delivery have been developed. Recently, it has been shown that a small population of scattered, electrically interconnected, parvalbumin positive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons is responsible for most of the GDNF produced in the rodent striatum. In addition, cholinergic striatal interneurons appear to be also involved in the modulation of striatal GDNF. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on brain GDNF delivery, homeostasis, and its effects on nigrostriatal DA neurons. Special attention is paid to the therapeutic potential of endogenous GDNF stimulation in PD. PMID:25762899

  17. The brain dopaminergic system. Pharmacological, behavioural and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Glenthøj, B Y

    1995-02-01

    The kindling phenomenon is a good example of the effect of multiplicity on response increment processes in the nervous system. The electrical potentiation resembles pharmacological sensitization. An intermittent regimen is essential for a progressive augmentation of the behavioural response in both conditions. Nigro-striatal dopaminergic sensitization by on and off anti-dopaminergic drugs has been suggested as a model for development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and sensitization of the meso-limbic dopaminergic system either by repeated stimulation with agonists or by environmental stressors has been proposed to model psychotic development in schizophrenia. The present thesis addresses the implications of intermittent influences on the brain dopaminergic systems for the development of pathological behaviours. For this purpose new rat models have been developed both for studying the effects of the treatment schedule of neuroleptics on the development of oral hyperactivity and for studying the effects of intermittent electrical stimulations of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) housing the meso-limbic dopamine (DA) cells. A long-lasting/permanent kindling-like sensitization to the dyskinetic inducing side-effects of classical neuroleptic drugs following intermittent opposed to continuous treatment has been demonstrated. This sensitization is proposed to represent an animal model for TD. The significance of receptor profiles, the effects of pharmacological interventions and the possible relation to the GABAergic and cholinergic systems are discussed. Intermittent electrical activation of the cells in the VTA resulted in a syndrome characterized by a hypersensitive response to electrical or pharmacological dopaminergic provocation combined with abnormal social interactions. This new animal model may have implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Hypotheses are proposed for the meaning of dopaminergic sensitization both in the development of

  18. Exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 damages the nigrostriatal dopamine system: role of dopamine handling in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Joshua M; Suragh, Tiffany A; Wilson, W Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R; Stout, Kristen A; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z; Walker, Douglas I; Pennell, Kurt D; Richardson, Jason R; Miller, Gary W; Caudle, W Michael

    2013-03-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders.

  19. Clinically Relevant Effects of Convection-Enhanced Delivery of AAV2-GDNF on the Dopaminergic Nigrostriatal Pathway in Aged Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Louisa C.; Eberling, Jamie; Pivirotto, Philip; Hadaczek, Piotr; Federoff, Howard J.; Forsayeth, John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Growth factor therapy for Parkinson's disease offers the prospect of restoration of dopaminergic innervation and/or prevention of neurodegeneration. Safety and efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV2) encoding human glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was investigated in aged nonhuman primates. Positron emission tomography with 6-[18F]-fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT-PET) in putamen was assessed 3 months before and after AAV2 infusion. In the right putamen, monkeys received either phosphate-buffered saline or low-dose (LD) or high-dose (HD) AAV2-GDNF. Monkeys that had received putaminal phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) infusions additionally received either PBS or HD AAV2-GDNF in the right substantia nigra (SN). The convection-enhanced delivery method used for infusion of AAV2-GDNF vector resulted in robust volume of GDNF distribution within the putamen. AAV2-GDNF increased FMT-PET uptake in the ipsilateral putamen as well as enhancing locomotor activity. Within the putamen and caudate, the HD gene transfer mediated intense GDNF fiber and extracellular immunoreactivity (IR). Retrograde and anterograde transport of GDNF to other brain regions was observed. AAV2-GDNF did not significantly affect dopamine in the ipsilateral putamen or caudate, but increased dopamine turnover in HD groups. HD putamen treatment increased the density of dopaminergic terminals in these regions. HD treatments, irrespective of the site of infusion, increased the number of nonpigmented TH-IR neurons in the SN. AAV2-GDNF gene transfer does not appear to elicit adverse effects, delivers therapeutic levels of GDNF within target brain areas, and enhances utilization of striatal dopamine and dopaminergic nigrostriatal innervation. PMID:19203243

  20. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Pabla; Mena, Natalia P; Carrasco, Carlos M; Muñoz, Yorka; Pérez-Henríquez, Patricio; Morales, Rodrigo A; Cassels, Bruce K; Méndez-Gálvez, Carolina; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; González-Billault, Christian; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2'-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death.

  1. Iron Chelators and Antioxidants Regenerate Neuritic Tree and Nigrostriatal Fibers of MPP+/MPTP-Lesioned Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Pabla; Mena, Natalia P.; Carrasco, Carlos M.; Muñoz, Yorka; Pérez-Henríquez, Patricio; Morales, Rodrigo A.; Cassels, Bruce K.; Méndez-Gálvez, Carolina; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; González-Billault, Christian; Núñez, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often preceded by axodendritic tree retraction and loss of neuronal functionality. The presence of non-functional but live neurons opens therapeutic possibilities to recover functionality before clinical symptoms develop. Considering that iron accumulation and oxidative damage are conditions commonly found in PD, we tested the possible neuritogenic effects of iron chelators and antioxidant agents. We used three commercial chelators: DFO, deferiprone and 2.2’-dypyridyl, and three 8-hydroxyquinoline-based iron chelators: M30, 7MH and 7DH, and we evaluated their effects in vitro using a mesencephalic cell culture treated with the Parkinsonian toxin MPP+ and in vivo using the MPTP mouse model. All chelators tested promoted the emergence of new tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive processes, increased axodendritic tree length and protected cells against lipoperoxidation. Chelator treatment resulted in the generation of processes containing the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dymetylthiourea also enhanced axodendritic tree recovery in vitro, an indication that reducing oxidative tone fosters neuritogenesis in MPP+-damaged neurons. Oral administration to mice of the M30 chelator for 14 days after MPTP treatment resulted in increased TH- and GIRK2-positive nigra cells and nigrostriatal fibers. Our results support a role for oral iron chelators as good candidates for the early treatment of PD, at stages of the disease where there is axodendritic tree retraction without neuronal death. PMID:26658949

  2. Neurochemical studies of narcosis: a comparison between the effects of nitrous oxide and hyperbaric nitrogen on the dopaminergic nigro-striatal pathway.

    PubMed

    Turle, N; Saget, A; Zouani, B; Risso, J J

    1998-07-01

    Inert gas narcosis is a neurological syndrome inducing several psychomotor disorders. Nitrogen narcosis represents the major cause of performances decrease concerning divers, in the depth range of 30 to 90 meters (0.3 to 0.9 MegaPascal). As narcosis affects motor functions, we chose to study the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway owing to its involvement in psychomotor disorders. The aim of this study is to compare, in the Sprague-Dawley rats striatium, changes in extracellular concentrations of Dopamine and its metabolites: Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (DOPAC) and Homovanillic Acid (HVA) under a normobaric narcosis (20; 40, and 60% of Nitrous Oxide (N2O)) on one hand, and under 0.9 MegaPascal of Nitrox (Nitrogen Oxygen normoxic mixture) on the other hand. In fact, if these two conditions are similar, normobaric narcosis would allow us to explain nitrogen narcosis mechanisms without any pressure effect. The first emergence of Dopamine and metabolites variations occurs around 40% of N2O. Dopamine decreases by 45% and is accompanied by a DOPAC diminution of 7% while HVA concentrations remain constant. Under 60% N2O, these decrease have a greater amplitude. The Dopamine variations obtained under 0.9 Mpa of Nitrox are closed to alterations induced by 60% of N2O (DA decreases by 70%).

  3. Systemic administration of a proteasome inhibitor does not cause nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Brian N; Neely, M Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2007-09-07

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic slice cultures, indicating that impairment of proteasome function in vitro is toxic. Moreover, systemic administration of PSI transiently decreased brain proteasome activity. Systemic treatment of rats with PSI did not, however, result in any biochemical or anatomical evidence of lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, nor were any changes in locomotor activity observed. These data suggest that systemic administration of proteasome inhibitors to normal adult rats does not reliably cause an animal model of parkinsonism.

  4. Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Damages the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System: Role of Dopamine Handling in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, Joshua M.; Suragh, Tiffany A.; Wilson, W. Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R.; Stout, Kristen A.; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z.; Walker, Douglas I.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Richardson, Jason R.; Miller, Gary W.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders. PMID:23287494

  5. Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Alterations in Nigrostriatal Neurons Are Involved in Environmental Enrichment Motor Protection in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hilario, Willyan Franco; Herlinger, Alice Laschuk; Areal, Lorena Bianchine; de Moraes, Lívia Silveira; Ferreira, Tamara Andrea Alarcon; Andrade, Tassiane Emanuelle Servane; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita Gomes Wanderley

    2016-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, being characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta. PD pharmacotherapy has been based on dopamine replacement in the striatum with the dopaminergic precursor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and/or with dopaminergic agonists, alongside anticholinergic drugs in order to mitigate the motor abnormalities. However, these practices neither prevent nor stop the progression of the disease. Environmental enrichment (EE) has effectively prevented several neurodegenerative processes, mainly in preclinical trials. Several studies have demonstrated that EE induces biological changes, bearing on cognitive enhancement, neuroprotection, and on the attenuation of the effects of stress, anxiety, and depression. Herein, we investigated whether EE could prevent the motor, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in a murine model of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridine (MPTP). Our results show that EE does not prevent the dopaminergic striatal depletion induced by MPTP, despite having averted the MPTP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, it was able to slow down and avoid, respectively, the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) depletion. Analysis of dopaminergic mRNA alterations in the midbrain showed that D1R expression was increased by MPTP, while the normal expression level of this receptor was restored by EE. As for the cholinergic system, MPTP led to a decrease in the ChAT gene expression while increasing the expression of both AChE and M1R. EE attenuated and prevented-respectively-ChAT and M1R gene expression alterations triggered by MPTP in the midbrain. Overall, our data brings new evidence supporting the neuroprotective potential of EE in PD, focusing on the interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems.

  6. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitotoxicity and Environment, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is linked to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease . Similarly, the psycho stimulant drug...throughout the U.S. However, the neurochemical underpinnings that mediate methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease have escaped definition...We propose that several variables common to methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease , each of which may be important but alone are insufficient

  7. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitotoxicity and Environment, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is linked to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease . Similarly, the psychostimulant drug...throughout the U.S. However, the neurochemical underpinnings that mediate methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease have escaped definition. We...propose that several variables common to methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease , each of which may be important but alone are insufficient

  8. Dopaminergic System Dysfunction in Recreational Dexamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  9. Dopaminergic system in birdsong learning and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Kostál, Lubor

    2010-03-01

    Dopamine function in birdsong has been studied extensively in recent years. Several song and auditory nuclei are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic fibers and contain neurons with various dopamine receptors. During sexually motivated singing, activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in the striatal Area X, involved in song learning and maintenance, are higher. In this review we provide an overview of the dopaminergic system and neurotransmission in songbirds and the outline of possible involvement of dopamine in control of song learning, production, and maintenance. Based on both behavioral and computational biology data, we describe several models of song learning and the proposed role of dopamine in them. Special attention is given to possible role of dopamine in incentive salience (wanting) and reward prediction error signaling during song learning and maintenance, as well as the role of dopamine-mediated synaptic plasticity in reward processing. Finally, the role of dopamine in determination of personality traits in relation to birdsong is discussed.

  10. Reformation of the nigrostriatal pathway by fetal dopaminergic micrografts into the substantia nigra is critically dependent on the age of the host.

    PubMed

    Bentlage, C; Nikkhah, G; Cunningham, M G; Björklund, A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth of axons along the nigrostriatal pathway from fetal dopamine cells, transplanted into the substantia nigra of young postnatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, is dependent on the age of the host brain. Neonatal rats were lesioned bilaterally by intraventricular injection of 6-OHDA at postnatal day 1 (P1) and received grafts of E14 ventral mesencephalon at day 3 (group P3), day 10 (group P10), or day 20 (group P20) into the right substantia nigra. One lesioned group was left untransplanted. Six months after surgery the animals were subjected to analysis of drug-induced rotation following injection of amphetamine, apomorphine, a D1 agonist (SKF38393), or a D2 agonist (Quinpirole). Animals transplanted intranigrally at day 3 and day 10 showed a strong amphetamine-induced rotational bias toward the side contralateral to the transplant. Animals transplanted into substantia nigra at P20, like the lesioned control animals, showed no rotational bias. Apomorphine and selective D1 and D2 agonists induced ipsilateral turning behavior in the P3 and P10 group, but not in the P20 or the lesion control groups. Immunofluorescence histochemistry in combination with retrograde axonal tracing, using FluoroGold injection into the ipsilateral caudate-putamen showed colocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase and FluoroGold in large numbers of transplanted neurons in the animals transplanted at postnatal day 3 and postnatal day 10, which was not observed in the group P20. The lesion control group showed a 90% complete lesion of the TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra while largely sparing the neurons in the ventral tegmental area. The results indicate that intranigral grafts can be placed accurately and survive well within the substantia nigra region at various time points during postnatal development. Furthermore, embryonic dopamine neurons have the ability to extend axons along the nigrostriatal pathway and reconnect with the dopamine

  11. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Parkinson’s disease . Similarly, the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine also produces relatively selective damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and is a widespread problem and drug of abuse throughout the U.S. However, the neurochemical underpinnings that mediate methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease are unknown. Several variables common to methamphetamine toxicity and Parkinson’s disease , each of which may be important but alone are insufficient, may account for the neurodegeneration of the

  12. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Sabina; Peters, Owen; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Doig, Natalie; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Threlfell, Sarah; Kooner, Gurdeep; Deacon, Robert M.; Bannerman, David M.; Bolam, J. Paul; Chandra, Sreeganga S.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    The synucleins (α, β and γ) are highly homologous proteins thought to play a role in regulating neurotransmission and are found abundantly in presynaptic terminals. To overcome functional overlap between synuclein proteins and to understand their role in presynaptic signalling from mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we produced mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. The effect on the mesostriatal system was assessed in adult (4-14 month old) animals using a combination of behavioural, biochemical, histological and electrochemical techniques. Adult triple synuclein null (TKO) mice displayed no overt phenotype, and no change in the number of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. TKO mice were hyperactive in novel environments and exhibited elevated evoked release of dopamine in the striatum detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Elevated dopamine release was specific to the dorsal not ventral striatum and was accompanied by a decrease of dopamine tissue content. We confirmed a normal synaptic ultrastructure and a normal abundance of SNARE protein complexes in the dorsal striatum. Treatment of TKO animals with drugs affecting dopamine metabolism revealed normal rate of synthesis, enhanced turnover and reduced presynaptic striatal dopamine stores. Our data uniquely reveal the importance of the synuclein proteins in regulating neurotransmitter release from specific populations of midbrain dopamine neurons through mechanisms which differ from those reported in other neurons. The finding that the complete loss of synucleins leads to changes in dopamine handling by presynaptic terminals specifically in those regions preferentially vulnerable in Parkinson’s disease (PD) may ultimately inform on the selectivity of the disease process. PMID:21593311

  13. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  14. A new dopaminergic nigro-olfactory projection.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Djufri, Miriam; Windolph, Andrea; Keber, Ursula; Borta, Andreas; Ries, Vincent; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Scheller, Dieter; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Whereas onset of motor impairments reflects a rather advanced stage of the disorder, hyposmia often marks the beginning of the disease. Little is known about the role of the nigro-striatal system in olfaction under physiological conditions and the anatomical basis of hyposmia in PD. Yet, the early occurrence of olfactory dysfunction implies that pathogens such as environmental toxins could incite the disease via the olfactory system. In the present study, we demonstrate a dopaminergic innervation from neurons in the substantia nigra to the olfactory bulb by axonal tracing studies. Injection of two dopaminergic neurotoxins-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 6-hydroxydopamine-into the olfactory bulb induced a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In turn, ablation of the nigral projection led to impaired olfactory perception. Hyposmia following dopaminergic deafferentation was reversed by treatment with the D1/D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist rotigotine. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a direct dopaminergic projection into the olfactory bulb and identify its origin in the substantia nigra in rats. These observations may provide a neuroanatomical basis for invasion of environmental toxins into the basal ganglia and for hyposmia as frequent symptom in PD.

  15. Allopregnanolone and neurogenesis in the nigrostriatal tract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun Ming

    2014-01-01

    Reinstalling the neurobiological circuits to effectively change the debilitating course of neurodegenerative diseases is of utmost importance. This reinstallation requires generation of new cells which are able to differentiate into specific types of neurons and modification of the local environment suitable for integration of these new neurons into the neuronal circuits. Allopregnanolone (APα) seems to be involved in both of these processes, and therefore, is a potential neurotrophic agent. Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is one of the main pathological features of Parkinson’s and also in, at least, a subset of Alzheimer’s patients. Therefore, reinstallation of the dopamine neurons in nigrostriatal tract is of unique importance for these neurodegenerative diseases. However, for the neurogenic status and the roles of allopregnanolone in the nigrostriatal tract, the evidence is accumulating and debating. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the neurogenic status in the nigrostriatal tract. Furthermore, special attention is placed on evidence suggesting that reductions in allopregnenalone levels are one of the major pathological features in PD and AD. This evidence has also been confirmed in brains of mice that were lesioned with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or those bearing neurodegenerative mutations. Lastly, we highlight studies showing that allopregnanalone can augment the number of total cells and dopaminergic neurons via peripheral exogenous administration. PMID:25161608

  16. Long-term effects of irradiation with iron-56 particles on the nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Rice, Onarae V; Grande, Alicia V; Dehktyar, Natasha; Bruneus, Magalie; Robinson, John K; Gatley, Samuel J

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to heavy ions during a Mars mission might damage the brain, thus compromising mission success and the quality of life of returning astronauts. Several workers have suggested that the dopamine system is particularly sensitive to heavy ion radiation, but direct evidence for this notion is lacking. We examined measures of brain dopamine viability at times up to 15 months after acute exposure of rats to (56)Fe (1.2-2.4 Gy). No effects were seen in brain sections stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, the classical marker for dopamine cells and nerve terminals. Locomotion stimulated by cocaine, which directly activates the dopamine system, was reduced at 6 months but not at 12 months. Furthermore, in a visually cued lever-pressing test, reaction times, which are prolonged by dopamine system damage, were identical in irradiated and control animals. However, learning times were increased by irradiation. Our data suggest that the midbrain dopamine system is not especially sensitive to damage by (56)Fe particles at doses much higher than would be associated with travel to and from Mars.

  17. Full Anatomical Recovery of the Dopaminergic System after a Complete Spinal Cord Injury in Lampreys

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Gómez-Fernández, Sonia; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2015-01-01

    Following a spinal injury, lampreys at first are paralyzed below the level of transection. However, they recover locomotion after several weeks, and this is accompanied by the regeneration of descending axons from the brain and the production of new neurons in the spinal cord. Here, we aimed to analyse the changes in the dopaminergic system of the sea lamprey after a complete spinal transection by studying the changes in dopaminergic cell numbers and dopaminergic innervation in the spinal cord. Changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were also studied. We report the full anatomical regeneration of the dopaminergic system after an initial decrease in the number of dopaminergic cells and fibres. Numbers of dopaminergic cells were recovered rostrally and caudally to the site of injury. Quantification of dopaminergic profiles revealed the full recovery of the dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord rostral and caudal to the site of injury. Interestingly, no changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were observed at time points in which a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord was observed. Our observations reveal that in lampreys a spinal cord injury is followed by the full anatomical recovery of the dopaminergic system. PMID:25861481

  18. Reelin and CXCL12 regulate distinct migratory behaviors during the development of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Bodea, Gabriela Oana; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Abe, Philipp; Andersson, Aycan Senturk; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Stumm, Ralf; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Blaess, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    The proper functioning of the dopaminergic system requires the coordinated formation of projections extending from dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and retrorubral field to a wide array of forebrain targets including the striatum, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. The mechanisms controlling the assembly of these distinct dopaminergic cell clusters are not well understood. Here, we have investigated in detail the migratory behavior of dopaminergic neurons giving rise to either the SN or the medial VTA using genetic inducible fate mapping, ultramicroscopy, time-lapse imaging, slice culture and analysis of mouse mutants. We demonstrate that neurons destined for the SN migrate first radially and then tangentially, whereas neurons destined for the medial VTA undergo primarily radial migration. We show that tangentially migrating dopaminergic neurons express the components of the reelin signaling pathway, whereas dopaminergic neurons in their initial, radial migration phase express CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the receptor for the chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12). Perturbation of reelin signaling interferes with the speed and orientation of tangentially, but not radially, migrating dopaminergic neurons and results in severe defects in the formation of the SN. By contrast, CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling modulates the initial migration of dopaminergic neurons. With this study, we provide the first molecular and functional characterization of the distinct migratory pathways taken by dopaminergic neurons destined for SN and VTA, and uncover mechanisms that regulate different migratory behaviors of dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Differential expression of Fos and Zif268 in the nigrostriatal system after methamphetamine administration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasushi; Kawai, Keiichi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Ebihara, Kosuke; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Kei; Matsuo, Hisae; Nishimori, Toshikazu

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the topological specificity of methamphetamine-induced activation of the immediate-early gene proteins, Fos and Zif268, in the nigrostriatal system in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease with or without intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon. Methamphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) dominantly in the striatum and the globus pallidus (GP) on the intact side as well as in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) on the lesioned side in the 6-OHDA rats. Lower levels of methamphetamine-induced FLI in the striatum and GP on the lesioned side were restored by intrastriatal grafts which could completely suppress the methamphetamine-induced rotation. In the striatum, a similar tendency could be observed between Fos and Zif268 immunoreactivity following methamphetamine. However, sparse immunoreactivity of Zif268 could be detected in the GP and SNr on both sides in the 6-OHDA rats. Intrastriatal grafts had little influence on Zif268 expression in these two regions. The differential expression of Fos and Zif268 was observed among the three regions of the nigrostriatal system following methamphetamine in the 6-OHDA rats. This may suggest that Fos and Zif268 therefore possess gene-specific and region-specific functions in the basal ganglia nuclei.

  20. Renal dopaminergic system: Pathophysiological implications and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Rosón, María Inés; Rodríguez Fermepin, Martín; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and redox balance in the kidney are regulated by an intricate interaction between local and systemic anti-natriuretic and natriuretic systems. Intrarenal dopamine plays a central role on this interactive network. By activating specific receptors, dopamine promotes sodium excretion and stimulates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal inflammation, can be associated with impaired action of renal dopamine including alteration in biosynthesis, dopamine receptor expression and signal transduction. Given its properties on the regulation of renal blood flow and sodium excretion, exogenous dopamine has been postulated as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent renal failure in critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to update and discuss on the most recent findings about renal dopaminergic system and its role in several diseases involving the kidneys and the potential use of dopamine as a nephroprotective agent. PMID:25949933

  1. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  2. Regulation of human GDNF gene expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons using a new doxycycline-regulated NTS-polyplex nanoparticle system.

    PubMed

    Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J; Bannon, Michael J; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos E; Escobedo-Sanchez, Lourdes; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Reyes-Corona, David; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Escamilla-Rivera, Vicente; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Eugenia Gutierrez-Castillo, M; Padilla-Viveros, America; Martinez-Fong, Daniel

    2017-02-17

    The human glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) gene transfer by neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanoparticles functionally restores the dopamine nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinson's disease models. However, high levels of sustained expression of GDNF eventually can cause harmful effects. Herein, we report an improved NTS-polyplex nanoparticle system that enables regulation of hGDNF expression within dopaminergic neurons. We constructed NTS-polyplex nanoparticles containing a single bifunctional plasmid that codes for the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator advanced (rtTA-Adv) under the control of NBRE3x promoter, and for hGDNF under the control of tetracycline-response element (TRE). Another bifunctional plasmid contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Transient transfection experiments in N1E-115-Nurr1 cells showed that doxycycline (100 ng/mL) activates hGDNF and GFP expression. Doxycycline (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in rats activated hGDNF expression only in transfected dopaminergic neurons, whereas doxycycline withdrawal silenced transgene expression. Our results offer a specific doxycycline-regulated system suitable for nanomedicine-based treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Evolution of the dopaminergic system and its relationships with the psychopathology of pleasure.

    PubMed

    Pani, L; Gessa, G L

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fundamental steps in the evolution of the dopaminergic system. A rudimentary dopaminergic system is present in primitive creatures, already able to select information processing, modulate "emotional" behaviours and react to perturbations in environmental conditions. Pharmacological manipulations of the dopaminergic transmission are able to modify basic behaviours present in all animals from fishes to lizards to mammals. The ability to put the organism in motion and the hedonic capacity of giving pleasure, would justify the conservation through evolution of such a neuronal system. The fact however that the dopaminergic system has remained identical for the last several centuries, while many external conditions which interfere with its physiology have dramatically changed, may contribute to explain the transition from the original vital advantages of the dopaminergic system to its crucial role in the psychopathology of pleasure.

  4. Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Suryanarayana, Shreyas M; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2014-12-01

    The dopaminergic system influences motor behavior, signals reward and novelty, and is an essential component of the basal ganglia in all vertebrates including the lamprey, one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates. The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals. The nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, a homologue of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) is present in lamprey, but only scarce data exist about its connectivity. Likewise, the D2 receptor is expressed in the striatum, but little is known about its localization in other brain areas. We used in situ hybridization and tracer injections, both in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, to characterize the SNc/VTA efferent and afferent connectivity, and to relate its projection pattern with D2 receptor expression in particular. We show that most features of the dopaminergic system are highly conserved. As in mammals, the direct pallial (cortex in mammals) input and the basal ganglia connectivity with the SNc/VTA are present as part of the evaluation system, as well as input from the tectum as the evolutionary basis for salience/novelty detection. Moreover, the SNc/VTA receives sensory information from the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, octavolateral area, and dorsal column nucleus, and it innervates, apart from the nigrostriatal pathway, several motor-related areas. This suggests that the dopaminergic system also contributes to the control of different motor centers at the brainstem level.

  5. The Amygdalo-Nigrostriatal Network Is Critical for an Optimal Temporal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Es-seddiqi, Mouna; El Massioui, Nicole; Samson, Nathalie; Brown, Bruce L.; Doyère, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The amygdalo-nigrostriatal (ANS) network plays an essential role in enhanced attention to significant events. Interval timing requires attention to temporal cues. We assessed rats having a disconnected ANS network, due to contralateral lesions of the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CEm) and dopaminergic afferents to the lateral striatum,…

  6. Gestational restraint stress and the developing dopaminergic system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Baier, Carlos J; Katunar, María R; Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, María Eugenia; Antonelli, Marta C

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal stress exerts a strong impact on fetal brain development in rats impairing adaptation to stressful conditions, subsequent vulnerability to anxiety, altered sexual function, and enhanced propensity to self-administer drugs. Most of these alterations have been attributed to changes in the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). In humans; dysfunction of dopaminergic system is associated with development of several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson disease, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. Evidences provided by animal research, as well as retrospective studies in humans, pointed out that exposure to adverse events in early life can alter adult behaviors and neurochemical indicators of midbrain DA activity, suggesting that the development of the DA system is sensitive to disruption by exposure to early stressors. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of published studies and our own study related to the effect of prenatal insults on the development of DA metabolism and biology, focusing mainly in articles involving prenatal-restraint stress protocols in rats. We will also attempt to make a correlation between theses alterations and DA-related pathological processes in humans.

  7. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor attenuates behavioural deficits and regulates nigrostriatal dopaminergic and peptidergic markers in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned adult rats: comparison of intraventricular and intranigral delivery.

    PubMed

    Lapchak, P A; Miller, P J; Collins, F; Jiao, S

    1997-05-01

    -enkephalin or substance P levels nor striatal dopamine levels. In lesioned rats with intraventricular injections of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine hydroxylase ispilateral to the lesion was increased in the substantia nigra, but not in the striatum. Intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor did not reverse lesion-induced increases in nigral dynorphin A or met-enkephalin levels nor did glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor affect substance P levels in the striatum. These results suggest that in an animal model of Parkinson's disease, the neurotrophic factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor reverses behavioural consequences of 6-hydroxydopamine administration, an effect that may involve both dopaminergic and peptidergic neurotransmission.

  8. The Dopaminergic System in the Aging Brain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    White, Katherine E.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Hirth, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease are characterized by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analyzed the DA system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. DA neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH > mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that DA neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, DA neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity, and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH > Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct DA behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, DA neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH > mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labeling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of DA neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. PMID:21165178

  9. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2011-11-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of aggression in many species, especially via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways. To investigate heritable differences in this regulation, 2 high aggressive strains [Dekalb XL (DXL) and low group egg productivity and survivability (LGPS)] and one low aggressive strain (low group egg productivity and survivability; HGPS) of laying hens were used in the study. The HGPS and LGPS lines were diversely selected using group selection for high and low group production and survivability. The DXL line is a commercial line selected through individual selection based on egg production. Heritable differences in aggressive propensity between the strains have been previously assessed. The birds were pair housed within the same strain and labeled as dominant or subordinate based on behavioral observation. For both experiments 1 and 2, behavioral analysis was performed on all 3 strains whereas neurotransmitter analysis was performed only on the most aggressive (DXL) and least aggressive (HGPS) strains. In experiment 1, the subordinate birds were treated with D1 agonist, D2 agonist, or saline controls (n = 12). In experiment 2, the dominant birds from a separate flock were treated with D1 antagonist, D2 antagonist, or saline controls (n = 12). Treatment-associated changes in aggressive behaviors and central neurotransmitters were measured. Aggression was increased in all strains in response to D1 agonism but increased only in the less aggressive HGPS birds with D2 agonism. Aggression was decreased and hypothalamic serotonin and epinephrine were increased in birds from all strains treated with D2 receptor antagonist. The D1 receptor antagonism elicited different behavioral and neurotransmitter responses based on the aggressive phenotype of the genetic strains. Aggressive strains DXL and LGPS but not the HGPS strain decreased aggressiveness following antagonism of the D1 receptor. The data show evidence for distinct

  10. Enhancing effect of taurine in the rat caudate spindle. II. Effect of bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigro-striatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Kitsukawa, S; Okuyama, S; Aihara, H

    1988-10-01

    Bilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle of rats resulted in destruction of dopamine (DA) nerve terminals in the striatum. DA contents decreased to 16.8, 15.0 and 13.7% of control values on 3, 5 and 7 days after the lesions, respectively. The time course of the effect of 6-OHDA lesions on apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg, IV)-induced stereotypy was investigated as the index of the development of supersensitivity. Stereotypy was unchanged on 3 days, but was enhanced 5 and 7 days after 6-OHDA lesions. Therefore, the sensitivity of postsynaptic DA receptors for apomorphine did not change 3 days after 6-OHDA lesions, although the striatal DA was depleted. The effects of bilateral injections of taurine into the striatum on the rat caudate spindle were determined 3 days after 6-OHDA lesions. Taurine, at a dose of 30 micrograms, enhanced the spindle in sham-operated rats, but this enhancement was not seen after 6-OHDA lesions. Intravenous administration of apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg) to lesioned rats suppressed the spindle, and this effect was prevented by a lower dose (3 micrograms) of taurine. These results provide further evidence that taurine enhances the spindle, possibly by decreasing the activity of the nigro-striatal DA system at the pre- and postsynaptic sites.

  11. Differential activation of dopaminergic systems in rat brain basal ganglia by morphine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Iwase, Y; Saeki, T; Iwata, N; Murata, A; Masukawa, D; Suzuki, T

    2016-05-13

    Typical abused drug-induced behavioral changes are ordinarily mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and even the phenotypes of behavior are different from each other. However, the mechanisms that underlie the behavioral changes induced by these abused drugs have not yet been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms that underlie how abused drugs induce distinct behavioral changes using neurochemical as well as behavioral techniques in rats. Methamphetamine (2mg/kg) more potently increased dopamine release from the striatum more than that from the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, the administration of morphine (10mg/kg) produced a significant increase in the release of dopamine from the nucleus accumbens, but not the striatum, which is accompanied by a decrease in the release of GABA in the ventral tegmental area. These findings indicate that morphine and methamphetamine differentially regulate dopaminergic systems to produce behavioral changes, even though both drugs have abuse potential through activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system.

  12. Medications acting on the dopaminergic system in the treatment of alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Swift, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An extensive literature supports the role of dopamine in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Yet the organization of brain dopamine is complex, with multiple dopamine receptor subtypes and distinct effects on reinforcement, craving, motivation and behavior. Several modestly effective pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, including naltrexone, baclofen and ondansetron, affect dopaminergic systems indirectly. Direct dopamine antagonists, including tiapride, quetiapine, ondansetron and clozapine have been shown to be somewhat effective in reducing alcohol consumption in controlled clinical trials. The partial dopamine agonist, aripiprazole has shown mixed efficacy. Dopaminergic medications can have significant side effects. A better understanding of how dopamine affects the various aspects of addictive behavior may lead to more effective medications.

  13. Malfunctioning DNA damage response (DDR) leads to the degeneration of nigro-striatal pathway in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Michal; Galron, Ronit; Frenkel, Dan; Mandelbaum, Gil; Shiloh, Yosef; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Barzilai, Ari

    2012-03-01

    Pronounced neuropathology is a feature of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), which are both genomic instability syndromes. The Nbs1 protein, which is defective in NBS, is a component of the Mre11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex. This complex plays a major role in the early phase of the cellular response to double strand breaks (DSBs) in the DNA. Among others, MRN is required for timely activation of the protein kinase ATM (A-T mutated), which is disrupted in patients with A-T. Earlier reports show that Atm-deficient mice exhibit severe degeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic nigro-striatal neurons and their terminals in the striatum. This cell loss is accompanied by a large reduction in immunoreactivity for the dopamine transporter protein (DAT) in the striatum. To test whether Nbs1 inactivation also affects the integrity of the nigro-striatal pathway, we examined this pathway in a murine model with conditional inactivation of the Nbs1 gene in central nervous system (Nbs1-CNS-Δ). We report that this model has a reduction in TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra. This phenomenon was seen at very early age, while Atm-/- mice showed a progressive age-dependent reduction. Furthermore, we observed an age-dependent increase in the level of TH in the striatum of Atm-/- and Nbs1-CNS-Δ mice. In addition to the altered expression of TH, we also found a reduction of DAT in the striatum of both Atm-/- and Nbs1-CNS-Δ mice at 60 days of age. Finally, microglial recruitment and alterations in the levels of various neurotrophic factors were also observed. These results indicate that malfunctioning DNA damage response severely affects the integrity of the nigro-striatal pathway and suggest a new neurodegenerative pathway in Parkinsonian syndromes.

  14. MODELING NIGROSTRIATAL DEGENERATION IN ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES, A NEW EX VIVO MODEL OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    DAVIAUD, N.; GARBAYO, E.; LAUTRAM, N.; FRANCONI, F.; LEMAIRE, L.; PEREZ-PINZON, M.; MONTERO-MENEI, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder afflicting 2% of the population older than 65 years worldwide. Recently, brain organotypic slices have been used to model neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. They conserve brain three-dimensional architecture, synaptic connectivity and its microenvironment. This model has allowed researchers a simple and rapid method to observe cellular interactions and mechanisms. In the present study, we developed an organotypic PD model from rat brains that includes all the areas involved in the nigrostriatal pathway in a single slice preparation, without using neurotoxins to induce the dopaminergic lesion. The mechanical transection of the nigrostriatal pathway obtained during slice preparation induced PD-like histopathology. Progressive nigrostriatal degeneration was monitored combining innovative approaches, such as diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-RMI) to follow fiber degeneration and mass spectrometry to quantify striatal dopamine content, together with bright-field and fluorescence microscopy imaging. A substantia nigra dopaminergic cell number decrease was observed by immunohistochemistry against rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) reaching 80% after 2 days in culture associated with a 30% decrease of striatal TH-positive fiber density, a 15% loss of striatal dopamine content quantified by mass spectrometry and a 70% reduction of nigrostriatal fiber fractional anisotropy quantified by DT-RMI. In addition, a significant decline of medium spiny neuron density was observed from days 7 to 16. These sagittal organotypic slices could be used to study the early stage of PD, namely dopaminergic degeneration, and the late stage of the pathology with dopaminergic and GABAergic neuron loss. This novel model might improve the understanding of PD and may represent a promising tool to refine the evaluation of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24161279

  15. The amygdalo-nigrostriatal network is critical for an optimal temporal performance

    PubMed Central

    Es-seddiqi, Mouna; El Massioui, Nicole; Samson, Nathalie; Brown, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    The amygdalo-nigrostriatal (ANS) network plays an essential role in enhanced attention to significant events. Interval timing requires attention to temporal cues. We assessed rats having a disconnected ANS network, due to contralateral lesions of the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CEm) and dopaminergic afferents to the lateral striatum, as compared to controls (sham and ipsilateral lesions of CEm and dopaminergic afferents to LS) in a temporal bisection task. ANS disconnection induced poorer temporal precision and increased response latencies to a short duration. The present results reveal a role of the ANS network in temporal processing. PMID:26884227

  16. [Morphological signs of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence and chronic alcoholic intoxication in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system].

    PubMed

    Droblenkov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system remains an unresolved problem and encounters difficulties. This situation is due not only to the marked vulnerability of the neurons of the dopaminergic system but also to the fact that its mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present work was to substantiate and develop diagnostic criteria for ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the neurons both in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and in other brain regions. The object of the study was the brain of healthy adult subjects who died from alcohol intoxication (in the period of ethanol resorption) and under conditions of alcohol abstinence (completion of the abstinence course). The purpose of the study was to elucidate factors responsible for the different degree of damage to the neurons of various identification groups (intact, hypochromic, picnomorphic, shadow) and macrogliocytes. The cells of all these types were counted at an area of 0.25 sq. mm within 4 squares each having a side of 250 mcm in length. The absolute and relative number of neurons in each group as well as the number of polyneuronal satellite cells per one intact neuron was determined. It was shown that alcohol intoxication is associated with acute swelling of and severe damage to brain neurons caused by the combination of such factors as toxic effect of ethanol, excessive production of catecholamines, and functional overstrain of dopaminergic neurons. The severity of acute alcohol damage to the neurons decreased with the distance from the mid-brain dopaminergic nuclei. Restoration of neurons during alcohol abstinence was due to compensatory activation of interactions between neurons and glial cells. It decreased in the sequence from the paranigral nucleus of the ventral portion of mesencephalic tegumentum to the medial portion of the

  17. Perturbation of transcription factor Nur77 expression mediated by myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) regulates dopaminergic neuron loss in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

    PubMed

    Mount, Matthew P; Zhang, Yi; Amini, Mandana; Callaghan, Steve; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Mao, Zixu; Slack, Ruth S; Anisman, Hymie; Park, David S

    2013-05-17

    We have earlier reported the critical nature of calpain-CDK5-MEF2 signaling in governing dopaminergic neuronal loss in vivo. CDK5 mediates phosphorylation of the neuronal survival factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) leading to its inactivation and loss. However, the downstream factors that mediate MEF2-regulated survival are unknown. Presently, we define Nur77 as one such critical downstream survival effector. Following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in vivo, Nur77 expression in the nigrostriatal region is dramatically reduced. This loss is attenuated by expression of MEF2. Importantly, MEF2 constitutively binds to the Nur77 promoter in neurons under basal conditions. This binding is lost following 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium treatment. Nur77 deficiency results in significant sensitization to dopaminergic loss following 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/MPTP treatment, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Nur77-deficient MPTP-treated mice displayed significantly reduced levels of dopamine and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the striatum as well as elevated post synaptic FosB activity, indicative of increased nigrostriatal damage when compared with WT MPTP-treated controls. Importantly, this sensitization in Nur77-deficient mice was rescued with ectopic Nur77 expression in the nigrostriatal system. These results indicate that the inactivation of Nur77, induced by loss of MEF2 activity, plays a critical role in nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo.

  18. HIV Subtypes B and C gp120 and Methamphetamine Interaction: Dopaminergic System Implicates Differential Neuronal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Atluri, Venkata S R; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Agudelo, Marisela; Perez, Suray; Yoo, Changwon; Raymond, Andrea D; Ding, Hong; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2015-06-09

    HIV subtypes or clades differentially induce HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and substance abuse is known to accelerate HIV disease progression. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 plays a major role in binding and budding in the central nervous system (CNS) and impacts dopaminergic functions. However, the mechanisms utilized by HIV-1 clades to exert differential effects and the methamphetamine (METH)-associated dopaminergic dysfunction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that clade B and C gp120 structural sequences, modeling based analysis, dopaminergic effect, and METH potentiate neuronal toxicity in astrocytes. We evaluated the effect of clade B and C gp120 and/or METH on the DRD-2, DAT, CaMKs and CREBP transcription. Both the structural sequence and modeling studies demonstrated that clade B gp120 in V1-V4, α -2 and N-glycosylated sites are distinct from clade C gp120. The distinct structure and sequence variation of clade B gp120 differentially impact DRD-2, DAT, CaMK II and CaMK IV mRNA, protein and intracellular expression compared to clade C gp120. However, CREB transcription is upregulated by both clade B and C gp120, and METH co-treatment potentiated these effects. In conclusion, distinct structural sequences of HIV-1 clade B and C gp120 differentially regulate the dopaminergic pathway and METH potentiates neurotoxicity.

  19. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Lins Pessoa, Hugo de

    2010-05-01

    Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  20. Progressive nigrostriatal terminal dysfunction and degeneration in the engrailed1 heterozygous mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Ulrika; Beauvais, Geneviève; Ghosh, Anamitra; Pulikkaparambil Sasidharan, Baby Chakrapani; Lundblad, Martin; Fuchs, Julia; Joshi, Rajiv L; Lipton, Jack W; Roholt, Andrew; Medicetty, Satish; Feinstein, Timothy N; Steiner, Jennifer A; Escobar Galvis, Martha L; Prochiantz, Alain; Brundin, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis requires relevant animal models that mimic the gradual and progressive development of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration that characterizes the disease. Polymorphisms in engrailed 1 (En1), a homeobox transcription factor that is crucial for both the development and survival of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, are associated with sporadic PD. This suggests that En1 mutant mice might be a promising candidate PD model. Indeed, a mouse that lacks one En1 allele exhibits decreased mitochondrial complex I activity and progressive midbrain dopamine neuron degeneration in adulthood, both features associated with PD. We aimed to further characterize the disease-like phenotype of these En1(+/-) mice with a focus on early neurodegenerative changes that can be utilized to score efficacy of future disease modifying studies. We observed early terminal defects in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in En1(+/-) mice. Several weeks before a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra could be detected, we found that striatal terminals expressing high levels of dopaminergic neuron markers TH, VMAT2, and DAT were dystrophic and swollen. Using transmission electron microscopy, we identified electron dense bodies consistent with abnormal autophagic vacuoles in these terminal swellings. In line with these findings, we detected an up-regulation of the mTOR pathway, concurrent with a downregulation of the autophagic marker LC3B, in ventral midbrain and nigral dopaminergic neurons of the En1(+/-) mice. This supports the notion that autophagic protein degradation is reduced in the absence of one En1 allele. We imaged the nigrostriatal pathway using the CLARITY technique and observed many fragmented axons in the medial forebrain bundle of the En1(+/-) mice, consistent with axonal maintenance failure. Using in vivo electrochemistry, we found that nigrostriatal terminals in the dorsal striatum were severely

  1. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Renal Dopaminergic System: A Positive Friendly Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabolism by the kidney is accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Renal dopamine plays a central role in this interactive network. The natriuretic hormones, such as the atrial natriuretic peptide, mediate some of their effects by affecting the renal dopaminergic system. Renal dopaminergic tonus can be modulated at different steps of dopamine metabolism (synthesis, uptake, release, catabolism, and receptor sensitization) which can be regulated by the atrial natriuretic peptide. At tubular level, dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide act together in a concerted manner to promote sodium excretion, especially through the overinhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In this way, different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome or hypertension, are associated with impaired action of renal dopamine and/or atrial natriuretic peptide, or as a result of impaired interaction between these two natriuretic systems. The aim of this review is to update and comment on the most recent evidences demonstrating how the renal dopaminergic system interacts with atrial natriuretic peptide to control renal physiology and blood pressure through different regulatory pathways. PMID:25013796

  2. Working memory training impacts the mean diffusivity in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    Dopaminergic transmission plays a critical role in working memory (WM). Mean diffusivity (MD) is a sensitive and unique neuroimaging tool for detecting microstructural differences particularly in the areas of the dopaminergic system. Despite previous investigation of the effects of WM training (WMT) on dopamine receptor binding potentials, the effects of WMT on MD remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these effects in young adult subjects who either underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention or no-intervention periods, subjects underwent scanning sessions in diffusion-weighted imaging to measure MD. Compared with no intervention, WMT resulted in an increase in MD in the bilateral caudate, right putamen, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, the increase in performance on WMT tasks was significantly positively correlated with the mean increase in MD in the clusters of the left DLPFC and of the right ACC. These results suggest that WMT caused microstructural changes in the regions of the dopaminergic system in a way that is usually interpreted as a reduction in neural components.

  3. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mazul, B; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Miklić, P; Sumajstorcić, J

    1997-03-01

    Since superior protection against different gastrointestinal and liver lesions and antiinflammatory and analgesic activities were noted for pentadecapeptide BPC (an essential fragment of an organoprotective gastric juice protein named BPC), the beneficial mechanism of BPC 157 and its likely interactions with other systems were studied. Hence its beneficial effects would be abolished by adrenal gland medullectomy, the influence of different agents affecting alpha, beta, and dopamine receptors on BPC 157 gastroprotection in 48 h restraint stress was further investigated. Animals were pretreated (1 hr before stress) with saline (controls) or BPC 157 (dissolved in saline) (10 microg or 10 ng/kg body wt intraperitoneally or intragastrically) applied either alone to establish basal conditions or, when manipulating the adrenergic or dopaminergic system, a simultaneous administration was carried out with various agents with specific effects on adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors [given in milligrams per kilogram intraperitoneally except for atenolol, which was given subcutaneously] phentolamine (10.0), prazosin (0.5), yohimbine (5.0), clonidine (0.1) (alpha-adrenergic domain), propranolol (1.0), atenolol (20.0) (beta-adrenergic domain), domperidone (5.0), and haloperidol (5.0) (peripheral/central dopamine system). Alternatively, agents stimulating adrenergic or dopaminergic systems--adrenaline (5.0) or bromocriptine (10.0)--were applied. A strong protection, noted following intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of BPC 157, was fully abolished by coadministration of phentolamine, clonidine, and haloperidol, and consistently not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, or domperidone. Atenolol abolished only intraperitoneal BPC 157 protection, whereas propranolol affected specifically intragastric BPC 157 protection. Interestingly, the severe course of lesion development obtained in basal conditions, unlike BPC 157 gastroprotection, was not influenced by the application of

  4. Splenectomy modifies hyperactive states of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in C57BL/6J-bg(J)/bg(J) (beige-J) mice.

    PubMed

    Funada, Masahiko; Mori, Tomohisa; Maeda, Jun; Tsuda, Yuko; Komiya, Sachiko; Shimizu, Norifumi; Kamei, Junzo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-11-05

    Genetic factors affect the locomotor activity induced by morphine, which mainly depends on the activation of dopaminergic systems, and morphine has distinct pharmacological activities in C57BL/6J-bg(J)bg(J) (beige-J) mice, which have genetic deficiencies in immunological function. We previously showed that beige-J mice exhibited greater locomotor activity and dopamine turnover, whereas splenectomy reduced this hyperlocomotion and dopamine turnover, which suggests that beige-J mice could be an experimental animal model for investigating hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system, and that the spleen may contribute to the susceptibility to activation of the dopaminergic system. Furthermore, morphine can induce hyperlocomotion mediated by activation of the dopaminergic system. Therefore, we examined the effects of splenectomy on the hyperlocomotion and regulation of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Morphine induced hyperlocomotion, which was accompanied by activation of the dopaminergic system, in beige-J mice. Furthermore, splenectomy enhanced the hyperlocomotion and activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Our findings indicate that substances originating from the spleen may regulate both spontaneous activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the µ-opioidergic system-mediated activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system by morphine through different modes of action. These results imply that beige-J mice could be a practical animal model for investigating the interactions between immune-modulation and the µ-opioidergic system and/or dopaminergic system.

  5. Impact of Serotonin 2C Receptor Null Mutation on Physiology and Behavior Associated with Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway Function

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Luna; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Hopf, F. Woodward; O’Dell, Laura; Giorgetti, Marco; Jongsma, Minke; Carra, Scott; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ennio; Parsons, Loren H.; Bonci, Antonello; Tecott, Laurence H.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of serotonergic neurotransmission on brain dopaminergic pathways has substantial relevance to many neuropsychiatric disorders. A particularly prominent role has been ascribed to the inhibitory effects of serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activation on physiology and behavior mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, particularly in the terminal region of the nucleus accumbens. The influence of this receptor subtype on functions mediated by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is less clear. Here we report that a null mutation eliminating expression of 5-HT2CRs produces marked alterations in the activity and functional output of this pathway. 5-HT2CR mutant mice displayed increased activity of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, elevated baseline extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum (DSt), alterations in grooming behavior, and enhanced sensitivity to the stereotypic behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and GBR 12909. These psychostimulant responses occurred in the absence of phenotypic differences in drug-induced extracellular dopamine concentration, suggesting a phenotypic alteration in behavioral responses to released dopamine. This was further suggested by enhanced behavioral responses of mutant mice to the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297. Differences in DSt D1 or D2 receptor expression were not found, nor were differences in medium spiny neuron firing patterns or intrinsic membrane properties following dopamine stimulation. We conclude that 5-HT2CRs regulate nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity and function both at SNc dopaminergic neurons and at a locus downstream of the DSt. PMID:19553455

  6. Clinical Investigation of the Dopaminergic System with PET and FLUORINE-18-FLUORO-L-DOPA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Terrence Rayford

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a tool that provides quantitative physiological information. It is valuable both in a clinical environment, where information is sought for an individual, and in a research environment, to answer more fundamental questions about physiology and disease states. PET is particularly attractive compared to other nuclear medicine imaging techniques in cases where the anatomical regions of interest are small or when true metabolic rate constants are required. One example with both of these requirements is the investigation of Parkinson's Disease, which is characterized as a presynaptic motor function deficit affecting the striatum. As dopaminergic neurons die, the ability of the striatum to affect motor function decreases. The extent of functional neuronal damage in the small sub-structures may be ascertained by measuring the ability of the caudate and putamen to trap and store dopamine, a neurotransmitter. PET is able to utilize a tracer of dopamine activity, ^ {18}F- scL-DOPA, to quantitate the viability of the striatum. This thesis work deals with implementing and optimizing the many different elements that compose a PET study of the dopaminergic system, including: radioisotope production; conversion of aqueous ^{18}F ^-into [^ {18}F]-F2; synthesis of ^{18}F- scL -DOPA; details of the PET scan itself; measurements to estimate the radiation dosimetry; accurate measurement of a plasma input function; and the quantitation of dopaminergic activity in normal human subjects as well as in Parkinson's Disease patients.

  7. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  8. The effects of nigrostriatal dopamine depletion on the thalamic parafascicular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kusnoor, Sheila V; Bubser, Michael; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2012-03-29

    Neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) is seen in a number of brain regions in addition to the substantia nigra (SN). Among these is the thalamic parafascicular nucleus (PF), which sends glutamatergic projections to the striatum and receives GABAergic inputs from the SN. Recent data suggest that lesions of nigrostriatal dopamine axons cause a loss of PF neurons, which has been interpreted to suggest that the PF cell loss seen in PD is secondary to dopamine denervation. However, the extent of a PF dopamine innervation in the rat is unclear, and it is possible that PF cell loss in parkinsonism is independent of nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration. We characterized the dopamine innervation of the PF in the rat and determined if 6-hydroxydopamine SN lesions cause PF neuron degeneration. Dual-label immunohistochemistry revealed that almost all tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) axons in the PF also expressed dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and were therefore noradrenergic or adrenergic. Moreover, an antibody directed against dopamine revealed only very rare PF dopaminergic axons. Retrograde-tract tracing-immunohistochemistry did not uncover an innervation of the PF from midbrain dopamine neurons. Nigrostriatal dopamine neuron lesions did not elicit degeneration of PF cells, as reflected by a lack of FluoroJade C staining. Similarly, neither unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of nigrostriatal axons nor the dorsal noradrenergic bundle decreased the number of PF neurons or the number of PF neurons retrogradely-labeled from the striatum. These data suggest that the loss of thalamostriatal PF neurons in Parkinson's Disease is a primary event rather than secondary to nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration.

  9. An update on the connections of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex

    PubMed Central

    Yetnikoff, Leora; Lavezzi, Heather N.; Reichard, Rhett A.; Zahm, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    This review covers the intrinsic organization and afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex, comprising the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field, which house, respectively, the A9, A10 and A8 groups of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In addition, A10dc (dorsal, caudal) and A10rv (rostroventral) extensions into, respectively, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and supramammillary nucleus are discussed. Associated intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex that utilize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and neuropeptides and various co-expressed combinations of these compounds are considered in conjunction with the dopamine-containing systems. A framework is provided for understanding the organization of masssive afferent systems descending and ascending to the midbrain dopaminergic complex from the telencephalon and brainstem, respectively. Within the context of this framework, the basal ganglia direct and indirect output pathways are treated in some detail. Findings from rodent brain are briefly compared with those from primates, including human. Recent literature is emphasized, including traditional experimental neuroanatomical and modern gene transfer and optogenetic studies. An attempt was made to provide sufficient background and cite a representative sampling of earlier primary papers and reviews so that people new to the field may find this to be a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject. PMID:24735820

  10. The Renin-Angiotensin and Renal Dopaminergic Systems Interact in Normotensive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Gilbert M.; Armando, Ines; Browning, Shaunagh; Pezzullo, John C.; Rhee, Lauren; Dajani, Mustafa; Carey, Robert M.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and renal dopaminergic systems interact to maintain sodium balance. High NaCl intake increases renal synthesis of dopamine and dopaminergic receptor activity, decreasing epithelial sodium transport, whereas sodium deficit activates the RAAS, increasing epithelial sodium transport. We tested the hypothesis that attenuation of the natriuretic effect of dopamine D1-like receptors during salt restriction results in part from increased RAAS activity in seven salt-resistant normotensive adults using a double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. All subjects attained sodium balance on low (50 mmol Na+/day) and high (300 mmol Na+/day) NaCl diets, administered 4 weeks apart. Sodium, potassium, lithium, para-aminohippurate, and creatinine clearances were measured before, during, and after a 3-hour infusion of fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, with and without pretreatment with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. On the high NaCl diet, fenoldopam-induced natriuresis was associated with the inhibition of renal proximal and distal tubule sodium transport. On the low NaCl diet, fenoldopam decreased renal distal tubule sodium transport but did not cause natriuresis. The addition of enalapril to fenoldopam restored the natriuretic effect of fenoldopam and its inhibitory effect on proximal tubule sodium transport. Thus, on a high NaCl diet fenoldopam causes natriuresis by inhibiting renal proximal and distal tubule transport, but on a low NaCl diet the increased RAAS activity prevents the D1-like receptor from inhibiting renal proximal tubule sodium transport, neutralizing the natriuretic effect of fenoldopam. These results demonstrate an interaction between the renin-angiotensin and renal dopaminergic systems in humans and highlight the influence of dietary NaCl on these interactions. PMID:25977313

  11. Prokineticin-2 upregulation during neuronal injury mediates a compensatory protective response against dopaminergic neuronal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Richard; Neal, Matthew L.; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica R.; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Panicker, Nikhil; Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Woodruff, Trent M.; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice. Functional studies demonstrate that PK2 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and activates ERK and Akt survival signalling pathways, thereby driving neuroprotection. Importantly, PK2 overexpression is protective whereas PK2 receptor antagonism exacerbates dopaminergic degeneration in experimental PD. Furthermore, PK2 expression increased in surviving nigral dopaminergic neurons from PD brains, indicating that PK2 upregulation is clinically relevant to human PD. Collectively, our results identify a paradigm for compensatory neuroprotective PK2 signalling in nigral dopaminergic neurons that could have important therapeutic implications for PD. PMID:27703142

  12. Naringin treatment induces neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease in vivo, but not enough to restore the lesioned dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Deok; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with naringin, a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, attenuated neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in vivo. In order to investigate whether its effects are universally applied to a different model of PD and whether its treatment induces restorative effects on the lesioned nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projection, we observed the effects of pre-treatment or post-treatment with naringin in a mouse model of PD. For neuroprotective effects, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was unilaterally injected into the striatum of mouse brains for a neurotoxin model of PD in the presence or absence of naringin by daily intraperitoneal injection. Our results showed that naringin protected the nigrostriatal DA projection from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, similar to the effects in rat brains, this treatment induced the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is well known as an important survival factor for DA neurons, and inhibited microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of mouse brains treated with 6-OHDA. However, there was no significant change of DA phenotypes in the SN and striatum post-treated with naringin compared with 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, despite the treatment being continued for 12 weeks. These results suggest that post-treatment with naringin alone may not be enough to restore the nigrostriatal DA projection in a mouse model of PD. However, our results apparently suggest that naringin is a beneficial natural product to prevent DA degeneration, which is involved in PD.

  13. Addiction pharmacogenetics: A systematic review of the genetic variation of the dopaminergic system

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Bauer, Isabelle E.; Soares, Jair C.; Graham, David P.; Nielsen, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders have significant personal, familial, and societal consequences. Despite the serious consequences of substance use, only a few therapies are effective in treating substance use disorders, thus highlighting a need for improved treatment practices. Substance use treatment response depends on multiple factors such as genetic, biological, and social. It is essential that each component is represented in treatment plans. The dopaminergic system plays a critical role in pharmacotherapy for the addictions and an understanding of the role of variation of genes involved in this system is essential for its success. This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement guidelines. A computerized literature search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus (all databases). Articles published up to April 2015 that examined the role of dopaminergic gene variation in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine substance use disorders were reviewed. Search terms were dopamine, gene, polymorphism, substance abuse, treatment, and response. Polymorphisms of the DRD2, ANKK1, DAT1, DBH, and DRD4 genes have been found to moderate the effects of the pharmacotherapy of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine substance use disorders. The integration of genetic information with clinical data will inform health professionals of the most efficacious pharmacotherapy intervention for substance use disorders. More studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:26146874

  14. The neuroprotective effects of Semax in conditions of MPTP-induced lesions of the brain dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Levitskaya, N G; Sebentsova, E A; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Yu; Kamenskii, A A; Myasoedov, N F

    2004-05-01

    This report describes studies cf the effects of the ACTH(4-10) analog Semax (MEHFPGP) on the behavior of white rats with lesions to the brain dopaminergic system induced by the neurotoxin MPTP. Neurotoxin was given as single i.p. doses of 25 mg/kg. Neurotoxin injections were shown to decrease movement activity and increase anxiety in the animals. Daily intranasal administration of Semax at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg decreased the severity of MPTP-induced behavioral disturbances. The protective activity of Semax in MPTP-induced lesions of the brain dopaminergic system may be associated with both its modulating effect on the dopaminergic system and the neurotrophic action of the peptide.

  15. The impact of Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) on the dopaminergic system: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dahoun, T; Trossbach, S V; Brandon, N J; Korth, C; Howes, O D

    2017-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a gene known as a risk factor for mental illnesses possibly associated with dopamine impairments. DISC1 is a scaffold protein interacting with proteins involved in the dopamine system. Here we summarise the impact of DISC1 disruption on the dopamine system in animal models, considering its effects on presynaptic dopaminergic function (tyrosine hydroxylase levels, dopamine transporter levels, dopamine levels at baseline and after amphetamine administration) and postsynaptic dopaminergic function (dopamine D1 and D2 receptor levels, dopamine receptor-binding potential and locomotor activity after amphetamine administration). Our findings show that many but not all DISC1 models display (1) increased locomotion after amphetamine administration, (2) increased dopamine levels after amphetamine administration in the nucleus accumbens, and (3) inconsistent basal dopamine levels, dopamine receptor levels and binding potentials. There is also limited evidence for decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the frontal cortex and increased dopamine transporter levels in the striatum but not nucleus accumbens, but these conclusions warrant further replication. The main dopaminergic findings are seen across different DISC1 models, providing convergent evidence that DISC1 has a role in regulating dopaminergic function. These results implicate dopaminergic dysregulation as a mechanism underlying the increased rate of schizophrenia seen in DISC1 variant carriers, and provide insights into how DISC1, and potentially DISC1-interacting proteins such as AKT and GSK-3, could be used as novel therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. PMID:28140405

  16. Molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    In insects, dopamine modulates various aspects of behavior such as learning and memory, arousal and locomotion, and is also a precursor of melanin. To elucidate the molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer, we identified genes involved in dopamine biosynthesis, signal transduction, and dopamine re-uptake in the cricket. Complementary DNA of two isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which convert tyrosine into L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, was isolated from the cricket brain cDNA library. In addition, four dopamine receptor genes (Dop1, Dop2, Dop3, and DopEcR) and a high-affinity dopamine transporter gene were identified. The two TH isoforms contained isoform-specific regions in the regulatory ACT domain and showed differential expression patterns in different tissues. In addition, the dopamine receptor genes had a receptor subtype-specific distribution: the Dop1, Dop2, and DopEcR genes were broadly expressed in various tissues at differential expression levels, and the Dop3 gene was restrictedly expressed in neuronal tissues and the testicles. Our findings provide a fundamental basis for understanding the dopaminergic regulation of diverse physiological processes in the cricket.

  17. The influence of the dopaminergic system on cognitive functioning: A molecular genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Martin; Peters, Kristina; Schroeter, Katrin; Koebke, Wolfgang; Lenardon, Daniela; Bloch, Birte; Hennig, Juergen

    2005-10-14

    Many pharmacological and clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of the dopaminergic (DA) system for cognitive functioning but little is known about the genetic basis of general cognitive ability that has been demonstrated to be highly heritable. Attempts to detect associations between certain gene loci and endophenotypes of general cognitive ability have turned out to be more promising. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate two dopaminergic candidate genes (COMT VAL158MET and DRD2 TAQ IA) for endophenotypes of cognitive functioning i.e. attention, vigilance, interference, time estimation and sensoric and motoric reaction times. Out of a gene data bank of more than 600 healthy Caucasian participants, 96 subjects (n = 48 males and n = 48 females) were recruited according to their genotype/allele pattern, resulting in six independent groups (COMT: VAL/VAL, VAL/MET, MET/MET)x(DRD2: A1-, A1+) of n = 16 subjects each. Results showed associations of the COMT gene with attention and with time estimation but most noteworthy was an interaction effect DRD2xVAL on interference performance as measured by the STROOP-test explaining 13% of the variance. Findings suggest that a balance between DA related catabolic enzyme activity and receptor density are good predictors for the endophenotype of cognitive interference and that the COMT gene is in accordance with previous studies related to cognitive functioning.

  18. Trichloroethylene induces dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Fisher 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Choi, Dong-Young; Hunter, Randy L; Pandya, Jignesh D; Cass, Wayne A; Sullivan, Patrick G; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Gash, Don M; Bing, Guoying

    2010-02-01

    Trichloroethylene, a chlorinated solvent widely used as a degreasing agent, is a common environmental contaminant. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic exposure to trichloroethylene may contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons could be reproduced by systemic exposure of adult Fisher 344 rats to trichloroethylene. In our experiments, oral administration of trichloroethylene induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the number of both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons were not decreased in the striatum. There was a robust decline in striatal levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid without a significant depletion of striatal dopamine. Rats treated with trichloroethylene showed defects in rotarod behavior test. We also found a significantly reduced mitochondrial complex I activity with elevated oxidative stress markers and activated microglia in the nigral area. In addition, we observed intracellular alpha-synuclein accumulation in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, with some in nigral neurons, but little in neurons of cerebral cortex. Overall, our animal model exhibits some important features of Parkinsonism, and further supports that trichloroethylene may be an environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease.

  19. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  20. [The role of genetic variants of the dopaminergic system in heroin dependence].

    PubMed

    Vereczkei, Andrea; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Barta, Csaba

    2009-06-01

    Heroin dependence is a disorder with complex inheritance. It is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. This paper gives an overview on the specific risk factors in the background of heroin addiction, especially within the dopaminergic system, which is one of the most important components of the brain's reward system. In connection with the development of heroin addiction the role of the dopamine D2 and D4 receptors, the dopamine transporter and the catechol-O-methyltransferase genes is discussed. Certain polymorphisms of the most extensively studied dopamine D2 receptor gene show strong association with heroin dependence. Dopamine D4 receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes are also associated with the disease, but some results are still controversial. Only few studies have been done in association with the dopamine transporter gene and substance misuse and no convincing results have been found. To unravel the contradictions and better understand the pathogenesis of the disease more research needs to be conducted.

  1. Obesity, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic reward system.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Benjamin Charles; Eisenberg, Dan

    2007-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on obesity's health consequences beyond cardio-vascular disease and diabetes. To evaluate the potential consequences of obesity for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), we surveyed the literature. Current findings link both obesity and ADHD to the dopamine system and implicate dopamine genes in body weight, eating, and ADHD. Detailed consideration suggests that dopaminergic changes in the prefrontal cortex among individuals with the ADHD subtype Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) may increase their risk for obesity. Thus, individuals and populations with a high prevalence of hyperdopaminergic genes may experience higher rates of obesity in the presence of abundant food. From an evolutionary perspective, alterations in the dopamine system appear to effect a wide range of behavioral phenotypes. We suggest that recent evolutionary changes in the dopamine receptor genes selected to increase cognitive and behavioral flexibility may now be associated with attention problems and increased food consumption in an obesogenic environment.

  2. Role of brain dopaminergic system in the adrenomedullin-induced diuresis and natriuresis.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Emilia; Silva, María; Israel, Anita

    2003-11-01

    Intracerebroventricular (IVT) administration of adrenomedullin (AM) to conscious male hydrated rats increases urinary volume and sodium excretion. The possible involvement of brain dopamine (DA) system on the renal action of IVT-AM was investigated. AM-induced diuretic and natriuretic action was prevented following selective central dopaminergic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) in combination with desmethylimipramine (DMI). Selective D(2) DA receptor antagonism with haloperidol, sulpiride, and remoxipride; or with the D(1) DA receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, blunted the increase in urinary volume and sodium excretion induced by IVT-AM. The present results suggest that AM acts centrally, at least in part, via an interaction with endogenous DA through the activation of both DA D(1)/D(2) receptor subtype.

  3. Association of body mass index and the depletion of nigrostriatal dopamine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Jung; Oh, Jungsu S; Ham, Jee H; Lee, Dong H; Lee, Injoo; Sohn, Young H; Kim, Jae S; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2016-02-01

    Several antecedent studies had reported close relationship between low body weight and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there have been few investigations about the role of body weight to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This study enrolled 398 de novo patients with PD whom underwent [18F] N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-2β-carbon ethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography scan and body mass index (BMI) measurement. The relationships between BMI and dopamine transporter (DAT) activity were analyzed using linear regression analysis. A multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, disease duration, smoking status, coffee and tea consumption, and residence area revealed that BMI remained independently and significantly associated with DAT activity in all striatal subregions. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that BMI was a significant predictor for the lowest quartile of DAT activity in the anterior putamen, ventral striatum, caudate nucleus, and total striatum. The present findings suggest that a low BMI might be closely associated with low density of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in PD, which could support the evidence for the role of low body weight to PD-related pathologies.

  4. Effect of acupuncture on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostratal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeung-Kee; Lim, Hyung-Ho; Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lim, Sabina; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum, an apomorphine-induced rotational behavior test showed significant rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase demonstrated a dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. Acupuncture at the ST36 for 14 days significantly inhibited rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease, and also protected against 6-OHDA-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. These effects of acupuncture were not observed for the non-acupoint (hip) acupuncture. The present study shows that acupuncture at the ST36 acupoint can be used as a useful strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  5. Dopaminergic system and dream recall: An MRI study in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Lanteri, Olimpia; Piras, Fabrizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Assogna, Francesca; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the role of the dopamine system [i.e., subcortical-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network] in dreaming, by studying patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a model of altered dopaminergic transmission. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were extracted by 3T-MR images of 27 PD patients and 27 age-matched controls, who were asked to fill out a dream diary upon morning awakening for one week. PD patients do not substantially differ from healthy controls with respect to the sleep, dream, and neuroanatomical measures. Multivariate correlational analyses in PD patients show that dopamine agonist dosage is associated to qualitatively impoverished dreams, as expressed by lower bizarreness and lower emotional load values. Visual vividness (VV) of their dream reports positively correlates with volumes of both the amygdalae and with thickness of the left mPFC. Emotional load also positively correlates with hippocampal volume. Beside the replication of our previous finding on the role of subcortical nuclei in dreaming experience of healthy subjects, this represents the first evidence of a specific role of the amygdala-mPFC dopaminergic network system in dream recall. The association in PD patients between higher dopamine agonist dosages and impoverished dream reports, however, and the significant correlations between VV and mesolimbic regions, however, provide an empirical support to the hypothesis that a dopamine network plays a key role in dream generation. The causal relation is however precluded by the intrinsic limitation of assuming the dopamine agonist dosage as a measure of the hypodopaminergic state in PD. Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Large-scale resting state network correlates of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and related dopaminergic deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Alexander V.; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Lebedeva, Aleksandra; Siepel, Françoise J.; Pereira, Joana B.; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Understanding the neural mechanisms of this deficit is crucial for the development of efficient methods for treatment monitoring and augmentation of cognitive functions in PD patients. The current study aimed to investigate resting state fMRI correlates of cognitive impairment in PD from a large-scale network perspective, and to assess the impact of dopamine deficiency on these networks. Thirty PD patients with resting state fMRI were included from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) database. Eighteen patients from this sample were also scanned with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. A standardized neuropsychological battery was administered, evaluating verbal memory, visuospatial, and executive cognitive domains. Image preprocessing was performed using an SPM8-based workflow, obtaining time-series from 90 regions-of-interest (ROIs) defined from the AAL brain atlas. The Brain Connectivity Toolbox (BCT) was used to extract nodal strength from all ROIs, and modularity of the cognitive circuitry determined using the meta-analytical software Neurosynth. Brain-behavior covariance patterns between cognitive functions and nodal strength were estimated using Partial Least Squares. Extracted latent variable (LV) scores were matched with the performances in the three cognitive domains (memory, visuospatial, and executive) and striatal dopamine transporter binding ratios (SBR) using linear modeling. Finally, influence of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficiency on the modularity of the “cognitive network” was analyzed. For the range of deficits studied, better executive performance was associated with increased dorsal fronto-parietal cortical processing and inhibited subcortical and primary sensory involvement. This profile was also characterized by a relative preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. The profile associated with better memory performance correlated with increased

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid level after tolcapone administration as an indicator of nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Thiffault, Christine; Langston, J William; Di Monte, Donato A

    2003-09-01

    The development of reliable biological markers of nigrostriatal degeneration has important implications from both experimental and clinical viewpoints, since such biomarkers could be used for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in models of parkinsonism as well as in Parkinson's disease patients. In this study, levels of the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal and parkinsonian squirrel monkeys in order to assess their reliability as indicators of nigrostriatal injury. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that these measurements may become more accurate by inhibiting catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity and therefore blocking the conversion of DOPAC to homovanillic acid. Oral administration of the COMT inhibitor tolcapone (2 doses of 15 mg/kg each with a 4-h interval) significantly reduced enzyme activity in the monkey brain. Tolcapone treatment enhanced CSF DOPAC concentrations in unlesioned animals (by approximately four times) as well as monkeys rendered parkinsonian after severe nigrostriatal dopaminergic injury caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Importantly, however, COMT inhibition greatly magnified the differences in CSF DOPAC levels between control and parkinsonian monkeys, since MPTP-induced DOPAC depletion was 35% in the absence vs >60% in the presence of tolcapone. Thus, tolcapone administration enhances the detection of DOPAC in the CSF and, by doing so, improves the reliability of CSF DOPAC as a marker of nigrostriatal degeneration.

  8. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2(+/+) ) mice with NOX subunit gp91(phox) -deficient (NOX2(-/-) ) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (P < 0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2(+/+) mice, whereas NOX2(-/-) mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2(+/+) mice, but not in NOX2(-/-) mice at 1 hr. Treatment of NOX2(+/+) mice with LPS resulted in a 12-fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5-6.5-fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared with the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined using diphenyliodonium histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hr and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2(+/+) mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX, and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age.

  9. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2+/+) mice with NOX subunit gp91phox-deficient (NOX2−/−) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (p<0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2+/+ mice, whereas, NOX2−/− mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2+/+ mice, but not in NOX2−/− mice at 1 hour. Treatment of NOX2+/+ mice with LPS resulted in a 12 fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5–6.5 fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared to the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by hydroethidine histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hour and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2+/+ mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age. PMID:23536230

  10. A novel thiol antioxidant that crosses the blood brain barrier protects dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Stroomza, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Offen, Daniel; Panet, Hana; Saada, Ann; Krool-Galron, Nili; Barzilai, Aari; Atlas, Daphne; Melamed, Eldad

    2005-02-01

    It is believed that oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that treatment with antioxidants might be neuroprotective. However, most currently available antioxidants cannot readily penetrate the blood brain barrier after systemic administration. We now report that AD4, the novel low molecular weight thiol antioxidant and the N-acytel cysteine (NAC) related compound, is capable of penetrating the brain and protects neurons in general and especially dopaminergic cells against various OS-generating neurotoxins in tissue cultures. Moreover, we found that treatment with AD4 markedly decreased the damage of dopaminergic neurons in three experimental models of PD. AD4 suppressed amphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesion. It attenuated the reduction in striatal dopamine levels in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). It also reduced the dopaminergic neuronal loss following chronic intrajugular administration of rotenone in rats. Our findings suggest that AD4 is a novel potential new neuroprotective drug that might be effective at slowing down nigral neuronal degeneration and illness progression in patients with PD.

  11. Regulation of intraocular pressure in mice: structural analysis of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in response to cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore; Bucolo, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main recognized risk factor of glaucoma. To investigate the contribution of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in IOP regulation, we used cabergoline, a mixed dopamine and serotonin agonist, in C57BL/6J WT and dopamine D₃ receptor knock-out (D₃R⁻/⁻) mice with normal eye pressure or steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Furthermore, we studied the structural basis of the cabergoline-mediated activation of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems by molecular modeling. Topical application of cabergoline, significantly decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the intraocular pressure in WT mice, both in an ocular normotensive group (-9, -5 and -2 mmHg with 5%, 1%, and 0.1%, respectively) and an ocular hypertensive group, with a prolonged effect in this latter group. No change of intraocular pressure was observed after topical application of cabergoline in D₃R⁻/⁻ mice. We modeled and optimized, with molecular dynamics, structures of hD₃, h5HT(1A) and h5HT(2A-C) receptors; thereafter we carried out molecular docking of cabergoline. Docking revealed that binding of cabergoline into D₃ and 5HT(1A) receptors is associated with a better desolvation energy in comparison to 5HT(2A-C) binding. In conclusion, the present study support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system is pivotal to regulate IOP and that D₃R represents an intriguing target in the treatment of glaucoma. Furthermore, the structure-based computational approach adopted in this study is able to build and refine structure models of homologous dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors that may be of interest for structure-based drug discovery of ligands, with dopaminergic selectivity or with multi-pharmacological profile, potentially useful to treat optic neuropathies.

  12. Chronic low-dose melatonin treatment maintains nigrostriatal integrity in an intrastriatal rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carriere, Candace H; Kang, Na Hyea; Niles, Lennard P

    2016-02-15

    Parkinson's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder which primarily involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and related projections in the striatum. The pesticide/neurotoxin, rotenone, has been shown to cause systemic inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity in nigral dopaminergic neurons, with consequent degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, as observed in Parkinson's disease. A novel intrastriatal rotenone model of Parkinson's disease was used to examine the neuroprotective effects of chronic low-dose treatment with the antioxidant indoleamine, melatonin, which can upregulate neurotrophic factors and other protective proteins in the brain. Sham or lesioned rats were treated with either vehicle (0.04% ethanol in drinking water) or melatonin at a dose of 4 µg/mL in drinking water. The right striatum was lesioned by stereotactic injection of rotenone at three sites (4 μg/site) along its rostrocaudal axis. Apomorphine administration to lesioned animals resulted in a significant (p<0.001) increase in ipsilateral rotations, which was suppressed by melatonin. Nine weeks post-surgery, animals were sacrificed by transcardial perfusion. Subsequent immunohistochemical examination revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity within the striatum and substantia nigra of rotenone-lesioned animals. Melatonin treatment attenuated the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum and abolished it in the substantia nigra. Stereological cell counts indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of rotenone-lesioned animals, which was confirmed by Nissl staining. Importantly, chronic melatonin treatment blocked the loss of dopamine neurons in rotenone-lesioned animals. These findings strongly support the therapeutic potential of long-term and low-dose melatonin treatment in Parkinson's disease.

  13. The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117–4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP+-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD. PMID:23754278

  14. Neural ablation of the PARK10 candidate Plpp3 leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits without neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-López, Sandra; Martínez-Silva, Ana Valeria; Montiel, Teresa; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Massieu, Lourdes; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and a variety of motor symptoms. The gene coding for the phospholipid phosphatase 3, PLPP3 (formerly PPAP2B or LPP3), maps within the PARK10 locus, a region that has been linked with increased risk to late-onset PD. PLPP3 modulates the levels of a range of bioactive lipids controlling fundamental cellular processes within the central nervous system. Here we show that PLPP3 is enriched in astroglial cells of the adult murine ventral midbrain. Conditional inactivation of Plpp3 using a Nestin::Cre driver results in reduced mesencephalic levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), a well-known mediator of pro-survival responses. Yet, adult PLPP3-deficient mice exhibited no alterations in the number of dopaminergic neurons or in the basal levels of striatal extracellular dopamine (DA). Potassium-evoked DA overflow in the striatum, however, was significantly decreased in mutant mice. Locomotor evaluation revealed that, although PLPP3-deficient mice exhibit motor impairment, this is not progressive or responsive to acute L-DOPA therapy. These findings suggest that disruption of Plpp3 during early neural development leads to dopaminergic transmission deficits in the absence of nigrostriatal degeneration, and without causing an age-related locomotor decline consistent with PD. PMID:27063549

  15. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The brain dopaminergic (DA) system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification. Methods & Results Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA) or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF) and TH-rtTA (tet-ON) mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time. Conclusion These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases. PMID:26291828

  16. Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

    The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

  17. Are striatal tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons dopaminergic?

    PubMed

    Xenias, Harry S; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M

    2015-04-22

    Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.

  18. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  19. Signaling Pathways Involved in Renal Oxidative Injury: Role of the Vasoactive Peptides and the Renal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina Mikusic, N. L.; Kravetz, M. C.; Kouyoumdzian, N. M.; Della Penna, S. L.; Rosón, M. I.; Fernández, B. E.; Choi, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation. PMID:25436148

  20. Positron emission tomography molecular imaging of dopaminergic system in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Haifeng; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is involved in drug reinforcement, but its role in drug addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the living human brain. In this article, we reviewed the major findings of PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, especially in heroin addiction. Furthermore, we summarized PET radiotracers that have been used to study the role of DA in drug addiction. To investigate presynaptic function in drug addiction, PET tracers have been developed to measure DA synthesis and transport. For the investigation of postsynaptic function, several radioligands targeting dopamine one (D1) receptor and dopamine two (D2) receptor are extensively used in PET imaging studies. Moreover, we also summarized the PET imaging findings of heroin addiction studies, including heroin-induced DA increases and the reinforcement, role of DA in the long-term effects of heroin abuse, DA and vulnerability to heroin abuse and the treatment implications. PET imaging studies have corroborated the role of DA in drug addiction and increase our understanding the mechanism of drug addiction.

  1. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure affects the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Bubenikova-Valesova, Vera; Kacer, Petr; Syslova, Kamila; Rambousek, Lukas; Janovsky, Martin; Schutova, Barbora; Hruba, Lenka; Slamberova, Romana

    2009-10-01

    Methamphetamine is a commonly abused psychostimulant that causes addiction and is often abused by pregnant women. Acute or chronic administration of methamphetamine elevates the levels of the extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine. The aim of the present study was to show whether prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (5mg/kg, entire gestation) or saline in Wistar rats induces changes in dopamine levels and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens, and in behavior (locomotor activity, rearing, and immobility) after the administration of a challenge dose of methamphetamine (1mg/kg) or saline in male offspring. We found that adult offspring prenatally exposed to methamphetamine had higher basal levels of dopamine (about 288%), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (about 67%) and homovanillic acid (about 74%) in nucleus accumbens. An increased basal level of dopamine corresponds to lower basal immobility in offspring prenatally exposed to methamphetamine. The acute injection of methamphetamine in adulthood increased the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which is related to an increase of locomotion and rearing (exploration). In addition, prenatally methamphetamine-exposed rats showed higher response to the challenge dose of methamphetamine, when compared to prenatally saline-exposed rats. In conclusion, rats exposed to methamphetamine in utero have shown changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and were more sensitive to the administration of the acute dose of methamphetamine in adulthood.

  2. Genetic variants within the dopaminergic system interact to modulate endocrine stress reactivity and recovery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nina; Osinsky, Roman; Mueller, Eva; Schmitz, Anja; Guenthert, Sarah; Kuepper, Yvonne; Hennig, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Catecholamines modulate endocrine stress reactivity by affecting regulatory influences of extra-hypothalamic brain structures on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate combined effects of functional allelic variations that affect dopamine availability in both cortical (COMT Val¹⁵⁸Met polymorphism) and subcortical (DAT1 VNTR) brain regions on HPA-axis reactivity to psychosocial stress. By using a standardized laboratory stress task (public speaking) we obtained saliva cortisol samples during stress exposure and an extended recovery period in 100 healthy male adults. We report for the first time significant epistasis between COMT Val¹⁵⁸Met and DAT1 VNTR on cortisol response patterns. Subjects homozygous for both the Met¹⁵⁸ and the 10-repeat allele of DAT1 VNTR were characterized by markedly elevated cortisol reactivity and impaired stress recovery compared to all other groups. Our results indicate a crucial role of functional genetic variants within the dopaminergic system in the modulation of HPA-axis response patterns and highlight the need to investigate combined effects of specific candidate genes on stress-related endophenotypes.

  3. Levodopa induces long-lasting modification in the functional activity of the nigrostriatal pathway.

    PubMed

    Riverol, Mario; Ordóñez, Cristina; Collantes, María; DiCaudo, Carla; Peñuelas, Iván; Arbizu, Javier; Marcilla, Irene; Luquin, María R

    2014-02-01

    posterior putamen were significantly lower than those in the placebo group. AADC levels in MPTP groups were similar to those of control animals in all striatal areas analyzed. This study shows that chronic levodopa administration to monkeys with partial nigrostriatal degeneration followed by a washout period induces modifications in the functional activity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway.

  4. The role of the MYD88-dependent pathway in MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence supports a significant role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, with several inflammatory pathways being suggested as playing a role in the dopaminergic degeneration seen in humans and animal models of the disease. These include tumor necrosis factor, prostaglandins and oxidative-related stress components. However, the role of innate immunity has not been established in PD. Methods Based on the fact that the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) is the most common adaptor protein implicated in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, critical in the innate immune response, we undertook a study to investigate the potential contribution of this specific pathway to MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration using MyD88 knock out mice (MyD88-/-), following our observations that the MyD88-dependent pathway was critical for MPTP dopaminergic toxicity in the enteric nervous system. Post-mortem analyses assessing nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and inflammation were performed using HPLC, western blots, autoradiography and immunofluorescence. Results Our results demonstrate that MyD88-/- mice are as vulnerable to MPTP-induced dopamine and DOPAC striatal depletion as wild type mice. Furthermore, MyD88-/- mice show similar striatal dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase loss, as well as dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta in response to MPTP. To evaluate the extent of the inflammatory response created by the MPTP regimen utilized, we further performed bioluminescence imaging using TLR2-luc/gfp transgenic mice and microglial density analysis, which revealed a modest brain microglial response following MPTP. This was accompanied by a significant astrocytic reaction in the striatum, which was of similar magnitude both in wild type and MyD88-/- mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that subacute MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration observed in the central nervous

  5. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection for Polymorphic Genes of the Human Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Daniel R.; Page, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has examined the behavioral and mental health consequences of polymorphisms in genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Along with this, there has been considerable interest in the possibility that these polymorphisms have developed and/or been maintained due to the action of natural selection. Episodes of natural selection on a gene are expected to leave molecular “footprints” in the DNA sequences of the gene and adjacent genomic regions. Here we review the research literature investigating molecular signals of selection for genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. The gene SLC6A4, which codes for a serotonin transport protein, was the one gene for which there was consistent support from multiple studies for a selective episode. Positive selection on SLC6A4 appears to have been initiated ∼ 20–25,000 years ago in east Asia and possibly in Europe. There are scattered reports of molecular signals of selection for other neurotransmitter genes, but these have generally failed at replication across studies. In spite of speculation in the literature about selection on these genes, current evidence from population genomic analyses supports selectively neutral processes, such as genetic drift and population dynamics, as the principal drivers of recent evolution in dopaminergic and serotonergic genes other than SLC6A4. PMID:27375535

  6. The long-term effects of the herbicide atrazine on the dopaminergic system following exposure during pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanshu; Sun, Yan; Yang, Junwei; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jia; Li, Baixiang

    2014-03-15

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. Atrazine has been shown to cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agents, but only few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine following exposure during the pubertal development. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 41-day exposure to atrazine on the dopaminergic system in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with atrazine at 25 or 50mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal day 22 to 62. The content of dopamine (DA) was examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoaminetransporter 2 (VMAT2) were examined in samples of the ventral mid-brain by use of fluorescence PCR and Western-blot analysis when the rats reached the age of one year. Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of atrazine led to reduced levels of DA and mRNA of Nurr1 in one-year-old animals. This study shows that the long-term adverse effects of atrazine on the dopaminergic system have a special relevance after juvenile exposure.

  7. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  8. Dissociation of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems in conditional learning in rats.

    PubMed

    George, David N; Jenkins, Trisha A; Killcross, Simon

    2011-11-20

    There is converging evidence that the prefrontal and mesolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) systems are involved in the performance of a variety of tasks that require the use of contextual, or task-setting, information to select an appropriate response from a number of candidate responses. Performance on tasks of this nature are impaired in schizophrenia and in rats exposed to psychotomimetics; impairments that are often attenuated by administration of dopamine (DA) antagonists. Rats were trained on either a complex instrumental discrimination task, that required the use of task-setting cues, or a simple discrimination task that did not. Following training, microdialysis probes were implanted unilaterally in either the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) and samples were collected in freely moving animals during a behavioural test session. In Experiment 1, we found no difference in levels of DA in the mPFC of rats while they were performing the two discrimination tasks. Rats that performed the complex task did, however, show significantly higher mPFC DA levels relative to rats in the simple discrimination condition following the end of the behavioural test session. In Experiment 2, rats performing the conditional discrimination showed lower levels of DA in the NAc compared to the simple discrimination group both during the test session and after it. These results provide direct evidence that conditional discrimination tasks engage frontal and mesolimbic DAergic systems and are consistent with the proposal that regulation of fronto-striatal DA is involved in aspects of cognitive control that are known to be impaired in individuals with schizophrenia.

  9. The influence of dopaminergic system in medial prefrontal cortex on ketamine-induced amnesia in passive avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-15

    Dopaminergic modulations of glutamate receptors are essential for the prefrontal cortical (PFC) behavioral and cognitive functions. In order to understand the effect of dopamine/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of dopaminergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia by using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC administration of SKF 38393, D1 receptor agonist and quinpirol D2 receptor agonist, alone did not affect memory acquisition. However, amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) significantly decreased by pretreatment of SKF 38393 (2 and 4µg/mouse) and quinpirol (0.3, 1 and 3µg/mouse). Pre-training administration of SCH 23390, D1 receptor antagonist (0.75 and 1μg/mouse, intra-mPFC), and sulpiride D2 receptor antagonist (3μg/mouse, intra-mPFC) impaired memory acquisition. In addition, co-pretreatment of different doses of SCH 23390 and sulpiride with lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. It may be concluded that dopaminergic system of medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  10. Therapeutic immunization protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Eric J.; Mosley, R. Lee; Destache, Chris J.; Lewis, Travis B.; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Gorantla, Santhi; Nemachek, Craig; Green, Steven R.; Przedborski, Serge; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2004-01-01

    Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the hallmark of Parkinson's disease, can be recapitulated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice. Herein, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of copolymer-1 immune cells to MPTP recipient mice leads to T cell accumulation within the substantia nigra pars compacta, suppression of microglial activation, and increased local expression of astrocyte-associated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. This immunization strategy resulted in significant protection of nigrostriatal neurons against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration that was abrogated by depletion of donor T cells. Such vaccine treatment strategies may provide benefit for Parkinson's disease. PMID:15197276

  11. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.

  12. Neonatal exposure to estradiol valerate increases dopamine content in nigrostriatal pathway during adulthood in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cruz, G; Riquelme, R; Espinosa, P; Jara, P; Dagnino-Subiabre, A; Renard, G M; Sotomayor-Zárate, R

    2014-05-01

    Research in programming has focused in the study of stimuli that affect sensitive periods of development such as prenatal and neonatal stage. We previously showed that exposure to estradiol valerate to female rats during the first 12 h of life increased catecholamine content in ventromedial-arcuatus hypothalamus of the adult rat. However, changes in others dopaminergic circuits have not been studied. The purpose of this work was to determine the neurotransmitters changes induced by neonatal estradiol valerate (0.1 mg/50 μl s. c. per rat) administration on nigrostriatal pathway of adult female rats. Sesame oil (50 μl s. c. per rat) was administered in a control parallel group. EV-1 adult rats presented effective markers of long-term estrogenization as decreased serum levels of progesterone and a reduction in the size of estrogen-sensitive organs. In the brain, neonatal estradiol valerate administration led to a significant increase in dopamine content in striatum, substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. With respect to the contents of dopamine metabolites, only 3-methoxytyramine content increased in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In addition, the content of noradrenaline increased only in striatum. Interestingly, estrogenized rats lacked locomotor activity induced by acute dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg i. p.). Altogether, these results show that neonatal exposure to estradiol valerate permanently modified the content of monoamine neurotransmitters in nigrostriatal pathway and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity of adult female rats. This might imply that estrogenized rats could have changes in the expression of key proteins in dopaminergic regulation, as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter.

  13. Interaction between the dopaminergic and opioidergic systems in dorsal hippocampus in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Reisi, Zahra; Haghparast, Amir; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    The hippocampus is a region of the brain that serves several functions. The dopaminergic system acts through D1- and D2-like receptors to interfere in pain modulation and the opioid receptors play major roles in analgesic processes and there are obvious overlaps between these two systems. The present study investigated the interaction between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) region for formalin-induced orofacial pain. Two guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region and morphine (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 μg/0.5 μl saline) and naloxone (0.3, 1 and 3 μg/0.5 μl saline) were used as the opioid receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. SKF-38393 (1 μg/0.5 μl saline) was used as a D1-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (2 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D2-like receptor agonist, SCH-23390 (0.5 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D1-like receptor antagonist and sulpiride (3 μg/0.5 μl DMSO) as a D2-like receptor antagonist. To induce orofacial pain, 50 μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the left side of the upper lip. Our results showed that different doses of morphine significantly reduced orofacial pain in both phases induced by formalin. Naloxone (1 and 3 μg) reversed morphine induced analgesia in CA1. SKF-38393 and quinpirole with naloxone (1 μg) significantly decreased formalin-induced orofacial pain in both phases. SCH-23390 had no effect on the antinociceptive response of morphine in both phases of orofacial pain. Sulpiride reversed the antinociceptive effects of morphine only in the first phase, but this result was not significant. Our findings suggest that there is cross-talk between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems. Opioidergic neurons also exerted antinociceptive effects by modulation of the dopaminergic system in the CA1 region of the brain.

  14. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Camacho, V. M.; Ávila-García, M. C.; Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [11C ]-DTBZ, [11C ]-RAC, and [18F ]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  15. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Camacho, V. M. Ávila-García, M. C. Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.

    2014-11-07

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ, [{sup 11}C]-RAC, and [{sup 18}F]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  16. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins.

  17. Attenuation of malonate-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Connop, B P; Boegman, R J; Beninger, R J; Jhamandas, K

    1996-04-01

    Focal infusions of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, malonate, into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in a substantial depletion of ipsilateral striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. The percentage decrease in striatal TH activity following intranigral malonate (0.5 mumol/0.5 microliter) infusion was similar at 4 (58%) and 7 days (62%) post-infusion. To assess the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in malonate neurotoxicity, animals were pretreated with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (2 x 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Four days post-infusion of malonate (0.5 mumol/0.5 microliter) into the SNc, striatal TH activity was depleted by 58% in vehicle pretreated animals and 14% in the presence of MK-801 indicating a significant neuroprotective effect of MK-801 on malonate action. To determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in malonate-induced nigral toxicity, the actions of malonate were evaluated in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, 7-nitro indazole (7-NI) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L- NAME). Systemic injections of 7-NI (20, 30, 40, 50 and 75 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of nigral NOS activity which was maximal at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Intranigral infusion of malonate with 20 and 50 mg/kg 7-NI pretreatment produced a 46 and 31% decrease in striatal TH activity, respectively. Thus, a significant protective effect at the higher but not lower dose of 7-NI was observed. Pretreatment with a L- NAME regimen (2 x 250 mg/kg; i.p.), previously shown to inhibit brain NOS activity by greater than 86%, also produced a significant neuroprotective effect against malonate-induced neurotoxicity (30% decrease). The results of this study suggest that malonate-induced toxicity to the dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway is mediated, at least in part, by NMDA receptor activation and the formation of NO.

  18. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects.

  19. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, M; Ketabchi, M; Khakpai, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-01-29

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined in male mice. A one-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 μg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.5 μg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (1 μg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.25 and 0.5 μg/mouse) suppressed the learning of a single-trial passive avoidance task. Also, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold doses of SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed impairment of memory formation. However, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of SKF38393 (0.1 μg/mouse) or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) increased pre-training harmaline (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, SKF Ca blocker (SKF) (0.01 μg/mouse) decrease the amnesia induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg), while co-administration of SKF (0.01 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) or SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) potentiate amnesia caused by harmaline. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  20. Evidence for a dopaminergic deficit in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on positron emission scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Snow, B.J.; Bhatt, M.H.; Peppard, R.; Eisen, A.; Calne, D.B. )

    1993-10-23

    Although rare, the chronic neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and idiopathic parkinsonism coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. This suggests that patients with ALS may have subclinical lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. To study this hypothesis, the authors did positron emission tomography with 6-fluorodopa on 16 patients with sporadic ALS and without extrapyramidal disease, and compared the results with age-matched controls. They found a significant progressive fall in 6-fluorodopa uptake with time since diagnosis, and reduced dopaminergic function in 3 patients with ALS of long duration. This supports the hypothesis that ALS and IP may share pathogenesis, and, perhaps, etiology.

  1. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  2. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    González, Candela R; González, Betina; Matzkin, María E; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Vitullo, Alfredo D; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  3. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 up-regulation and proapoptotic function in dopaminergic neurons: relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2013-07-26

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117-4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP(+)-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP(+)-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD.

  4. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on α-synuclein aggregation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons (PC12 cells) were treated with different doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), to investigate their effects on α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation and their mechanism of action. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were performed. Exposure to TiO2-NPs increased α-Syn expression (p < 0.05) and induced dose-dependent α-Syn aggregation. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine partially inhibited α-Syn expression induced by a 200 μg/ml dose of TiO2-NPs. TiO2-NPs reduced the expressions of parkin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase protein, and were associated with oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system also contributed to α-Syn aggregation. The potentially neurotoxic TiO2-NPs may cause Parkinson's disease.

  5. Genes in the dopaminergic system and delinquent behaviors across the life course: the role of social controls and risks.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Menard, Scott; Roettger, Michael E; Knight, Kelly E; Boutwell, Brian B; Smolen, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective or risky social factors at four social levels including school, neighborhood, friends, and family within the gene-environment interaction framework. We extend previous work in this area by providing a testable typology of gene-environment interactions derived from current theories in this area. We find consistent evidence that the associations between putatively risky genotypes and delinquent behavior are suppressed within protective social environments. We also provide some evidence that supports the differential susceptibility hypothesis for these outcomes. Our findings largely confirm the conclusions of previous work and continue to highlight the critical role of the social environment within candidate gene studies of complex behaviors.

  6. Effects of early and late neonatal bromocriptine treatment on hypothalamic neuropeptides, dopaminergic reward system and behavior of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janaine C; Lisboa, Patricia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Pinheiro, Cintia R; Fraga, Mabel C; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Franci, Celso R; Manhães, Alex C; Moura, Egberto G

    2016-06-14

    In humans, bromocriptine (BRO) is used as a treatment for many disorders, such as prolactinomas, even during pregnancy and lactation. Previously we demonstrated that maternal BRO treatment at the end of lactation programs offspring for obesity and several endocrine dysfunctions. Here, we studied the long-term effects of direct BRO injection in neonatal Wistar rats on their dopaminergic pathway, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at adulthood. Male pups were either s.c. injected with BRO (0.1μg/once daily) from postnatal day (PN) 1 to 10 or from PN11 to 20. Controls were injected with methanol-saline. Body mass, food intake, neuropeptides, dopamine pathway parameters, anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were analyzed. The dopamine pathway was analyzed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS) at PN180. PN1-10 BRO-treated animals had normal body mass and adiposity but lower food intake and plasma prolactin (PRL). This group had higher POMC in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the VTA, higher dopa decarboxylase (DDc), higher D2R and μu-opioid receptor in the NAc. Concerning behavior in elevated plus maze (EPM), BRO-treated animals displayed more anxiety-like behaviors. PN11-20 BRO-treated showed normal body mass and adiposity but higher food intake and plasma PRL. This group had lower POMC in the ARC, lower TH in the VTA and lower DAT in the NAc. BRO-treated animals showed less anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM. Thus, neonatal BRO injection, depending on the time of treatment, leads to different long-term dysfunctions in the dopaminergic reward system, food intake behavior and anxiety levels, findings that could be partially due to PRL and POMC changes.

  7. Ascending midbrain dopaminergic axons require descending GAD65 axon fascicles for normal pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Claudia M.; Kim, Minkyung; Frade-Pérez, Daniela; Ávila-González, Daniela; Téllez, Elisa; Mastick, Grant S.; Tamariz, Elisa; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP) is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold. PMID:24926237

  8. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  9. Targeting Wnt signaling at the neuroimmune interface for dopaminergic neuroprotection/repair in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    L’Episcopo, Francesca; Tirolo, Cataldo; Caniglia, Salvo; Testa, Nuccio; Morale, Maria Concetta; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pluchino, Stefano; Marchetti, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling cascade has emerged as an essential system regulating multiple processes in developing and adult brain. Accumulating evidence points to a dysregulation of Wnt signaling in major neurodegenerative pathologies including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and deregulated activation of astrocytes and microglia. This review highlights the emerging link between Wnt signaling and key inflammatory pathways during mDA neuron damage/repair in PD progression. In particular, we summarize recent evidence documenting that aging and neurotoxicant exposure strongly antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mDA neurons and subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroprogenitors via astrocyte–microglial interactions. Dysregulation of the crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways delineate novel mechanisms driving the decline of SVZ plasticity with age and the limited nigrostriatal dopaminergic self-repair in PD. These findings hold a promise in developing therapies that target Wnt/β-catenin signaling to enhance endogenous restoration and neuronal outcome in age-dependent diseases, such as PD. PMID:24431301

  10. Semax, an ACTH(4-10) analogue with nootropic properties, activates dopaminergic and serotoninergic brain systems in rodents.

    PubMed

    Eremin, Kirill O; Kudrin, Vladimir S; Saransaari, Pirjo; Oja, Simo S; Grivennikov, Igor A; Myasoedov, Nikolay F; Rayevsky, Kirill S

    2005-12-01

    Corticotrophin (ACTH) and its analogues, particularly Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro), demonstrate nootropic activity. Close functional and anatomical links have been established between melanocortinergic and monoaminergic brain systems. The aim of present work was to investigate the effects of Semax on neurochemical parameters of dopaminergic- and serotonergic systems in rodents. The tissue content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the striatum was significantly increased (+25%) 2 h after Semax administration. The extracellular striatal level of 5-HIAA gradually increased up to 180% within 1-4 h after Semax (0.15 mg/kg, ip) administration. This peptide alone failed to alter the tissue and extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites. Semax injected 20 min prior D: -amphetamine dramatically enhanced the effects of the latter on the extracellular level of dopamine and on the locomotor activity of animals. Our results reveal the positive modulatory effect of Semax on the striatal serotonergic system and the ability of Semax to enhance both the striatal release of dopamine and locomotor behavior elicited by D-amphetamine.

  11. Negative cerebral blood volume fMRI response coupled with Ca²⁺-dependent brain activity in a dopaminergic road map of nociception.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chang, Chen; Chen, Chiao-Chi V

    2014-04-15

    Decreased cerebral blood volume/flow (CBV/CBF) contributes to negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. But it is still strongly debated whether these negative BOLD or CBV/CBF signals are indicative of decreased or increased neuronal activity. The fidelity of Ca(2+) signals in reflecting neuronal excitation is well documented. However, the roles of Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent activity in negative fMRI signals have never been explored; an understanding of this is essential to unraveling the underlying mechanisms and correctly interpreting the hemodynamic response of interest. The present study utilized a nociception-induced negative CBV fMRI response as a model. Ca(2+) signals were investigated in vivo using Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and the downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling was investigated using phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding (pCREB) immunohistology. The results showed that nociceptive stimulation led to (1) striatal CBV decreases, (2) Ca(2+) increases via the nigrostriatal pathway, and (3) substantial expression of pCREB in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and striatal neurons. Interestingly, the striatal negative fMRI response was abolished by blocking substantia nigra activity but was not affected by blocking the striatal activity. This suggests the importance of input activity other than output in triggering the negative CBV signals. These findings indicate that the striatal negative CBV fMRI signals are associated with Ca(2+) increases and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling along the nigrostriatal pathway. The obtained data reveal a new brain road map in response to nociceptive stimulation of hemodynamic changes in association with Ca(2+) signals within the dopaminergic system.

  12. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  13. Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David; Kay, Denis G

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.

  14. Changes in GABA(B) receptor mRNA expression in the rodent basal ganglia and thalamus following lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway.

    PubMed

    Johnston, T; Duty, S

    2003-01-01

    Loss of striatal dopaminergic innervation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by widespread alterations in GABAergic activity within the basal ganglia and thalamus. Accompanying changes in GABA(B) receptor binding have been noted in some basal ganglia regions in parkinsonian primates, suggesting that plasticity of this receptor may also occur in PD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in receptor binding and the manner and extent to which different GABA(B) receptor mRNA subunits and splice-variants are affected remain unknown. This study used in situ hybridisation to examine the full profile of changes in expression of the known rat GABA(B) receptor genes and gene variants in the basal ganglia and thalamus of rats, brought about by degeneration of the nigrostriatal tract. All of the GABA(B) mRNA species examined showed unique expression patterns throughout the basal ganglia and thalamus. In addition, all exhibited a marked loss of expression (between 46 and 80%) in the substantia nigra pars compacta of animals bearing a complete 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal tract, confirming the presence of these variants in dopaminergic neurones in this region. Further analysis of autoradioagrams revealed additional changes only in GABA(B(1a)) mRNA in discrete anatomical regions. Expression of the GABA(B(1a)) variant was significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (33+/-2%), entopeduncular nucleus (26+/-1%) and the subthalamic nucleus (16+/-1%). Since these regions all receive reduced GABAergic innervation following nigrostriatal tract lesioning, it is possible that the increased expression occurs as a compensatory measure. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that GABA(B) receptor genes exhibit regional- and subunit/variant-specific plasticity at the molecular level under parkinsonian conditions.

  15. Nicotine neuroprotection against nigrostriatal damage: importance of the animal model.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; O'Neill, Michael; Perez, Xiomara A

    2007-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by a loss of nigrostriatal dopamine-containing neurons. Unexpectedly, there is a reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in tobacco users. This finding is important because the identification of the component(s) responsible for this effect could lead to therapeutic strategies to slow down or halt the progression of Parkinson's disease. Results from cell culture models consistently show that nicotine protects against neurotoxicity. However, data from animal models of nigrostriatal damage are conflicting, thus raising questions about a neuroprotective role of nicotine. Accumulating evidence indicates that discrepancies are observed primarily in mouse models of the disease. By contrast, reproducible protection occurs in rat models and in a nonhuman primate parkinsonian model that closely resembles the human disease. These findings highlight the need to use the appropriate animal model and treatment conditions when testing putative neuroprotective agents.

  16. Cystamine/cysteamine rescues the dopaminergic system and shows neurorestorative properties in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisbani, G; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Gibrat, C; Saint-Pierre, M; Lagacé, M; Badrinarayanan, S; Lavallée-Bourget, M H; Charest, J; Chabrat, A; Boivin, L; Lebel, M; Bousquet, M; Lévesque, M; Cicchetti, F

    2015-10-01

    The neuroprotective properties of cystamine identified in pre-clinical studies have fast-tracked this compound to clinical trials in Huntington's disease, showing tolerability and benefits on motor symptoms. We tested whether cystamine could have such properties in a Parkinson's disease murine model and now provide evidence that it can not only prevent the neurodegenerative process but also can reverse motor impairments created by a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion 3 weeks post-surgery. Importantly, we report that cystamine has neurorestorative properties 5 weeks post-lesion as seen on the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons which is comparable with treatments of cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine used in the clinic, as well as rasagiline, increasingly prescribed in early parkinsonism. All three compounds induced neurite arborization of the remaining dopaminergic cells which was further confirmed in ex vivo dopaminergic explants derived from Pitx3-GFP mice. The disease-modifying effects displayed by cystamine/cysteamine would encourage clinical testing.

  17. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894

  18. Regulation of isoproterenol-induced salivary gland hyperplasia in young and old mice by substances affecting serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of substances modulating serotoninergic and dopaminergic structures on induction of hyperplasia of the salivary glands by isoproterenol in young and old mice. /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected into the gland tissue in the experiments. The effect of serotonin and dopamine on isoproterenol-induced proliferation of salivary gland cells and number of activated splenic lymphocytes in old mice is shown. It is found that excitation of serotoninergic structures inhibits, whereas excitation of dopaminergic structures stimulates the response of mice to isoproterenol.

  19. Gene regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Flames, Nuria; Hobert, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine signaling regulates a variety of complex behaviors and defects in dopaminergic neuron function or survival result in severe human pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease 1. The common denominator of all dopaminergic neurons is the expression of dopamine pathway genes, which code for a set of phylogenetically conserved proteins involved in dopamine synthesis and transport. Gene regulatory mechanisms that result in the activation of dopamine pathway genes and thereby ultimately determine the identity of dopaminergic neurons are poorly understood in any system studied to date 2. We show here that a simple cis-regulatory element, the DA motif, controls the expression of all dopamine pathway genes in all dopaminergic cell types in C. elegans. The DA motif is activated by the ETS transcription factor, AST-1. Loss of ast-1 results in the failure of all distinct dopaminergic neuronal subtypes to terminally differentiate. Ectopic expression of ast-1 is sufficient to activate the dopamine production pathway in some cellular contexts. Vertebrate dopaminergic pathway genes also contain phylogenetically conserved DA motifs that can be activated by the mouse ETS transcription factor Etv1/ER81 and a specific class of dopaminergic neurons fails to differentiate in mice lacking Etv1/ER81. Moreover, ectopic Etv1/ER81 expression induces dopaminergic fate marker expression in neuronal primary cultures. Mouse Etv1/ER81 can also functionally substitute for ast-1 in C.elegans. Our studies reveal an astoundingly simple and apparently conserved regulatory logic of dopaminergic neuron terminal differentiation and may provide new entry points into the diagnosis or therapy of conditions in which dopamine neurons are defective. PMID:19287374

  20. Maternal Omega-3 Supplement Improves Dopaminergic System in Pre- and Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Kempe, Paula G; Rizzo de Souza, Luiz E; Zanata, Silvio M; Machado, Ricardo B; Suchecki, Deborah; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L S; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the consequence of a neurodevelopmental disruption, rather than strictly a consequence of aging. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal supplement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may be associated with neuroprotection mechanisms in a self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of PD. To test this hypothesis, behavioral and neurochemical assay were performed in prenatally LPS-exposed offspring at postnatal day 21. To further determine whether prenatal LPS exposure and maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation had persisting effects, brain injury was induced on PN 90 rats, following bilateral intranigral LPS injection. Pre- and postnatal inflammation damage not only affected dopaminergic neurons directly, but it also modified critical features, such as activated microglia and astrocyte cells, disrupting the support provided by the microenvironment. Unexpectedly, our results failed to show any involvement of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis pathway in neuronal death mechanisms. On the other hand, learning and memory deficits detected with a second toxic exposure were significantly attenuated in maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation group. In addition, ω-3 PUFAs promote beneficial effect on synaptic function, maintaining the neurochemical integrity in remaining neurons, without necessarily protect them from neuronal death. Thus, our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs affect the functional ability of the central nervous system in a complex way in a multiple inflammation-induced neurotoxicity animal model of PD and they disclose new ways of understanding how these fatty acids control responses of the brain to different challenges.

  1. Decreased vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in knockout mice affects aging of dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These transporters work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce transporter expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression affect age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that affect the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383

  2. Targeting the-Dopaminergic Nervous System: Altering Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish (Dania rerio) are becoming an important model system in studying the effects of environmental chemicals on behavior. In order to develop a rapid in vivo screen to prioritize toxic chemicals, we have begun assessing the acute locomotor effects of drugs that act on the do...

  3. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in animal models of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Sonsalla, Patricia K; Coleman, Christal; Wong, Lai-Yoong; Harris, Suzan L; Richardson, Jason R; Gadad, Bharathi S; Li, Wenhao; German, Dwight C

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a prominent loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons with an accompanying neuroinflammation. The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) plays a role in oxidative-stress induced disorders and is thought to mediate its detrimental actions via activation of AngII AT1 receptors. The brain renin-angiotensin system is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including PD. Blockade of the angiotensin converting enzyme or AT1 receptors provides protection in acute animal models of parkinsonism. We demonstrate here that treatment of mice with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects the striatum from acutely administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrine (MPTP), and that chronic captopril protects the nigral DA cell bodies from degeneration in a progressive rat model of parkinsonism created by the chronic intracerebral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). The accompanying activation of microglia in the substantia nigra of MPP+-treated rats was reduced by the chronic captopril treatment. These findings indicate that captopril is neuroprotective for nigrostriatal DA neurons in both acute and chronic rodent PD models. Targeting the brain AngII pathway may be a feasible approach to slowing neurodegeneration in PD.

  4. Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Glenda E.; Virdee, Kanwar; Pienaar, Ilse; Al-Zaid, Felwah; Dalley, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems, which are critical regulators of normal adaptive behaviours, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. Specifically, using a rodent model of GC exposure in late gestation (approximating human brain development at late second/early third trimester), we demonstrated enduring effects on the shape and volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) (origins of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways) on the topographical organisation and size of the dopaminergic neuronal populations and astrocytes within these nuclei and on target innervation density and neurochemical markers of dopaminergic transmission (receptors, transporters, basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release at striatal and prefrontal cortical sites) that impact on the adult brain. The effects of antenatal GC treatment (AGT) were both profound and sexually-dimorphic, not only in terms of quantitative change but also qualitatively, with several parameters affected in the opposite direction in males and females. Although such substantial neurobiological changes might presage marked behavioural

  5. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure could modify the dopaminergic system in several limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, R; López-Doval, S; Pereiro, N; Lafuente, A

    2016-01-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most representative of a rising class of persistent organic pollutants perfluorochemicals. In the present study, its neurotoxicity was examined using adult male rats orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the dopamine concentration and its metabolism expressed like the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine and homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine were measured in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Gene and protein expression of the dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were also determined in these limbic areas. The obtained results suggest that: (1) PFOS can alter the dopamine system by modifying its neuronal activity and/or its D1 and D2 receptors in the studied brain regions; (2) the dopamine concentration and metabolism seem to be more sensitive against PFOS toxicity in the hippocampus than in the other analyzed brain areas; (3) the inhibited gene and protein expression of the D1 receptors induced by PFOS in the amygdala could be related to several changes in the HPA axis activity, and lastly; (4) the observed alterations on the dopamine system induced by PFOS could be a possible neurotoxicity mechanism of PFOS, leading to many neurological diseases.

  6. Differences in Dopaminergic Modulation to Motor Cortical Plasticity between Parkinson's Disease and Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ueki, Yoshino; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Ojika, Kosei; Matsukawa, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine modulates the synaptic plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1). To evaluate whether the functioning of the cortico-striatal circuit is necessary for this modulation, we applied a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol that comprised an electric stimulus to the right median nerve at the wrist and subsequent transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1, to 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 with multiple system atrophy of the parkinsonian type (MSA-P) with and without dopamine replacement therapy (-on/off). To investigate the M1 function, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured before and after the PAS. In both patient groups without medication, the PAS protocol failed to increase the averaged amplitude of MEPs. The dopamine replacement therapy in PD, but not in MSA-P effectively restored the PAS-induced MEP increase. This suggests that not the existence of dopamine itself but the activation of cortico-striatal circuit might play an important role for cortical plasticity in the human M1. PMID:23658735

  7. Differences in dopaminergic modulation to motor cortical plasticity between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ueki, Yoshino; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Ojika, Kosei; Matsukawa, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine modulates the synaptic plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1). To evaluate whether the functioning of the cortico-striatal circuit is necessary for this modulation, we applied a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol that comprised an electric stimulus to the right median nerve at the wrist and subsequent transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1, to 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 with multiple system atrophy of the parkinsonian type (MSA-P) with and without dopamine replacement therapy (-on/off). To investigate the M1 function, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured before and after the PAS. In both patient groups without medication, the PAS protocol failed to increase the averaged amplitude of MEPs. The dopamine replacement therapy in PD, but not in MSA-P effectively restored the PAS-induced MEP increase. This suggests that not the existence of dopamine itself but the activation of cortico-striatal circuit might play an important role for cortical plasticity in the human M1.

  8. The tegmental-accumbal dopaminergic system mediates the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, ZhengLin; Kim, Sang Chan; Zhao, RongJie; Wu, YiYan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, HongFeng; Kim, Young Woo; Zhu, XiaoDong; Gu, ChangHong; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyo; Jang, Eun Young; Ko, Hae Li; Yang, Chae Ha

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in the anxiolytic effects of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal (EW). Rats were intraperitoneally treated with 3g/kg/day of ethanol for 28 days and experienced 3 days of withdrawal. During EW, the rats were bilaterally treated with acupuncture at acupoints HT7 (Shenmen) or PC6 (Neiguan) or at a non-acupoint (tail) once daily for 1min over 3 days. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that EW significantly decreased both DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the nucleus accumbens shell (NaccSh); however, these processes were inhibited by acupuncture at HT7 but not at PC6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays also revealed that acupuncture at HT7 prevented the EW-induced reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression in the NaccSh. A prior intra-NaccSh infusion of a cocktail of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and the selective DA2 receptor antagonist eticlopride blocked the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7 in elevated plus maze tests. In addition, acupuncture at HT7 suppressed EW-induced increased BDNF levels in the VTA. These findings suggest that acupuncture at HT7 improves the VTA-Nacc DAergic function via inhibition of BDNF expression in the VTA, thereby exerting anxiolytic effects during EW.

  9. Repeated dexamphetamine treatment alters the dopaminergic system and increases the phMRI response to methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Bouet, Valentine; Hesseling, Peter; Meerhoff, Gideon F.; de Bruin, Kora M.; Koeleman, Jan; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Desfosses, Emilie; Galineau, Laurent; Gozzi, Alessandro; Dauphin, François; Gsell, Willy; Booij, Jan; Lucassen, Paul J.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA) neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart), followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) with a methylphenidate (MPH) challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function. We subsequently validated the DA-ergic changes post-mortem, using a.o. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and autoradiography. In the AMPH pre-treated group, we observed a significantly larger BOLD response to the MPH challenge, particularly in DA-ergic brain areas and their downstream projections. Subsequent autoradiography studies showed that AMPH pre-treatment significantly reduced DA transporter (DAT) density in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens, whereas HPLC analysis revealed increases in the DA metabolite homovanillic acid in the CPu. Our results suggest that AMPH pre-treatment alters DAergic responsivity, a change that can be detected with phMRI in rats. These phMRI changes likely reflect increased DA release together with reduced DAT binding. The ability to assess subtle synaptic changes using phMRI is promising for both preclinical studies of drug discovery, and for clinical studies where phMRI can be a useful tool to non-invasively investigate DA abnormalities, e.g. in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28241065

  10. Localization of nigrostriatal dopamine receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride and (/sup 3/H)-forskolin was used to assess the effects of single and combined neurotoxin lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat brain on dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes and adenylate cyclase (AC), respectively. Ibotenic acid (IA) lesions of the caudate-putamen (CPu) resulted in near total loss of both (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 and of (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding in the ipsilateral CPu and substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu was only partially removed by this same lesion, and nigral (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding was virtually unchanged. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and IA lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNC) did not affect (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 or (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding, but largely removed (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the SNC. A 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway followed by an ipsilateral IA injection of the CPu failed to further reduce (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding in the CPu. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic DA receptors in the CPu are of both the D1 and D2 variety; however, a portion of D2 receptors in the CPu may be presynaptic on afferent nerve terminals to this structure. D1 receptors in the SNR are presynaptic on striatonigral terminals, whereas the D2 receptors of the SNC are autoreceptors on nigral DA neurons. The existence of presynaptic D2 receptors on nigrostriatal DA-ergic terminals could not be confirmed by this study. Co-localization of D1 receptors and AC occurs in both the CPu and SNR.

  11. Lateral habenula as a link between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems contributes to depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao Feng; Zhang, Bei Lin; Li, Ji Cheng; Yang, Ying Ying; Sun, Yan Fei; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons is a key pathological change of Parkinson's disease (PD), and its motor consequences have been widely recognized. Recently, mood disorders associated with PD have begun to attract a great deal of interest, however, their pathogenesis remains unclear. PD is associated with not only degenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra but also changes in serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. The abnormalities in central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. The lateral habenula (LHb) is closely related to the substantia nigra and raphe nuclei, and its hyperactivity is closely related to the pathogenesis of depression. In this study, we screened rats with depressive-like behaviors from PD model animals and found that cytochrome c oxidase activity in the LHb of these rats was twice that seen in the control rats. In the forced swim test, LHb lesions caused a decrease in depressive-like behavior of PD rats as indexed by decreased immobility times and increased climbing times. Additionally, LHb lesions caused an enhance in 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. These results suggest that LHb lesions may improve depressive-like behavior in PD rats by increasing 5-HT levels in the raphe nuclei. Thus, LHb contributes to the depressive-like behavior in PD rats via mediating the effects of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra on serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei.

  12. Intervention with exercise restores motor deficits but not nigrostriatal loss in a progressive MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sconce, M D; Churchill, M J; Greene, R E; Meshul, C K

    2015-07-23

    Many studies have investigated exercise therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have shown benefits in improving motor deficits. However, exercise does not slow down the progression of the disease or induce the revival of lost nigrostriatal neurons. To examine the dichotomy of behavioral improvement without the slowing or recovery of dopaminergic cell or terminal loss, we tested exercise therapy in an intervention paradigm where voluntary running wheels were installed half-way through our progressive PD mouse model. In our model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is administered over 4 weeks with increased doses each week (8, 16, 24, 32-kg/mg). We found that after 4 weeks of MPTP treatment, mice that volunteered to exercise had behavioral recovery in several measures despite the loss of 73% and 53% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) within the dorsolateral (DL) striatum and the substantia nigra (SN), respectively which was equivalent to the loss seen in the mice that did not exercise but were also administered MPTP for 4 weeks. Mice treated with 4 weeks of MPTP showed a 41% loss of vesicular monoamine transporter II (VMAT2), a 71% increase in the ratio of glycosylated/non-glycosylated dopamine transporter (DAT), and significant increases in glutamate transporters including VGLUT1, GLT-1, and excitatory amino acid carrier 1. MPTP mice that exercised showed recovery of all these biomarkers back to the levels seen in the vehicle group and showed less inflammation compared to the mice treated with MPTP for 4 weeks. Even though we did not measure tissue dopamine (DA) concentration, our data suggest that exercise does not alleviate motor deficits by sparing nigrostriatal neurons, but perhaps by stabilizing the extraneuronal neurotransmitters, as evident by a recovery of DA and glutamate transporters. However, suppressing inflammation could be another mechanism of this locomotor recovery. Although exercise will not be a successful treatment alone, it could

  13. Different mechanisms for dopaminergic excitation induced by opiates and cannabinoids in the rat midbrain.

    PubMed

    Melis, M; Gessa, G L; Diana, M

    2000-08-01

    1. The mechanism underlying morphine and cannabinoid-induced excitation of meso-accumbens and nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons was investigated by extracellular single unit recording techniques coupled with antidromic activation from the nucleus accumbens and striatum respectively, in unanesthetized rats. 2. The intravenous administration of cumulative doses (1-4 mg/kg) of morphine, dose-dependently increased the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens and neostriatum, while the same doses inhibited the activity of pars reticulata neurons of the substantia nigra. Both effects were antagonized by naloxone (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) but not by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (1 mg/kg i.v.). 3. The intravenous administration of cumulative doses (0.125-0.5 mg/kg) of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) also increased the firing rate of meso-accumbens and nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons; this effect was antagonized by SR 141716A (1 mg/kg i.v.), but not by naloxone. 4. Furthermore, nor delta9-THC up to a dose of 1 mg/kg, maximally effective in stimulating dopamine neurons, neither SR 141716A (1 mg/kg i.v.) at a dose able to reverse the stimulatory effect of delta9, THC on dopamine cells, did alter the activity of SNr neurons. 5. The results indicate that morphine and delta9-THC activate dopaminergic neurons through distinct receptor-mediated mechanisms; morphine may act by removing the inhibitory input from substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons (an effect mediated by mu-opioid receptors). Alternatively, the delta9-THC-induced excitation of dopaminergic neurons seems to be mediated by CB1 cannabinoid receptors, while neither mu-opioid receptors nor substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons are involved.

  14. Nigrostriatal overabundance of α-synuclein leads to decreased vesicle density and deficits in dopamine release that correlate with reduced motor activity.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Meret Nora; Genc, Ozgur; Bobela, Wojciech; Mohanna, Safa; Ardah, Mustafa Taleb; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar; Cantoni, Marco; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Schneggenburger, Ralf; Knott, Graham W; Aebischer, Patrick; Schneider, Bernard Laurent

    2012-05-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein present at most nerve terminals, but its function remains largely unknown. The familial forms of Parkinson's disease associated with multiplications of the α-syn gene locus indicate that overabundance of this protein might have a detrimental effect on dopaminergic transmission. To investigate this hypothesis, we use adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to overexpress human α-syn in the rat substantia nigra. Moderate overexpression of either wild-type (WT) or A30P α-syn differs in the motor phenotypes induced, with only the WT form generating hemiparkinsonian impairments. Wild-type α-syn causes a reduction of dopamine release in the striatum that exceeds the loss of dopaminergic neurons, axonal fibers, and the reduction in total dopamine. At the ultrastructural level, the reduced dopamine release corresponds to a decreased density of dopaminergic vesicles and synaptic contacts in striatal terminals. Interestingly, the membrane-binding-deficient A30P mutant does neither notably reduce dopamine release nor it cause ultrastructural changes in dopaminergic axons, showing that α-syn's membrane-binding properties are critically involved in the presynaptic defects. To further determine if the affinity of the protein for membranes determines the extent of motor defects, we compare three forms of α-syn in conditions leading to pronounced degeneration. While membrane-binding α-syns (wild-type and A53T) induce severe motor impairments, an N-terminal deleted form with attenuated affinity for membranes is inefficient in inducing motor defects. Overall, these results demonstrate that α-syn overabundance is detrimental to dopamine neurotransmission at early stages of the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons.

  15. Cooperative synthesis of dopamine by non-dopaminergic neurons as a compensatory mechanism in the striatum of mice with MPTP-induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Kozina, Elena A; Kim, Aleksandr R; Kurina, Anna Y; Ugrumov, Michael V

    2017-02-01

    Since the late 80s it has been repeatedly shown that besides dopaminergic neurons, the brain contains so-called monoenzymatic neurons possessing one of the enzymes of dopamine (DA) synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). However, the data on the existence of monoenzymatic neurons in the striatum remain controversial, and little is known about their functional significance. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that monoenzymatic TH-containing neurons produce DA in cooperation with the neurons containing AADC, which might help to compensate DA deficiency under the failure of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Using a combination of techniques: retrograde tracing, qPCR and immunolabeling for TH, AADC and MAP2, we showed that the striatum of mice with normal and degraded dopaminergic system comprises of monoenzymatic TH- and AADC-containing neurons. To provide evidence for cooperative synthesis of DA, we used an ex vivo model of inhibiting of DA synthesis by blocking transport of l-DOPA, produced in monoenzymatic TH-containing neurons, to neurons containing AADC by means of l-leucine, a competitive inhibitor of the membrane transporter of large neutral amino acids, and l-DOPA. With this original approach, cooperative synthesis of DA in the striatum was proven in MPTP-treated mice but not in the control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the proportion of DA produced through cooperative synthesis in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice increases as the degradation of dopaminergic system proceeds. An increase in the proportion of cooperative synthesis of DA alongside degradation of the dopaminergic system is also proved by an increase of both TH gene expression and the number of TH-immunoreactive structures in the striatum. Thus, these data suggest that the cooperative synthesis of DA in the degraded striatum is an up-regulated compensatory reaction, which plays an increasing role as DA deficiency rises, and might

  16. 6-Hydroxydopamine-lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway in rats alters basal ganglia mRNA for copper, zinc- and manganese-superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kunikowska, G; Jenner, P

    2001-12-13

    The effects of nigrostriatal pathway destruction on the mRNA levels of copper, zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase in basal ganglia of adult rat were investigated using in situ hybridization histochemistry and oligodeoxynucleotide (single-stranded complementary DNA) probes. The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced destruction of the nigrostriatal pathway resulted in contralateral rotation to apomorphine and a marked loss of specific [(3)H]mazindol binding in the striatum (93%; P<0.05) and of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in substantia nigra pars compacta (SC) (93%; P<0.05) compared with control rats. Levels of Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA were decreased in the striatum, globus pallidus, and SC on the lesioned side of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats compared with sham-lesioned rats (P<0.05). Levels of Mn-SOD mRNA were increased in the nucleus accumbens (P<0.05), but decreased in the SC (P<0.05) on the lesioned side of 6-OHDA-treated rats compared with sham-lesioned rats. Lesioning with 6-OHDA had no effect on glutathione peroxidase mRNA levels in any region of basal ganglia examined. The significant changes in Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD mRNA indicate that SOD is primarily expressed by dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, and that the Mn-SOD gene appears to be inducible in rat basal ganglia in response to both physical and chemical damage 5 weeks after 6-OHDA-lesioning. These findings may clarify the status of antioxidant enzymes, particularly Mn-SOD, in patients with Parkinson's disease and their relevance to disease pathogenesis.

  17. Fetal allogeneic dopaminergic cell suspension grafts in the ventricular system of the rat: characterization of transplant morphology and graft-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Oertel, J; Samii, M; Walter, G F

    2004-05-01

    Experimental transplantation trials of fetal cells in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease or multiple sclerosis still require allogeneic graft material and raise questions of graft rejection and immunosuppression. Alternatively to the striatum, the lateral ventricles have been discussed as grafting site in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease although little is known of the specific immunology of the ventricular system. To address this question, 28 adult female LEW1.W rats received intraventricular allogeneic dopaminergic cell suspension grafts from E14 DA rat fetuses. Twelve animals with syngeneic grafts served as control. Immunohistochemical examination was performed with staining for MHC expression, microglia-macrophages, various lymphocyte subsets, dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes at 4 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks after transplantation. In all animals, intraventricular transplants were found, which showed maturation and integration in the host parenchyma at the later time points. Animals with allogeneic grafts developed a vivid immune response with strong MHC class I expression and dense lymphocyte infiltrates. Surprisingly, this immune response subsided at 12 weeks and healthy grafts remained. These results indicate (1) that, in contrast to intraparenchymal grafts, a strong immune response to allogeneic fetal cell suspension grafts can be elicited by intraventricular grafting, (2) that a peculiar immunological role of the ventricular system has to be considered in further studies, and (3) that a vivid immune response to allografts in the brain may subside without graft destruction.

  18. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity linked to UPS dysfunction and autophagy related changes that can be modulated by PKCδ in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mengshien; Shivalingappa, Prashanth Chandramani; Jin, Huajun; Ghosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Ali, Syed; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2012-01-01

    A compromised protein degradation machinery has been implicated in methamphetamine (MA)-induced neurodegeneration. However, the signaling mechanisms that induce autophagy and UPS dysfunction are not well understood. The present study investigates the contributions of PKC delta (PKCδ) mediated signaling events in MA-induced autophagy, UPS dysfunction and cell death. Using an in vitro mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture model, we demonstrate that MA-induced early induction of autophagy is associated with reduction in proteasomal function and concomitant dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), followed by significantly increased of PKCδ activation, caspase-3 activation, accumulation of ubiquitin positive aggregates and microtubule associated light chain-3 (LC3-II) levels. Interestingly, siRNA mediated knockdown of PKCδ or overexpression of cleavage resistant mutant of PKCδ dramatically reduced MA-induced autophagy, proteasomal function, and associated accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, which closely paralleled cell survival. Importantly, when autophagy was inhibited either pharmacologically (3-MA) or genetically (siRNA mediated silencing of LC3), the dopaminergic cells became sensitized to MA-induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. Conversely, overexpression of LC3 partially protected against MA-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting a neuroprotective role for autophagy in MA-induced neurotoxicity. Notably, rat striatal tissue isolated from MA treated rats also exhibited elevated LC3-II, ubiquitinated protein levels, and PKCδ cleavage. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MA-induced autophagy serves as an adaptive strategy for inhibiting mitochondria mediated apoptotic cell death and degradation of aggregated proteins. Our results also suggest that the sustained activation of PKCδ leads to UPS dysfunction, resulting in the activation of caspase-3 mediated apoptotic cell death in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic

  19. Simultaneous effects on parvalbumin-positive interneuron and dopaminergic system development in a transgenic rat model for sporadic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hamburg, Hannah; Trossbach, Svenja V.; Bader, Verian; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kipar, Anja; Sauvage, Magdalena; Crum, William R.; Vernon, Anthony C.; Bidmon, Hans J.; Korth, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum. Parvalbumin-positive interneuron occurrence in the somatosensory cortex was shifted from layers II/III to V/VI, and the number of calbindin-positive interneurons was slightly decreased. Reduced corpus callosum thickness confirmed trend-level observations from in vivo MRI and voxel-wise tensor based morphometry. These neuroanatomical changes help explain functional phenotypes of this animal model, some of which resemble changes observed in human schizophrenia post mortem brain tissues. Our findings also demonstrate how a single molecular factor, DISC1 overexpression or misassembly, can account for a variety of seemingly unrelated morphological phenotypes and thus provides a possible unifying explanation for similar findings observed in sporadic schizophrenia patients. Our anatomical investigation of a defined model for sporadic mental illness enables a clearer definition of neuroanatomical changes associated with subsets of human sporadic schizophrenia. PMID:27721451

  20. Dopaminergic dysbalance in distinct basal ganglia neurocircuits: implications for the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mehler-Wex, C; Riederer, P; Gerlach, M

    2006-12-01

    The basal ganglia form a forebrain system that collects signals from a large part of the neocortex, redistributes these cortical inputs both with respect to one another and with respect to inputs from the limbic system, and then focuses the inputs of this redistributed, integrated signals into particular regions of the frontal lobes and brainstem involved in aspects of motor planning and motor memory. Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction comprise a spectrum of abnormalities that range from the hypokinetic disorder (from which Parkinson's disease, PD, is the best-known-example) at one extreme to the hyperkinetic disorder (exemplified by Huntington's disease and hemiballism) at the other. In addition to disorders of movement, major mental disorders including schizophrenic-like states and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been linked to abnormalities in the basal ganglia and their allied nuclei. In this paper we discuss recent evidence indicating that a dopamine-induced dysbalance of basal ganglia neurocircuitries may be an important pathophysiological component in PD, schizophrenia and ADHD. According to our model, the deprivation of dopaminergic nigro-striatal input, as in PD, reduces the positive feedback via the direct system, and increases the negative feedback via the indirect system. The critical consequences are an overactivity of the basal ganglia output sites with the resulting inhibition of thalamo-cortical drive. In schizophrenia the serious cognitive deficits might be partly a result of a hyperactivity of the inhibitory dopamine D(2) transmission system. Through this dysinhibition, the thalamus exhibits hyperactivity that overstimulates the cortex resulting in dysfunctions of perception, attention, stimulus distinction, information processing and affective regulation (inducing hallucinations and delusions) and motor disabilities. Recent studies have strongly suggested that a disturbance of the dopaminergic system

  1. A PET study with [11-C]raclopride in Parkinson's disease: preliminary results on the effect of amantadine on the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Volonté, M A; Moresco, R M; Gobbo, C; Messa, C; Carpinelli, A; Rizzo, G; Comi, G; Fazio, F

    2001-02-01

    Amantadine has been proved to be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. Although it is still uncertain which neurochemical events are modified at therapeutic doses, an increase in dopaminergic tone secondary to NMDA receptor blockade and a direct inhibition of the glutamatergic overactivity have been suggested to be involved in its clinical effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amantadine on the dopaminergic system by measuring the in vivo binding of [11-C]raclopride to D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of 6 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Each patient underwent a PET study, before and after 14 days of treatment with amantadine (200 mg/day). Repeated treatment with therapeutic doses of amantadine induced a moderate increase in the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride in the putamen of PD patients. This observation indicates that in PD patients, 200 mg/day amantadine does not produce an increase in extracellular levels of dopamine sufficiently to inhibit raclopride binding or that, if present, is it masked by a concurrent increase in receptor availability, as recently reported in rat striatum.

  2. Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2014-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.

  3. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  4. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  5. Changes of the striatal /sup 3/H-spiperone binding 3 - 6 weeks after nigrostriatal denervation and after two years

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, B.; Silice, C.; Mouchet, P.; Feuerstein, C.; Demenge, P.

    1985-09-09

    A complete unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway by 6-hydroxydopamine injection in the substantia nigra induced a drastic increase in striatal dopaminergic binding sites labelled by /sup 3/H-spiperone, 30 days after the lesion. This increase (75% over controls) was time restricted: it was only 39% and 34% over control values at respectively 25 and 35 days after the lesion. Furthermore, 45 days after the destruction of the substantia nigra, the density of labelled sites returned close to the homolateral control values, but remained higher than the contralateral ones, according to the right-left difference found in control animals. Quite later (2 years after the lesion), there was a decrease in the density of labelled sites as compared to the respective homolateral control levels. However, such binding sites tend to remain higher in the striatum of the lesioned side than in the striatum of the intact one, although such a difference was not statistically significant, being very close the right-left asymmetry observed in control animals. Contrary to previous results with /sup 3/H-Haloperidol, the apparent dissociation constant did not vary significantly, whatever the considered delay after the lesion. These results are discussed in the light of previous results obtained by others and by the authors. 28 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. [18F]fluorodopa PET shows striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruottinen, H M; Rinne, J O; Haaparanta, M; Solin, O; Bergman, J; Oikonen, V J; Järvelä, I; Santavuori, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether nigrostriatal dopaminergic hypofunction is related to the extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL). METHODS: Nine patients with JNCL and seven healthy controls were studied using [18F]fluorodopa PET. RESULTS: In the patients with JNCL [18F]fluorodopa uptake (K[i][occ]) in the putamen was 60% of the control mean and the corresponding figure in the caudate nucleus was 79%. There was a weak correlation between putamen K(i)(occ) values and extrapyramidal symptoms of the patients evaluated by the motor part of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (r = -0.57, P < 0.05). The overall severity of the disease also displayed a negative correlation with the K(i)(occ) values in the putamen (r = -0.71, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with JNCL there was reduced striatal [18F]fluorodopa uptake, which had a modest correlation with extrapyramidal symptoms. Dysfunction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons is therefore not the only cause of the patients' extrapyramidal symptoms, but degenerative changes in other brain areas are also contributory. Images PMID:9219750

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Machado, D G; Neis, V B; Balen, G O; Colla, A; Cunha, M P; Dalmarco, J B; Pizzolatti, M G; Prediger, R D; Rodrigues, A L S

    2012-12-01

    Ursolic acid, a constituent from Rosmarinus officinalis, is a triterpenoid compound which has been extensively known for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid isolated from this plant in two predictive tests of antidepressant property, the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Furthermore, the involvement of dopaminergic system in its antidepressant-like effect was investigated in the TST. Ursolic acid reduced the immobility time in the TST (0.01 and 0.1mg/kg, p.o.) and in the FST (10mg/kg, p.o.), similar to fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (1mg/kg, p.o.) and bupropion (10mg/kg, p.o.). The effect of ursolic acid (0.1mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) and sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist). The administration of a sub-effective dose of ursolic acid (0.001mg/kg, p.o.) in combination with sub-effective doses of SKF38393 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor agonist), apomorphine (0.5μg/kg, i.p., a preferential dopamine D(2) receptor agonist) or bupropion (1mg/kg, i.p., a dual dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) reduced the immobility time in the TST as compared with either drug alone. Ursolic acid and dopaminergic agents alone or in combination did not cause significant alterations in the locomotor and exploratory activities. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid in the TST is likely mediated by an interaction with the dopaminergic system, through the activation of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors.

  8. Behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes induced by chronic crack-cocaine inhalation in mice: The role of dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Areal, Lorena B; Rodrigues, Livia C M; Andrich, Filipe; Moraes, Livia S; Cicilini, Maria A; Mendonça, Josideia B; Pelição, Fabricio S; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester M; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita G W

    2015-09-01

    Crack-cocaine addiction has increasingly become a public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, no studies have focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying the severe addiction produced by this drug, which seems to differ from powder cocaine in many aspects. This study investigated behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes in mice inhaling crack-cocaine, focusing on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex. Mice were submitted to two inhalation sessions of crack-cocaine a day (crack-cocaine group) during 11 days, meanwhile the control group had no access to the drug. We found that the crack-cocaine group exhibited hyperlocomotion and a peculiar jumping behaviour ("escape jumping"). Blood collected right after the last inhalation session revealed that the anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), a specific metabolite of cocaine pyrolysis, was much more concentrated than cocaine itself in the crack-cocaine group. Most genes related to the endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptor and cannabinoid degradation enzymes were downregulated after 11-day crack-cocaine exposition. These changes may have decreased dopamine and its metabolites levels, which in turn may be related with the extreme upregulation of dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase observed in the prefrontal cortex of these animals. Our data suggest that after 11 days of crack-cocaine exposure, neuroadaptive changes towards downregulation of reinforcing mechanisms may have taken place as a result of neurochemical changes observed on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems. Successive changes like these have never been described in cocaine hydrochloride models before, probably because AEME is only produced by cocaine pyrolysis and this metabolite may underlie the more aggressive pattern of addiction induced by crack-cocaine.

  9. Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss, Reduced Neurite Complexity and Autophagic Abnormalities in Transgenic Mice Expressing G2019S Mutant LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian M.; Stafa, Klodjan; Kim, Jaekwang; Banerjee, Rebecca; Westerlund, Marie; Pletnikova, Olga; Glauser, Liliane; Yang, Lichuan; Liu, Ying; Swing, Deborah A.; Beal, M. Flint; Troncoso, Juan C.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Galter, Dagmar; Thomas, Bobby; Lee, Michael K.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s) through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD. PMID:21494637

  10. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life.

  11. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C.; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life

  12. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

  13. Neuroprotective potential of pleiotrophin overexpression in the striatonigral pathway compared with overexpression in both the striatonigral and nigrostriatal pathways.

    PubMed

    Gombash, S E; Manfredsson, F P; Mandel, R J; Collier, T J; Fischer, D L; Kemp, C J; Kuhn, N M; Wohlgenant, S L; Fleming, S M; Sortwell, C E

    2014-07-01

    Intrastriatal injection of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2/1 (rAAV2/1) to overexpress the neurotrophic factor pleiotrophin (PTN) provides neuroprotection for tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), increases THir neurite density in the striatum (ST) and reverses functional deficits in forepaw use following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxic insult. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene transfer studies suggest that optimal neuroprotection is dependent on the site of nigrostriatal overexpression. The present study was conducted to determine whether enhanced neuroprotection could be accomplished via simultaneous rAAV2/1 PTN injections into the ST and SN compared with ST injections alone. Rats were unilaterally injected in the ST alone or injected in both the ST and SN with rAAV2/1 expressing either PTN or control vector. Four weeks later, all rats received intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA. Rats were euthanized 6 or 16 weeks relative to 6-OHDA injection. A novel selective total enumeration method to estimate nigral THir neuron survival was validated to maintain the accuracy of stereological assessment. Long-term nigrostriatal neuroprotection and functional benefits were only observed in rats in which rAAV2/1 PTN was injected into the ST alone. Results suggest that superior preservation of the nigrostriatal system is provided by PTN overexpression delivered to the ST and restricted to the ST and SN pars reticulata and is not improved with overexpression of PTN within SNpc neurons.

  14. Cognitive executive impairment and dopaminergic deficits in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Françoise J; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S; Booij, Jan; Ravina, Bernard M; Lebedev, Alexander V; Pereira, Joana B; Grüner, Renate; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and does directly impact patients' everyday functioning. However, the underlying mechanisms of early cognitive decline are not known. This study explored the association between striatal dopaminergic deficits and cognitive impairment within a large cohort of early, drug-naïve PD patients and tested the hypothesis that executive dysfunction in PD is associated with striatal dopaminergic depletion. A cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 339 PD patients and 158 healthy controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study was analyzed. Each individual underwent cerebral single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and a standardized neuropsychological assessment with tests of memory as well as visuospatial and executive function. SPECT imaging was performed with [(123) I]FP-CIT, and specific binding ratios in left and right putamen and caudate nucleus were calculated. The association between specific binding ratios, cognitive domain scores, and age was analyzed using Pearson's correlations, partial correlation, and conditional process analysis. A small, but significant, positive association between total striatal dopamine transporter binding and the attention/executive domain was found (r = 0.141; P = 0.009) in PD, but this was not significant after adjusting for age. However, in a moderated mediation model, we found that cognitive executive differences between controls and patients with PD were mediated by an age-moderated striatal dopaminergic deficit. Our findings support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit is associated with executive impairment, but not to memory or visuospatial impairment, in early PD.

  15. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Preserves Dopaminergic Neurons in Cellular and Rodent Models of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Redondo, Miriam; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Perez, Concepción; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase 7 plays a major role in down-regulation of protein kinase A activity by hydrolyzing cAMP in many cell types. This cyclic nucleotide plays a key role in signal transduction in a wide variety of cellular responses. In the brain, cAMP has been implicated in learning, memory processes and other brain functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show a novel function of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal death. We found that S14, a heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 7, conferred significant neuronal protection against different insults both in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y and in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. S14 treatment also reduced microglial activation, protected dopaminergic neurons and improved motor function in the lipopolysaccharide rat model of Parkinson disease. Finally, S14 neuroprotective effects were reversed by blocking the cAMP signaling pathways that operate through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition can protect dopaminergic neurons against different insults, and they provide support for the therapeutic potential of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson disease. PMID:21390306

  16. Isotopic reinforcement of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids diminishes nigrostriatal degeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shchepinov, Mikhail S; Chou, Vivian P; Pollock, Erik; Langston, J William; Cantor, Charles R; Molinari, Robert J; Manning-Boğ, Amy B

    2011-11-30

    noted in the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons following MPTP exposure in the D-PUFA (79.5% control) vs. H-PUFA (58.8% control) mice using unbiased stereological cell counting. Taken together, these findings indicate that dietary isotopic reinforcement with D-PUFA partially protects against nigrostriatal damage from oxidative injury elicited by MPTP in mice.

  17. Maternal separation and early stress cause long-lasting effects on dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano-López, Antonio; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; García, Fabio García; Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount experimental studies have shown that maternal separation (MS) is associated with adult offspring abnormal behavior and cognition disorder. Accordingly, this experimental procedure has been proposed as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence based on the neurodevelopmental soon after birth. Endocannabinoid system (eCBs) has been implicated in reward processes, including drug abuse and dependence. MS and associated stress causes changes in the eCBs that seem to facilitate alcohol consumption. In this study, we seek to evaluate potential morphological changes in neurons of the frontal cortex (FCx) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in the expression of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid and dopamine systems and in second messengers, such as Akt, in adult rats subjected to MS and early stress (MS + ES; 2 × 180 min daily) vs. nonseparated rats (NMS). Results showed that MS + ES induces higher D2R expression and lower D3R, FAAH, and MAGL expression compared with NMS rats. Alterations in total dendritic length were also detected and were characterized by increases in the NAcc while there were decreases in the FCx. We believe MS + ES-induced changes in the dopaminergic and endocannabinergic systems and in the neuronal microstructure might be contributing to alcohol seeking behavior and, potential vulnerability to other drugs in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 819-831, 2016.

  18. Loss of cocaine locomotor response in Pitx3-deficient mice lacking a nigrostriatal pathway.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Jeff A; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2009-04-01

    Both the dorsal and ventral striatum have been demonstrated to have a critical role in reinforcement learning and addiction. Dissecting the specific function of these striatal compartments and their associated nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens dopamine pathways, however, has proved difficult. Previous studies using lesions to isolate the contribution of nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens dopamine in mediating the locomotor and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Using a naturally occurring mutant mouse line, aphakia, that lacks a nigrostriatal dopamine pathway but retains an intact mesoaccumbens pathway, we show that the locomotor activating effects of cocaine, including locomotor sensitization, are dependent on an intact nigrostriatal dopamine projection. In contrast, cocaine reinforcement, as measured by conditioned place preference and cocaine sensitization of sucrose preference, is intact in these mice. In light of the well-established role of the nucleus accumbens in mediating the effects of psychostimulants, these data suggest that the nigrostriatal pathway can act as a critical effector mechanism for the nucleus accumbens highlighting the importance of intrastriatal connectivity and providing insight into the functional architecture of the striatum.

  19. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Bouziane, Cheima; Bottelier, Marco A.; Bron, Esther E.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan M. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groote, Inge R.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Lucassen, Paul J.; Andersen, Susan L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES To determine whether the effects of methylphenidate on the dopaminergic system are modified by age and to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate treatment of young but not adult patients with ADHD induces lasting effects on the cerebral blood flow response to dopamine challenge, a noninvasive probe for dopamine function. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Developing Brain–Methylphenidate) among ADHD referral centers in the greater Amsterdam area in the Netherlands between June 1, 2011, and June 15, 2015. Additional inclusion criteria were male sex, age 10 to 12 years or 23 to 40 years, and stimulant treatment–naive status. INTERVENTIONS Treatment with either methylphenidate or a matched placebo for 16 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change in the cerebral blood flow response to an acute challenge with methylphenidate, noninvasively assessed using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, between baseline and 1 week after treatment. Data were analyzed using intent-to-treat analyses. RESULTS Among 131 individuals screened for eligibility, 99 patients met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, and 50 participants were randomized to receive methylphenidate and 49 to placebo. Sixteen weeks of methylphenidate treatment increased the cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate within the thalamus (mean difference, 6.5; 95% CI, 0.4–12.6; P = .04) of children aged 10 to 12 years old but not in adults or in the placebo group. In the striatum, the methylphenidate condition differed significantly from placebo in children but not in adults (mean difference, 7.7; 95% CI, 0.7–14.8; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We

  20. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

  1. Antidepressant-like effect of 17beta-estradiol: involvement of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and (or) sigma-1 receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Kulkarni, S K

    2008-10-01

    -1 receptor antagonist), or BD 1047 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; a novel sigma-1 receptor antagonist) reversed the antiimmobility effects of 17beta-estradiol (20 microg/kg, i.p.). Similarly, in mice pretreated with a subthreshold dose of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A serotonin receptor agonist), 17beta-estradiol (5 microg/kg, i.p.) produced an antidepressant-like effect. These findings demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol exerted an antidepressant-like effect preferentially through the modulation of dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors. This action may also involve the participation of sigma-1 receptors.

  2. 7α-Hydroxypregnenolone, a key neuronal modulator of locomotion, stimulates upstream migration by means of the dopaminergic system in salmon.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Suzuki, Yuko; Hyung Chang, Joon; Koyama, Teppei; Sato, Miku; Mita, Masatoshi; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2015-07-29

    Salmon migrate upstream against an opposing current in their natal river. However, the molecular mechanisms that stimulate upstream migratory behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), a newly identified neuronal modulator of locomotion, acts as a key factor for upstream migration in salmon. We first identified 7α-OH PREG and cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase (P4507α), a steroidogenic enzyme producing 7α-OH PREG, in the salmon brain and then found that 7α-OH PREG synthesis in the brain increases during upstream migration. Subsequently, we demonstrated that 7α-OH PREG increases upstream migratory behavior of salmon. We further found that 7α-OH PREG acts on dopamine neurons in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus during upstream migration. Thus, 7α-OH PREG stimulates upstream migratory behavior through the dopaminergic system in salmon. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of fish upstream migration.

  3. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson’s disease model induced by MPTP

    PubMed Central

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation. PMID:27619562

  4. Dopaminergic basis for impairments in functional connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Peter T; Gilat, Moran; O'Callaghan, Claire; Copland, David A; Frank, Michael J; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2015-04-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, leading to depletion of striatal dopamine. Recent neuroanatomical work has identified pathways for communication across striatal subdivisions, suggesting that the striatum provides a platform for integration of information across parallel corticostriatal circuits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease was associated with impairments in functional connectivity across striatal subdivisions, which could potentially reflect reduced integration across corticostriatal circuits. Utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we analyzed functional connectivity in 39 patients with Parkinson's disease, both "on" and "off" their regular dopaminergic medications, along with 40 age-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate widespread impairments in connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in patients with Parkinson's disease in the "off" state. The administration of dopaminergic medication significantly improved connectivity across striatal subdivisions in Parkinson's disease, implicating dopaminergic deficits in the pathogenesis of impaired striatal interconnectivity. In addition, impaired striatal interconnectivity in the Parkinson's disease "off" state was associated with pathological decoupling of the striatum from the thalamic and sensorimotor (SM) networks. Specifically, we found that although the strength of striatal interconnectivity was positively correlated with both (i) the strength of internal thalamic connectivity, and (ii) the strength of internal SM connectivity, in both healthy controls and the Parkinson's disease "on" state, these relationships were absent in Parkinson's disease when in the "off" state. Taken together our findings emphasize the central role of dopamine in integrated striatal function and the pathological consequences of striatal dopamine

  5. CB2 Receptor Agonists Protect Human Dopaminergic Neurons against Damage from HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Rock, R. Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic impact of anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a serious threat to AIDS patients, and there currently remains no specific therapy for the neurological manifestations of HIV-1. Recent work suggests that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic area is a critical brain region for the neuronal dysfunction and death seen in HAND and that human dopaminergic neurons have a particular sensitivity to gp120-induced damage, manifested as reduced function (decreased dopamine uptake), morphological changes, and reduced viability. Synthetic cannabinoids inhibit HIV-1 expression in human microglia, suppress production of inflammatory mediators in human astrocytes, and there is substantial literature demonstrating the neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids in other neuropathogenic processes. Based on these data, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that synthetic cannabinoids will protect dopaminergic neurons against the toxic effects of the HIV-1 protein gp120. Using a human mesencephalic neuronal/glial culture model, which contains dopaminergic neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, we were able to show that the CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212-2 blunts gp120-induced neuronal damage as measured by dopamine transporter function, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation; these actions were mediated principally by the CB2 receptor. Adding supplementary human microglia to our cultures enhances gp120-induced damage; WIN55,212-2 is able to alleviate this enhanced damage. Additionally, WIN55,212-2 inhibits gp120-induced superoxide production by purified human microglial cells, inhibits migration of human microglia towards supernatants generated from gp120-stimulated human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures and reduces chemokine and cytokine production from the human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures. These data suggest that synthetic cannabinoids are capable of protecting human dopaminergic neurons from gp120 in a variety

  6. Endocannabinoid Modulation of Dopaminergic Motor Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Morera-Herreras, Teresa; Miguelez, Cristina; Aristieta, Asier; Ruiz-Ortega, José Ángel; Ugedo, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia, a forebrain system that integrates cortical information to coordinate motor activity regulating signals. In fact, the administration of plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous cannabinoids produces several effects on motor function. These effects are mediated primarily through the CB1 receptors that are densely located in the dopamine-enriched basal ganglia networks, suggesting that the motor effects of endocannabinoids are due, at least in part, to modulation of dopaminergic transmission. On the other hand, there are profound changes in CB1 receptor cannabinoid signaling in the basal ganglia circuits after dopamine depletion (as happens in Parkinson’s disease) and following l-DOPA replacement therapy. Therefore, it has been suggested that endocannabinoid system modulation may constitute an important component in new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motor disturbances. In this article we will review studies supporting the endocannabinoid modulation of dopaminergic motor circuits. PMID:22701427

  7. GM1 enhances dopaminergic markers in the brain of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Goettl, V M; Zhang, H; Burrows, A C; Wemlinger, T A; Neff, N H; Hadjiconstantinou, M

    2003-10-01

    A number of presynaptic markers are compromised in the dopaminergic neurons of aged Sprague-Dawley rats (22 months old) compared with young rats (3 months old). Indeed, in the striatum of the aged rats there is a diminished capacity to transport dopamine (DA), to bind the dopamine transporter (DAT) marker mazindol, to bind the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) marker dihydrotetrabenazine, and to release DA under basal conditions or after induction by K(+) or amphetamine. Furthermore, the expression of DAT and VMAT2 mRNA in the midbrain is suppressed. GM1 ganglioside, 30 mg/kg ip daily, administered for 30 days, restores the afore-mentioned markers to values approaching those for young rats. Taken together with our published observations that GM1 partially restores tyrosine hydroxylase activity and DA metabolism in aged nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbal neurons and improves their morphology, our work suggests that GM1 might act as a dopaminergic neurotrophic factor in the aged brain and be a useful adjuvant for treating age-associated dopaminergic deficits.

  8. Th17 Cells Induce Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via LFA-1/ICAM-1 Interaction in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan; Huang, Yan; Cao, Bei-Bei; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Ping

    2016-11-14

    T helper (Th)17 cells, a subset of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, have strong pro-inflammatory property and appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. However, the involvement of Th17 cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal system is unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and induce neuroinflammation and DAergic neuronal death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced PD models. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the substantia nigra (SN) was assessed by the signal of FITC-labeled albumin that was injected into blood circulation via the ascending aorta. Live cell imaging system was used to observe a direct contact of Th17 cells with neurons by staining these cells using the two adhesion molecules, leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, respectively. Th17 cells invaded into the SN where BBB was disrupted in MPTP-induced PD mice. Th17 cells exacerbated DAergic neuronal loss and pro-inflammatory/neurotrophic factor disorders in MPP(+)-treated ventral mesencephalic (VM) cell cultures. A direct contact of LFA-1-stained Th17 cells with ICAM-1-stained VM neurons was dynamically captured. Either blocking LFA-1 in Th17 cells or blocking ICAM-1 in VM neurons with neutralizing antibodies abolished Th17-induced DAergic neuronal death. These results establish that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma of PD mice through lesioned BBB and exert neurotoxic property by promoting glial activation and importantly by a direct damage to neurons depending on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.

  9. Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hühner, Laura; Rilka, Jennifer; Gilsbach, Ralf; Zhou, Xiaolai; Machado, Venissa; Spittau, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Interleukin 4 (IL4)-mediated M2-like activation of microglia, which is characterized by upregulation of alternative markers Arginase 1 (Arg1) and Chitinase 3 like 3 (Ym1) has been well studied in vitro but the role of endogenous IL4 during CNS pathologies in vivo is not well understood. Interestingly, microglia activation by IL4 has been described to promote neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects, which might be important to slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we addressed the role of endogenous and exogenous IL4 during MPP+-induced degeneration of mDA neurons in vitro and further addressed the impact of IL4-deficiency on neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD in vivo. Our results clearly demonstrate that exogenous IL4 is important to protect mDA neurons in vitro, but endogenous IL4 seems to be dispensable for development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system as well as MPTP-induced loss of TH+ neurons in vivo. These results underline the importance of IL4 in promoting a neuroprotective microglia activation state and strengthen the therapeutic potential of exogenous IL4 for protection of mDA neurons in PD models. PMID:28337124

  10. Metabolic Covariant Network in Relation to Nigrostriatal Degeneration in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication-Related Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lee, Chen-Chang; Hsu, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Presence of parkinsonian features after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is well known and the severity was found to relate to the pre-synaptic dopaminergic deficits. There is no systemic study to analyse the functional network involved in CO-related Parkinsonism. Forty-five CO-related parkinsonism patients and 25 aged-matched controls completed the 3D T1-weighted imaging and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to assess the structural and functional brain differences between the patients and controls. Spatial covariant networks responsible for distinguishing patients and controls were constructed using independent component analysis. For validation, the pre-synaptic dopaminergic functional network was established by regression model using striatal TRODAT-1 SPECT as the independent variable. The clinical significance of both networks was determined by correlation with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Compared with controls, the spatial covariant signals of FDG-PET were significantly lower in the medial and lateral frontal, caudate nucleus, dorsomedial prefrontal areas, and temporal-parietal regions while the spatial intensities correlated significantly with UPDRS total scores. The functional network that correlated with striatum pre-synaptic dopaminergic uptakes included the midbrain, thalamus, caudate, lateral frontal cortex, ventral striatum, ventral, or dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Both networks overlapped considerably and the topographies reflected structural damage pattern. Our study provides evidence that glucose metabolism in CO-parkinsonism patients pertains to an organized covariant pattern in the cortical regions that is spatially coherent with the cortical map of pre-synaptic dopamine deficits. As the fronto-temporal, striatum, and temporal-parietal areas were involved, the unique metabolic covariant network suggests a different pathophysiology in CO

  11. 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts by means of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2004-12-07

    It is becoming clear that steroids can be synthesized de novo by the brain and other nervous systems. Such steroids are called neurosteroids, and de novo neurosteroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property of vertebrate brains. In this study, we show that the newt brain actively produces 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid that stimulates locomotor activity. 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone was identified as a most abundant amphibian neurosteroid in the newt brain by using biochemical techniques combined with HPLC, TLC, and GC-MS analyses. The production of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the diencephalon and rhombencephalon was higher than that in the telencephalon and peripheral steroidogenic glands. In addition, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain showed marked changes during the annual breeding cycle, with a maximal level in the spring breeding period when locomotor activity of the newt increases. Behavioral analysis of newts in the nonbreeding period demonstrated that administration of this previously undescribed amphibian neurosteroid acutely increased locomotor activity. In vitro analysis further revealed that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the release of dopamine from cultured brain tissue of nonbreeding newts. The effect of this neurosteroid on locomotion also was abolished by dopamine D(2)-like receptor antagonists. These results indicate that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone acts as a neuronal activator to stimulate locomotor activity of breeding newts through the dopaminergic system. This study demonstrates a physiological function of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone that has not been described previously in any vertebrate class. This study also provides findings on the regulatory mechanism of locomotor activity from a unique standpoint.

  12. Activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons following central administration of histamine is mediated by H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on the activity of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons was determined in male rats. The activity of these neurons was estimated by measuring: (1) the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor, and (2) the concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, which contain the terminals of these neurons. Central administration of histamine increased both DOPA accumulation and DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens, but was without effect in the striatum. The increase in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens occurred within 10 min and was sustained for at least 120 min. The H1 antagonist mepyramine blocked whereas the H2 antagonist zolantidine did not affect histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Neither mepyramine nor zolantidine affected basal DOPAC concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that central administration of histamine stimulates mesolimbic DA neurons through an action at the H1 receptor, but has no effect upon the activity of nigrostriatal DA neurons.

  13. Alterations of GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in mutant mice with disruption of exons 2 and 3 of the Disc1 gene.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Taku; Wang, Rui; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kuroda, Keisuke; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2014-07-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been widely associated with several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. We previously reported that a deficiency of DISC1 may induce low anxiety and/or high impulsivity in mice with disruption of exons 2 and 3 of the Disc1 gene (Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)). It remains unclear, however, if deficiency of DISC1 leads to specific alterations in distinct neuronal systems. In the present study, to understand the role of DISC1 in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons, we investigated the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, methamphetamine (METH)-induced DA release and the expression levels of GABAA, DA transporter (DAT) and DA receptors in wild-type (Disc1(+/+)) and Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3) mice. Female Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3) mice showed a significant reduction of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, while no apparent changes were observed in mRNA expression levels of GABAA receptor subunits. METH-induced DA release was significantly potentiated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of female Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3) mice, although there were no significant differences in the expression levels of DAT. Furthermore, the expression levels of DA receptor mRNA were upregulated in the NAc of female Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3) mice. Male Disc1(Δ2-3/Δ2-3) mice showed no apparent differences in all experiments. DISC1 may play a critical role in gender-specific developmental alteration in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons and DAergic neurons.

  14. Conditional Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related R1441C LRRK2 in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons of Mice Causes Nuclear Abnormalities without Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Kannan, Meghna; Foo, Caroline Shi-Yan; Dikeman, Dustin; Glauser, Liliane; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Knott, Graham W.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical and neurochemical features of LRRK2-linked PD are similar to idiopathic disease although neuropathology is somewhat heterogeneous. Dominant mutations in LRRK2 precipitate neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism which can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing human LRRK2 variants. A number of LRRK2 transgenic mouse models have been developed that display abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and alterations in tau metabolism yet without consistently inducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. To directly explore the impact of mutant LRRK2 on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, we developed conditional transgenic mice that selectively express human R1441C LRRK2 in dopaminergic neurons from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter. The expression of R1441C LRRK2 does not induce the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficits in mice up to 2 years of age, and fails to precipitate abnormal protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein, tau, ubiquitin or autophagy markers (LC3 and p62). Furthermore, mice expressing R1441C LRRK2 exhibit normal motor activity and olfactory function with increasing age. Intriguingly, the expression of R1441C LRRK2 induces age-dependent abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in nigral dopaminergic neurons including reduced nuclear circularity and increased invaginations of the nuclear envelope. In addition, R1441C LRRK2 mice display increased neurite complexity of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these novel R1441C LRRK2 conditional transgenic mice reveal altered dopaminergic neuronal morphology with advancing age, and provide a useful tool for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the R1441C LRRK2 mutation in PD. PMID:25174890

  15. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  16. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP+-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in

  17. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  18. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-10-26

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD.

  19. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected dopaminergic neuron by activating Akt signaling pathway in 6-OHDA-induced in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiu-Qi; Kong, Xiang-Chen; Kong, Li-Bing; Wu, Liang-Yu; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2014-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental PD models. In this study, we carried out a set of in vitro and in vivo experiments to address the neuroprotective effect of FLZ and related mechanism. The results showed that FLZ significantly improved motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal loss of rats injured by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Mechanistic study showed that FLZ protected TH activity and dopaminergic neurons through decreasing α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression and the interaction between α-Syn and TH. Further studies indicated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the protective effect of FLZ since it showed that blocking PI3K/Akt signaling pathway prevented the expression of α-Syn and attenuated the neuroprotection of FLZ. In addition, FLZ treatment reduced the expression of RTP801, an important protein involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Taken together, these results revealed that FLZ suppressed α-Syn expression and elevated TH activity in dopaminergic neuron through activating Akt survival pathway in 6-OHDA-induced PD models. The data also provided evidence that FLZ had potent neuroprotecive effects and might become a new promising agent for PD treatment.

  20. Sequential Loss of LC Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons Results in a Correlation of Dopaminergic Neuronal Number to Striatal Dopamine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2012-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) are significantly reduced in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the LC exhibits neuropathological changes early in the disease process. It has been suggested that a loss of LC neurons can enhance the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to damage. To determine if LC noradrenergic innervation protects dopaminergic neurons from damage, the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was administered to adult male C57Bl/6 mice 3 days after bilateral LC administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA), a time when there is a significant reduction in LC neuronal number and innervation to forebrain regions. To assess if LC loss can affect dopaminergic loss four groups of animals were studied: control, 6OHDA, MPTP, and 6OHDA + MPTP; animals sacrificed 3 weeks after MPTP administration. The number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and noradrenergic neurons in the LC were determined. Catecholamine levels in striatum were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The loss of LC neurons did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and VTA compared to control; however, LC 6OHDA significantly reduced striatal dopamine (DA; 29% reduced) but not norepinephrine (NE) concentration. MPTP significantly reduced SN and VTA neuronal number and DA concentration in the striatum compared to control; however, there was not a correlation of striatal DA concentration with SN or VTA neuronal number. Administration of 6OHDA prior to MPTP did not enhance MPTP-induced damage despite an effect of LC loss on striatal DA concentration. However, the loss of LC neurons before MPTP resulted now in a correlation between SN and VTA neuronal number to striatal DA concentration. These results demonstrate that the loss of either LC or DA neurons can affect the function of each others systems, indicating the importance of both the noradrenergic and

  1. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    , when analyzed 30 min after the administration of the test drugs, tacrine significantly attenuated the SI-induced decrease in p-CaMKII, p-CREB, and Egr-1 in a manner reversible by scopolamine. Our results suggest that SI-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditioned fear memory were mediated by functional alterations to central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, respectively.

  2. α7 nicotinic receptor agonists reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias with severe nigrostriatal damage

    PubMed Central

    Bordia, Tanuja; Perez, Xiomara A.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Decker, Michael W.; Quik, Maryka

    2015-01-01

    Background ABT-126 is a novel, safe and well-tolerated α7 nicotinic receptor agonist in a Phase 2 Alzheimer's disease study. Here we test the antidyskinetic effect of ABT-126 in MPTP-treated squirrel monkeys with moderate and more severe nigrostriatal damage. Methods Monkeys (n=21, Set 1) were lesioned with MPTP 1-2×. When parkinsonian, they were gavaged with levodopa (10 mg/kg)/carbidopa (2.5 mg/kg) twice daily and dyskinesias rated. They were then given nicotine in drinking water (n=5), or treated with vehicle (n=6) or ABT-126 (n=10) twice daily orally 30 min before levodopa. Set 1 was then re-lesioned 1-2 times for a total of 3-4 MPTP injections. The antidyskinetic effect of ABT-126, nicotine and the β2* nicotinic receptor agonist ABT-894 was re-assessed. Another group of monkeys (n=23, Set 2) was lesioned with MPTP only 1-2×. They were treated with levodopa/carbidopa, administered the α7 agonist ABT-107 (n=6), ABT-894 (n=6), nicotine (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) and dyskinesias evaluated. All monkeys were euthanized and the dopamine transporter measured. Results With moderate nigrostriatal damage (MPTP 1-2×), ABT-126 dose-dependently decreased dyskinesias (~60%), with similar results with ABT-894 (~60%) or nicotine (~60%). With more severe damage (MPTP 3-4×), ABT-126 and nicotine reduced dyskinesias, but ABT-894 did not. The dopamine transporter was 41% and 8.9% of control with moderate and severe nigrostriatal damage, respectively. No drug modified parkinsonism. Conclusion The novel α7 nicotinic receptor drug ABT-126 reduced dyskinesias in monkeys with both moderate and severe nigrostriatal damage. ABT-126 may be useful to reduce dyskinesias in both early and later stage Parkinson's disease. PMID:26573698

  3. Anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in the nigrostriatal pathway after neostriatal kainic acid lesions.

    PubMed

    Walker, P D; McAllister, J P

    1986-08-01

    We used the anterograde transport of HRP to analyze the nigrostriatal pathway after intrastriatal injections of kainic acid. A total volume of 1 microliter kainic acid (3 nM) was injected unilaterally into the neostriatum of adult rats. After 5, 10, or 35 days, HRP was injected into the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Sections stained for Nissl substance revealed that kainic acid damaged as much as three-quarters of the neostriatum. Lesion sites were characterized by gliosis and the absence of neurons. Alternate sections processed for HRP histochemistry and analyzed with bright- and dark-field microscopy revealed labeled axons and terminals in the lesion site. These findings were consistent in all three time periods. Much of the labeling was similar to that seen in neostriatal of control animals. However, the normal homogeneous pattern of the nigrostriatal terminal field was disrupted in all experimental groups, illustrated by changes in some labeling characteristics in the lesion site. These findings provide morphologic evidence for the preservation of much of the nigrostriatal pathway but indicate that some axons and their terminals may be altered after kainic acid injection.

  4. Nigro-caudate dopaminergic deafferentation: a marker of REM sleep behavior disorder?

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, Dario; De Carli, Fabrizio; Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Accardo, Jennifer; Bossert, Irene; Famà, Francesco; Girtler, Nicola; Morbelli, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Nobili, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    Forty-nine consecutive, drug naïve outpatients with de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) underwent clinical examination and dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography with [(123)I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane as a biomarker of nigro-striatal function. PD patients were grouped into rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) negative (PD-RBD-) and RBD positive (PD-RBD+). Repeated measures and univariate analysis of variance were used to compare dopaminergic and clinical impairment among groups. The variations of dopamine transporter-single photon emission computed tomography specific binding ratios (SBR) as a function of group belonging were significantly different (p = 0.0013) at caudate with respect to putamen level. Indeed, putamen SBR progressively decreased from iRBD to PD-RBD- and PD-RBD+ groups while caudate SBR were higher in PD-RBD- group than in PD-RBD+ and even than in iRBD group. Motor impairment was more severe in PD patients with RBD than in those without RBD. Our data suggest that a more severe nigro-caudate dopaminergic deafferentation is related to RBD, both in its idiopathic form and in PD patients.

  5. NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox−/−, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox−/− mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox−/− mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox−/− mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox−/− mice groups. PMID:24379900

  6. Protective effects of cholecystokinin-8 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, Hongyan; Wen, Di; Ma, Chunling; Li, Ming; Li, Yingmin; Zhang, Wenfang; Liu, Li; Cong, Bin

    2015-04-15

    We investigated whether pretreatment with the neuropeptide cholecystokinin-8 affected methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in male C57/BL6 mice. CCK-8 pretreatment alone had no effect on locomotion and stereotypic behavior and could not induce behavioral sensitization; however, it attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, hyperlocomotion and behavioral sensitization induced by a low dose of METH (1mg/kg). CCK-8 attenuated METH-induced stereotypic behavior at a dose of 3mg/kg but not at 10mg/kg. CCK-8 pretreatment attenuated METH (10mg/kg)-induced hyperthermia, the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, and TH in the substantia nigra. CCK-8 alone had no effect on rectal temperature, TH and DAT expression in the nigrostriatal region. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that pretreatment with CCK-8 inhibited changes typically induced by repeated exposure to METH, such as hyperlocomotion, behavioral sensitization, stereotypic behavior, and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. These findings make CCK-8 a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple symptoms associated with METH abuse.

  7. Intrastriatal injection of pre-formed mouse α-synuclein fibrils into rats triggers α-synuclein pathology and bilateral nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Paumier, Katrina L.; Luk, Kelvin C.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Kanaan, Nicholas M.; Lipton, Jack W.; Collier, Timothy J.; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Kemp, Christopher J.; Celano, Stephanie; Schulz, Emily; Sandoval, Ivette M.; Fleming, Sheila; Dirr, Elliott; Polinski, Nicole K.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.; Sortwell, Caryl E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that intrastriatal injections of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into mice induce Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like Lewy body (LB) pathology formed by aggregated α-syn in anatomically interconnected regions and significant nigrostriatal degeneration. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether exogenous mouse α-syn pre-formed fibrils (PFF) injected into the striatum of rats would result in accumulation of LB-like intracellular inclusions and nigrostriatal degeneration. Sprague Dawley rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of either non-fibrillized recombinant α-syn or PFF mouse α-syn in 1- or 2- sites and were euthanized at 30, 60 or 180 days post-injection (pi). Both non-fibrillized recombinant α-syn and PFF α-syn injections resulted in phosphorylated α-syn intraneuronal accumulations (i.e., diffuse Lewy neurite (LN)- and LB-like inclusions) with significantly greater accumulations following PFF injection. LB-like inclusions were observed in several areas that innervate the striatum, most prominently the frontal and insular cortices, the amygdala, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). α-Syn accumulations co-localized with ubiquitin, p62, and were thioflavin-S-positive and proteinase-k resistant, suggesting PFF-induced pathology exhibits properties similar to human LBs. Although α-syn inclusions within the SNpc remained ipsilateral to striatal injection, we observed bilateral reductions in nigral dopamine neurons at the 180-day time point in both the 1- and 2-site PFF injection paradigms. PFF injected rats exhibited bilateral reductions in striatal dopaminergic innervation at 60 and 180 days and bilateral decreases in homovanillic acid; however, dopamine reduction was observed only in the striatum ipsilateral to PFF injection. Although the level of dopamine asymmetry in PFF injected rats at 180 days was insufficient to elicit motor deficits in amphetamine-induced rotations or forelimb use in the

  8. Wnt5a Regulates Midbrain Dopaminergic Axon Growth and Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Brette D.; Bye, Christopher R.; Fernando, Chathurini V.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Macheda, Maria L.; Stacker, Steven A.; Arenas, Ernest; Parish, Clare L.

    2011-01-01

    During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM) the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA) axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are expressed in the VM where they regulate the birth of DA neurons. Here, we describe that a precise temporo-spatial expression of Wnt5a accompanies the development of nigrostriatal projections by VM DA neurons. In mice at E11.5, Wnt5a is expressed in the VM where it was found to promote DA neurite and axonal growth in VM primary cultures. By E14.5, when DA axons are approaching their striatal target, Wnt5a causes DA neurite retraction in primary cultures. Co-culture of VM explants with Wnt5a-overexpressing cell aggregates revealed that Wnt5a is capable of repelling DA neurites. Antagonism experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway). Moreover, the effects were specific as they could be blocked by Wnt5a antibody, sFRPs and RYK-Fc. The importance of Wnt5a in DA axon morphogenesis was further verified in Wnt5a−/− mice, where fasciculation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as well as the density of DA neurites in the MFB and striatal terminals were disrupted. Thus, our results identify a novel role of Wnt5a in DA axon growth and guidance. PMID:21483795

  9. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  10. The role of the dopaminergic system in mood, motivation and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled experimental challenge with pramipexole and methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Drijgers, Rosa L; Verhey, Frans R J; Tissingh, Gerrit; van Domburg, Peter H M F; Aalten, Pauline; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2012-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway is implied in the pathophysiology of several non-motor symptoms related to mood, motivation and cognition. Insight in the pathophysiology of these syndromes may pave the way for more rational treatments. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design with three arms, we studied the effects of a direct dopaminergic challenge with the dopamine 2 receptor agonist pramipexole, an indirect challenge with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate, and placebo on measures of mood, motivation and cognition in 23 agonist-naïve PD patients and 23 healthy controls. Acute challenge with pramipexole had a negative effect on mood and fatigue in both patients and controls. In addition, challenge with pramipexole led to increased anger, fatigue, vigor and tension in healthy control subjects, but not in PD patients. Challenge with methylphenidate had a positive effect on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients. Due to its side effects after a single administration, pramipexole is probably less suitable for acute challenge studies. The acute effects of a methylphenidate challenge on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients make this drug an interesting choice for further studies of the treatment of mood and motivational disorders in this population.

  11. Antiallodynic Activity of Ceftriaxone and Clavulanic Acid in Acute Administration is Associated with Serum TNF-α Modulation and Activation of Dopaminergic and Opioidergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Aguilar, A; Sotomayor-Sobrino, M A; Jaimez, R; Rodríguez, R; Plancarte-Sánchez, R; Ventura-Martinez, R

    2017-03-26

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to determine the antiallodynic effect of acute administration of the β-lactam antimicrobials, ceftriaxone (CFX) and clavulanic acid (CLAV), for the control of established pain on a model of neuropathic pain (NP). We also investigated the involvement of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as alterations in serum concentrations of TNF-α in the antiallodynic actions of these drugs. CFX, CLAV, or gabapentin (GAP), a reference drug, were administered i.p. twelve days after constriction of the sciatic nerve in rats. Mechanic and cold allodynia were evaluated for 3 h and alterations in serum concentration of TNF-α determined. Both CFX and CLAV had antiallodynic effects in response to mechanical and cold stimulation, similar to GAP. The antiallodynic effects of CFX and CLAV were blocked by haloperidol (HAL), a D2 receptor antagonist, and by naloxone (NLX), an opioid receptor antagonist. Additionally, serum TNF-α levels were attenuated following CFX and CLAV administration. These results suggest that acute administration of CFX and CLAV may represent a promising approach for treating the acute allodynia of NP, and that the mechanisms involved in these effects involve activation of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as modulation of TNF-α production. Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impaired hepatic function and central dopaminergic denervation in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease: a self-perpetuating crosstalk?

    PubMed

    Vairetti, Mariapia; Ferrigno, Andrea; Rizzo, Vittoria; Ambrosi, Giulia; Bianchi, Alberto; Richelmi, Plinio; Blandini, Fabio; Armentero, Marie-Therese

    2012-02-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), aside from the central lesion, involvement of visceral organs has been proposed as part of the complex clinical picture of the disease. The issue is still poorly understood and relatively unexplored. In this study we used a classic rodent model of nigrostriatal degeneration, induced by the intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), to investigate whether and how a PD-like central dopaminergic denervation may influence hepatic functions. Rats received an intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA or saline (sham), and blood, cerebrospinal fluid, liver and brain samples were obtained for up to 8 weeks after surgery. Specimens were analyzed for changes in cytokine and thyroid hormone levels, as well as liver mitochondrial alterations. Hepatic mitochondria isolated from animals bearing extended nigrostriatal lesion displayed increased ROS production, while membrane potential (ΔΨ) and ATP production were significantly decreased. Reduced ATP production correlated with nigral neuronal loss. Thyroid hormone levels were significantly increased in serum of PD rats compared to sham animals while steady expression of selected cytokines was detected in all groups. Hepatic enzyme functions were comparable in all animals. Our study indicates for the first time that in a rodent model of PD, hepatic mitochondria dysfunctions arise as a consequence of nigrostriatal degeneration, and that thyroid hormone represents a key interface in this CNS-liver interaction. Liver plays a fundamental detoxifying function and a better understanding of PD-related hepatic mitochondrial alterations, which might further promote neurodegeneration, may represent an important step for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E.; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  16. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  17. Prevalence of impaired odor identification in Parkinson disease with imaging evidence of nigrostriatal denervation.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Jacob; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kotagal, Vikas; Albin, Roger L; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Frey, Kirk A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2016-04-01

    There is wide variability in the reported prevalence rates of abnormal smell in Parkinson disease (PD). This study assessed the prevalence of abnormal smell, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), in 183 patients with PD with confirmed PET imaging evidence of nigrostriatal denervation. Impaired olfaction in this sample was nearly universal (97.8 %). Wide-ranging prior olfactory impairment estimates may reflect not only uncertainty regarding diagnostic classification, but also the use of inaccurate normative data and differences in olfactory tests used.

  18. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  19. Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes; Breitenstein, Caterina; Hummel, Friedhelm; Celnik, Pablo; Gingert, Christian; Sawaki, Lumy; Knecht, Stefan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2005-07-01

    The ability of the central nervous system to form motor memories, a process contributing to motor learning and skill acquisition, decreases with age. Dopaminergic activity, one of the mechanisms implicated in memory formation, experiences a similar decline with aging. It is possible that restoring dopaminergic function in elderly adults could lead to improved formation of motor memories with training. We studied the influence of a single oral dose of levodopa (100mg) administered preceding training on the ability to encode an elementary motor memory in the primary motor cortex of elderly and young healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Attention to the task and motor training kinematics were comparable across age groups and sessions. In young subjects, encoding a motor memory under placebo was more prominent than in older subjects, and the encoding process was accelerated by intake of levodopa. In the elderly group, diminished motor memory encoding under placebo was enhanced by intake of levodopa to levels present in younger subjects. Therefore, upregulation of dopaminergic activity accelerated memory formation in young subjects and restored the ability to form a motor memory in elderly subjects; possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of dopaminergic agents on motor learning in neurorehabilitation.

  20. Protection of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and nigrostriatal neuronal death by chronic Coenzyme Q{sub 10} pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Binukumar, BK; Gupta, Nidhi; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative stress generated as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we reported that chronic dichlorvos exposure causes mitochondrial impairments and nigrostriatal neuronal death in rats. The present study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) administration has any neuroprotective effect against dichlorvos mediated nigrostriatal neuronal death, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, and motor dysfunction. Male albino rats were administered dichlorvos by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight over a period of 12 weeks. Results obtained there after showed that dichlorvos exposure leads to enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, decreased dopamine and its metabolite levels resulting in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Pretreatment by Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (4.5 mg/kg ip for 12 weeks) to dichlorvos treated animals significantly attenuated the extent of nigrostriatal neuronal damage, in terms of decreased ROS production, increased dopamine and its metabolite levels, and restoration of motor dysfunction when compared to dichlorvos treated animals. Thus, the present study shows that Coenzyme Q{sub 10} administration may attenuate dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation and motor dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant action. - Highlights: > CoQ{sub 10} administration attenuates dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegenaration. > CoQ{sub 10} pre treatment leads to preservation of TH-IR neurons. > CoQ{sub 10} may decrease oxidative damage and {alpha}-synuclin aggregation. > CoQ{sub 10} treatment enhances motor function and protects rats from catalepsy.

  1. DeltaA/DeltaD regulate multiple and temporally distinct phases of notch signaling during dopaminergic neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Julia; Filippi, Alida; Driever, Wolfgang

    2010-12-08

    Dopaminergic neurons develop at distinct anatomical sites to form some of the major neuromodulatory systems in the vertebrate brain. Despite their relevance in neurodegenerative diseases and the interests in reconstitutive therapies from stem cells, mechanisms of the neurogenic switch from precursor populations to dopaminergic neurons are not well understood. Here, we investigated neurogenesis of different dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuron populations in the zebrafish embryo. Birth-dating analysis by EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation revealed temporal dynamics of catecholaminergic neurogenesis. Analysis of Notch signaling mutants and stage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Notch processing revealed that dopaminergic neurons form by temporally distinct mechanisms: dopaminergic neurons of the posterior tuberculum derive directly from neural plate cells during primary neurogenesis, whereas other dopaminergic groups form in continuous or wavelike neurogenesis phases from proliferating precursor pools. Systematic analysis of Notch ligands revealed that the two zebrafish co-orthologs of mammalian Delta1, DeltaA and DeltaD, control the neurogenic switch of all early developing dopaminergic neurons in a partially redundant manner. DeltaA/D may also be involved in maintenance of dopaminergic precursor pools, as olig2 expression in ventral diencephalic dopaminergic precursors is affected in dla/dld mutants. DeltaA/D act upstream of sim1a and otpa during dopaminergic specification. However, despite the fact that both dopaminergic and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons derive from sim1a- and otpa-expressing precursors, DeltaA/D does not act as a lineage switch between these two neuronal types. Rather, DeltaA/D limits the size of the sim1a- and otpa-expressing precursor pool from which dopaminergic neurons differentiate.

  2. Non-dopaminergic treatments for motor control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Susan H

    2013-09-01

    The pathological processes underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) involve more than dopamine cell loss within the midbrain. These non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters include noradrenergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems within cortical, brainstem and basal ganglia regions. Several non-dopaminergic treatments are now in clinical use to treat motor symptoms of PD, or are being evaluated as potential therapies. Agents for symptomatic monotherapy and as adjunct to dopaminergic therapies for motor symptoms include adenosine A2A antagonists and the mixed monoamine-B inhibitor (MAO-BI) and glutamate release agent safinamide. The largest area of potential use for non-dopaminergic drugs is as add-on therapy for motor fluctuations. Thus adenosine A2A antagonists, safinamide, and the antiepileptic agent zonisamide can extend the duration of action of levodopa. To reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia, drugs that target overactive glutamatergic neurotransmission can be used, and include the non-selective N-methyl D-aspartate antagonist amantadine. More recently, selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR₅) antagonists are being evaluated in phase II randomized controlled trials. Serotonergic agents acting as 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, such as the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, may also reduce dyskinesia. 5-HT1A agonists theoretically can reduce dyskinesia, but in practice, may also worsen PD motor symptoms, and so clinical applicability has not yet been shown. Noradrenergic α2A antagonism using fipamezole can potentially reduce dyskinesia. Several non-dopaminergic agents have also been investigated to reduce non-levodopa-responsive motor symptoms such as gait and tremor. Thus the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil showed mild benefit in gait, while the predominantly noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate had conflicting results in advanced PD subjects. Tremor in PD may respond to muscarinic M4 cholinergic antagonists (anticholinergics), but

  3. Nigrostriatal dopamine-independent resting-state functional networks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jee Hyun; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jae Jung; Baek, Gwang-Min; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Hong, Jin Yong; Shin, Na-Young; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-10-01

    As an indicator of synchronous neural activity, resting-state functional networks are influenced by neuropathological and neurochemical changes in degenerative diseases. To further advance understanding about neurochemical and neuropathological basis for resting-state functional maps, we performed a comparative analysis of resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug induced parkinsonism (DIP). Resting-state neuroimaging data were analyzed with a seed-based approach to investigate striatocortical functional connectivity and cortical functional connectivity within the default mode network, executive control network, and the dorsal attention network. The striatal subregions were divided into the more or less affected sides in terms of dopamine transporter uptake. Compared with DIP, PD exhibited an increased cerebellar connectivity from the more affected side of the caudate and the less affected sides of the anterior and the posterior putamen. Additionally, PD showed increased functional connectivity in the anterior prefrontal areas from the more affected side of the anterior putamen and from the less affected side of the posterior putamen. However, PD exhibited decreased cortical functional connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex in the left temporal area. Finally, DIP patients showed decreased cortical functional connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in frontal and parietal areas compared with PD patients. In summary, the present study demonstrates that PD patients exhibited a unique resting state functional connectivity that may be associated with PD-related pathological changes beyond the dopaminergic system, whereas DIP patients showed altered functional connectivity within executive control network.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dopaminergic Neurons during Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuchen; Guo, Qiang; Shan, Minghui; Wu, Yongmei; Huang, Sizhou; Zhao, Haixia; Hong, Huarong; Yang, Ming; Yang, Xi; Ren, Liyi; Peng, Jiali; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Hongli; Li, Shurong; Su, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model organisms of Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time. We found that diencephalons (DC) 2 and DC4 neuronal populations were detected at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). All DC neuronal populations as well as those in locus coeruleus (LC), raphe nuclei (Ra) and telencephalon were detected at 48 hpf. Axons were detected at 72 hpf. At 96 hpf, all the neuronal populations were detected. For the first time we reported axons from the posterior tubercle (PT) of ventral DC projected to subpallium in vivo. However, when compared with results from whole mount tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence staining in wild type (WT) zebrafish, we found that DC2 and DC4 neuronal populations were mainly dopaminergic, while DC1, DC3, DC5 and DC6 might not. Neurons in pretectum (Pr) and telencephalon were mainly dopaminergic, while neurons in LC and Ra might be noradrenergic. Our study makes some corrections and modifications on the development, localization and distribution of zebrafish dopaminergic neurons, and provides some experimental evidences for the construction of the zebrafish PD model.

  5. Renalase regulates peripheral and central dopaminergic activities.

    PubMed

    Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Serrão, Maria Paula; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Pinho, Maria João; Remião, Fernando; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Desir, Gary V; Pestana, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    Renalase is a recently identified FAD/NADH-dependent amine oxidase mainly expressed in kidney that is secreted into blood and urine where it was suggested to metabolize catecholamines. The present study evaluated central and peripheral dopaminergic activities in the renalase knockout (KO) mouse model and examined the changes induced by recombinant renalase (RR) administration on plasma and urine catecholamine levels. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, KO mice presented increased plasma levels of epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) that were accompanied by increases in the urinary excretion of Epi, NE, DA. In addition, the KO mice presented an increase in urinary DA-to-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) ratios without changes in renal tubular aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity. By contrast, the in vivo administration of RR (1.5 mg/kg sc) to KO mice was accompanied by significant decreases in plasma levels of Epi, DA, and l-DOPA as well as in urinary excretion of Epi, DA, and DA-to-l-DOPA ratios notwithstanding the accompanied increase in renal AADC activity. In addition, the increase in renal DA output observed in renalase KO mice was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the L-type amino acid transporter like (LAT) 1 that is reversed by the administration of RR in these animals. These results suggest that the overexpression of LAT1 in the renal cortex of the renalase KO mice might contribute to the enhanced l-DOPA availability/uptake and consequently to the activation of the renal dopaminergic system in the presence of renalase deficiency.

  6. Renalase regulates peripheral and central dopaminergic activities

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Maria Paula; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Pinho, Maria João; Remião, Fernando; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Desir, Gary V.; Pestana, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Renalase is a recently identified FAD/NADH-dependent amine oxidase mainly expressed in kidney that is secreted into blood and urine where it was suggested to metabolize catecholamines. The present study evaluated central and peripheral dopaminergic activities in the renalase knockout (KO) mouse model and examined the changes induced by recombinant renalase (RR) administration on plasma and urine catecholamine levels. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, KO mice presented increased plasma levels of epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) that were accompanied by increases in the urinary excretion of Epi, NE, DA. In addition, the KO mice presented an increase in urinary DA-to-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) ratios without changes in renal tubular aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity. By contrast, the in vivo administration of RR (1.5 mg/kg sc) to KO mice was accompanied by significant decreases in plasma levels of Epi, DA, and l-DOPA as well as in urinary excretion of Epi, DA, and DA-to-l-DOPA ratios notwithstanding the accompanied increase in renal AADC activity. In addition, the increase in renal DA output observed in renalase KO mice was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the L-type amino acid transporter like (LAT) 1 that is reversed by the administration of RR in these animals. These results suggest that the overexpression of LAT1 in the renal cortex of the renalase KO mice might contribute to the enhanced l-DOPA availability/uptake and consequently to the activation of the renal dopaminergic system in the presence of renalase deficiency. PMID:25411385

  7. Catecholamine/Serotonin interactions: systems thinking for brain function and disease.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Julie G; Artigas, Francesc; Bortolozzi, Analía; Daws, Lynette C; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Milan, Léa; Navailles, Sylvia; Koek, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    This chapter brings together the work of several leading laboratories, each an outstanding example of integrative approaches to complex diseases of the central nervous system. Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia are believed to result from hypofunction of the mesocortical dopaminergic projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Noradrenergic targets for the augmentation of dopaminergic function in PFC show promise to improve cognitive deficits as well as negative symptoms. Serotonergic targets for the modulation of mesocortical dopaminergic neurotransmission include 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. The hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. l-DOPA, a metabolic precursor of dopamine, is the standard of treatment. However, the ectopic release of dopamine (DA) from serotonin neurons and the clearance of extracellular DA by the norepinephrine transporter in areas enriched with noradrenergic terminals contribute to extracellular DA produced by l-DOPA and offer opportunities to improve l-DOPA therapy. The high-affinity transporters for monoamines are the primary targets for antidepressant drugs. However, many patients experience suboptimal therapeutic benefit or fail to respond to treatment. Organic cation transporters and plasma membrane monoamine transporter serve an important function in regulating monoamine neurotransmission and hold potential utility as targets for the development of therapeutic drugs. Improved therapeutic approaches will arise from not only understanding how monoamines influence one another within the central nervous system as an integrated whole but also addressing the pathophysiology of specific core symptoms or distinct syndromal dimensions (cognitive impairment, motor slowing, and negative affect) regardless of disease classification, for example, psychotic, affective, and neurodegenerative.

  8. Catecholamine/Serotonin Interactions: Systems Thinking for Brain Function and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, Julie G.; Artigas, Francesc; Bortolozzi, Analía; Daws, Lynette C.; Deurwaerdère, Philippe De; Milan, Léa; Navailles, Sylvia; Koek, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    This chapter brings together the work of several leading laboratories, each an outstanding example of integrative approaches to complex diseases of the central nervous system. Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia are believed to result from hypofunction of the mesocortical dopaminergic projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Noradrenergic targets for the augmentation of dopaminergic function in PFC show promise to improve cognitive deficits as well as negative symptoms. Serotonergic targets for the modulation of mesocortical dopaminergic neurotransmission include 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors. The hallmark of Parkinson’s disease is the destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. L-DOPA, a metabolic precursor of dopamine, is the standard of treatment. However, the ectopic release of dopamine (DA) from serotonin neurons and the clearance of extracellular DA by the norepinephrine transporter in areas enriched with noradrenergic terminals contribute to extracellular DA produced by L-DOPA and offer opportunities to improve L-DOPA therapy. The high-affinity transporters for monoamines are the primary targets for antidepressant drugs. However, many patients experience suboptimal therapeutic benefit or fail to respond to treatment. Organic cation transporters and plasma membrane monoamine transporter serve an important function in regulating monoamine neurotransmission and hold potential utility as targets for the development of therapeutic drugs. Improved therapeutic approaches will arise from not only understanding how monoamines influence one another within the central nervous system as an integrated whole but also addressing the pathophysiology of specific core symptoms or distinct syndromal dimensions (cognitive impairment, motor slowing, and negative affect) regardless of disease classification, for example, psychotic, affective, and neurodegenerative. PMID:24054145

  9. The role of parkin in the differential susceptibility of tuberoinfundibular and nigrostriatal dopamine neurons to acute toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Benskey, Matthew J; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Lookingland, Keith J; Goudreau, John L

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease causes degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons, while tuberoinfundibular DA neurons remain unaffected. A similar pattern is observed following exposure to 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyradine (MPTP). The mechanism of tuberoinfundibular neuronal recovery from MPTP is associated with up-regulation of parkin protein. Here we tested if parkin mediates tuberoinfundibular neuronal recovery from MPTP by knocking-down parkin in tuberoinfundibular neurons using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed toward parkin. Following knockdown, axon terminal DA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) concentrations were analyzed 24h post-MPTP administration. rAAV-shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous parkin rendered tuberoinfundibular neurons susceptible to MPTP induced terminal DA loss, but not TH loss, within 24h post-MPTP. To determine if the neuroprotective benefits of parkin up-regulation could be translated to nigrostriatal neurons, rAAV expressing human parkin was injected into the substantia nigra of mice and axon terminal DA and TH concentrations were analyzed 24h post-MPTP. Nigral parkin over-expression prevented loss of TH in the axon terminals and soma of nigrostriatal neurons, but had no effect on terminal DA loss within 24h post-MPTP. These data show that parkin is necessary for the recovery of terminal DA concentrations within tuberoinfundibular neurons following acute MPTP administration, and parkin can rescue MPTP-induced decreases in TH within nigrostriatal neurons.

  10. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  11. New developments of dopaminergic imaging in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Varrone, A; Halldin, C

    2012-03-09

    The development of radioligands for the dopaminergic system has provided suitable imaging biomarkers for clinical research in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related movement disorders. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) has played an important role as main molecular imaging modality because of the availability of imaging tools such as dopamine transporter (DAT) radioligands for wide clinical use. At present, SPECT imaging of the DAT is the main diagnostic imaging procedure for the assessment of patients with parkinsonism. However, in the recent years positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important clinical diagnostic modality, mainly in oncology, due to the wide availability of PET/CT systems with improved imaging performance and to the use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) as main diagnostic agent. In this context, further development of 18F-radioligands is of high interest for their potential utility in the clinical setting. This review will give a general overview on the development of SPECT and PET radioligands for the dopaminergic system and describe the potential advantages of developing 18F-labelled radioligands for imaging of the dopaminergic system in PD and related movement disorders.

  12. New developments of dopaminergic imaging in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Varrone, A; Halldin, C

    2012-02-01

    The development of radioligands for the dopaminergic system has provided suitable imaging biomarkers for clinical research in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related movement disorders. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) has played an important role as main molecular imaging modality because of the availability of imaging tools such as dopamine transporter (DAT) radioligands for wide clinical use. At present, SPECT imaging of the DAT is the main diagnostic imaging procedure for the assessment of patients with parkinsonism. However, in the recent years positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important clinical diagnostic modality, mainly in oncology, due to the wide availability of PET/CT systems with improved imaging performance and to the use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) as main diagnostic agent. In this context, further development of 18F-radioligands is of high interest for their potential utility in the clinical setting. This review will give a general overview on the development of SPECT and PET radioligands for the dopaminergic system and describe the potential advantages of developing 18F-labelled radioligands for imaging of the dopaminergic system in PD and related movement disorders.

  13. Pre-synaptic striatal dopaminergic function in people at high risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Oliver D; Montgomery, Andrew J; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Murray, Robin M; Grasby, Paul M; McGuire, Philip K

    2013-01-01

    Background The dopamine hypothesis has been the major pathophysiological theory of psychosis in recent decades. Molecular imaging studies have provided in vivo evidence of increased dopamine synaptic availability and increased pre-synaptic dopamine synthesis in the striata of people with psychotic illnesses. These studies support the predictions of the dopamine hypothesis, but it remains to be determined whether dopaminergic abnormalities pre-date or are secondary to the development of psychosis. Method We selectively review the molecular imaging studies of the striatal dopaminergic system in psychosis and link this to models of psychosis and the functional sub-divisions of the striatum to make predictions for dopaminergic system in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Results A fairly consistent body of evidence indicates that pre-synaptic dopamine synthesis and synaptic dopamine availability is increased in the striata of people with psychotic illnesses. There may also be a small increase in striatal D2 dopamine receptor levels, although the evidence is less consistent. No studies to date have investigated striatal dopaminergic function longitudinally in people with psychosis or who are in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Evidence indicates that people with psychosis and at risk of psychosis show characteristic cognitive biases which support models of psychosis that link cognitive processes underlying appraisal to the development of delusions. Conclusions Current findings indicate an association between dopaminergic abnormalities and psychosis, which supports the dopamine hypothesis. However it is not possible to infer a causal relationship from these data. Studies of the dopaminergic system in the prodromal phase of psychosis and over the course of the developing psychotic illness are needed to determine whether dopaminergic abnormalities are secondary or primary, and whether dopaminergic abnormalities underlie the cognitive biases and impairments associated with

  14. Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone following transcranial magnetic field stimulation and nigrostriatal lesions.

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrión, O; Verdugo-Díaz, L; Feria-Velasco, A; Millán-Aldaco, D; Gutiérrez, A A; Hernández-Cruz, A; Drucker-Colín, R

    2004-10-01

    Neurogenesis continues at least in two regions of the mammalian adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis in these regions is subjected to physiological regulation and can be modified by pharmacological and pathological events. Here we report the induction of neurogenesis in the SVZ and the differentiation after nigrostriatal pathway lesion along with transcranial magnetic field stimulation (TMFS) in adult rats. Significant numbers of proliferating cells demonstrated by bromodeoxyuridine-positive reaction colocalized with the neuronal marker NeuN were detected bilaterally in the SVZ, and several of these cells also expressed tyrosine hydroxylase. Transplanted chromaffin cells into lesioned animals also induced bilateral appearance of subependymal cells. These results show for the first time that unilateral lesion, transplant, and/or TMFS induce neurogenesis in the SVZ of rats and also that TMFS prevents the motor alterations induced by the lesion.

  15. Extraversion and striatal dopaminergic receptor availability in young adults: an [18F]fallypride PET study.

    PubMed

    Baik, Sang-hyun; Yoon, Heung Sik; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2012-03-07

    Extraversion is a core personality trait associated with individual differences in reward sensitivity and has been linked to the dopaminergic brain system. We investigated whether dopaminergic receptor availability in the striatum was directly associated with individual differences in extraversion using the high-affinity radiotracer [¹⁸F]fallypride and PET. Seventeen healthy male and female participants completed an [¹⁸F]fallypride PET scan at rest. Extraversion was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Dopamine receptor availability in predefined striatal regions of interest was assessed as [¹⁸F]fallypride binding potential using a reference tissue model for [¹⁸F]fallypride. Both region of interest and voxel-based whole-brain analyses showed that extraversion was significantly correlated with dopaminergic receptor availability in the striatum bilaterally. This finding contributes to our understanding of the dopaminergic neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in extraversion.

  16. Neurofeedback-mediated self-regulation of the dopaminergic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, James; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Blefari, Maria Laura; Kollias, Spyros; Birbaumer, Niels; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Luft, Andreas; Gassert, Roger

    2013-12-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in reward encoding and reinforcement learning. Dopaminergic neurons from this system in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex (SN/VTA) fire in response to unexpected reinforcing cues. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals can gain voluntary control of SN/VTA activity, thereby potentially enhancing dopamine release to target brain regions. Neurofeedback and mental imagery were used to self-regulate the SN/VTA. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) provided abstract visual feedback of the SN/VTA activity while the subject imagined rewarding scenes. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of emotional arousal. To examine the effect of neurofeedback, subjects were assigned to either receiving feedback directly proportional (n=15, veridical feedback) or inversely proportional (n=17, inverted feedback) to SN/VTA activity. Both groups of subjects were able to up-regulate SN/VTA activity initially without feedback. Veridical feedback improved the ability to up-regulate SN/VTA compared to baseline while inverted feedback did not. Additional dopaminergic regions were activated in both groups. The ability to self-regulate SN/VTA was differentially correlated with SCR depending on the group, suggesting an association between emotional arousal and neurofeedback performance. These findings indicate that SN/VTA can be voluntarily activated by imagery and voluntary activation is further enhanced by neurofeedback. The findings may lead the way towards a non-invasive strategy for endogenous control of dopamine.

  17. Striatal Serotonin 2C receptors decrease nigrostriatal dopamine release by increasing GABA-A receptor tone in the substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M.V.; Nocjar, C.; Sonneborn, A.J.; McCreary, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Drugs acting at the serotonin-2C (5-HT2C) receptor subtype have shown promise as therapeutics in multiple syndromes including obesity, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. While it is established that 5-HT2C receptor stimulation inhibits DA release, the neural circuits and the localization of the relevant 5-HT2C receptors remain unknown. The present study used dual-probe in vivo microdialysis to investigate the relative contributions of 5-HT2C receptors localized in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and caudate-putamen (CP) in the control of nigrostriatal DA release. Systemic administration (3.0 mg/kg) of the 5-HT2C receptor selective agonist Ro 60-0175 [(α S )-6-Chloro-5-fluoro-α-methyl-1 H-indole-1-ethanamine fumarate] decreased, whereas intrastriatal infusions of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 [6-Chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1 H-indole-1-carboxyamide; 1.0 µM] increased, basal DA in the CP. Depending on the site within the SN pars reticulata (SNpr), infusions of SB 242084 had more modest but significant effects. Moreover, infusions of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (10 µM) into the SNpr completely reversed the increases in striatal DA release produced by intrastriatal infusions of SB 242084. These findings suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors regulating striatal DA release that is highly localized. 5-HT2C receptors localized in the striatum may represent a primary site of action that is mediated by actions on GABAergic activity in the SN. PMID:25073477

  18. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Adam W; Frankfurt, Maya; Finkelstein, David I; Sidhu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  19. Isoforms of the Erythropoietin receptor in dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Federica; Zucchelli, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Maria; Santoro, Claudio; Tell, Gianluca; Carninci, Piero; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) regulates erythrocytes differentiation in blood. In the brain, EpoR has been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from cell death, including the A9 dopaminergic neurons (DA) of the Substantia Nigra (SN). These cells form the nigrostriatal pathway and are devoted to the control of postural reflexes and voluntary movements. Selective degeneration of A9 DA neurons leads to Parkinson's disease. By the use of nanoCAGE, a technology that allows the identification of Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) at a genome-wide level, we have described the promoter-level expression atlas of mouse A9 DA neurons purified with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). Here, we identify mRNA variants of the Erythropoietin Receptor (DA-EpoR) transcribed from alternative TSSs. Experimental validation and full-length cDNA cloning is integrated with gene expression analysis in the FANTOM5 database. In DA neurons, the EpoR gene encodes for a N-terminal truncated receptor. Based on STAT5 phosphorylation assays, we show that the new variant of N-terminally truncated EpoR acts as decoy when co-expressed with the full-length form. A similar isoform is also found in human. This work highlights new complexities in the regulation of Erythropoietin (EPO) signaling in the brain.

  20. Dopaminergic projections of the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus to the auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Felix, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulators can alter the response properties of sensory neurons, including those in the auditory system. Dopamine, which plays a major role in reward and movement, has been shown to alter neural responses in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Recently we identified the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF), part of the A11 dopaminergic cell group, as the source of dopamine to the inferior colliculus (IC). The superior olivary complex (SOC) is also a likely target of dopaminergic projections from the SPF because it receives projections from the SPF and contains fibers and terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, it is unknown if the projections from the SPF to SOC are dopaminergic, and if single neurons in the SPF project to both the IC and SOC. Using anterograde tracing combined with fluorescent immunohistochemistry, we found that the SPF sends dopaminergic projections to the superior paraolivary nucleus and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, but not the lateral superior olive. We confirmed these projections using a retrograde tracer. By making dual retrograde deposits in the IC and SOC, we found that individual dopaminergic cells innervate both the IC and SOC. These results suggest dopaminergic innervation, likely released in a context dependent manner, occurs at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. PMID:27620513

  1. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-05-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification.

  2. Purified Wnt-5a increases differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic cells and dishevelled phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Gunnar; Bryja, Vítezslav; Rawal, Nina; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Sousa, Kyle M; Arenas, Ernest

    2005-03-01

    The Wnt family of lipoproteins regulates several aspects of the development of the nervous system. Recently, we reported that Wnt-3a enhances the proliferation of midbrain dopaminergic precursors and that Wnt-5a promotes their differentiation into dopaminergic neurones. Here we report the purification of hemagglutinin-tagged Wnt-5a using a three-step purification method similar to that previously described for Wnt-3a. Haemagglutinin-tagged Wnt-5a was biologically active and induced the differentiation of immature primary midbrain precursors into tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurones. Using a substantia nigra-derived dopaminergic cell line (SN4741), we found that Wnt-5a, unlike Wnt-3a, did not promote beta-catenin phosphorylation or stabilization. However, both Wnt-5a and Wnt-3a activated dishevelled, as assessed by a phosphorylation-dependent mobility shift. Moreover, the activity of Wnt-5a on dishevelled was blocked by pre-treatment with acyl protein thioesterase-1, indicating that palmitoylation of Wnt-5a is necessary for its function. Thus, our results suggest that Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a, respectively, activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways in ventral midbrain dopaminergic cells. Furthermore, we identify dishevelled as a key player in transducing both Wnt canonical and non-canonical signals in dopaminergic cells.

  3. Simultaneous activation of mitophagy and autophagy by staurosporine protects against dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Seo-Eun; Son, Jin H

    2014-02-21

    Abnormal autophagy is frequently observed during dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet firmly established whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic with respect to dopaminergic cell loss. Staurosporine, a common inducer of apoptosis, is often used in mechanistic studies of dopaminergic cell death. Here we report that staurosporine activates both autophagy and mitophagy simultaneously during dopaminergic neuronal cell death, and evaluate the physiological significance of these processes during cell death. First, staurosporine treatment resulted in induction of autophagy in more than 75% of apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased significantly cell viability. In addition, staurosporine treatment resulted in activation of the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway, of which deficit underlies some familial cases of PD, in the dopaminergic neuronal cell line, SN4741. The genetic blockade of this pathway by PINK1 null mutation also dramatically increased staurosporine-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that staurosporine induces both mitophagy and autophagy, and that these pathways exert a significant neuroprotective effect, rather than a contribution to autophagic cell death. This model system may therefore be useful for elucidating the mechanisms underlying crosstalk between autophagy, mitophagy, and cell death in dopaminergic neurons.

  4. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  5. Inhibition of p38 pathway-dependent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in estrogen receptor alpha knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chul Ju; Choi, Dong-Young; Jung, Yu Yeon; Lee, Young-Jung; Yun, Jae Suk; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Sang-Bae; Oh, Seikwan; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-04-01

    Approximately, 7-10 million people in the world suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the protective effect of estrogens against nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in PD. In this study, we investigated whether estrogen affects 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced behavioral impairment in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-deficient mice. MPTP (15mg/kg, four times with 1.5-h interval)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration was evaluated in ERα wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments (Rotarod test, Pole test, and Gait test), activation of microglia and astrocytes, and neuroinflammation after MPTP injection were observed in ERα KO mice compared to those in WT mice. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) after MPTP injection showed fewer TH-positive neurons in ERα KO mice than WT mice. Levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, metabolite of dopamine) were also lowered in ERα KO mice after MPTP injection. Interestingly, a higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B was found in the substantia nigra and striatum of ERα KO mice after MPTP injection. We also found an increased activation of p38 kinase (which positively regulates MAO B expression) in ERα KO mice. In vitro estrogen treatment inhibited neuroinflammation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridium (MPP+)-treated cultured astrocyte cells; however, these inhibitory effects were removed by p38 inhibitor. These results indicate that ERα might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival through inhibition of p38 pathway.

  6. Dopaminergic deficit is not the rule in orthostatic tremor.

    PubMed

    Trocello, Jean-Marc; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Roze, Emmanuel; Apartis, Emmanuelle; Legrand, André-Pierre; Habert, Marie-Odile; Devaux, Jean-Yves; Vidailhet, Marie

    2008-09-15

    Involvement of the dopaminergic system in orthostatic tremor is controversial. The aim of this study was to detect possible dopaminergic denervation in primary orthostatic tremor (OT). Twelve consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of primary orthostatic tremor were compared with age-matched normal controls. All the patients had a neurological examination, surface polymyography, and quantification of striatal dopamine transporters with (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging. There was no significant difference in (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT findings between controls and patients with OT. Longstanding primary orthostatic tremor is not necessarily associated with (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT abnormalities, as 8 of our patients had more than a 10-year history of OT. Primary orthostatic tremor without dopaminergic denervation remains a valid entity, although representing only a subtype of high-frequency OT. A new role may emerge for (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT in distinguishing between patients whose symptoms will be restricted to OT throughout the disease course and patients at an increased risk of developing PD. (c) 2008 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Posttraumatic tremor without parkinsonism in a patient with complete contralateral loss of the nigrostriatal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Jan; Booij, Jan; Valk, Jaap; Lees, Andrew; Horstink, Martin

    2002-09-01

    We present a patient with posttraumatic tremor who did not show any [(123)I]FP-CIT uptake in the contralateral putamen and caudate. The absence of hypokinesia and rigidity is surprising in the presence of a striatal dopaminergic denervation that is even more severe than in Parkinson's disease. An explanation, therefore, could be that the lesion in the subthalamic nucleus in our patient prevented the onset of a Parkinson syndrome.

  8. Dopaminergic Dysregulation, Artistic Expressiveness, and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Pousa, S.; Lombardía-Fernández, C.; Olmo, J. Garre; Monserrat-Vila, S.; Vilalta-Franch, J.; Calvó-Perxas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most frequent behavioral manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributed to the dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is considered to be secondary to the iatrogenic effects of the drugs that replace dopamine. Over the past few years some cases of patients improving their creative abilities after starting treatment with dopaminergic pharmaceuticals have been reported. These effects have not been clearly associated to DDS, but a relationship has been pointed out. Methods Case study of a patient with PD. The evolution of her paintings along medication changes and disease advance has been analyzed. Results The patient showed a compulsive increase of pictorial production after the diagnosis of PD was made. She made her best paintings when treated with cabergolide, and while painting, she reported a feeling of well-being, with loss of awareness of the disease and reduction of physical limitations. Conclusions Dopaminergic antagonists (DA) trigger a dopaminergic dysfunction that alters artistic creativity in patients having a predisposition for it. The development of these skills might be due to the dopaminergic overstimulation due to the therapy with DA, which causes a neurophysiological alteration that globally determines DDS. PMID:23185168

  9. Disruption in dopaminergic innervation during photoreceptor degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2016-04-15

    Dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) release dopamine in response to light-driven synaptic inputs, and are critical to retinal light adaptation. Retinal degeneration (RD) compromises the light responsiveness of the retina and, subsequently, dopamine metabolism is impaired. As RD progresses, retinal neurons exhibit aberrant activity, driven by AII amacrine cells, a primary target of the retinal dopaminergic network. Surprisingly, DACs are an exception to this physiological change; DACs exhibit rhythmic activity in healthy retina, but do not burst in RD. The underlying mechanism of this divergent behavior is not known. It is also unclear whether RD leads to structural changes in DACs, impairing functional regulation of AII amacrine cells. Here we examine the anatomical details of DACs in three mouse models of human RD to determine how changes to the dopaminergic network may underlie physiological changes in RD. By using rd10, rd1, and rd1/C57 mice we were able to dissect the impacts of genetic background and the degenerative process on DAC structure in RD retina. We found that DACs density, soma size, and primary dendrite length are all significantly reduced. Using a novel adeno-associated virus-mediated technique to label AII amacrine cells in mouse retina, we observed diminished dopaminergic contacts to AII amacrine cells in RD mice. This was accompanied by changes to the components responsible for dopamine synthesis and release. Together, these data suggest that structural alterations of the retinal dopaminergic network underlie physiological changes during RD.

  10. Olfactory impairment in the rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease is associated with bulbar dopaminergic D2 activity after REM sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Lais S.; Targa, Adriano D. S.; Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Lima, Marcelo M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deficits are commonly found in untreated subjects with a recent diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Additionally, different studies report declines in olfactory performance during a short period of sleep deprivation. Mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are poorly understood, and impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the olfactory bulb and the nigrostriatal pathway may have important roles in olfaction and REM sleep disturbances. Therefore, we hypothesized that modulation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors in the olfactory bulb could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the olfactory deficits in PD and REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). We decided to investigate the olfactory, neurochemical, and histological alterations generated through the administration of piribedil (a selective D2 agonist) or raclopride (a selective D2 antagonist) within the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, in rats subjected to intranigral rotenone and REMSD. Our findings provide evidence of the occurrence of a negative correlation (r = −0.52, P = 0.04) between the number of periglomerular TH-ir neurons and the bulbar levels of DA in the rotenone, but not sham, groups. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.34, P = 0.03) was observed between nigrostriatal DA levels and olfactory discrimination index (DI) for the sham groups, indicating that increased DA levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) are associated with enhanced olfactory discrimination performance. Also, increased levels in bulbar and striatal DA were induced by piribedil in the rotenone control and rotenone REMSD groups, consistent with reductions in the DI. The present evidence reinforce the idea that DA produced by periglomerular neurons, particularly the bulbar dopaminergic D2 receptors, is an essential participant in olfactory discrimination processes, as the SNpc, and the striatum. PMID:25520618

  11. Nigrostriatal rAAV-mediated GDNF Overexpression Induces Robust Weight Loss in a Rat Model of Age-related Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Manfredsson, Fredric P; Tumer, Nihal; Erdos, Benedek; Landa, Tessa; Broxson, Christopher S; Sullivan, Layla F; Rising, Aaron C; Foust, Kevin D; Zhang, Yi; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Scarpace, Philip J; Mandel, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in primate and humans to study Parkinson's disease (PD) has revealed the potential for GDNF to induce weight loss. Our previous data indicate that bilateral continuous hypothalamic GDNF overexpression via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) results in significant failure to gain weight in young rats and weight loss in aged rats. Based on these previous results, we hypothesized that because the nigrostriatal tract passes through the lateral hypothalamus, motor hyperactivity mediated by nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) may have been responsible for the previously observed effect on body weight. In this study, we compared bilateral injections of rAAV2/5-GDNF in hypothalamus versus substantia nigra (SN) in aged Brown-Norway X Fisher 344 rats. Nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression resulted in significantly greater weight loss than rats treated in hypothalamus. The nigral or hypothalamic GDNF-induced weight loss was unrelated to motor activity levels of the rats, though some of the weight loss could be attributed to a transient reduction in food intake. Forebrain DA levels did not account for the observed effects on body weight, although GDNF-induced increases in nucleus accumbens DA may have partially contributed to this effect in the hypothalamic GDNF-treated group. However, only nigrostriatal GDNF overexpression induced activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in a small population of corticotrophin-releasing factor [corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)] neurons located specifically in the medial parvocellullar division (MPD) of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Activation of these hypothalamic CRH neurons likely accounted for the observed metabolic effects leading to weight loss in obese rats. PMID:19277011

  12. Mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Evan L; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant of abuse with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. More than 2.5 decades ago, METH-induced damage to dopaminergic neurons was described. Since then, numerous advancements have been made in the search for the underlying mechanisms whereby METH causes these persistent dopaminergic deficits. Although our understanding of these mechanisms remains incomplete, combinations of various complex processes have been described around a central theme involving reactive species, such as reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively). For example, METH-induced hyperthermia, aberrant dopamine(DA), or glutamate transmission; or mitochondrial disruption leads to the generation of reactive species with neurotoxic consequences. This review will describe the current understanding of how high-dose METH administration leads to the production of these toxic reactive species and consequent permanent dopaminergic deficits.

  13. [Impact of opiates on dopaminergic neurons].

    PubMed

    Kaufling, Jennifer; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José; Barrot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Since the work of Johnson and North, it is known that opiates increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons by a GABA neuron-mediated desinhibition. This model should however be updated based on recent advances. Thus, the neuroanatomical location of the GABA neurons responsible for this desinhibition has been recently detailed: they belong to a brain structure in continuity with the posterior part of the ventral tegmental area and discovered this past decade. Other data also highlighted the critical role played by glutamatergic transmission in the opioid regulation of dopaminergic neuron activity. During protracted opiate withdrawal, the inhibitory/excitatory balance exerted on dopaminergic neurons is altered. These results are now leading to propose an original hypothesis for explaining the impact of protracted opiate withdrawal on mood.

  14. Methamphetamine causes degeneration of dopamine cell bodies and terminals of the nigrostriatal pathway evidenced by silver staining.

    PubMed

    Ares-Santos, Sara; Granado, Noelia; Espadas, Isabel; Martinez-Murillo, Ricardo; Moratalla, Rosario

    2014-04-01

    Methamphetamine is a widely abused illicit drug. Recent epidemiological studies showed that methamphetamine increases the risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) in agreement with animal studies showing dopaminergic neurotoxicity. We examined the effect of repeated low and medium doses vs single high dose of methamphetamine on degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and cell bodies. Mice were given methamphetamine in one of the following paradigms: three injections of 5 or 10 mg/kg at 3 h intervals or a single 30 mg/kg injection. The integrity of dopaminergic fibers and cell bodies was assessed at different time points after methamphetamine by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and silver staining. The 3 × 10 protocol yielded the highest loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals, followed by the 3 × 5 and 1 × 30. Some degenerating axons could be followed from the striatum to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). All protocols induced similar significant degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc, evidenced by amino-cupric-silver-stained dopaminergic neurons. These neurons died by necrosis and apoptosis. Methamphetamine also killed striatal neurons. By using D1-Tmt/D2-GFP BAC transgenic mice, we observed that degenerating striatal neurons were equally distributed between direct and indirect medium spiny neurons. Despite the reduced number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 30 days after treatment, there was a partial time-dependent recovery of dopamine terminals beginning 3 days after treatment. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were robustly decreased 1-3 days after treatment, but recovered at later times along with dopaminergic terminals. These data provide direct evidence that methamphetamine causes long-lasting loss/degeneration of dopaminergic cell bodies in the SNpc, along with destruction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum.

  15. FBXO7 immunoreactivity in α-synuclein-containing inclusions in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianna; Severijnen, Lies-Anne; van der Weiden, Marcel; Zheng, Ping Pin; Oostra, Ben A; Hukema, Renate K; Willemsen, Rob; Kros, Johan M; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) cause PARK15, an autosomal recessive form of juvenile parkinsonism. Although the brain pathology in PARK15 patients remains unexplored, in vivo imaging displays severe loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. Understanding the pathogenesis of PARK15 might therefore illuminate the mechanisms of the selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, which could also be important for understanding idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). The expression of FBXO7 in the human brain remains poorly characterized, and its expression in idiopathic PD and different neurodegenerative diseases has not been investigated. Here, we studied FBXO7 protein expression in brain samples of normal controls (n = 9) and from patients with PD (n = 13), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 5), Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 5), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n = 5) using immunohistochemistry with 2 anti-FBXO7 antibodies. We detected widespread brain FBXO7 immunoreactivity, with the highest levels in neurons of the cerebral cortex, putamen, and cerebellum. There were no major differences between normal and PD brains overall, but FBXO7 immunoreactivity was detected in large proportions of α-synuclein-positive inclusions (Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites, glial cytoplasmic inclusions), where it colocalized with α-synuclein in PD and MSA cases. By contrast, weak FBXO7 immunoreactivity was occasionally detected in tau-positive inclusions in AD and PSP. These findings suggest a role for FBXO7 in the pathogenesis of the synucleinopathies.

  16. Pomegranate juice exacerbates oxidative stress and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Victor; Cannon, Jason R.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors contribute to the death of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Compelling evidence implicates mitochondrial deficiency, oxidative stress, and inflammation as important pathogenic factors in PD. Chronic exposure of rats to rotenone causes a PD-like syndrome, in part by causing oxidative damage and inflammation in SN. Pomegranate juice (PJ) has the greatest composite antioxidant potency index among beverages, and it has been demonstrated to have protective effects in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was designed to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of PJ in the rotenone model of PD. Oral administration of PJ did not mitigate or prevent experimental PD but instead increased nigrostriatal terminal depletion, DA neuron loss, the inflammatory response, and caspase activation, thereby heightening neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying this effect are uncertain, but the finding that PJ per se enhanced nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and activated caspase-3 expression in nigral DA neurons is consistent with its potential pro-oxidant activity. PMID:24315037

  17. Comparison of the structure, function and autophagic maintenance of mitochondria in nigrostriatal and tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Hawong, Hae-Young; Patterson, Joseph R; Winner, Brittany M; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J

    2015-10-05

    A pathological hallmark of Parkinson׳s disease (PD) is progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons, which underlies the motor symptoms of PD. While there is severe loss of midbrain NSDA neurons, tuberoinfundibular (TI) DA neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) remain intact. In the present study, confocal microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondrial content and numbers of mitophagosomes were lower in NSDA neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) compared to TIDA neuronal cell bodies in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of C57BL/6J male mice. Mitochondrial respiration, mass, membrane potential and morphology were determined using bioenergetic, flow cytometric and transmission electron microscopic analyses of synaptosomes isolated from discrete brain regions containing axon terminals of NSDA and TIDA neurons. Maximum and spare respiratory capacities, and mitochondrial mass were lower in synaptosomal mitochondria derived from the striatum (ST) as compared with the MBH, which correlated with lower numbers of mitochondria per synaptosome in these brain regions. In contrast, there was no regional difference in mitochondrial basal, maximum or spare respirations following inhibition of Complex I activity with rotenone. These results reveal that higher numbers of viable mitochondria are correlated with more extensive autophagic mitochondrial quality maintenance in TIDA neurons as compared with NSDA neurons.

  18. Comparison of the structure, function and autophagic maintenance of mitochondria in nigrostriatal and tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hawong, Hae-young; Patterson, Joseph R; Winner, Brittany M; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    A pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons, which underlies the motor symptoms of PD. While there is severe loss of midbrain NSDA neurons, tuberoinfundibular (TI) DA neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) remain intact. In the present study, confocal microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondrial content and numbers of mitophagosomes were lower in NSDA neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) compared to TIDA neuronal cell bodies in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of C57BL/6J male mice. Mitochondrial respiration, mass, membrane potential and morphology were determined using bioenergetic, flow cytometric and transmission electron microscopic analyses of synaptosomes isolated from discrete brain regions containing axon terminals of NSDA and TIDA neurons. Maximum and spare respiratory capacities, and mitochondrial mass were lower in synaptosomal mitochondria derived from the striatum (ST) as compared with the MBH, which correlated with lower numbers of mitochondria per synaptosome in these brain regions. In contrast, there was no regional difference in mitochondrial basal, maximum or spare respirations following inhibition of Complex I activity with rotenone. These results reveal that higher numbers of viable mitochondria are correlated with more extensive autophagic mitochondrial quality maintenance in TIDA neurons as compared with NSDA neurons. PMID:26141374

  19. Role of Slit and Robo proteins in the development of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine plays a number of important roles in the nervous system and the dopaminergic system is affected in several brain disorders. It is therefore of great interest to study the axonal guidance systems that specifically participate in the correct establishment of dopaminergic projections during development and possibly during regenerative processes. In recent years, several reports have shown that Slits and their Robo receptors control the growth of longitudinal (both ascending and descending) mesodiencephalic dopaminergic axons to their appropriate target areas. In vitro studies have shown that Slit1, 2 and 3 are potent repellents of dopamine neurite extension. In vivo studies using both mice and zebrafish mutants for Slits and Robos have shown that Slits and Robos control the lateral and dorsoventral positioning of dopaminergic longitudinal projections during early development. In the present review, we aimed to compile the existing knowledge from both in vitro and in vivo studies on the role of Slit and Robo proteins in the development of dopaminergic neurons as a basis for future studies.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dopaminergic Neurons during Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuchen; Guo, Qiang; Shan, Minghui; Wu, Yongmei; Huang, Sizhou; Zhao, Haixia; Hong, Huarong; Yang, Ming; Yang, Xi; Ren, Liyi; Peng, Jiali; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Hongli; Li, Shurong; Su, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the model organisms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time. We found that diencephalons (DC) 2 and DC4 neuronal populations were detected at 24 h post fertilization (hpf). All DC neuronal populations as well as those in locus coeruleus (LC), raphe nuclei (Ra) and telencephalon were detected at 48 hpf. Axons were detected at 72 hpf. At 96 hpf, all the neuronal populations were detected. For the first time we reported axons from the posterior tubercle (PT) of ventral DC projected to subpallium in vivo. However, when compared with results from whole mount tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence staining in wild type (WT) zebrafish, we found that DC2 and DC4 neuronal populations were mainly dopaminergic, while DC1, DC3, DC5 and DC6 might not. Neurons in pretectum (Pr) and telencephalon were mainly dopaminergic, while neurons in LC and Ra might be noradrenergic. Our study makes some corrections and modifications on the development, localization and distribution of zebrafish dopaminergic neurons, and provides some experimental evidences for the construction of the zebrafish PD model. PMID:27965546

  1. Argument for a non-linear relationship between severity of human obesity and dopaminergic tone.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, A; Fenske, W K; Hankir, M K

    2015-10-01

    Alterations in the dopaminergic system have been implicated in both animal and human obesity. However, to date, a comprehensive model on the nature and functional relevance of this relationship is missing. In particular, human data remain equivocal in that seemingly inconsistent reports exist of positive, negative or even no relationships between dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum and measures of obesity. Further, data on receptor availability have been commonly interpreted as reflecting receptor density, despite the possibility of an alternative interpretation, namely alterations in the basal levels of endogenous dopaminergic tone. Here, we provide a unifying framework that is able to explain the seemingly contradictory findings and offer an alternative and novel perspective on existing data. In particular, we suggest (i) a quadratic relationship between alterations in the dopaminergic system and degree of obesity, and (ii) that the observed alterations are driven by shifts in the balance between general dopaminergic tone and phasic dopaminergic signalling. The proposed model consistently integrates human data on molecular and behavioural characteristics of overweight and obesity. Further, the model provides a mechanistic framework accounting not only for the consistent observation of altered (food) reward-responsivity but also for the differences in reinforcement learning, decision-making behaviour and cognitive performance associated with measures of obesity.

  2. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals.

  3. Histamine H3 Receptor Regulates Sensorimotor Gating and Dopaminergic Signaling in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Kononoff Vanhanen, Jenni; Nuutinen, Saara; Tuominen, Mervi; Panula, Pertti

    2016-05-01

    The brain histamine system has been implicated in regulation of sensorimotor gating deficits and in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Histamine also regulates alcohol reward and consumption via H3 receptor (H3R), possibly through an interaction with the brain dopaminergic system. Here, we identified the histaminergic mechanism of sensorimotor gating and the role of histamine H3R in the regulation of dopaminergic signaling. We found that H3R knockout mice displayed impaired prepulse inhibition (PPI), indicating deficiency in sensorimotor gating. Histamine H1 receptor knockout and histidine decarboxylase knockout mice had similar PPI as their controls. Dopaminergic drugs increased PPI of H3R knockout mice to the same level as in control mice, suggesting that changes in dopamine receptors might underlie deficient PPI response when H3R is lacking. Striatal dopamine D1 receptor mRNA level was lower, and D1 and D2 receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was absent in the striatum of H3R knockout mice, suggesting that H3R is essential for the dopamine receptor-mediated signaling. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H3R is an important regulator of sensorimotor gating, and the lack of H3R significantly modifies striatal dopaminergic signaling. These data support the usefulness of H3R ligands in neuropsychiatric disorders with preattentional deficits and disturbances in dopaminergic signaling.

  4. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  5. Dopaminergic activity of four analogs of butaclamol.

    PubMed

    Collu, R; Bouvier, C; Basak, A; Dugas, H

    1985-12-01

    The displacing potency of four analogs of the neuroleptic drug butaclamol were evaluated using dog striatal tissue and [3H]-Spiroperidol as ligand. Although significantly less powerful than the parent compound, two of them (N-isobutyl butaclamol equatorial; N-methyl butaclamol equatorial) could be used for dopaminergic receptor studies.

  6. A glycoside of Nicotina tabacum affects mouse dopaminergic behavior.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Ohnuma, S; Kawagoe, M; Sugiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Climbing in the forced swimming test is considered a dopaminergic-specific behavior. A substance of Nicotina tabacum affecting dopamine neuronal activity was investigated using the mouse behavioral system. The substance was found to be a glycoside with the peripheral sugar chain structures Fuc alpha 1-2Gal, Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc and GalNAc alpha 1-3GalNAc and with basic polymannoses. The glycoside dose-dependently increased behavior via D2 neuronal activity, but not D1 activity. This suggests that smoking can affect human brain function not only via the nicotinic cholinergic neuron, but also via the D2 neuron.

  7. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    2008-04-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore striatal dopamine signaling by increasing the supply of dopamine with oral levodopa (L-dopa), stimulating dopamine receptors directly using dopamine agonists, or inhibiting the reuptake of endogenous dopamine. L-dopa is standard therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, with continued treatment and disease progression, the response to oral dopaminergic drugs becomes unstable and motor fluctuations emerge, including off periods and dyskinesia. Direct duodenal-administered infusible L-dopa/carbidopa is effective for the management of refractory motor fluctuations in some patient populations. However, enteral infusions cannot mimic the function of the normal dopaminergic brain, and around-the-clock constant-rate administration carries the risk of causing refractory off periods associated with severe immobility and hyperpyrexia. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also a promising treatment. DBS passes a high-frequency electrical current into the target area, mimicking the effect of lesioning the stimulated area. However, this treatment requires invasive surgery and is appropriate for a limited segment of the patient population. This supplement provides a rationale for the use of continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation and offers guidelines on the individualization of treatment decisions, with special focus on continuous L-dopa infusion and STN DBS. Erik Wolters, MD, PhD, offers an introduction to the impact of continuous L-dopa infusion. Andrew J. Lees, MD, FRCP, provides an overview of the physiologic response to L-dopa and reviews clinical pharmacologic studies of intravenous and intraduodenal L-dopa. Jens Volkmann, MD, discusses

  8. Drosophila divalent metal ion transporter Malvolio is required in dopaminergic neurons for feeding decisions.

    PubMed

    Søvik, E; LaMora, A; Seehra, G; Barron, A B; Duncan, J G; Ben-Shahar, Y

    2017-02-21

    Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive. Here, we show that normal food choice requires Mvl function specifically in the dopaminergic system, and can be rescued by supplementing food with manganese. Collectively, our data indicate that the action of the Mvl transporter affects food choice behavior via the regulation of dopaminergic innervation of the mushroom bodies, a principle brain region associated with decision-making in insects. Our studies suggest that the homeostatic regulation of the intraneuronal levels of divalent cations plays an important role in the development and function of the dopaminergic system and associated behaviors.

  9. [Dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease: what has each therapeutic family got to offer?].

    PubMed

    Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Different families of dopaminergic agents have allowed to increase the availability of dopamine within the central nervous system by different mechanisms of action. Each drug family has specific efficacious properties, as well as a different profile of adverse events. The knowledge in detail of these specificities is mandatory to avoid severe systemic or neuropsychiatric complications. Despite these limitations, the development of new drugs within the past 20 years has prolonged survival in Parkinson's disease, increasing the time with preserved daily day functionality compared with the levodopa era, when this drug was the only dopaminergic drug available. The correct combination of dopaminergic drugs with different mechanisms of action allows the management of Parkinson's disease motor symptoms within safety dose ranges, and up to day, this appears as the best algorithm to maintain functionality for longer periods of time.

  10. Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

  11. Endogenous dopamine is involved in the herbicide paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Ezumi, Masayuki; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Systemic exposure of mice to paraquat causes a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, although paraquat is not selectively incorporated in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report a contribution of endogenous dopamine to paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death. Exposure of PC12 cells to paraquat (50μM) caused delayed toxicity from 36 h onward. A decline in intracellular dopamine content achieved by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme for dopamine synthesis, conferred resistance to paraquat toxicity on dopaminergic cells. Paraquat increased the levels of cytosolic and vesicular dopamine, accompanied by transiently increased TH activity. Quinone derived from cytosolic dopamine conjugates with cysteine residues in functional proteins to form quinoproteins. Formation of quinoprotein was transiently increased early during exposure to paraquat. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid, which suppressed the elevations of intracellular dopamine and quinoprotein, almost completely prevented paraquat toxicity. These results suggest that the elevation of cytosolic dopamine induced by paraquat participates in the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to delayed toxicity through the formation of quinoproteins.

  12. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation prevents nigrostriatal dopamine pathway activation by morphine: relevance for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Alicia; Gago, Belén; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Yoshitake, Takashi; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Medina-Luque, José; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Craenenbroeck, Kathleen Van; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Kehr, Jan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-22

    Morphine is one of the most effective drugs used for pain management, but it is also highly addictive. Morphine elicits acute and long-term adaptive changes at cellular and molecular level in the brain, which play a critical role in the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Previous studies indicated that the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R) activation counteracts morphine-induced adaptive changes of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the striosomes of the caudate putamen (CPu), as well as the induction of several Fos family transcription factors. Thus, it has been suggested that D4 R could play an important role avoiding some of the addictive effects of morphine. Here, using different drugs administration paradigms, it is determined that the D4 R agonist PD168,077 prevents morphine-induced activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and morphological changes of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons, leading to a restoration of dopamine levels and metabolism in the CPu. Results from receptor autoradiography indicate that D4 R activation modulates MOR function in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the striosomes of the CPu, suggesting that these regions are critically involved in the modulation of SNc dopamine neuronal function through a functional D4 R/MOR interaction. In addition, D4 R activation counteracts the rewarding effects of morphine, as well as the development of hyperlocomotion and physical dependence without any effect on its analgesic properties. These results provide a novel role of D4 R agonist as a pharmacological strategy to prevent the adverse effects of morphine in the treatment of pain.

  13. Loss of Mecp2 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons compromises the nigrostriatal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gantz, Stephanie C.; Ford, Christopher P.; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding-protein 2 (MeCP2) result in Rett Syndrome (RTT), an X-linked disorder that disrupts neurodevelopment. Girls with RTT exhibit motor deficits similar to Parkinson’s disease, suggesting defects in the nigrostriatal pathway. This study examined age-dependent changes in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) from wild type, pre-symptomatic, and symptomatic Mecp2+/− mice. Mecp2+ neurons in the SN in Mecp2+/− mice were indistinguishable in morphology, resting conductance, and dopamine current density from neurons in wild type mice. However, the capacitance, total dendritic length, and resting conductance of Mecp2− neurons were less than that of Mecp2+ neurons as early as four weeks after birth, prior to overt symptoms. These differences were maintained throughout life. In symptomatic Mecp2+/− mice, the current induced by activation of D2 dopamine autoreceptors was significantly less in Mecp2− neurons than Mecp2+ neurons, although D2 receptor density was unaltered in Mecp2+/− mice. Electrochemical measurements revealed that significantly less dopamine was released after stimulation of striatum in adult Mecp2+/− mice compared to wild type. The decrease in size and function of Mecp2− neurons observed in adult Mecp2+/− mice was recapitulated in dopamine neurons from symptomatic Mecp2−/y males. These results show that mutation in Mecp2 results in cell-autonomous defects in the SN early in life and throughout adulthood. Ultimately, dysfunction in terminal dopamine release and D2 autoreceptor dependent currents in dopamine neurons from symptomatic females support the idea that decreased dopamine transmission due to heterogeneous Mecp2 expression contributes to the Parkinsonian features of RTT in Mecp2+/− mice. PMID:21880923

  14. Protein Kinase Cδ Upregulation in Microglia Drives Neuroinflammatory Responses and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Richard; Singh, Neeraj; Lawana, Vivek; Ghosh, Anamitra; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Jin, Huajun; Hogan, Colleen; Sarkar, Souvarish; Rokad, Dharmin; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation has been linked to the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons evidenced in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The exact etiology of PD remains poorly understood. Although both oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are identified as co-contributors in PD pathogenesis, signaling mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes have yet to be defined. Indeed, we recently identified that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) activation is critical for induction of dopaminergic neuronal loss in response to neurotoxic stressors. However, it remains to be defined whether PKCδ activation contributes to immune signaling events driving microglial neurotoxicity. In the present study, we systematically investigated whether PKCδ contributes to the heightened microglial activation response following exposure to major proinflammatory stressors, including α-synuclein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We report that exposure to the aforementioned inflammatory stressors dramatically upregulated PKCδ with a concomitant increase in its kinase activity and nuclear translocation in both BV-2 microglial cells and primary microglia. Importantly, we also observed a marked upregulation of PKCδ in the microglia of the ventral midbrain region of PD patients when compared to age-matched controls, suggesting a role for microglial PKCδ in neurodegenerative processes. Further, shRNA-mediated knockdown and genetic ablation of PKCδ in primary microglia blunted the microglial proinflammatory response elicited by the inflammogens, including ROS generation, nitric oxide production, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. Importantly, we found that PKCδ activated NFκB, a key mediator of inflammatory signaling events, after challenge with inflammatory stressors, and that transactivation of NFκB led to translocation of the p65 subunit to the nucleus, IκBα degradation and phosphorylation of p65

  15. Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: implications for association with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ida-Eto, Michiru; Oyabu, Akiko; Ohkawara, Takeshi; Tashiro, Yasura; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki

    2013-03-01

    Thimerosal, an organomercury compound, has been widely used as a preservative. Therefore, concerns have been raised about its neurotoxicity. We recently demonstrated perturbation of early serotonergic development by prenatal exposure to thimerosal (Ida-Eto et al. (2011) [11]). Here, we investigated whether prenatal thimerosal exposure causes persistent impairment after birth. Analysis on postnatal day 50 showed significant increase in hippocampal serotonin following thimerosal administration on embryonic day 9. Furthermore, not only serotonin, striatal dopamine was significantly increased. These results indicate that embryonic exposure to thimerosal produces lasting impairment of brain monoaminergic system, and thus every effort should be made to avoid the use of thimerosal.

  16. Quercetin and sesamin protect dopaminergic cells from MPP+-induced neuroinflammation in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system.

    PubMed

    Bournival, Julie; Plouffe, Marilyn; Renaud, Justine; Provencher, Cindy; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are associated with microglia activation with resultant elevation of various inflammatory mediators and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 natural molecules, quercetin and sesamin, on neuroinflammation induced by the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in a glial-neuronal system. We first established that quercetin and sesamin defend microglial cells against MPP(+)-induced increases in the mRNA or protein levels of 3 pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), as revealed by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, respectively. Quercetin and sesamin also decrease MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in microglial cells by reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as mitochondrial superoxide radicals. We then measured neuronal cell death and apoptosis after MPP(+) activation of microglia, in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system. Our results revealed that quercetin and sesamin rescued neuronal PC12 cells from apoptotic death induced by MPP(+) activation of microglial cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the phytoestrogen quercetin and the lignan sesamin diminish MPP(+)-evoked microglial activation and suggest that both these molecules may be regarded as potent, natural, anti-inflammatory compounds.

  17. The impact of chronic stress during adolescence on the development of aggressive behavior: A systematic review on the role of the dopaminergic system in rodents.

    PubMed

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Al-Itejawi, Zeineb; Zijlmans, Josjan; Polderman, Tinca Jc; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Popma, Arne

    2016-11-05

    Pathological aggression, frequently observed in psychiatric patients and criminal subjects, poses a major burden on the health care and criminal justice system, necessitating better aetiological models to inform targets for prevention and intervention. Emerging evidence suggests that adverse experiences during development can cause long-lasting brain alterations associated with maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression. The present review discusses, mainly based on studies in rodents, whether disruption of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system through chronic stress-exposure during adolescence predisposes to adult aggression. Our findings suggest that chronic stress in adolescence induces prefrontal cortex (PFC) hyperdopaminergia and ultimately leads to blunted prefrontal dopamine transmission in adulthood. This, in turn, disrupts the ability of the PFC to guide adaptive, long-term focused action selection by regulating mesolimbic dopamine signaling. We propose that, especially during the dynamic and transitional period of adolescence, exposure to chronic stress could lead to excessive adaptive change, which may result in an increased vulnerability to maladaptive aggression in adulthood. We discuss how these findings in rodents may translate to humans.

  18. Diversity of Dopaminergic Neural Circuits in Response to Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Barbara; Han, Ming-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Addictive substances are known to increase dopaminergic signaling in the mesocorticolimbic system. The origin of this dopamine (DA) signaling originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which sends afferents to various targets, including the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the basolateral amygdala. VTA DA neurons mediate stimuli saliency and goal-directed behaviors. These neurons undergo robust drug-induced intrinsic and extrinsic synaptic mechanisms following acute and chronic drug exposure, which are part of brain-wide adaptations that ultimately lead to the transition into a drug-dependent state. Interestingly, recent investigations of the differential subpopulations of VTA DA neurons have revealed projection-specific functional roles in mediating reward, aversion, and stress. It is now critical to view drug-induced neuroadaptations from a circuit-level perspective to gain insight into how differential dopaminergic adaptations and signaling to targets of the mesocorticolimbic system mediates drug reward. This review hopes to describe the projection-specific intrinsic characteristics of these subpopulations, the differential afferent inputs onto these VTA DA neuron subpopulations, and consolidate findings of drug-induced plasticity of VTA DA neurons and highlight the importance of future projection-based studies of this system. PMID:26934955

  19. Integrin α5β1 expression on dopaminergic neurons is involved in dopaminergic neurite outgrowth on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Wakita, Seiko; Kanbara, Chisato; Nakai, Toshie; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    During development, dopaminergic neurons born in the substantia nigra extend their axons toward the striatum. However, the mechanisms by which the dopaminergic axons extend the striatum to innervate their targets remain unclear. We previously showed that paired-cultivation of mesencephalic cells containing dopaminergic neurons with striatal cells leads to the extension of dopaminergic neurites from the mesencephalic cell region to the striatal cell region. The present study shows that dopaminergic neurites extended along striatal neurons in the paired-cultures of mesencephalic cells with striatal cells. The extension of dopaminergic neurites was suppressed by the pharmacological inhibition of integrin α5β1. Using lentiviral vectors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of integrin α5 in dopaminergic neurons suppressed the neurite outgrowth to the striatal cell region. In contrast, the knockdown of integrin α5 in non-dopaminergic mesencephalic and striatal cells had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression of integrin α5 in dopaminergic neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells enhanced their neurite outgrowth on striatal cells. These results indicate that integrin α5β1 expression on dopaminergic neurons plays an important role in the dopaminergic neurite outgrowth on striatal neurons. PMID:28176845

  20. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of meth-amphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’. PMID:24709540

  1. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of methamphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  2. Adrenergic and dopaminergic modulation of immunity in multiple sclerosis: teaching old drugs new tricks?

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Marino, Franca

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. Classical evidence in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the animal model of MS, support the relevance of sympatoadrenergic as well as of dopaminergic mechanisms. In MS patients, dysregulation of adrenergic and dopaminergic pathways contribute to the disease in immune system cells as well as in glial cells. Available evidence is summarized and discussed also in the light of the novel role of dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline as transmitters in immune cells, providing a conceptual frame to exploit the potential of several dopaminergic and adrenergic agents, already in clinical use for non-immune indications and with a usually favourable risk-benefit profile, as add-on drugs to conventional immunomodulating therapies in MS.

  3. Endogenous Parkin Preserves Dopaminergic Substantia Nigral Neurons following Mitochondrial DNA Mutagenic Stress.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Alicia M; Huang, Chiu-Hui; Kennedy, Scott R; Ordureau, Alban; Sideris, Dionisia P; Hoekstra, Jake G; Harper, J Wade; Youle, Richard J

    2015-07-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PARK2 mutations cause early-onset forms of PD. PARK2 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin, that can selectively translocate to dysfunctional mitochondria to promote their removal by autophagy. However, Parkin knockout (KO) mice do not display signs of neurodegeneration. To assess Parkin function in vivo, we utilized a mouse model that accumulates dysfunctional mitochondria caused by an accelerated generation of mtDNA mutations (Mutator mice). In the absence of Parkin, dopaminergic neurons in Mutator mice degenerated causing an L-DOPA reversible motor deficit. Other neuronal populations were unaffected. Phosphorylated ubiquitin was increased in the brains of Mutator mice, indicating PINK1-Parkin activation. Parkin loss caused mitochondrial dysfunction and affected the pathogenicity but not the levels of mtDNA somatic mutations. A systemic loss of Parkin synergizes with mitochondrial dysfunction causing dopaminergic neuron death modeling PD pathogenic processes.

  4. Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kyota; Seike, Toshihiro; Yutsudo, Noriko; Ohno, Mizuki; Yamada, Hidetaka; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Kido, Mizuho A; Takaki, Atsushi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Noda, Mami

    2009-09-30

    It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H(2)-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H(2) showed that H(2) as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H(2) water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H(2)-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O(2)*(-)) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H(2) in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H(2)-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

  5. New recreational drug 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (alpha-PVP) activates central nervous system via dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Kaizaki, Asuka; Tanaka, Sachiko; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP) is a new designer drug of the cathinone type. People who have taken drugs containing α-PVP or other synthetic cathinone reportedly lose consciousness, develop difficulty breathing, and at worst case, die. However, the mechanism underlying α-PVP-induced neurotoxicity is unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of α-PVP on the central nervous system (CNS) and compare its neurotoxicity with that of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. Balb/c male mice (8 weeks old) were orally administered α-PVP (25 mg/kg) or METH (5 mg/kg). α-PVP induced a significant increase in locomotor activity, which occurred earlier than locomotor activity induced by METH. This increase was inhibited by the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23990 (50 µg/kg, i.p.) and the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.m.). The extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, determined by in vivo microdialysis increased immediately after α-PVP administration. These results suggest that α-PVP stimulates DA release, causing an increase in locomotor activity, and that this stimulatory effect of α-PVP on CNS is mediated, at least in part, by the D1 and D2 receptors.

  6. The role of the GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in the brain response to an intragastric load of alcohol in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, T; Uematsu, A; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2010-12-01

    The brain's response to ethanol intake has been extensively investigated using electrophysiological recordings, brain lesion techniques, and c-Fos immunoreactivity. However, few studies have investigated this phenomenon using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, we used fMRI to investigate the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to an intragastric (IG) load of ethanol in conscious, ethanol-naive rats. An intragastrically infused 10% ethanol solution induced a significant decrease in the intensity of the BOLD signal in several regions of the brain, including the bilateral amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAc), hippocampus, ventral pallidum, insular cortex, and cingulate cortex, and an increase in the BOLD signal in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and hypothalamic regions. Treatment with bicuculline, which is an antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor, increased the BOLD signal intensity in the regions that had shown decreases in the BOLD signal after the IG infusion of 10% ethanol solution, but it did not affect the BOLD signal increase in the hypothalamus. Treatment with SCH39166, which is an antagonist of D1-like receptors, eliminated the increase in the BOLD signal intensity in the hypothalamic areas but did not affect the BOLD signal decrease following the 10% ethanol infusion. These results indicate that an IG load of ethanol caused both a GABA(A) receptor-mediated BOLD decrease in the limbic system and the cortex and a D1-like receptor-mediated BOLD increase in the hypothalamic regions in ethanol-naive rats.

  7. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-ping; Cheng, Yan-bo

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5–30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330837

  8. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-Kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-Ping; Cheng, Yan-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5-30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Lack of functional evidence for the involvement of sigma opiate receptors in the actions of the 3-PPP enantiomers on central dopaminergic systems: discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo observations.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, S; Clark, D; Carlsson, A

    1985-08-19

    In vitro radioligand binding and autoradiographic distribution studies have suggested the possible involvement of central sigma-opiate sites in the effects of several purportedly dopaminergic agents. Specifically, Largent et al. (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 81, 4983, 1984) proposed that "actions of 3-PPP at sigma receptors may account for the effect of the drug on behavior and dopaminergic nerve function". Using the sigma-opiate- and dopamine (DA)-preferring (-)- and (+)-enantiomer, respectively, of butaclamol, and the two enantiomers of 3-PPP, the present study was undertaken to address the in vivo functional significance of this proposal. To this end we investigated various biological responses considered to reflect drug interactions with DA cell body and terminal autoreceptors and with presumed non-synaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors in the rat CNS. (+)- but not (-)-butaclamol antagonized the 3-PPP (either enantiomer)-induced DA synthesis and prolactin decreases in GBL-treated rats, the (+)-3-PPP-induced inhibition of substantia nigra DA cell firing and the (+)-3-PPP-induced reversal of reserpine akinesia. Taken together with previous findings available data suggest that DA rather than sigma-opiate receptors mediate the neurochemical, electrophysiological, behavioral and other physiological (prolactin, body temperature) effects of 3-PPP and its enantiomers. The in vivo pharmacological relevance of the claimed non-dopaminergic, proposedly sigma-opiatergic, radioligand binding demonstrated in vitro (with e.g. (+)-3-PPP) thus remains to be established.

  10. A psychoneuroendocrine study of brain dopaminergic sensitivity in locally limited or metastatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lissoni, P; Messina, G; Vaghi, M; Bartolacelli, E; Massarenti, L L; Trabattoni, P; Meregalli, P; Meregalli, M; Gavazzeni, C; Rovelli, F; Tancini, G; Gardani, G S

    2003-01-01

    to cancer-related neuroendocrine alterations involving the dopaminergic system.

  11. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    expression and/or responses to dopamine or production of dopamine, (xiii) drugs that affect the dopaminergic system have potent effects on T cells (e.g. dopamine=Intropin, L-dopa, bromocriptine, haloperidol, quinpirole, reserpine, pergolide, ecopipam, pimozide, amantadine, tetrabenazine, nomifensine, butaclamol). Dopamine-induced activation of resting Teffs and suppression of Tregs seem beneficial for health and may also be used for immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Independently, suppression of DRs in autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells, and also in cancerous T cells, may be advantageous. The review is relevant to Immunologists, Neurologists, Neuroimmunologists, Hematologists, Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Pharmacologists.

  12. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity.

  13. Fluorescent light induces neurodegeneration in the rodent nigrostriatal system but near infrared LED light does not.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Vitale, Flora; Viaggi, Cristina; di Marco, Stefano; Aloisi, Gabriella; Fasciani, Irene; Pardini, Carla; Pietrantoni, Ilaria; Di Paolo, Mattia; Riccitelli, Serena; Maccarone, Rita; Mattei, Claudia; Capannolo, Marta; Rossi, Mario; Capozzo, Annamaria; Corsini, Giovanni U; Scarnati, Eugenio; Lozzi, Luca; Vaglini, Francesca; Maggio, Roberto

    2017-03-02

    We investigated the effects of continuous artificial light exposure on the mouse substantia nigra (SN). A three month exposure of C57Bl/6J mice to white fluorescent light induced a 30% reduction in dopamine (DA) neurons in SN compared to controls, accompanied by a decrease of DA and its metabolites in the striatum. After six months of exposure, neurodegeneration progressed slightly, but the level of DA returned to the basal level, while the metabolites increased with respect to the control. Three month exposure to near infrared LED light (∼710 nm) did not alter DA neurons in SN, nor did it decrease DA and its metabolites in the striatum. Furthermore mesencephalic cell viability, as tested by [(3)H]DA uptake, did not change. Finally, we observed that 710 nm LED light, locally conveyed in the rat SN, could modulate the firing activity of extracellular-recorded DA neurons. These data suggest that light can be detrimental or beneficial to DA neurons in SN, depending on the source and wavelength.

  14. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitotoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    mediated wet-dog shake behav- Covington HE, Miczek KA (2001) Repeated social -defeat stress, iors Psychopharmacology 108:27-32 cocaine or morphine ...synergistic with oxidative and metabolic insults as well as glutamate to culminate in dopamine cell death. The major objective is to examine the interaction ...The major objective is to examine in rats the interaction between environmental stress and methamphetamine and the convergent action of excitotoxicity

  15. [Human fetal homograft to the nigrostriatal system for the treatment of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Madrazo, I; Franco-Bourland, R; Ostrosky, F; Aguilera, M; Cuevas, C F; Castrejón, H; Guízar-Sahagún, G; Magallon, E

    1990-01-01

    Four cases of transplant to the brain (striatum) of the ventral mesencephalic area (VMA) and three adrenal glands (A) to patients with Parkinson's disease are described as a new alternative for the improvement of this disease. The patients who received VMA showed a very significant improvement in the rigidity, bradykinesia, alterations in walking and posture, as well as the facial expression. Three of the four patients have returned to work. The group that received A tissue, showed a discreet improvement in the rigidity and bradykinesia, but none in the other signs of the disease. These patients are able to accomplish their daily needs, but two are unable to return to work. The differences which we observed between patients receiving VMA and A transplants, might be related to the heterogeneity of the disease, although we believe that the type of graft was responsible of these differences. Our results with the use of VMA, as well as that of other groups, are encouraging, although it is important to clearly establish that it is a procedure which is still in an experimental phase, requiring caution, and should only be practiced in highly qualified centers of clinical research.

  16. Histone hyperacetylation up-regulates protein kinase Cδ in dopaminergic neurons to induce cell death: relevance to epigenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2014-12-12

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

  17. Prefrontal dopaminergic receptor abnormalities and executive functions in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Antonelli, Francesca; Monchi, Oury; Ray, Nicola; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E; Christopher, Leigh; Strafella, Antonio P

    2013-07-01

    The main pattern of cognitive impairments seen in early to moderate stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes deficits of executive functions. These nonmotor complications have a significant impact on the quality of life and day-to-day activities of PD patients and are not effectively managed by current therapies, a problem which is almost certainly due to the fact that the disease extends beyond the nigrostriatal system. To investigate the role of extrastriatal dopamine in executive function in PD, PD patients and a control group were studied with positron-emission-tomography using a high-affinity dopamine D2/D3 receptor tracer, [(11) C]FLB-457. All participants were scanned twice while performing an executive task and a control task. Patients were off medication for at least 12 h. The imaging analysis revealed that parkinsonian patients had lower [(11) C]FLB-457 binding than control group independently of task conditions across different brain regions. Cognitive assessment measures were positively correlated with [(11) C]FLB-457 binding in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex only in control group, but not in PD patients. Within the control group, during the executive task (as compared to control task), there was evidence of reduced [(11) C]FLB-457 binding (indicative of increased dopamine release) in the right orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, PD patients did not show any reduction in binding during the executive task (as compared with control task). These findings suggest that PD patients present significant abnormalities in extrastriatal dopamine associated with executive processing. These observations provide important insights on the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in PD.

  18. Selective damage to dopaminergic transporters following exposure to the brominated flame retardant, HBCDD.

    PubMed

    Genskow, Kelly R; Bradner, Joshua M; Hossain, Muhammad M; Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of halogenated organic compounds has become the cause of environmental and human health concerns. Of particular notoriety has been the establishment of the neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The subsequent banning of PBDEs has led to greatly increased use of 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD, also known as HBCD) as a flame retardant in consumer products. The physiochemical similarities between HBCDD and PBDEs suggest that HBCDD may also be neurotoxic to the dopamine system, which is specifically damaged in Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to assess the neurotoxicity of HBCDD on the nigrostriatal dopamine system using an in vitro and in vivo approach. We demonstrate that exposure to HBCDD (0-25 μM) for 24 h causes significant cell death in the SK-N-SH catecholaminergic cell line, as well as reductions in the growth and viability of TH+ primary cultured neurons at lower concentrations (0-10 μM) after 72 h of treatment. Assessment of the in vivo neurotoxicity of HBCDD (25 mg/kg for 30 days) resulted in significant reductions in the expression of the striatal dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2, both of which are integral in mediating dopamine homeostasis and neurotransmission in the dopamine circuit. However, no changes were seen in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the dopamine terminal, or striatal levels of dopamine. To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to HBCDD disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given these results and the ubiquitous nature of HBCDD in the environment, its possible role as an environmental risk factor for PD should be further investigated.

  19. Selective damage to dopaminergic transporters following exposure to the brominated flame retardant, HBCDD

    PubMed Central

    Genskow, Kelly R.; Bradner, Joshua M.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of halogenated organic compounds has become the cause of environmental and human health concerns. Of particular notoriety has been the establishment of the neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The subsequent banning of PBDEs has led to greatly increased use of 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD, also known as HBCD) as a flame retardant in consumer products. The physiochemical similarities between HBCDD and PBDEs suggest that HBCDD may also be neurotoxic to the dopamine system, which is specifically damaged in Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to assess the neurotoxicity of HBCDD on the nigrostriatal dopamine system using an in vitro and in vivo approach. We demonstrate that exposure to HBCDD (0–25 μM) for 24 hrs causes significant cell death in the SK-N-SH catecholaminergic cell line, as well as reductions in the growth and viability of TH+ primary cultured neurons at lower concentrations (0–10 μM) after 72 hrs of treatment. Assessment of the in vivo neurotoxicity of HBCDD (25 mg/kg for 30 days) resulted in significant reductions in the expression of the striatal dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2, both of which are integral in mediating dopamine homeostasis and neurotransmission in the dopamine circuit. However, no changes were seen in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the dopamine terminal, or striatal levels of dopamine. To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to HBCDD disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given these results and the ubiquitous nature of HBCDD in the environment, its possible role as an environmental risk factor for PD should be further investigated. PMID:26073293

  20. Hsp70 gene transfer by adeno-associated virus inhibits MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in the mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhong; Wolfer, David P; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). In addition, genetic evidence points to an important role of protein misfolding, aggregation, and failure in the proteasomal degradation of specific neuronal proteins in the pathogenesis of PD. The chaperone heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) reduces protein misfolding and aggregation and protects cells against a variety of adverse conditions, including oxidative stress. Moreover, Hsp70 exerts antiapoptotic activity by blocking the function of several key proapoptotic factors. Recently, Hsp70 was shown to inhibit alpha-synuclein toxicity in a Drosophila model of inherited PD. Here we tested the potential of Hsp70 (approved gene symbol HSPA1A) for gene therapy in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of idiopathic PD. We show that Hsp70 gene transfer to dopamine neurons by a recombinant adeno-associated virus significantly protects the mouse dopaminergic system against MPTP-induced dopamine neuron loss and the associated decline in striatal dopamine levels and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers. Hsp70 reduced MPTP-induced apoptosis in the substantia nigra, and unilateral protection of the dopaminergic system by Hsp70 was associated with increased amphetamine-induced turning toward the uninjected side. Collectively, these results suggest that increasing chaperone activity may be beneficial for the treatment of idiopathic PD.

  1. Parkin cooperates with GDNF/RET signaling to prevent dopaminergic neuron degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Meka, Durga Praveen; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Nidadavolu, Prakash; Mohammadi, Behnam; Motori, Elisa; Ponna, Srinivas Kumar; Aboutalebi, Helia; Bassal, Mahmoud; Annamneedi, Anil; Finckh, Barbara; Miesbauer, Margit; Rotermund, Natalie; Lohr, Christian; Tatzelt, Jörg; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Kramer, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Parkin and the glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor RET have both been independently linked to the dopaminergic neuron degeneration that underlies Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we demonstrate that there is genetic crosstalk between parkin and the receptor tyrosine kinase RET in two different mouse models of PD. Mice lacking both parkin and RET exhibited accelerated dopaminergic cell and axonal loss compared with parkin-deficient animals, which showed none, and RET-deficient mice, in which we found moderate degeneration. Transgenic expression of parkin protected the dopaminergic systems of aged RET-deficient mice. Downregulation of either parkin or RET in neuronal cells impaired mitochondrial function and morphology. Parkin expression restored mitochondrial function in GDNF/RET-deficient cells, while GDNF stimulation rescued mitochondrial defects in parkin-deficient cells. In both cases, improved mitochondrial function was the result of activation of the prosurvival NF-κB pathway, which was mediated by RET through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Taken together, these observations indicate that parkin and the RET signaling cascade converge to control mitochondrial integrity and thereby properly maintain substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons and their innervation in the striatum. The demonstration of crosstalk between parkin and RET highlights the interplay in the protein network that is altered in PD and suggests potential therapeutic targets and strategies to treat PD. PMID:25822020

  2. Doping the Mind: Dopaminergic Modulation of Prefrontal Cortical Cognition.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Ajit; Jacob, Simon N

    2016-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex is the center of cognitive control. Processing in prefrontal cortical circuits enables us to direct attention to behaviorally relevant events; to memorize, structure, and categorize information; and to learn new concepts. The prefrontal cortex receives strong projections from midbrain neurons that use dopamine as a transmitter. In this article, we review the crucial role dopamine plays as a modulator of prefrontal cognitive functions, in the primate brain in particular. Following a summary of the anatomy and physiology of the midbrain dopamine system, we focus on recent studies that investigated dopaminergic effects in prefrontal cortex at the cellular level. We then discuss how unregulated prefrontal dopamine signaling could contribute to major disorders of cognition. The studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the powerful influence dopamine exerts on the mind.

  3. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Benner, Eric J.; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. PMID:26929359

  4. Succinobucol, a Non-Statin Hypocholesterolemic Drug, Prevents Premotor Symptoms and Nigrostriatal Neurodegeneration in an Experimental Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Colle, Dirleise; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Hort, Mariana Appel; Godoi, Marcelo; Le Douaron, Gael; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Assreuy, Jamil; Michel, Patrick Pierre; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Farina, Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by non-motor and motor disabilities. This study investigated whether succinobucol (SUC) could mitigate nigrostriatal injury caused by intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in mice. Moreover, the effects of SUC against MPTP-induced behavioral impairments and neurochemical changes were also evaluated. The quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells was also performed in primary mesencephalic cultures to evaluate the effects of SUC against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were treated with SUC (10 mg/kg/day, intragastric (i.g.)) for 30 days, and thereafter, animals received MPTP infusion (1 mg/nostril) and SUC treatment continued for additional 15 days. MPTP-infused animals displayed significant non-motor symptoms including olfactory and short-term memory deficits evaluated in the olfactory discrimination, social recognition, and water maze tasks. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity (complex I), as well as significant decrease of TH and dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. Although SUC treatment did not rescue NADH dehydrogenase activity inhibition, it was able to blunt MPTP-induced behavioral impairments and prevented the decrease in TH and DAT immunoreactivities in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum. SUC also suppressed striatal astroglial activation and increased interleukin-6 levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, SUC significantly prevented the loss of TH(+) neurons induced by MPP(+) in primary mesencephalic cultures. These results provide new evidence that SUC treatment counteracts early non-motor symptoms and neurodegeneration/neuroinflammation in the nigrostriatal pathway induced by intranasal MPTP administration in mice by modulating events downstream to the

  5. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-11-15

    activate mitochondrial cell death signaling in dopaminergic neuron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKC{delta} cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH{sup +} neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

  6. Complementary PET studies of striatal neuronal function in the differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Antonini, A; Leenders, K L; Vontobel, P; Maguire, R P; Missimer, J; Psylla, M; Günther, I

    1997-12-01

    We used PET with the tracers [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [18F]fluorodopa (FDOPA) and [11C]raclopride (RACLO) to study striatal glucose and dopa metabolism, and dopamine D2 receptor binding, respectively, in nine patients with multiple system atrophy. Ten patients with classical Parkinson's disease were investigated with the same three PET tracers' and three separate groups, each of 10 healthy subjects, served as control populations. We found that striatal FDOPA values separated all healthy subjects from patients with parkinsonism but they were not useful in distinguishing multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease. Conversely, striatal RACLO as well as FDG values discriminated all multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease patients as well as from healthy control subjects. Metabolic and receptor binding decrements in the putamen of multiple system atrophy patients were significantly correlated. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that a linear combination of putamen RACLO and FDOPA values accurately predicted clinical measures of disease severity in the multiple system atrophy group. Our findings suggest that striatal FDG and particularly RACLO are sensitive and effective measures of striatal function and may help characterizing patients with multiple system atrophy. In contrast, FDOPA measurements are accurate in detecting abnormalities of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system but may not distinguish among different forms of parkinsonism.

  7. Involvement of mesolimbic dopaminergic network in neuropathic pain relief by treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wakaizumi, Kenta; Kondo, Takashige; Hamada, Yusuke; Narita, Michiko; Kawabe, Rui; Narita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Moe; Kato, Shigeki; Senba, Emiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Methods In the present study, we developed a protocol of treadmill exercise, which was able to recover pain threshold under partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice, and investigated involvement of the dopaminergic reward network in exercise-induced hypoalgesia. To temporally suppress a neural activation during exercise, a genetically modified inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor, hM4Di, was specifically expressed on dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. Results The chemogenetic-specific neural suppression by Gi-DREADD system dramatically offset the effect of exercise-induced hypoalgesia in transgenic mice with hM4Di expressed on the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Additionally, anti-exercise-induced hypoalgesia effect was significantly observed under the suppression of neurons projecting out of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as well. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens is involved in the anti-nociception under low-intensity exercise under a neuropathic pain-like state. PMID:27909152

  8. Differential effects of histamine on the activity of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of histamine on hypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal activity was estimated in male rats by measuring concentrations of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in brain regions containing terminals or perikarya of these neurons. Three distinct, regionally specific neurochemical responses were apparent. In the median eminence and intermediate lobe of the pituitary, histamine affected neither DOPAC nor dopamine concentrations, suggesting no effect on tuberoinfundibular or periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity. In the medial zona incerta and in the dorsomedial, rostral periventricular and medial preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in both DOPAC and dopamine concentrations; these effects were blocked by destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions, suggesting that these changes are attributable to noradrenergic neuronal activation, and that histamine does not affect the activity of incertohypothalamic or periventricular-preoptic dopaminergic neurons located in these brain regions. In the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, histamine effected a dose- and time-related increase in DOPAC, but not dopamine, concentrations; these effects were blocked by the H1 antagonist mepyramine, but not the H2 antagonist zolantidine. Destruction of noradrenergic neurons projecting to these regions did not prevent the histamine-induced increases in DOPAC concentrations. These data indicate that histamine increases the activity of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the suprachiasmatic, caudal periventricular and paraventricular nuclei via an action at H1 receptors. Overall, these results reveal that i.c.v. administration of histamine differentially affects the activity of the various dopaminergic neuronal systems of the rat hypothalamus.

  9. Fenpropathrin, a Widely Used Pesticide, Causes Dopaminergic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Huang, Jinsha; Chen, Chunnuan; Chen, Zhenzhen; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Guoxin; Yang, Jiaolong; Zhang, Zhentao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Lin, Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Fenpropathrin is one of the widely used pyrethroids in agriculture and household and also reported to have neurotoxic effects in rodent models. In our Parkinson’s disease (PD) clinic, there was a unique patient with a history of daily exposure to fenpropathrin for 6 months prior to developing Parkinsonian symptoms progressively. Since whether fenpropathrin is related to any dopaminergic degeneration was unknown, we aimed in this study to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of fenpropathrin on the dopaminergic system and associated mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. In cultured SH-SY5Y cells, fenpropathrin caused cell death, reactive oxygen species generation, Lewy body-associated proteins aggregation, and Lewy body-like intracytoplasmic inclusions formation. In rodent animals, two different injections of fenpropathrin were used for administrations, intraperitoneal (i.p), or stereotaxical (ST). The rats exhibited lower number of pokes 60 days after first i.p injection, while the rats in ST group showed a significant upregulation of apomorphine-evoked rotations 60 days after first injection. Dcreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity, while increased dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity were observed in rats of either i.p or ST group 60 days after the last exposure to fenpropathrin. However, the number of TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra was more reduced 120 days after the first i.p injection than those of 60 days. Our data demonstrated that exposure to fenpropathrin could mimic the pathologic and pathogenetic features of PD especially in late onset cases. These results imply fenpropathrin as a DA neurotoxin and a possible environmental risk factor for PD. PMID:25575680

  10. Silicon surface biofunctionalization with dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena-Serrano, A.; Lucena-Serrano, C.; Contreras-Cáceres, R.; Díaz, A.; Valpuesta, M.; Cai, C.; López-Romero, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we grafted vinyl- and azido-terminated tetrahydroisoquinolines (compounds 1 and 2, respectively) onto Hsbnd Si(1 1 1) silicon wafers obtaining highly stable modified surfaces. A double bond was incorporated into the tetrahydroisoquinoline structure of 1 to be immobilized by a light induced hydrosilylation reaction on hydrogen-terminated Si(1 1 1). The best results were obtained employing a polar solvent (DMSO), rather than a non-polar solvent (toluene). The azide derivative 2 was grafted onto alkenyl-terminated silicon substrates with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle goniometry (CA) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to demonstrate the incorporation of 1 and 2 into the surfaces, study the morphology of the modified surfaces and to calculate the yield of grafting and surface coverage. CA measurements showed the increase in the surface hydrophobicity when 1 or 2 were incorporated into the surface. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 were prepared starting from 1-(p-nitrophenyl)tetrahydroisoquinoline 3 under smooth conditions and in good yields. The structures of 1 and 2 were designed with a reduced A-ring, two substituents at positions C-6 and C-7, an N-methyl group and a phenyl moiety at C-1 in order to provide a high affinity against dopaminergic receptors. Moreover, O-demethylation of 1 was carried out once it was adsorbed onto the surface by treatment with BBr3. The method presented constitutes a simple, easily reproducible and high yielding approach for grafting complex organic biomolecules with dopaminergic properties onto silicon surfaces.

  11. In search of alternatives to dopaminergic ligands for the treatment of restless legs syndrome: iron, glutamate, and adenosine.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Earley, Christopher; Gulyani, Seema; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Dopaminergic drugs have been used as the first-line treatment for restless legs syndrome (RLS) for many years and are considered to be, at least over the short-term, effective and safe. However, the main long-term complication of dopaminergic treatment is augmentation, which is an overall increase in symptom severity and intensity, with symptoms starting earlier in the afternoon and expanding to previously unaffected parts of the body. Augmentation is a common complication, with prevalence rates of nearly 50%, and is a common cause of treatment failure. Furthermore, augmentation occurs almost exclusively during treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Due to its frequency, there is a strong clinical need for treatment alternatives to dopaminergic drugs. Moreover, recent treatment guidelines recommend that treatment be initiated, whenever possible, with non-dopaminergic drugs (ie, α2δ ligands). Alternative treatments such as intravenous iron preparations directly address iron deficiency, as well as the consequences of iron deficiency in regard to glutamate and adenosine. This article also reviews current knowledge supporting an involvement of glutamatergic and adenosinergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of RLS, and explores the potential development of drugs acting on both systems.

  12. Sex-dependent diversity in ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons and developmental programing: A molecular, cellular and behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillies, G E; Virdee, K; McArthur, S; Dalley, J W

    2014-12-12

    The knowledge that diverse populations of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be distinguished in terms of their molecular, electrophysiological and functional properties, as well as their differential projections to cortical and subcortical regions has significance for key brain functions, such as the regulation of motivation, working memory and sensorimotor control. Almost without exception, this understanding has evolved from landmark studies performed in the male sex. However, converging evidence from both clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrates that the structure and functioning of the VTA dopaminergic systems are intrinsically different in males and females. This may be driven by sex differences in the hormonal environment during adulthood ('activational' effects) and development (perinatal and/or pubertal 'organizational' effects), as well as genetic factors, especially the SRY gene on the Y chromosome in males, which is expressed in a sub-population of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Stress and stress hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are important factors which interact with the VTA dopaminergic systems in order to achieve behavioral adaptation and enable the individual to cope with environmental change. Here, also, there is male/female diversity not only during adulthood, but also in early life when neurobiological programing by stress or glucocorticoid exposure differentially impacts dopaminergic developmental trajectories in male and female brains. This may have enduring consequences for individual resilience or susceptibility to pathophysiological change induced by stressors in later life, with potential translational significance for sex bias commonly found in disorders involving dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. These findings highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the sexual dimorphism in the VTA if we are to improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of

  13. Sex-dependent diversity in ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons and developmental programing: A molecular, cellular and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, G.E.; Virdee, K.; McArthur, S.; Dalley, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge that diverse populations of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be distinguished in terms of their molecular, electrophysiological and functional properties, as well as their differential projections to cortical and subcortical regions has significance for key brain functions, such as the regulation of motivation, working memory and sensorimotor control. Almost without exception, this understanding has evolved from landmark studies performed in the male sex. However, converging evidence from both clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrates that the structure and functioning of the VTA dopaminergic systems are intrinsically different in males and females. This may be driven by sex differences in the hormonal environment during adulthood (‘activational’ effects) and development (perinatal and/or pubertal ‘organizational’ effects), as well as genetic factors, especially the SRY gene on the Y chromosome in males, which is expressed in a sub-population of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Stress and stress hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are important factors which interact with the VTA dopaminergic systems in order to achieve behavioral adaptation and enable the individual to cope with environmental change. Here, also, there is male/female diversity not only during adulthood, but also in early life when neurobiological programing by stress or glucocorticoid exposure differentially impacts dopaminergic developmental trajectories in male and female brains. This may have enduring consequences for individual resilience or susceptibility to pathophysiological change induced by stressors in later life, with potential translational significance for sex bias commonly found in disorders involving dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. These findings highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the sexual dimorphism in the VTA if we are to improve strategies for the prevention and

  14. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson’s Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Koprich, James B.; Johnston, Tom H.; Reyes, Gabriela; Omana, Vanessa; Brotchie, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson’s disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml), this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform. PMID:27902767

  15. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque.

    PubMed

    Koprich, James B; Johnston, Tom H; Reyes, Gabriela; Omana, Vanessa; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson's disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml), this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform.

  16. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress in nigrostriatal tissue and improves neurobehavioral activity in MPTP-induced Parkinsonian mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sachchida Nand; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Singh, Divakar; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of brain. Oxidative stress and inflammation plays important role in the neurodegeneration and development of PD. Ursolic Acid (UA: 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid found in various medicinal plants. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity is a well-established fact. In this paper, the neuroprotective efficiency of UA in MPTP induced PD mouse model has been explored. For this purpose, we divided 30 mice into 5 different groups; first was control, second was MPTP-treated, third, fourth and fifth were different doses of UA viz., 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg body weight (wt) respectively, along with MPTP. After 21 days of treatment, different behavioral parameters and biochemical assays were conducted. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining of SN dopaminergic neurons as well as HPLC quantification of dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) were also performed. Our results proved that, UA improves behavioral deficits, restored altered dopamine level and protect dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP intoxicated mouse. Among three different doses, 25 mg/kg body wt was the most effective dose for the PD. This work reveals the potential of UA as a promising drug candidate for PD treatment.

  17. Dopaminergic modulation of memory and affective processing in Parkinson depression.

    PubMed

    Blonder, Lee X; Slevin, John T; Kryscio, Richard J; Martin, Catherine A; Andersen, Anders H; Smith, Charles D; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2013-11-30

    Depression is common in Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive impairment. Dopaminergic medications are effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known regarding the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on cognitive function in depressed Parkinson patients. This study examines the neuropsychological effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in Parkinsonian depression. We compared cognitive function in depressed and non-depressed Parkinson patients at two time-points: following overnight withdrawal and after the usual morning regimen of dopaminergic medications. A total of 28 non-demented, right-handed patients with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated. Ten of these patients were depressed according to DSM IV criteria. Results revealed a statistically significant interaction between depression and medication status on three measures of verbal memory and a facial affect naming task. In all cases, depressed Parkinson's patients performed significantly more poorly while on dopaminergic medication than while off. The opposite pattern emerged for the non-depressed Parkinson's group. The administration of dopaminergic medication to depressed Parkinson patients may carry unintended risks.

  18. Sirt3 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Deng, Han-Xiang; Gius, David; Schumacker, Paul T; James Surmeier, D; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2017-03-24

    Age-dependent elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress is widely posited to be a major factor underlying the loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanistic links between aging and oxidative stress are not well understood. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that could mediate this connection. Indeed, genetic deletion of Sirt3 increased oxidative stress and decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria in SNc dopaminergic neurons. This change was attributable to increased acetylation and decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Site directed mutagenesis of lysine 68 to glutamine (K68Q), mimicking acetylation, decreased MnSOD activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons, whereas mutagenesis of lysine 68 to arginine (K68R), mimicking deacetylation, increased activity. Introduction of K68R MnSOD rescued mitochondrial redox status and membrane potential of SNc dopaminergic neurons from Sirt3 knockouts. Moreover, deletion of DJ-1, which helps orchestrate nuclear oxidant defenses, and Sirt3 in mice led to a clear age-related loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons. Lastly, K68 acetylation of MnSOD was significantly increased in the SNc of PD patients. Taken together, our studies suggest that an age-related decline in Sirt3 protective function is a major factor underlying increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons in PD.

  19. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R; Folley, Bradley S; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  20. [Buspirone increases D2-like dopaminergic receptor density in rat corpus striatum].

    PubMed

    Lima, Vera Targino Moreira; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; Nogueira, Carlos Renato Alves; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço de

    2002-03-01

    Buspirone (busp) a piperazinyl derivative with anxiolytic properties is a partial agonist on 5-HT1A with affinity for D2-like dopaminergic receptors (RD2). The objective of this study was to verify the effects of busp on RD2. Female Wistar rats 150-200 g were treated with busp (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) 1 or 2 times daily for 7 days. Controls (C) received saline. The density of RD2 (fmol/mg protein) was determined through binding assays in striatum (ST) using [3H]-spiroperidol as radioligand. No alteration in Bmax or Kd values were seen after busp administration once a day. However, a RD2 upregulation of 55 % increase was observed after busp 2 times a day with no change in Kd values. The results showed that busp interact not only with serotonergic, but also with dopaminergic system.

  1. Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons Due to Metabolic Alterations and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    The rates of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), markedly increase with age. In recent years, studies have reported an association between metabolic changes and various pathophysiological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases lead to adverse neurophysiological phenomena, including neuronal loss, synaptic dysfunction, and improper insulin signaling, resulting in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that alterations of CNS environments by metabolic changes influence the dopamine neuronal loss, eventually affecting the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, we reviewed recent findings relating to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during metabolic diseases. We highlight the fact that using a metabolic approach to manipulate degeneration of dopaminergic neurons can serve as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate pathology of PD. PMID:27065205

  2. Dopaminergic Neurons and Brain Reward Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sarah X.; Huang, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area regulate extrapyramidal movement and important cognitive functions, including motivation, reward associations, and habit learning. Dysfunctions in DA neuron circuitry have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia, whereas selective degeneration of DA neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta is a key neuropathological feature in Parkinson disease. Efforts to understand these disorders have focused on dissecting the underlying causes, as well as developing therapeutic strategies to replenish dopamine deficiency. In particular, the promise of cell replacement therapies for clinical intervention has led to extensive research in the identification of mechanisms involved in DA neuron development. It is hoped that a comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms will lead to therapeutic strategies that improve the efficiency of DA neuron production, engraftment, and function. This review provides a comprehensive discussion on how Wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog–Smoothened signaling mechanisms control the specification and expansion of DA progenitors and the differentiation of DA neurons. We also discuss how mechanisms involving transforming growth factor-β and transcriptional cofactor homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 regulate the survival and maturation of DA neurons in early postnatal life. These results not only reveal fundamental mechanisms regulating DA neuron development, but also provide important insights to their potential contributions to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26724386

  3. Implication of dopaminergic systems on GnRH and GnRHR genes expression in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, M; Lapot, M; Malewski, T; Mateusiak, K; Misztal, T; Przekop, F

    2008-06-01

    We examined by Real-time PCR how prolonged inhibition of dopaminergic D-2 receptors (DA-2) in the hypothalamus of anestrous ewes by infusion of sulpiride into the third cerebral ventricle affected GnRH and GnRH-R gene expression in discrete parts of this structure and GnRH-R gene expression in the anterior pituitary. Blockaded DA-2 receptors significantly decreased GnRH mRNA levels in the ventromedial hypothalamus but did not evidently affect GnRH mRNA in the preoptic/ anteriorhypothalamicarea. Blockaded DA-2 receptors led to different responses in GnRH-R mRNA in various parts of the hypothalamus; increased GnRH-R mRNA levels in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area, and decreased GnRH-R mRNA amounts in the ventromedial hypothalamus stalk/median eminence. An infusion of sulpiride into the III-rd ventricle increased GnRH mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary gland and LH secretion. It is suggested that the increase of GnRH gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland and LH secretion in sulpiride-treated ewes are related with an increase of biosynthesis GnRH with concomitant decreased biosynthesis of GnRH-R protein in the ventromedial hypothalamus/stalk median eminence allowing to an increase of GnRH release.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the dopaminergic network in the rat retina after axotomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Myoung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Eun-Jin; Kim, In-Beom; Oh, Su-Ja; Moon, Jung-I L; Chun, Myung-Hoon

    2005-11-01

    Dopaminergic cells in the retina express the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is the neurotrophic factor that influences the plasticity of synapses in the central nervous system. We sought to determine whether BDNF influences the network of dopaminergic amacrine cells in the axotomized rat retina, by immunocytochemistry with an anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antiserum. In the control retina, we found two types of TH-immunoreactive amacrine cells, type I and type II, in the inner nuclear layer adjacent to the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The type I amacrine cell varicosities formed ring-like structures in contact with AII amacrine cell somata in stratum 1 of the IPL. In the axotomized retinas, TH-labeled processes formed loose networks of fibers, unlike the dense networks in the control retina, and the ring-like structures were disrupted. In the axotomized retinas treated with BDNF, strong TH-immunoreactive varicosities were present in stratum 1 of the IPL and formed ring-like structures. Our data suggest that BDNF affects the expression of TH immunoreactivity in the axotomized rat retina and may therefore influence the retinal dopaminergic system.

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Controls the Phenotypic Fate and Therapeutic Efficacy of Grafted Neural Precursor Cells in a Model of Nigrostriatal Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Lalitha; Daley, Brian F; Davidson, Beverly L; Boudreau, Ryan L; Lipton, Jack W; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Collier, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The expression of soluble growth and survival promoting factors by neural precursor cells (NPCs) is suggested to be a prominent mechanism underlying the protective and regenerative effects of these cells after transplantation. Nevertheless, how and to what extent specific NPC-expressed factors contribute to therapeutic effects is not well understood. Using RNA silencing, the current study investigated the roles of two donor NPC molecules, namely glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and sonic hedgehog (SHH), in the protection of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Analyses indicate that as opposed to the knock-down of GDNF, SHH inhibition caused a profound decline in nigrostriatal neuroprotection. Further, SHH silencing also curbed endogenous neurogenesis and the migration of host brdU+/dcx+ neural precursors into the striatum, which was present in the animals receiving control or GDNF silenced NPCs. A change in graft phenotype, mainly reflected by a reduced proportion of undifferentiated nestin+ cells, as well as a significantly greater host microglial activity, suggested an important role for these processes in the attenuation of neuroprotection and neurogenesis upon SHH silencing. Overall these studies reveal core mechanisms fundamental to grafted NPC-based therapeutic effects, and delineate the particular contributions of two graft-expressed molecules, SHH and GDNF, in mediating midbrain dopamine neuron protection, and host plasticity after NPC transplantation.

  6. Effects of manganese on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH-phosphorylation in a dopaminergic neural cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Danhui; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-07-15

    Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKC{delta} negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKC{delta}-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10 {mu}M) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3 h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKC{delta} specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 {mu}M Mn for 24 h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKC{delta} kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKC{delta} inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKC{delta} and PP2A activity.

  7. The Neurotoxic Effects of Manganese on the Dopaminergic Innervation of the Gill of the Bivalve Mollusc, Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kesha; Huggins, Turkesha; King, Candice; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of manganese on the nervous system and innervation of lateral cilia of Crassostrea virginica. While essential in trace amounts, tissue manganese accumulation is neurotoxic, inducing Manganism, a Parkinson’s-like disease in humans. Lateral cilia of the gill of C. virginica are controlled by a reciprocal serotonergic-dopaminergic innervation from their ganglia. Oysters were incubated 3 days in the presence of up to 1 mM manganese, followed by superfusion of the cerebral ganglia, visceral ganglia or gill with dopamine or serotonin. Beating rates of cilia were measured by stroboscopic microscopy of isolated gill preparations or gill preparations with the ipsilateral cerebral and/or visceral ganglia attached. Acute manganese treatments impaired the dopaminergic, cilio-inhibitory system, while having no effect on the serotonergic, cilio-excitatory system, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of manganese toxicity in humans. Manganese treatments also decreased endogenous dopamine levels in the cerebral and visceral ganglia, and gills, but not serotonin levels. We demonstrated that manganese disrupts the animal’s dopaminergic system, and also that this preparation can be used to investigate mechanisms that underlie manganese neurotoxcity. It also may serve as a model in pharmacological studies of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism and other dopaminergic cell disorders. PMID:18547869

  8. Dopaminergic and cholinergic learning mechanisms in nicotine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Manivannan

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction drives tobacco use by one billion people worldwide, causing nearly six million deaths a year. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are normally activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The widespread expression of nicotinic receptors throughout the nervous system accounts for the diverse physiological effects triggered by nicotine. A crucial influence of nicotine is on the synaptic mechanisms underlying learning that contribute to the addiction process. Here, we focus on the acquisition phase of smoking addiction and review animal model studies on how nicotine modifies dopaminergic and cholinergic signaling in key nodes of the reinforcement circuitry: ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus. Capitalizing on mechanisms that subserve natural rewards, nicotine activates midbrain dopamine neurons directly and indirectly, and nicotine causes dopamine release in very broad target areas throughout the brain, including the NAc, amygdala, and hippocampus. In addition, nicotine orchestrates local changes within those target structures, alters the release of virtually all major neurotransmitters, and primes the nervous system to the influence of other addictive drugs. Hence, understanding how nicotine affects the circuitry for synaptic plasticity and learning may aid in developing reasoned therapies to treat nicotine addiction. PMID:26301866

  9. Hypothesizing dopaminergic genetic antecedents in schizophrenia and substance seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta-analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non-SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD.

  10. Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Genetic Antecedents in Schizophrenia and Substance Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta- analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non- SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis.. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. PMID:24636783

  11. Decreased Vesicular Storage and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Sullivan, Patricia; Holmes, Courtney; Kopin, Irwin J.; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Mash, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) share some neuropathologic findings (nigrostriatal dopaminergic lesion, alpha-synuclein deposition) but not others (Lewy bodies in PD, glial cytoplasmic inclusions in MSA). In PD evidence has accrued for a vesicular storage defect and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibition in residual dopaminergic terminals, resulting in accumulation of the toxic dopamine (DA) metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In this study we asked whether MSA entails a similar abnormal neurochemical pattern. Methods DA and its main neuronal metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), norepinephrine (NE) and its main neuronal metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), the catecholamine precursor DOPA, and DOPAL were measured in striatal and frontal cortical tissue from patients with pathologically proven end-stage MSA (N=15), sporadic PD (N=17), and control subjects (N=18). Results Compared to the control group, the MSA and PD groups had similarly decreased putamen DA (by 96% and 93%, p<0.0001), DOPAC (97% and 95%, p<0.0001), NE (91% and 74%, p<0.0001), and DHPG (81% and 74%, p<0.0001). In the MSA and PD groups, ratios of DOPAL:DA were 2.3 and 3.5 times control and DHPG:NE 3.1 and 2.6 times control, while DOPAC:DOPAL ratios were decreased by 61% and 74%. In both diseases cortical NE and DHPG were decreased, while DA and DOPAC were not. Conclusions MSA and PD entail a catecholamine metabolic profile indicating impaired vesicular storage, decreased ALDH activity, and DOPAL buildup, which may be part of a common pathway in catecholamine neuronal death. Targeting this pathway by interfering with catecholaldehyde production or effects constitutes a novel treatment approach. PMID:25829070

  12. Moderate traumatic brain injury increases the vulnerability to neurotoxicity induced by systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Ben, Juliana; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Rial, Daniel; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2017-03-10

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to a moderate TBI using a free weight-drop device and, 5 h later, they were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 6-OHDA (100 mg/kg). Afterwards, during a period of 4 weeks, the mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the neurological severity score (NSS), the open field and the rotarod. Animals from the TBI plus 6-OHDA group displayed significant motor and neurological impairments that were improved by acute L-DOPA administration (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the observation of the motor deficits correlates with (i) a significant decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylase levels mainly in the rostral striatum and (ii) a significant increase in the levels of striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. On the whole, the present findings demonstrate that a previous moderate TBI event increases the susceptibility to motor, neurological and neurochemical alterations induced by systemic administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA in mice.

  13. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acid associations with dopaminergic indices in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sublette, M Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Keilp, John G; Malone, Kevin M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-03-01

    Dopaminergic function is thought to be altered in major depression and, in animal studies, is reduced in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency states. Therefore we studied PUFAs and resting prolactin, a marker for dopaminergic tone, and cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid (HVA), the chief dopamine metabolite. In medication-free adults (n = 23) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), we measured plasma phospholipid levels of omega-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA), and plasma prolactin levels before and after administration of dl-fenfluramine (FEN). In a subset of patients (n = 14), cerebrospinal fluid levels of HVA and the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were obtained through lumbar puncture. Baseline prolactin was negatively correlated with omega-3 PUFAs (logDHA, F(1,21) = 20.380, p < 0.001; logEPA, F(1,21) = 10.051, p = 0.005) and positively correlated with logAA:DHA (F(1,21) = 15.263, p = 0.001), a measure of omega-6/omega-3 balance. LogDHA was negatively correlated with CSF HVA (Spearman's ρ = -0.675, p = 0.008) but not 5-HIAA (Spearman's ρ = -0.143, p = 0.626) after controlling for sex and HVA - 5-HIAA correlation. PUFAs did not predict the magnitude of the FEN-stimulated change in prolactin, considered to be a serotonin effect. The robust relationship of omega-3 PUFAs with dopaminergic but not serotonergic indices suggests that omega-6:omega-3 balance may impact depression pathophysiology through effects on the dopaminergic system.

  15. Endogenous Parkin Preserves Dopaminergic Substantia Nigral Neurons following Mitochondrial DNA Mutagenic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Huang, Chiu-Hui; Kennedy, Scott R.; Ordureau, Alban; Sideris, Dionisia P.; Hoekstra, Jake G.; Harper, J. Wade; Youle, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. PARK2 mutations cause early-onset forms of PD. PARK2 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin, that can selectively translocate to dysfunctional mitochondria to promote their removal by autophagy. However, Parkin knockout (KO) mice do not display signs of neurodegeneration. To assess Parkin function in vivo, we utilized a mouse model that accumulates dysfunctional mitochondria caused by an accelerated generation of mtDNA mutations (Mutator mice). In the absence of Parkin, dopaminergic neurons in Mutator mice degenerated causing an L-DOPA reversible motor deficit. Other neuronal populations were unaffected. Phosphorylated ubiquitin was increased in the brains of Mutator mice, indicating PINK1-Parkin activation. Parkin loss caused mitochondrial dysfunction and affected the pathogenicity but not the levels of mtDNA somatic mutations. A systemic loss of Parkin synergizes with mitochondrial dysfunction causing dopaminergic neuron death modeling PD pathogenic processes. PMID:26182419

  16. Dysfunctional dopaminergic neurotransmission in asocial BTBR mice

    PubMed Central

    Squillace, M; Dodero, L; Federici, M; Migliarini, S; Errico, F; Napolitano, F; Krashia, P; Di Maio, A; Galbusera, A; Bifone, A; Scattoni, M L; Pasqualetti, M; Mercuri, N B; Usiello, A; Gozzi, A

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by pronounced social and communication deficits and stereotyped behaviours. Recent psychosocial and neuroimaging studies have highlighted reward-processing deficits and reduced dopamine (DA) mesolimbic circuit reactivity in ASD patients. However, the neurobiological and molecular determinants of these deficits remain undetermined. Mouse models recapitulating ASD-like phenotypes could help generate hypotheses about the origin and neurophysiological underpinnings of clinically relevant traits. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), behavioural and molecular readouts to probe dopamine neurotransmission responsivity in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J mice (BTBR), an inbred mouse line widely used to model ASD-like symptoms owing to its robust social and communication deficits, and high level of repetitive stereotyped behaviours. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used as normosocial reference comparators. DA reuptake inhibition with GBR 12909 produced significant striatal DA release in both strains, but failed to elicit fMRI activation in widespread forebrain areas of BTBR mice, including mesolimbic reward and striatal terminals. In addition, BTBR mice exhibited no appreciable motor responses to GBR 12909. DA D1 receptor-dependent behavioural and signalling responses were found to be unaltered in BTBR mice, whereas dramatic reductions in pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptor function was observed in these animals. Overall these results document profoundly compromised DA D2-mediated neurotransmission in BTBR mice, a finding that is likely to have a role in the distinctive social and behavioural deficits exhibited by these mice. Our results call for a deeper investigation of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in mouse lines exhibiting ASD-like phenotypes, and possibly in ASD patient populations. PMID:25136890

  17. Dysfunctional dopaminergic neurotransmission in asocial BTBR mice.

    PubMed

    Squillace, M; Dodero, L; Federici, M; Migliarini, S; Errico, F; Napolitano, F; Krashia, P; Di Maio, A; Galbusera, A; Bifone, A; Scattoni, M L; Pasqualetti, M; Mercuri, N B; Usiello, A; Gozzi, A

    2014-08-19

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by pronounced social and communication deficits and stereotyped behaviours. Recent psychosocial and neuroimaging studies have highlighted reward-processing deficits and reduced dopamine (DA) mesolimbic circuit reactivity in ASD patients. However, the neurobiological and molecular determinants of these deficits remain undetermined. Mouse models recapitulating ASD-like phenotypes could help generate hypotheses about the origin and neurophysiological underpinnings of clinically relevant traits. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), behavioural and molecular readouts to probe dopamine neurotransmission responsivity in BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mice (BTBR), an inbred mouse line widely used to model ASD-like symptoms owing to its robust social and communication deficits, and high level of repetitive stereotyped behaviours. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used as normosocial reference comparators. DA reuptake inhibition with GBR 12909 produced significant striatal DA release in both strains, but failed to elicit fMRI activation in widespread forebrain areas of BTBR mice, including mesolimbic reward and striatal terminals. In addition, BTBR mice exhibited no appreciable motor responses to GBR 12909. DA D1 receptor-dependent behavioural and signalling responses were found to be unaltered in BTBR mice, whereas dramatic reductions in pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptor function was observed in these animals. Overall these results document profoundly compromised DA D2-mediated neurotransmission in BTBR mice, a finding that is likely to have a role in the distinctive social and behavioural deficits exhibited by these mice. Our results call for a deeper investigation of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in mouse lines exhibiting ASD-like phenotypes, and possibly in ASD patient populations.

  18. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, KENNETH; FEBO, MARCELO; MCLAUGHLIN, THOMAS; CRONJÉ, FRANS J.; HAN, DAVID; GOLD, S. MARK

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Methods: This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. Results: A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Discussion: Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain’s reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have “hatched the behavioral addiction egg”, we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of “redeeming joy” and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain. PMID:25317338

  19. Remote control of induced dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Anno, Maria Teresa; Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Leo, Damiana; Dvoretskova, Elena; Medrihan, Lucian; Colasante, Gaia; Giannelli, Serena; Theka, Ilda; Russo, Giovanni; Mus, Liudmila; Pezzoli, Gianni; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Benfenati, Fabio; Taverna, Stefano; Dityatev, Alexander; Broccoli, Vania

    2014-01-01

    Direct lineage reprogramming through genetic-based strategies enables the conversion of differentiated somatic cells into functional neurons and distinct neuronal subtypes. Induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons can be generated by direct conversion of skin fibroblasts; however, their in vivo phenotypic and functional properties remain incompletely understood, leaving their impact on Parkinson’s disease (PD) cell therapy and modeling uncertain. Here, we determined that iDA neurons retain a transgene-independent stable phenotype in culture and in animal models. Furthermore, transplanted iDA neurons functionally integrated into host neuronal tissue, exhibiting electrically excitable membranes, synaptic currents, dopamine release, and substantial reduction of motor symptoms in a PD animal model. Neuronal cell replacement approaches will benefit from a system that allows the activity of transplanted neurons to be controlled remotely and enables modulation depending on the physiological needs of the recipient; therefore, we adapted a DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) technology for remote and real-time control of grafted iDA neuronal activity in living animals. Remote DREADD-dependent iDA neuron activation markedly enhanced the beneficial effects in transplanted PD animals. These data suggest that iDA neurons have therapeutic potential as a cell replacement approach for PD and highlight the applicability of pharmacogenetics for enhancing cellular signaling in reprogrammed cell–based approaches. PMID:24937431

  20. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

  1. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  2. Role of Dopaminergic Receptors in Glaucomatous Disease Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Parisi, Francesco; Russo, Paola; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Both studies on animals and humans suggest the presence of dopamine (DA) receptors in the anterior segment of the eye. Their role in the dynamics of intraocular pressure (IOP) is not yet clear. DA2 and DA3 receptors are mainly located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. Their stimulation reduces the release of norepinephrine and suppresses the production of aqueous humor. DA1 receptors seem to be more expressed by the ciliary body and the outflow pathway of aqueous humor. The administration of DA1-selective agonists stimulates the production of aqueous humor, increasing IOP, whereas DA2- and DA3-selective agonists could reduce IOP and, therefore, the risk to develop a glaucoma (GL). GL is a broad spectrum of eye diseases which have in common the damage to the optic nerve and the progressive loss of the visual field. Further studies are desirable to clarify the role of the dopaminergic system and the usefulness of DA2 and DA3 agonists in reducing IOP. PMID:23878797

  3. Reward Dependent Invigoration Relates to Theta Oscillations and Is Predicted by Dopaminergic Midbrain Integrity in Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Tineke K.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Motivation can have invigorating effects on behavior via dopaminergic neuromodulation. While this relationship has mainly been established in theoretical models and studies in younger subjects, the impact of structural declines of the dopaminergic system during healthy aging remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young and elderly humans in a reward-learning paradigm. Specifically, scene images were initially encoded by combining them with cues predicting monetary reward (high vs. low reward). Subsequently, recognition memory for the scenes was tested. As a main finding, we can show that response times (RTs) during encoding were faster for high reward predicting images in the young but not elderly participants. This pattern was resembled in power changes in the theta-band (4–7 Hz). Importantly, analyses of structural MRI data revealed that individual reward-related differences in the elderlies’ response time could be predicted by the structural integrity of the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN; as measured by magnetization transfer (MT)). These findings suggest a close relationship between reward-based invigoration, theta oscillations and age-dependent changes of the dopaminergic system. PMID:28174533

  4. The neurobiology of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis: a model for regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I gene transcription within nigrostriatal dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Kapatos, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Within the brain, the reduced pteridine cofactor 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is absolutely required for the synthesis of the monoamine (MA) neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT), the novel gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide and the production of yet to be identified 1-O-alkylglycerol-derived lipids. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) catalyzes the first and limiting step in the BH4 biosynthetic pathway, which is now thought to involve up to eight different proteins supporting six alternate de novo and two alternate salvage pathways. Gene expression analysis across different regions of the human brain shows the abundance of transcripts coding for all eight of these proteins to be highly correlated with each other and to be enriched within human MA neurons. The potential for multiple routes for BH4 synthesis therefore exists within the human brain. GTPCH expression is particularly heterogeneous across different populations of human and rodent MA-containing neurons, with low expression levels and therefore BH4 being a characteristic of nigrostriatal DA (NSDA) neurons. Basic knowledge of how GCH1 gene transcription is controlled within NSDA neurons may explain the distinctive susceptibility of these neurons to human genetic mutations that result in BH4 deficiency. A model for cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent GCH1 transcription is described that involves a unique combination of DNA regulatory sequences and transcription factors. This model proposes that low levels of GCH1 transcription within NSDA neurons are driven by their distinctive physiology, suggesting that pharmacological manipulation of GCH1 gene transcription can be used to modify BH4 levels and therefore DA synthesis in the basal ganglia.

  5. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition with desipramine exacerbates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: role for synaptic dopamine regulation in denervated nigrostriatal terminals.

    PubMed

    Chotibut, Tanya; Fields, Victoria; Salvatore, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological dopamine (DA) replacement with Levodopa [L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)] is the gold standard treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term L-DOPA treatment is complicated by eventual debilitating abnormal involuntary movements termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a clinically significant obstacle for the majority of patients who rely on L-DOPA to alleviate PD-related motor symptoms. The manifestation of LID may in part be driven by excessive extracellular DA derived from L-DOPA, but potential involvement of DA reuptake in LID severity or expression is unknown. We recently reported that in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned striatum, norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression increases and may play a significant role in DA transport. Furthermore, L-DOPA preferentially inhibits DA uptake in lesioned striatum. Therefore, we hypothesized that desipramine (DMI), a NET antagonist, could affect the severity of LID in an established LID model. Whereas DMI alone elicited no dyskinetic effects in lesioned rats, DMI + L-DOPA-treated rats gradually expressed more severe dyskinesia compared with L-DOPA alone over time. At the conclusion of the study, we observed reduced NET expression and norepinephrine-mediated inhibition of DA uptake in the DMI + L-DOPA group compared with L-DOPA-alone group in lesioned striatum. LID severity positively correlated with striatal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation among the three treatment groups, with increased ppERK1/2 in DMI + L-DOPA group compared with the L-DOPA- and DMI-alone groups. Taken together, these results indicate that the combination of chronic L-DOPA and NET-mediated DA reuptake in lesioned nigrostriatal terminals may have a role in LID severity in experimental Parkinsonism.

  6. Dopaminergic striatal innervation predicts interlimb transfer of a visuomotor skill.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Ioannis U; Moisello, Clara; Marotta, Giorgio; Schiavella, Mauro; Canesi, Margherita; Perfetti, Bernardo; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2011-10-12

    We investigated whether dopamine influences the rate of adaptation to a visuomotor distortion and the transfer of this learning from the right to the left limb in human subjects. We thus studied patients with Parkinson disease as a putative in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Despite normal adaptation rates, patients showed a reduced transfer compared with age-matched healthy controls. The magnitude of the transfer, but not of the adaptation rate, was positively predicted by the values of dopamine-transporter binding of the right caudate and putamen. We conclude that striatal dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the transfer of visuomotor skills.

  7. Dopaminergic striatal innervation predicts interlimb transfer of a visuomotor skill

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, IU; Moisello, C; Marotta, G; Schiavella, M; Canesi, M; Perfetti, B; Cavallari, P; Pezzoli, G; Ghilardi, MF

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether dopamine influences the rate of adaptation to a visuomotor distortion and the transfer of this learning from the right to the left limb in human subjects. We thus studied patients with Parkinson disease as a putative in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Despite normal adaptation rates, patients showed a reduced transfer compared to age-matched healthy controls. The magnitude of the transfer, but not of the adaptation rate, was positively predicted by the values of dopamine-transporter binding of the right caudate and putamen. We conclude that striatal dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the transfer of visuomotor skills. PMID:21994362

  8. Effects of dopaminergic and subthalamic stimulation on musical performance.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Floris T; Schüpbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Hälbig, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Although subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an efficient treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on fine motor functions are not clear. We present the case of a professional violinist with PD treated with STN-DBS. DBS improved musical articulation, intonation and emotional expression and worsened timing relative to a timekeeper (metronome). The same effects were found for dopaminergic treatment. These results suggest that STN-DBS, mimicking the effects of dopaminergic stimulation, improves fine-tuned motor behaviour whilst impairing timing precision.

  9. Melatonin inhibits manganese-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss in mice: involvement of oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Jiao, Congcong; Mi, Chao; Xu, Bin; Li, Yuehui; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Zhaofa

    2015-02-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the relationship between them during Mn neurotoxicity has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable role of melatonin (MLT) against Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss as a result of antagonizing oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control, MnCl2, low MLT + MnCl2, median MLT + MnCl2, and high MLT + MnCl2. Administration of MnCl2 (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks significantly induced hypokinesis, dopaminergic neurons degeneration and loss, neuronal ultrastructural damage, and apoptosis in the substantia nigra and the striatum. These conditions were caused in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde accumulation, and dysfunction of the nonenzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) antioxidative defense systems. Mn-induced neuron degeneration, astrocytes, and microglia activation contribute to the changes of oxidative stress markers. Dopamine (DA) depletion and downregulation of DA transporter and receptors were also found after Mn administration, this might also trigger motor dysfunction and neurons loss. Pretreatment with MLT prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inhibited the interaction between them. As a result, pretreatment with MLT significantly alleviated Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss. In conclusion, Mn treatment resulted in motor dysfunction and neuronal loss, possibly involving an interaction between oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra and the striatum. Pretreatment with MLT attenuated Mn-induced neurotoxicity by means of its antioxidant properties and promotion of the DA system.

  10. Dopaminergic mechanisms underlying catalepsy, fear and anxiety: do they interact?

    PubMed

    Colombo, Ana Caroline; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Reimer, Adriano Edgar; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2013-11-15

    Haloperidol is a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that induces catalepsy when systemically administered to rodents. The haloperidol-induced catalepsy is a state of akinesia and rigidity very similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease. There exists great interest in knowing whether or not some degree of emotionality underlies catalepsy. If so, what kind of emotional distress would permeate such motor disturbance? This study is an attempt to shed some light on this issue through an analysis of ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) of 22 kHz, open-field test, and contextual conditioned fear in rats with some degree of catalepsy induced by haloperidol. Systemic administration of haloperidol caused catalepsy and decreased exploratory activity in the open-field. There was no difference in the emission of USVs between groups during the catalepsy or the exploratory behavior in the open-field test. In the contextual conditioned fear, when administered before training session, haloperidol did not change the emission of USVs or the freezing response. When administered before testing session, haloperidol enhanced the freezing response and decreased the emission of USVs on the test day. These findings suggest that the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in threatening situations depends on the nature of the aversive stimulus. Activation of D2 receptors occurs in the setting up of adaptive responses to conditioned fear stimuli so that these mechanisms seem to be important for the emission of 22 kHz USVs during the testing phase of the contextual conditioned fear, but not during the training session or the open-field test (unconditioned fear stimuli). Catalepsy, on the other hand, is the result of the blockage of D2 receptors in neural circuits associated to motor behavior that appears to be dissociated from those directly linked to dopamine-mediated neural mechanisms associated to fear.

  11. A dopaminergic projection to the rat mammillary nuclei demonstrated by retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalo-Ruiz, A.; Alonso, A.; Sanz, J. M.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The presence and distribution of dopaminergic neurons and terminals in the hypothalamus of the rat were studied by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. Strongly labelled TH-immunoreactive neurons were seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular region, zona incerta, arcuate nucleus, and supramammillary nucleus. A few TH-positive neurons were also identified in the dorsal and ventral premammillary nucleus, as well as the lateral hypothalamic area. TH-immunoreactive fibres and terminals were unevenly distributed in the mammillary nuclei; small, weakly labelled terminals were scattered in the medial mammillary nucleus, while large, strongly labelled, varicose terminals were densely concentrated in the internal part of the lateral mammillary nucleus. A few dorsoventrally oriented TH-positive axon bundles were also identified in the lateral mammillary nucleus. A dopaminergic projection to the mammillary nuclei from the supramammillary nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area was identified by double labelling with retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and TH-immunohistochemistry. The lateral mammillary nucleus receives a weak dopaminergic projection from the medial, and stronger projections from the lateral, caudal supramammillary nucleus. The double-labelled neurons in the lateral supramammillary nucleus appear to encapsulate the caudal end of the mammillary nuclei. The medial mammillary nucleus receives a very light dopaminergic projection from the caudal lateral hypothalamic area. These results suggest that the supramammillary nucleus is the principal source of the dopaminergic input to the mammillary nuclei, establishing a local TH-pathway in the mammillary complex. The supramammillary cell groups are able to modulate the limbic system through its dopaminergic input to the mammillary nuclei as well as through its extensive dopaminergic projection to the lateral septal nucleus.

  12. 6-Hydroxydopamine injections into the nigrostriatal pathway attenuate striatal malonate and 3-nitropropionic acid lesions.

    PubMed

    Maragos, W F; Jakel, R J; Pang, Z; Geddes, J W

    1998-12-01

    The mitochondrial inhibitors malonate and 3-nitropropionic (3NP) acid are potent neurotoxins in vivo. Administration of these compounds results in neuronal loss similar to that seen in Huntington's disease. Although the mechanism of cell death produced by these compounds likely involves activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, it remains unclear why the striatum demonstrates regional susceptibility to the toxicity of these and other mitochondrial poisons. We hypothesized that dopamine, a weak neurotoxin that occurs in high concentrations in the striatum, may contribute to the neuronal damage caused by mitochondrial inhibition. We investigated whether depletion of striatal dopamine using the catecholaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine would attenuate lesions induced by mitochondrial inhibition. We found that dopamine depletion reduced significantly the extent of histological damage in the striatum elicited by both intraparenchymal injections of 0.8 micromol malonate and 20 mg/kg systemic administration of 3NP. These data suggest that dopamine or one of its metabolites may contribute to mitochondrial toxin-induced cell death.

  13. Ascorbate prevents cell death from prolonged exposure to glutamate in an in vitro model of human dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ballaz, Santiago; Morales, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Manuel; Obeso, José A

    2013-12-01

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a nonenzymatic antioxidant highly concentrated in the brain. In addition to mediating redox balance, ascorbate is linked to glutamate neurotransmission in the striatum, where it renders neuroprotection against excessive glutamate stimulation. Oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity are key biochemical features accompanying the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD). At present, it is not clear whether antiglutamate agents and ascorbate might be neuroprotective agents for PD. Thus, we tested whether ascorbate can prevent cell death from prolonged exposure to glutamate using dopaminergic neurons of human origin. To this purpose, dopamine-like neurons were obtained by differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and then cultured for 4 days without antioxidant (antiaging) protection to evaluate glutamate toxicity and ascorbate protection as a model system of potential factors contributing to dopaminergic neuron death in PD. Glutamate dose dependently induced toxicity in dopaminergic cells largely by the stimulation of AMPA and metabotropic receptors and to a lesser extent by N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors. At relatively physiological levels of extracellular concentration, ascorbate protected cells against glutamate excitotoxicity. This neuroprotection apparently relies on the inhibition of oxidative stress, because ascorbate prevented the pro-oxidant action of the scavenging molecule quercetin, which occurred over the course of prolonged exposure, as is also seen with glutamate. Our findings show the relevance of ascorbate as a neuroprotective agent and emphasize an often underappreciated role of oxidative stress in glutamate excitotoxicity. Occurrence of a glutamate-ascorbate link in dopaminergic neurons may explain previous contradictions regarding their putative role in PD.

  14. Exposure to Mitochondrial Genotoxins and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bodhicharla, Rakesh K.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Margillo, Kathleen M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Cyr, Derek D.; Kosmaczewski, Sara G.; Hammarlund, Marc; Meyer, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration has been correlated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and exposure to environmental toxins, but causation is unclear. We investigated the ability of several known environmental genotoxins and neurotoxins to cause mtDNA damage, mtDNA depletion, and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that paraquat, cadmium chloride and aflatoxin B1 caused more mitochondrial than nuclear DNA damage, and paraquat and aflatoxin B1 also caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) caused similar levels of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage. To further test whether the neurodegeneration could be attributed to the observed mtDNA damage, C. elegans were exposed to repeated low-dose ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) that resulted in persistent mtDNA damage; this exposure also resulted in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Damage to GABAergic neurons and pharyngeal muscle cells was not detected. We also found that fasting at the first larval stage was protective in dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration. Finally, we found that dopaminergic neurons in C. elegans are capable of regeneration after laser surgery. Our findings are consistent with a causal role for mitochondrial DNA damage in neurodegeneration, but also support non mtDNA-mediated mechanisms. PMID:25486066

  15. Associations between visual perception accuracy and confidence in a dopaminergic manipulation study

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Christina; Bozikas, Vasilis P.; Luedtke, Thies; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Delusions are defined as fixed erroneous beliefs that are based on misinterpretation of events or perception, and cannot be corrected by argumentation to the opposite. Cognitive theories of delusions regard this symptom as resulting from specific distorted thinking styles that lead to biased integration and interpretation of perceived stimuli (i.e., reasoning biases). In previous studies, we were able to show that one of these reasoning biases, overconfidence in errors, can be modulated by drugs that act on the dopamine system, a major neurotransmitter system implicated in the pathogenesis of delusions and other psychotic symptoms. Another processing domain suggested to involve the dopamine system and to be abnormal in psychotic disorders is sensory perception. The present study aimed to investigate whether (lower-order) sensory perception and (higher-order) overconfidence in errors are similarly affected by dopaminergic modulation in healthy subjects. Thirty-four healthy individuals were assessed upon administration of l-dopa, placebo, or haloperidol within a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Variables of interest were hits and false alarms in an illusory perception paradigm requiring speeded detection of pictures over a noisy background, and subjective confidence ratings for correct and incorrect responses. There was a significant linear increase of false alarm rates from haloperidol to placebo to l-dopa, whereas hit rates were not affected by dopaminergic manipulation. As hypothesized, confidence in error responses was significantly higher with l-dopa compared to placebo. Moreover, confidence in erroneous responses significantly correlated with false alarm rates. These findings suggest that overconfidence in errors and aberrant sensory processing might be both interdependent and related to dopaminergic transmission abnormalities in patients with psychosis. PMID:25932015

  16. Crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor-1 and angiotensin-II in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells: role in neuroinflammation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I.; Borrajo, Ana; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been involved in longevity, neurodegeneration and aging-related dopaminergic degeneration. However, it is not known whether IGF-1 and angiotensin-II (AII) activate each other. In the present study, AII, via type 1 (AT1) receptors, exacerbated neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell death. AII, via AT1 receptors, also increased the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in microglial cells. IGF-1 inhibited RAS activity in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, and also inhibited the AII-induced increase in markers of the M1 microglial phenotype. Consistent with this, IGF-1 decreased dopaminergic neuron death induced by the neurotoxin MPP+ both in the presence and in the absence of glia. Intraventricular administration of AII to young rats induced a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in the nigral region. However, aged rats showed decreased levels of IGF-1 relative to young controls, even though RAS activity is known to be enhanced in aged animals. The study findings show that IGF-1 and the local RAS interact to inhibit or activate neuroinflammation (i.e. transition from the M1 to the M2 phenotype), oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration. The findings also show that this mechanism is impaired in aged animals. PMID:27167199

  17. Nesfatin-1 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the C-Raf–ERK1/2-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Li; Song, Ning; Du, Xi-Xun; Li, Yong; Xie, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Several brain-gut peptides have been reported to have a close relationship with the central dopaminergic system; one such brain-gut peptide is nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety peptide that is predominantly secreted by X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric glands, where ghrelin is also secreted. We previously reported that ghrelin exerted neuroprotective effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, which implied a role for ghrelin in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, we aim to clarify whether nesfatin-1 has similar effects on dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro. We show that nesfatin-1 attenuates the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. In addition, nesfatin-1 antagonized 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridillium ion (MPP+)-induced toxicity by restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting cytochrome C release and preventing caspase-3 activation in MPP+-treated MES23.5 dopaminergic cells. These neuroprotective effects could be abolished by selective inhibition of C-Raf and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our data suggest that C-Raf-ERK1/2, which is involved in an anti-apoptotic pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 in the context of MPTP-induced toxicity. These results imply that nesfatin-1 might have therapeutic potential for PD. PMID:28106099

  18. Comparative assessment of 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine and 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-dopa to evaluate dopaminergic presynaptic integrity in a Parkinson's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Guillaume; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Michel, Anne; Hustadt, Fabian; Garraux, Gaëtan; Luxen, André; Lemaire, Christian; Plenevaux, Alain

    2017-03-10

    Because of the progressive loss of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals in Parkinson's disease (PD), in vivo quantitative imaging of dopamine (DA) containing neurons in animal models of PD is of critical importance in the preclinical evaluation of highly awaited disease-modifying therapies. Among existing methods, the high sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) is attractive to achieve that goal. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative comparison of brain images obtained in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats using two dopaminergic PET radiotracers, namely [(18) F]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine ([(18) F]FDOPA) and 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine ([(18) F]FMT). Because the imaging signal is theoretically less contaminated by metabolites, we hypothesized that the latter would show stronger relationship with behavioural and post-mortem measures of striatal dopaminergic deficiency. We used a within-subject design to measure striatal [(18) F]FMT and [(18) F]FDOPA uptake in eight partially lesioned, eight fully lesioned and ten sham-treated rats. Animals were pretreated with an L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor. A catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor was also given before [(18) F]FDOPA PET. Quantitative estimates of striatal uptake were computed using conventional graphical Patlak method. Striatal dopaminergic deficiencies were measured with apomorphine-induced rotations and post-mortem striatal DA content. We observed a strong relationship between [(18) F]FMT and [(18) F]FDOPA estimates of decreased uptake in the denervated striatum using the tissue-derived uptake rate constant Kc . However, only [(18) F]FMT Kc succeeded to discriminate between the partial and the full 6-OHDA lesion and correlated well with the post-mortem striatal DA content. This study indicates that the [(18) F]FMT could be more sensitive, with respect of [(18) F]FDOPA, to investigate DA terminals loss in 6-OHDA rats, and open the way to in vivo L

  19. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopaminergic/cholinergic interactions in the baboon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; King, P.T.; Alexoff, D.L.; Volkow, N.D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and the muscarinic cholinergic system in the corpus striatum of adult female baboons (Papio anubis) were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with (18F)N-methylspiroperidol (( 18F)NMSP) (to probe D2 receptor availability) and (N-11C-methyl)benztropine (to probe muscarinic cholinergic receptor availability). Pretreatment with benztropine, a long-lasting anticholinergic drug, bilaterally reduced the incorporation of radioactivity in the corpus striatum but did not alter that observed in the cerebellum or the rate of metabolism of (18F)NMSP in plasma. Pretreatment with unlabelled NMSP, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, reduced the incorporation of (N-11C-methyl)benztropine in all brain regions, with the greatest effect being in the corpus striatum greater than cortex greater than thalamus greater than cerebellum, but did not alter the rate of metabolism of the labelled benztropine in the plasma. These reductions in the incorporation of either (18F)NMSP or (N-11C-methyl)benztropine exceeded the normal variation in tracer incorporation in repeated studies in the same animal. This study demonstrates that PET can be used as a tool for investigating interactions between neurochemically different yet functionally linked neurotransmitters systems in vivo and provides insight into the consequences of multiple pharmacologic administration.

  20. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics induced by tebufenpyrad and pyridaben in a dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2015-01-01

    as an early neurotoxicological high-throughput index for assessing the risk that pesticides pose to the dopaminergic neuronal system. PMID:26141520

  1. Midbrain dopaminergic axons are guided longitudinally through the diencephalon by Slit/Robo signals.

    PubMed

    Dugan, James P; Stratton, Andrea; Riley, Hilary P; Farmer, W Todd; Mastick, Grant S

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons from the ventral mesencephalon/diencephalon (mesodiencephalon) form vital pathways constituting the majority of the brain's dopamine systems. Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons extend longitudinal projections anteriorly through the diencephalon, ascending toward forebrain targets. The mechanisms by which mdDA axons initially navigate through the diencephalon are poorly understood. Recently the Slit family of secreted axon guidance proteins, and their Robo receptors, have been identified as important guides for descending longitudinal axons. To test the potential roles of Slit/Robo guidance in ascending trajectories, we examined tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) projections from mdDA neurons in mutant mouse embryos. We found that mdDA axons grow out of and parallel to Slit-positive ventral regions within the diencephalon, and that subsets of the mdDA axons likely express Robo1 and possibly also Robo2. Slit2 was able to directly inhibit TH axon outgrowth in explant co-culture assays. The mdDA axons made significant pathfinding errors in Slit1/2 and Robo1/2 knockout mice, including spreading out in the diencephalon to form a wider tract. The wider tract resulted from a combination of invasion of the ventral midline, consistent with Slit repulsion, but also axons wandering dorsally, away from the ventral midline. Aberrant dorsal trajectories were prominent in Robo1 and Robo1/2 knockout mice, suggesting that an aspect of Robo receptor function is Slit-independent. These results indicate that Slit/Robo signaling is critical during the initial establishment of dopaminergic pathways, with roles in the dorsoventral positioning and precise pathfinding of these ascending longitudinal axons.

  2. The Role of Spinal Dopaminergic Transmission in the Analgesic Effect of Nefopam on Rat Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yun; Chae, Joo Wung; Lim, Chang Hun; Heo, Bong Ha; Park, Keun Suk; Lee, Hyung Gon; Choi, Jeong Il; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam has been known as an inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines, and the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic system has been focused on as a mechanism of its analgesic action. Here we investigated the role of the spinal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the antinociceptive effect of nefopam administered intravenously or intrathecally. Methods The effects of intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam were examined using the rat formalin test. Then we performed a microdialysis study to confirm the change of extracellular dopamine concentration in the spinal dorsal horn by nefopam. To determine whether the changes of dopamine level are associated with the nefopam analgesia, its mechanism was investigated pharmacologically via pretreatment with sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist. Results When nefopam was administered intravenously the flinching responses in phase I of the formalin test were decreased, but not those in phase II of the formalin test were decreased. Intrathecally injected nefopam reduced the flinching responses in both phases of the formalin test in a dose dependent manner. Microdialysis study revealed a significant increase of the level of dopamine in the spinal cord by intrathecally administered nefopam (about 3.8 fold the baseline value) but not by that administered intravenously. The analgesic effects of intrathecally injected nefopam were not affected by pretreatment with sulpiride, and neither were those of the intravenous nefopam. Conclusions Both the intravenously and intrathecally administered nefopam effectively relieved inflammatory pain in rats. Nefopam may act as an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake when delivered into the spinal cord. However, the analgesic mechanism of nefopam may not involve the dopaminergic transmission at the spinal level. PMID:27413481

  3. Calcium Homeostatasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Dopaminergic Neurons of the Substantia Nigra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Dempster (Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland ; UK). Data was summarized either using box-plots showing median values for small sample sizes (n=6-10...Vortherms, T. Kitada, C. Costa, Y. Tong, G.Martella, A. Tscherter, A.Martins, G. Bernardi, B.L. Roth , E.N. Pothos, P. Calabresi, J. Shen, Nigrostriatal

  4. Pharmacogenetic activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons induces hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujie; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ju-En; Luo, Minmin

    2013-10-01

    Dopaminergic neurons regulate and organize numerous important behavioral processes including motor activity. Consistently, manipulation of brain dopamine concentrations changes animal activity levels. Dopamine is synthesized by several neuronal populations in the brain. This study was carried out to directly test whether selective activation of dopamine neurons in the midbrain induces hyperactivity. A pharmacogenetic approach was used to activate midbrain dopamine neurons, and behavioral assays were conducted to determine the effects on mouse activity levels. Transgenic expression of the evolved hM3Dq receptor was achieved by infusing Cre-inducible AAV viral vectors into the midbrain of DAT-Cre mice. Neurons were excited by injecting the hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Mouse locomotor activity was measured in an open field. The results showed that CNO selectively activated midbrain dopaminergic neurons and induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent manner, supporting the idea that these neurons play an important role in regulating motor activity.

  5. On some relationships between dopaminergic and serotoninergic mechanisms in pentylenetetrazol convulsions in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, M; Roussinov, K

    1979-01-01

    Experiments with pentylenetetrazol convulsion model in albino mice--80 mg/kg subcutaneously--have revealed the following. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT, introduced intracerebroventricularly in a dose of 100 micrograms per mouse is eliminated by 500 mg/kg L-DOPA, 100 mg/kg amantadine, 5 mg/kg amphetamine and apomorphine, while for lower doses of the dopaminergic agent only a tendency towards antagonism is observed. The inhibitory effect of 50HTP in a dose of 200 mg/kg i. p. is eliminated by 500 mg/kg L-DOPA, 50 mg/kg amantadine and 5 mg/kg amphetamine, but it is not influenced by these drugs in doses of 250 mg/kg L-DOPA, 25 mg/kg amantadine and 5 mg/kg apomorphine, although when applied independently L-DOPA and amantadine in these lower doses potentiate convulsive reactions. The results obtained show that the dopaminergic and 5-HT-ergic systems have an antagonist effect on the convulsive reactivity in the case of pentylenetetrazol convulsion model. These results are in agreement with our views about the determining role of the balance between the various neurotransmitter systems in convulsive-seizure reactions.

  6. Prostaglandin-dependent modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission elicits inflammation-induced aversion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Michael; Klawonn, Anna M.; Nilsson, Anna; Singh, Anand Kumar; Zajdel, Joanna; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel; Lazarus, Michael; Löfberg, Andreas; Jaarola, Maarit; Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn; Billiar, Timothy R.; Hackam, David J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Jakobsson, Johan; Schwaninger, Markus; Schütz, Günther; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan; Saper, Clifford B.; Blomqvist, Anders; Engblom, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation causes malaise and general feelings of discomfort. This fundamental aspect of the sickness response reduces the quality of life for people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases and is a nuisance during mild infections like common colds or the flu. To investigate how inflammation is perceived as unpleasant and causes negative affect, we used a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with inflammation-induced discomfort. Using a combination of cell-type–specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we found that systemic inflammation triggered aversion through MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Further, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but that it constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic motivational circuitry is a key mechanism underlying the negative affect induced by inflammation. PMID:26690700

  7. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  8. The effects of neurochemical lesioning of dopaminergic terminals in early ontogenesis on behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Meshcherov, Sh K; Strel'tsov, V F

    2005-06-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine, which induces selective degeneration of the dopaminergic system of the brain, was given intraamniotically to rats on days 13 and 17 of intrauterine development at a dose of 75 microg/fetus. Similar experiments were performed with 6-hydroxydopamine on days 4 and 10 of neonatal life. Rats were subsequently reared and motor and emotional (dopamine-dependent) types of behavior were studied in adulthood, addressing behavior in the open field test, rotatory behavior, anxiety in an elevated cross maze, a place-preference conditioned response, acquisition of the ability to differentiate new and old arms in a Y maze, aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and self-stimulation in a Skinner box. Prenatal exposure, to a lesser extent than postnatal exposure, initiated rotatory and stereotypical behavior, decreased the level of anxiety (fear) in the elevated maze, and reinforced the effects of phenamine in the conditioned place-preference test, impaired the differentiation of old and new Y-maze arms, impaired aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and impaired self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. It is concluded that the early postnatal period of development is more sensitive to the action of this neurotoxin than the prenatal period. This is associated with the critical periods of the formation of the dopaminergic system during ontogenesis, which depend on synaptogenesis.

  9. Dopaminergic innervation of interneurons in the rat basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Courtney R.; Muller, Jay F.; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    The basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLC) receives a dense dopaminergic innervation that plays a critical role in the formation of emotional memory. Dopamine has been shown to influence the activity of BLC GABAergic interneurons, which differentially control the activity of pyramidal cells. However, little is known about how dopaminergic inputs interface with different interneuronal subpopulations in this region. To address this question, dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to examine inputs from tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH+) dopaminergic terminals to two different interneuronal populations in the rat basolateral nucleus labeled using antibodies to parvalbumin (PV) or calretinin (CR). The basolateral nucleus exhibited a dense innervation by TH+ axons. Partial serial section reconstruction of TH+ terminals found that at least 43–50% of these terminals formed synaptic junctions in the basolateral nucleus. All of the synapses examined were symmetrical. In both TH/PV and TH/CR preparations the main targets of TH+ terminals were spines and distal dendrites of unlabeled cells. In sections dual-labeled for TH/PV 59% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with PV+ neurons were synapses, whereas in sections dual-labeled for TH/CR only 13% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with CR+ cells were synapses. In separate preparations examined in complete serial sections for TH+ basket-like innervation of PV+ perikarya, most (76.2%) of TH+ terminal contacts with PV+ perikarya were synapses. These findings suggest that PV+ interneurons, but not CR+ interneurons, are prominent synaptic targets of dopaminergic terminals in the BLC. PMID:18948174

  10. Interaction of Synuclein and Inflammation in Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    and Parkinson’s disease . Neurosci Lett 211: 13-16, 1996. Liberatore G, Jackson-Lewis V, Vukosavic S , Mandir AS, Vila M, McAuliffe WJ, Dawson VL...Dawson TM and Przedborski S . Inducible nitric oxide synthase stimulates dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson disease . Nat Med 5...Parkinson’s disease neurodegeneration. PNAS (USA) 100: 5473-5478, 2003 Przedborski S , Chen Q, Vila M, Giasson BI, Djaldatti R, Vukosavic S , Souza

  11. Neuromelanin Imaging and Dopaminergic Loss in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Trujillo, Paula; Summers, Paul; Marotta, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Pezzoli, Gianni; Zecca, Luigi; Costa, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is a loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra. Our main objective was to determine the correspondence between changes in the substantia nigra, evident in neuromelanin and iron sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dopaminergic striatal innervation loss in patients with PD. Eighteen patients and 18 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Using neuromelanin-MRI, we measured the volume of the substantia nigra and the contrast-to-noise-ratio between substantia nigra and a background region. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility of the substantia nigra were calculated from dual-echo MRI. Striatal dopaminergic innervation was measured as density of dopamine transporter (DAT) by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and [123I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) tropane. Patients showed a reduced volume of the substantia nigra and contrast-to-noise-ratio and both positively correlated with the corresponding striatal DAT density. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility values of the substantia nigra did not differ between patients and healthy controls. The best predictor of DAT reduction was the volume of the substantia nigra. Clinical and imaging correlations were also investigated for the locus coeruleus. Our results suggest that neuromelanin-MRI can be used for quantifying substantia nigra pathology in PD where it closely correlates with dopaminergic striatal innervation loss. Longitudinal studies should further explore the role of Neuromelanin-MRI as an imaging biomarker of PD, especially for subjects at risk of developing the disease. PMID:27597825

  12. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson’s disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Lindsey G.; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R.; Folley, Bradley S.; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E.; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function. PMID:25653616

  13. Dopamine gates action potential backpropagation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gentet, Luc J; Williams, Stephen R

    2007-02-21

    Dopamine is released from both axonal and somatodendritic sites of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an action potential-dependent manner. In contrast to the majority of central neurons, the axon of dopaminergic neurons typically originates from a dendritic site, suggesting a specialized computational function. Here, we examine the initiation and spread of action potentials in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and reveal that the displacement of the axon to a dendritic site allows highly compartmentalized electrical signaling. In response to a train of synaptic input, action potentials initiated at axon-bearing dendritic sites formed a variable trigger for invasion to the soma and contralateral dendritic tree, with action potentials often confined to the axon-bearing dendrite. The application of dopamine increased this form of electrical compartmentalization, an effect mediated by a tonic membrane potential hyperpolarization leading to an increased availability of a class of voltage-dependent potassium channel. These data suggest that the release of dopamine from axonal and somatodendritic sites are dissociable, and that dopamine levels within the midbrain are dynamically controlled by the somatodendritic spread of action potentials.

  14. Dopamine selectively sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to rotenone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ferogh A; Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Poczobutt, Andy M; Jones, Susan M; Snell, Laurence D; Das, Mita; Zawada, W Michael

    2008-05-01

    Among various types of neurons affected in Parkinson's disease, dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra undergo the most pronounced degeneration. Products of DA oxidation and consequent cellular damage have been hypothesized to contribute to neuronal death. To examine whether elevated intracellular DA will selectively predispose the dopaminergic subpopulation of nigral neurons to damage by an oxidative insult, we first cultured rat primary mesencephalic cells in the presence of rotenone to elevate reactive oxygen species. Although MAP2(+) neurons were more sensitive to rotenone-induced toxicity than type 1 astrocytes, rotenone affected equally both DA (TH(+)) neurons and MAP2(+) neurons. In contrast, when intracellular DA concentration was elevated, DA neurons became selectively sensitized to rotenone. Raising intracellular DA levels in primary DA neurons resulted in dopaminergic neuron death in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of rotenone. Furthermore, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, blocked activation of caspase-3, and consequent cell death. Our results demonstrate that an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and increased cytosolic DA may cooperatively lead to conditions of elevated oxidative stress and thereby promote selective demise of dopaminergic neurons.

  15. Social modulation during songbird courtship potentiates midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Hessler, Neal A

    2008-10-01

    Synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons of the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be potentiated by acute or chronic exposure to addictive drugs. Because rewarding behavior, such as social affiliation, can activate the same neural circuitry as addictive drugs, we tested whether the intense social interaction of songbird courtship may also potentiate VTA synaptic function. We recorded glutamatergic synaptic currents from VTA of male zebra finches who had experienced distinct social and behavioral conditions during the previous hour. The level of synaptic transmission to VTA neurons, as assayed by the ratio of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor mediated synaptic currents, was increased after males sang to females, and also after they saw females without singing, but not after they sang while alone. Potentiation after female exposure alone did not appear to result from stress, as it was not blocked by inhibition of glucocorticoid receptors. This potentiation was restricted to synapses of dopaminergic projection neurons, and appeared to be expressed postsynaptically. This study supports a model in which VTA dopaminergic neurons are more strongly activated during singing used for courtship than during non-courtship singing, and thus can provide social context-dependent modulation to forebrain areas. More generally, these results demonstrate that an intense social encounter can trigger the same pathways of neuronal plasticity as addictive drugs.

  16. Rapid signaling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward

    PubMed Central

    Howe, MW; Dombeck, DA

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic projections from the midbrain to striatum are critical for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson’s disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signaling (~100ms bursts) to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signaling. The leading model posits that phasic signaling in striatum targeting dopamine neurons drive reward-based learning, while slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, despite widespread acceptance of this model, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute it. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signaling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that was associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those signaling during unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision and suggest that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders. PMID:27398617

  17. Dopaminergic regulation of dendritic calcium: fast multisite calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Oikonomou, Katerina D; Short, Shaina M; Antic, Srdjan D

    2013-01-01

    Optimal dopamine tone is required for the normal cortical function; however it is still unclear how cortical-dopamine-release affects information processing in individual cortical neurons. Thousands of glutamatergic inputs impinge onto elaborate dendritic trees of neocortical pyramidal neurons. In the process of ensuing synaptic integration (information processing), a variety of calcium transients are generated in remote dendritic compartments. In order to understand the cellular mechanisms of dopaminergic modulation it is important to know whether and how dopaminergic signals affect dendritic calcium transients. In this chapter, we describe a relatively inexpensive method for monitoring dendritic calcium fluctuations at multiple loci across the pyramidal dendritic tree, at the same moment of time (simultaneously). The experiments have been designed to measure the amplitude, time course and spatial extent of action potential-associated dendritic calcium transients before and after application of dopaminergic drugs. In the examples provided here the dendritic calcium transients were evoked by triggering the somatic action potentials (backpropagation-evoked), and puffs of exogenous dopamine were applied locally onto selected dendritic branches.

  18. Parthanatos Mediates AIMP2 Activated Age Dependent Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yun-Il; Ko, Han Seok; Swing, Debbie; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Donghoon; Tessarollo, Lino; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2013-01-01

    The defining pathogenic feature of Parkinson’s disease is the age dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations and inactivation of parkin, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, cause Parkinson’s disease through accumulation of pathogenic substrates. Here we show that transgenic overexpression of the parkin substrate, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2) leads to a selective, age-dependent progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons via activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). AIMP2 accumulation in vitro and in vivo results in PARP1 overactivation and dopaminergic cell toxicity via direct association of these proteins in the nucleus providing a new path to PARP1 activation other than DNA damage. Inhibition of PARP1 through gene deletion or drug inhibition reverses behavioral deficits and protects in vivo against dopamine neuron death in AIMP2 transgenic mice. These data indicate that brain permeable PARP inhibitors could be effective in delaying or preventing disease progression in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23974709

  19. Parkinson's Disease Severity and Use of Dopaminergic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, John Y.; Pérez, Adriana; Christine, Chadwick W.; Leehey, Maureen; Aminoff, Michael J.; Boyd, James T.; Morgan, John C.; Dhall, Rohit; Nicholas, Anthony P; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; Zweig, Richard M.; Goudreau, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can vary depending on the class of medication selected. Objective The aim of this post hoc study was to determine if the class of dopaminergic therapy correlated with disease severity in persons with early, treated PD. Methods A non-parametric global statistical test (GST) was used to assess the status of participants treated with dopamine agonist (DA) monotherapy, levodopa (LD) monotherapy or combined LD and DA therapy on multiple PD outcomes encompassing motor, cognitive, psychiatric and autonomic function, as well as disability and quality of life. Results The outcomes measured at the beginning of the study showed lower disease burden for participants on initial DA monotherapy compared to those taking combined LD and DA therapy after controlling for age, education, taking cogmeds and amantadine. Conclusion This observation suggests that clinicians treating early PD patients favor combined LD and DA therapy in patients with more disabling features over DA monotherapy. As such, studies of PD progression in treated PD patients may be affected by the class of symptomatic dopaminergic therapy. PMID:25541182

  20. Dopaminergic Reward Sensitivity Can Promote Adolescent Health: A New Perspective on the Mechanism of Ventral Striatum Activation

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing view in the field of adolescent brain development is that heightened activity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system serves as a liability, orienting adolescents towards risky behaviors, increasing their sensitivity to social evaluation and loss, and resulting in compromised well-being. Several findings inconsistent with this deficit view challenge the perspective that adolescent reward sensitivity largely serves as a liability and highlights the potential adaptive function that heightened striatal reactivity can serve. The goal of this review is to refine our understanding of dopaminergic reward sensitivity in adolescence. I review several studies showing that ventral striatum activation serves an adaptive function for adolescents’ health and well being relating to declines in both risk taking and depression and increases in cognitive persistence and achievement. PMID:26708774

  1. Age-dependent dopaminergic dysfunction following fetal exposure to atrazine in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanshu; Sun, Yan; Yang, Junwei; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jia; Li, Baixiang

    2014-05-01

    The herbicide, atrazine (ATR), is used worldwide and its contamination in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. It has also been shown that ATR results in dopaminergic neurotoxicity, however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of ATR following in utero exposure. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ATR exposure in Sprague Dawley rats during gestational on the offspring dopaminergic system development. Pregnant dams were treated with oral ATR at 0, 25, 50 mg/kg/day from gestational day 0 to postnatal day 1. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that ATR could cross the placental barrier and have long-term adverse effects on the synthesis, degradation and reuptake of DA in the brain. For this purpose,we examine the concentration of levodopa (L-DA), dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in stratum. The mRNA and protein expression of orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), vesicular monoaminetransporter 2 (VMAT2), dopamine transporter (DAT), monoamine (MAO), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) in the midbrain were examined by fluorescence PCR and Western blot when the offspring reached six-month old or one year old .When measured 6 months post-treatment, the level of DA and expression of Nurr1, VMAT2, DAT and TH were reduced in the striatum and Substantia nigra, respectively.

  2. PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DOPAMINERGIC GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Nemoda, Zsofia; Szekely, Anna; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine hypotheses of several psychiatric disorders are based upon the clinical benefits of drugs affecting dopamine transporter or receptors, and have prompted intensive candidate gene research within the dopaminergic system during the last two decades. The aim of this review is to survey the most important findings concerning dopaminergic gene polymorphisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance abuse. Also, genetic findings of related phenotypes, such as inattention, impulsivity, aggressive behavior, and novelty seeking personality trait are presented, because recent studies have applied quantitative trait measures using questionnaires, symptom scales, or other objective endophenotypes. Unfortunately, genetic variants with minor effects are problematic to detect in these complex inheritance disorders, often leading to contradictory results. The most consistent association findings relate to ADHD and the dopamine transporter and the dopamine D4 receptor genes. Meta-analyses also support the association between substance abuse and the D2 receptor gene. The dopamine catabolizing enzyme genes, such as monoamine oxidase A and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes, have been linked to aggressive behaviors. PMID:21527290

  3. PREDICTING ABUSE POTENTIAL OF STIMULANTS AND OTHER DOPAMINERGIC DRUGS: OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Naylor, Jennifer E.; Rowlett, James K.; Freeman, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of a drug’s abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. PMID:24662599

  4. On the physiology of jouissance: interpreting the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward functions from a psychoanalytic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Ariane; Detandt, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Jouissance is a Lacanian concept, infamous for being impervious to understanding and which expresses the paradoxical satisfaction that a subject may derive from his symptom. On the basis of Freud’s “experience of satisfaction” we have proposed a first working definition of jouissance as the (benefit gained from) the motor tension underlying the action which was [once] adequate in bringing relief to the drive and, on the basis of their striking reciprocal resonances, we have proposed that central dopaminergic systems could embody the physiological architecture of Freud’s concept of the drive. We have then distinguished two constitutive axes to jouissance: one concerns the subject’s body and the other the subject’s history. Four distinctive aspects of these axes are discussed both from a metapsychological and from a neuroscience point of view. We conclude that jouissance could be described as an accumulation of body tension, fuelling for action, but continuously balancing between reward and anxiety, and both marking the physiology of the body with the history of its commemoration and arising from this inscription as a constant push to act and to repeat. Moreover, it seems that the mesolimbic accumbens dopaminergic pathway is a reasonable candidate for its underlying physiological architecture. PMID:24223543

  5. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

    2001-01-01

    Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

  6. Effect of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway on GABA(A) receptor subunit gene expression in the rodent basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Chadha, A; Dawson, L G; Jenner, P G; Duty, S

    2000-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, changes in GABAergic activity occurring downstream of the striatal dopamine loss are accompanied by reciprocal changes in GABA(A) receptor binding, the underlying molecular mechanisms for which are unknown. This study examined whether changes in expression of the genes encoding known GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha(1-4), beta(1-3), gamma(1-3) and delta) could account for this receptor plasticity using a rodent model of Parkinson's disease with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Analysis of autoradiograms of the basal ganglia and thalamus revealed changes in expression of only four of the 11 subunits studied. Expression of alpha1 and beta2 subunit genes was altered in a parallel manner following a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion; messenger RNA levels for both were significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (11 +/- 4% and 17 +/- 1%, respectively), and significantly reduced in the globus pallidus (18 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 3%, respectively) and parafascicular nucleus (19 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 5%, respectively). Smaller changes in the messenger RNA levels encoding the alpha1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (8 +/- 1% decrease) and the alpha4 and gamma2 subunits in the striatum (10 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 1% increase, respectively) were also observed. No changes in expression were noted for any other subunits in any region studied. Clearly, both region- and subunit-specific regulation of GABA(A) receptor subunit gene expression occurs following a nigrostriatal tract lesion. The changes in expression of the alpha1 and beta2 subunit genes probably contribute to the documented changes in GABA(A) receptor binding following striatal dopamine depletion. Moreover, they provide a molecular basis by which the pathological changes in GABAergic activity in Parkinson's disease may be partially compensated.

  7. Activation of mTor Signaling by Gene Transduction to Induce Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System Following Neural Injury (Addendum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    the surviving dopamine neurons by use of an AAV1 vector with either a constitutively active mutant of the Akt kinase (myristoylated-Akt (MYR-Akt...4) or hRheb(S16H), a constitutively active mutant of the Rheb GTPase (5, 6). Rheb GTPase is activated by Akt and it is a direct activator of the...YEAR 01: To determine whether p70S6K or a constitutively active mutant , or both, are mediators of axon growth in the dopaminergic nigro-striatal

  8. Dopaminergic and cholinergic modulations of visual-spatial attention and working memory: insights from molecular genetic research and implications for adult cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Passow, Susanne; Biesenack, Julia; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-05-01

    Attention and working memory are fundamental for selecting and maintaining behaviorally relevant information. Not only do both processes closely intertwine at the cognitive level, but they implicate similar functional brain circuitries, namely the frontoparietal and the frontostriatal networks, which are innervated by cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Here we review the literature on cholinergic and dopaminergic modulations of visual-spatial attention and visual working memory processes to gain insights on aging-related changes in these processes. Some extant findings have suggested that the cholinergic system plays a role in the orienting of attention to enable the detection and discrimination of visual information, whereas the dopaminergic system has mainly been associated with working memory processes such as updating and stabilizing representations. However, since visual-spatial attention and working memory processes are not fully dissociable, there is also evidence of interacting cholinergic and dopaminergic modulations of both processes. We further review gene-cognition association studies that have shown that individual differences in visual-spatial attention and visual working memory are associated with acetylcholine- and dopamine-relevant genes. The efficiency of these 2 transmitter systems declines substantially during healthy aging. These declines, in part, contribute to age-related deficits in attention and working memory functions. We report novel data showing an effect of dopamine COMT gene on spatial updating processes in older but not in younger adults, indicating potential magnification of genetic effects in old age.

  9. A new digitized method of the compulsive gnawing test revealed dopaminergic activity of salvinorin A in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Stephen M; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-09-01

    The compulsive gnawing (CG) test has been used for numerous years as an assay to determine the dopaminergic activity of various compounds. We developed a new method of quantification via a digitization step which allowed a more precise measurement of the gnawing activity. It was the aim of the present study to explore possible dopaminergic effects of salvinorin A (SA), the major active compound of Salvia divinorum, using the new digitized CG test. A group of experiments using male C57BL/6 mice were performed to validate the new method of quantification showing only significant increases of gnawing when the dopamine reuptake inhibitors buproprion (20 mg/kg, p.0.) and nomifensine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were given concomitantly with apomorphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Different concentrations of the SA (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested with positive dopaminergic activity when administered with apomorphine which differed from the semisynthetic counterpart U-69593. Furthermore, the activity observed with SA was unsuccessfully antagonized by the κ-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (NorBNI; 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), while the dopamine antagonist haloperidol did successfully block (0.06 mg/kg, i.p.) the gnawing activity seen with SA. Our data further strengthen the argument that salvinorin A is not a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist and is the first in vivo study that veers from salvinorin A acting solely like its synthetic counterparts. Furthermore, the digitized CG test system used in this study provides a new computational method to accurately detect behavior associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  10. [Novel central dopaminergic agents derived from atypical di-substituted 2-aminoindane-4, 7. Synthesis and central pharmacological profile].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Mavárez, Rosa Elena; Urdaneta-Gutierrez, Noribel Coromoto; Porta-Knabenschuh, Nicole; Rodríguez-Villasmil, Lucía Chiquinquirá; Rosales-Peña, Cecire Carolina; Espinoza, Gustavo Adolfo; Angel-Migliore, Ligia Biagina; Balza-Jiménez, Katherin del Carmen; Perdomo-Zavarce, Luis Eduardo; Faría-Quintero, Andrés Rafael; Dabian-Makarem, Akram Samear; Zapata-Cárdenas, Mariana Vanessa; Linero-Arrieta, Aarón Raúl; Acurero-Castellano, Gustavo Adolfo; Israel-Stern, Anita; Rosario Garrido, María; Suárez-Roca, Heberto; Migliore de Angel, Biagina del Carmen; Lopez-D'Sola, Simón Enrique; Charris-Charris, Jaime; Ramírez-Moran, María Matilde; Angel-Guío, Jorge Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, many compounds with central dopaminergic activity have been designed, synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically. However, it has not been possible to obtain a drug able to improve or cure diseases involving dopaminergic regulation in the central nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, among others. Taking into consideration the term "atypical pharmacophore" and from the compound 5, the aralkyl fragment was incorporated, and the compounds 10, 11, 13a-h and 14a-h were synthesized. Both the compounds 10 and 13a-h under its methoxylated form and the compounds 11 and 14a-h under the phenolic form, were evaluated to determine their pharmacologically agonistic and antagonistic effects on central dopaminergic activity. For this, the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of said compounds on the hydromineral balance and stereotyped behavior in rats, was determined. The results of the preliminary pharmacological evaluation show a centrally acting action through dopamine mechanisms, in which the compounds 10, 11, 13d-h and 14a showed responses as agonists, whereas compounds 14b-h, had responses as antagonists.

  11. Early stress and chronic methylphenidate cross-sensitize dopaminergic responses in the adolescent medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Grzegorz; Zehle, Stefanie; Bock, Joerg; Braun, Katharina; Gruss, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) is widely used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. However, basic research has been mainly focused on MP treatment in adult, behaviorally normal rodents. Here we analyzed MP-evoked changes of dopamine (DA) release in the limbic system of juvenile rodents with hyperactive and attention deficit-like symptoms. Using dual probe in vivo microdialysis, DA levels were quantified in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of juvenile and adolescent degus (Octodon degus). Acute stress- and acute MP-evoked dopaminergic responses in normal juvenile and adolescent animals were compared with (i) animals showing symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficits induced by early life stress, i.e. repeated parental separation during the first 3 weeks of life, and (ii) animals chronically treated with MP during pre-adolescence. Our main results revealed that (i) early life stress and (ii) chronic MP treatment during pre-adolescence cross-sensitize limbic dopaminergic functions in adolescent animals. Furthermore, we demonstrated a unique pattern of acute MP-evoked DA release in the juvenile compared with the adolescent medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Our findings that the functional maturation of dopaminergic limbic function is significantly altered by early life experience, i.e. repeated parental separation and chronic MP treatment, allow novel insights into the etiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and into the long-term consequences of MP treatment on brain development.

  12. Chronic adolescent exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in COMT mutant mice: impact on indices of dopaminergic, endocannabinoid and GABAergic pathways.

    PubMed

    Behan, Aine T; Hryniewiecka, Magdalena; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Kinsella, Anthony; Cannon, Mary; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Waddington, John L; Cotter, David R

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis use confers a two-fold increase in risk for psychosis, with adolescent use conferring an even greater risk. A high-low activity polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a gene encoding the COMT enzyme involved in dopamine clearance in the brain, may interact with adolescent cannabis exposure to increase risk for schizophrenia. The impact of such an interaction on central neurotransmitter pathways implicated in schizophrenia is unknown. Male mice with knockout of the COMT gene were treated chronically with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence (postnatal day 32-52). We measured the size and density of GABAergic cells and the protein expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) in knockout mice relative to heterozygous mutants and wild-type controls. Size and density of dopaminergic neurons was also assessed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) across the genotypes. COMT genotype × THC treatment interactions were observed for: (1) dopaminergic cell size in the VTA, (2) CB1R protein expression in the HPC, and (3) parvalbumin (PV) cell size in the PFC. No effects of adolescent THC treatment were observed for PV and dopaminergic cell density across the COMT genotypes. COMT genotype modulates the effects of chronic THC administration during adolescence on indices of neurotransmitter function in the brain. These findings illuminate how COMT deletion and adolescent cannabis use can interact to modulate the function of neurotransmitters systems implicated in schizophrenia.

  13. Unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway decreases the response of fast-spiking interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex to 5-HT1A receptor agonist and expression of the receptor in parvalbumin-positive neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gui, Z H; Zhang, Q J; Liu, J; Zhang, L; Ali, U; Hou, C; Fan, L L; Sun, Y N; Wu, Z H; Hui, Y P

    2011-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors are expressed in the prefrontal cortical interneurons. Among these interneurons, calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV)-positive fast spiking (FS) interneurons play an important role in regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, the response of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) FS interneurons to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and change in expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor on PV-positive neurons were examined in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) by using extracellular recording and double-labeling immunofluorescence histochemistry. Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT (1-243 μg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently inhibited the mean firing rate of the FS interneurons in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, respectively. The cumulative doses producing inhibition in the lesioned rats (243 μg/kg) was significantly higher than that of sham-operated rats (27 μg/kg). Furthermore, the local application of 8-OH-DPAT (0.01 μg) in the mPFC inhibited the FS interneurons in sham-operated rats, while having no effect on firing rate of the FS interneurons in the lesioned rats. In contrast to sham-operated rats, the lesion of the SNc in rats did not cause the change of PV-positive neurons in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, a subregion of the mPFC, whereas the lesion of the SNc markedly reduced in percentage of PV-positive neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors. Our results indicate that degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway results in the decreased response of FS interneurons in the mPFC to 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, which attributes to down-regulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor expression in these interneurons.

  14. Vulnerability of Mesostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Hernández, Tomás; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Salas-Hernandez, Josmar; Castro-Hernandez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The term vulnerability was first associated with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons 85 years ago, before they were identified as monoaminergic neurons, when Foix and Nicolesco (1925) reported the loss of neuromelanin containing neurons in the midbrain of patients with post-encephalitic Parkinson's disease (PD). A few years later, Hassler (1938) showed that degeneration is more intense in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra compacta than in its dorsal tier and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), outlining the concept of differential vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic (DA-) neurons. Nowadays, we know that other neuronal groups degenerate in PD, but the massive loss of nigral DA-cells is its pathological hallmark, having a pivotal position in the pathophysiology of the disease as it is responsible for the motor symptoms. Data from humans as well as cellular and animal models indicate that DA-cell degeneration is a complex process, probably precipitated by the convergence of different risk factors, mediated by oxidative stress, and involving pathogenic factors arising within the DA-neuron (intrinsic factors), and from its environment and distant interconnected brain regions (extrinsic factors). In light of current data, intrinsic factors seem to be preferentially involved in the first steps of the degenerative process, and extrinsic factors in its progression. A controversial issue is the relative weight of the impairment of common cell functions, such as energy metabolism and proteostasis, and specific dopaminergic functions, such as pacemaking activity and DA handling, in the pathogenesis of DA-cell degeneration. Here we will review the current knowledge about the relevance of these factors at the beginning and during the progression of PD, and in the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA-cells. PMID:21079748

  15. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic deficits in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Buddhala, Chandana; Loftin, Susan K; Kuley, Brandon M; Cairns, Nigel J; Campbell, Meghan C; Perlmutter, Joel S; Kotzbauer, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Objective People with Parkinson disease (PD) frequently develop dementia, which is associated with neocortical deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. In addition, neuronal loss and deposition of aggregated α-syn also occur in multiple subcortical nuclei that project to neocortical, limbic, and basal ganglia regions. Therefore, we quantified regional deficits in innervation from these PD-affected subcortical nuclei, by measuring the neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter transporter proteins originating from projections of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphé nuclei, noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus, and cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography and novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to quantify dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic innervation in postmortem brain tissue. Eight brain regions from 15 PD participants (with dementia and Braak stage 6 α-syn deposition) and six age-matched controls were tested. Results PD participants compared to controls had widespread reductions of dopamine transporter in caudate, amygdala, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), precuneus, and visual association cortex (VAC) that exceeded loss of dopamine, which was only significantly reduced in caudate and amygdala. In contrast, PD participants had comparable deficits of both serotonin and serotonin transporter in caudate, middle frontal gyrus, IPL, and VAC. PD participants also had significantly reduced norepinephrine levels for all eight brain regions tested. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels were only quantifiable in caudate and hippocampus and did not differ between PD and control groups. Interpretation These results demonstrate widespread deficits in dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic innervation of neocortical, limbic, and basal ganglia regions in advanced

  16. Functional properties of dopaminergic neurones in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Angela; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okano, Hideyuki; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals contains a large population of dopaminergic interneurones within the glomerular layer. Dopamine has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to modulate several aspects of olfactory information processing, but the functional properties of dopaminergic neurones have never been described due to the inability to recognize these cells in living preparations. To overcome this difficulty, we used a transgenic mouse strain harbouring an eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter construct under the promoter of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cathecolamine synthesis. As a result, we were able to identify dopaminergic neurones (TH-GFP cells) in living preparations and, for the first time, we could study the functional properties of such neurones in the olfactory bulb, in both slices and dissociated cells. The most prominent feature of these cells was the autorhythmicity. In these cells we identified five main voltage-dependent conductances: the two having largest amplitude were a fast transient Na+ current and a delayed rectifier K+ current. In addition, we observed three smaller inward currents, sustained by Na+ ions (persistent type) and by Ca2+ ions (LVA and HVA). Using pharmacological tools and ion substitution methods we showed that the pacemaking process is supported by the interplay of the persistent Na+ current and of a T-type Ca2+ current. We carried out a complete kinetical analysis of the five conductances present in these cells, and developed a Hodgkin-Huxley model of TH-GFP cells, capable of reproducing accurately the properties of living cells, including autorhytmicity, and allowing a precise understanding of the process. PMID:15731185

  17. D₂-dopaminergic receptor-linked pathways: critical regulators of CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Malliou, Foteini; Konstandi, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Various hormonal and monoaminergic systems play determinant roles in the regulation of several cytochromes P450 (P450s) in the liver. Growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and insulin are involved in P450 regulation, and their release is under dopaminergic control. This study focused on the role of D₂-dopaminergic systems in the regulation of the major drug-metabolizing P450s, i.e., CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D. Blockade of D₂-dopaminergic receptors with either sulpiride (SULP) or 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ol (L-741,626) markedly down-regulated CYP3A1/2, CYP2C11, and CYP2D1 expression in rat liver. This suppressive effect appeared to be mediated by the insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, inactivation of the GH/STAT5b signaling pathway appeared to play a role in D₂-dopaminergic receptor-mediated down-regulating effects on these P450s. SULP suppressed plasma GH levels, with subsequently reduced activation of STAT5b, which is the major GH pulse-activated transcription factor and has up-regulating effects on various P450s in hepatic tissue. Levels of prolactin, which exerts down-regulating control on P450s, were increased by SULP, which may contribute to SULP-mediated effects. Finally, it appears that SULP-induced inactivation of the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP-response element-binding protein signaling pathway, which is a critical regulator of pregnane X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, and inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase contribute to SULP-induced down-regulation of the aforementioned P450s. Taken together, the present data provide evidence that drugs acting as D₂-dopaminergic receptor antagonists might interfere with several major signaling pathways involved in the regulation of CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D, which are critical enzymes in drug metabolism, thus affecting the effectiveness of the majority of prescribed drugs and the toxicity and carcinogenic potency of a plethora of

  18. Dopaminergic neurons modulate GABA neuron migration in the embryonic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Anju; Won, Chungkil; Li, Suyan; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Szabó, Gábor; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2012-09-01

    Neuronal migration, a key event during brain development, remains largely unexplored in the mesencephalon, where dopaminergic (DA) and GABA neurons constitute two major neuronal populations. Here we study the migrational trajectories of DA and GABA neurons and show that they occupy ventral mesencephalic territory in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Our results from the Pitx3-deficient aphakia mouse suggest that pre-existing DA neurons modulate GABA neuronal migration to their final destination, providing novel insights and fresh perspectives concerning neuronal migration and connectivity in the mesencephalon in normal as well as diseased brains.

  19. Dopaminergic effects on in vitro osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Joon; Tseng, Henry C; Wong, Sing Wai; Wang, Zhengyan; Deng, Meng; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Multiple growth factors (e.g., BMP2, TGF-β1, FGF2) and isolated genes have been shown to improve osteoblastic proliferation and mineralization, advancing bone tissue engineering. Among these factors, both polydopamine (PDA) and dopamine (DA) monomer have recently been reported to increase osteoblast proliferation and mineralization in vitro. Although a well-characterized neurotransmitter, DA’s role in the bone is unknown. We hypothesize that DA can directly act on osteoblasts, and examined whether osteoblasts express DA receptors that respond to exogenous DA. mRNAs and protein cell lysates were obtained from MC3T3-E1 cells during osteogenic differentiation phase. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to examine the expression of DA receptors, D1–D5. Dose-response effect and time course of DA treatment on cell proliferation, mineralization, and osteogenic differentiation were investigated at pre-determined days. Real-time PCR was performed to investigate whether DA affects osteogenic gene expression (ALP, BSP, OC, OSX, RUNX2, and Collagen1a2) with or without receptor antagonists (SCH233390 and GR103691). Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. All five DA receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mRNAs and proteins were expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells. DA treatment increased cell proliferation for up to 7 days (P < 0.05). Osteogenic mineralization was significantly greater in the DA-treated group than control group (P < 0.05). Finally, expression of all the osteogenic genes was inhibited by DA receptor antagonists for D1, D3, and D5. Our findings suggest that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts express functional DA receptors that enhance proliferation and mineralization. PDA is not biologically inert and has important implications in orthopedic applications. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation might be regulated by the nervous system, presumably during bone development, remodeling, or repair. PMID:26558139

  20. A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic neurons via disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samuel D; Perkel, David J

    2010-01-20

    Dopaminergic neurons in mammals respond to rewards and reward-predicting cues, and are thought to play an important role in learning actions or sensory cues that lead to reward. The anatomical sources of input that drive or modulate such responses are not well understood; these ultimately define the range of behavior to which dopaminergic neurons contribute. Primary rewards are not the immediate objective of all goal-directed behavior. For example, a goal of vocal learning is to imitate vocal-communication signals. Here, we demonstrate activation of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds driven by a basal ganglia region required for vocal learning, area X. Dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized zebra finches respond more strongly to the bird's own song (BOS) than to other sounds, and area X is critical for these responses. Direct pharmacological modulation of area X output, in the absence of auditory stimulation, is sufficient to bidirectionally modulate the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons. The only known pathway from song control regions to dopaminergic neurons involves a projection from area X to the ventral pallidum (VP), which in turn projects to dopaminergic regions. We show that VP neurons are spontaneously active and inhibited preferentially by BOS, suggesting that area X disinhibits dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting VP. Supporting this model, auditory-response latencies are shorter in area X than VP, and shorter in VP than dopaminergic neurons. Thus, dopaminergic neurons can be disinhibited selectively by complex sensory stimuli via input from the basal ganglia. The functional pathway we identify may allow dopaminergic neurons to contribute to vocal learning.

  1. [Molecular mechanism of brain regeneration and reconstruction of dopaminergic neural network in planarians].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2008-04-01

    Recently, planarians have received much attention because of their contributions to research on the basic science of stem cell systems, neural regeneration, and regenerative medicine. Planarians can regenerate complete organs, including a well-organized central nervous system (CNS), within about 7 days. This high regenerative capacity is supported by pluripotent stem cells present in the mesenchymal space throughout the body. Interestingly, planarians can regenerate their brain via a molecular mechanism similar to that of mammalian brain development. The regeneration process of the planarian brain can be divided into five steps: (1) anterior blastema formation, (2) brain rudiment formation, (3) brain pattern formation, (4) neural network formation, and (5) functional recovery, with several kinds of genes and molecular cascades acting at each step. Recently, we have identified a planarian tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, a rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, and produced TH-knockdown planarians by the RNA interference technique. Studies of TH-knockdown planarians showed that DA has an important role of the modification in behavioral movement in planarians. Using monoclonal anti-planarian TH antibody, we also found that dopaminergic neurons are mainly localized in the planarian brain. When the planarian body was amputated, newly generated TH-immunopositive neurons were detected in the anterior region at day 3 of regeneration (i.e., the period of neural network formation), and the TH-immunopositive axonal and dendritic neural network in the CNS was reconstructed during day 5-7 of regeneration. In this article, recent advances in elucidating the molecular mechanism of planarian brain regeneration and dopaminergic neurons are reviewed, and its future prospects for contribution of this system to basic science and medical science research are described.

  2. Modulation of the action of stress by ethanol on dopaminergic activity in the rat prefrontal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, A.A.; Vogel, W.H. )

    1992-02-26

    Both stress and ethanol, when administered individually, have been shown to affect dopamine (DA) and its metabolite (DOPAC) in the central nervous system. Stress can increase DA efflux in several areas of the brain, whereas ethanol has been shown to have variable effects on extracellular DA, either increasing DA or having no apparent effect. Furthermore, ethanol has been shown in microdissection studies to antagonize the effect of stress on the dopaminergic system, indicating an anxiety-reducing property of ethanol. However, the influence of the combination of stress and ethanol on the dopaminergic system has not been studied extensively with the newer technique of microdialysis. In this study, microdialysis was again used to characterize the interaction of immobilization stress and ethanol in the prefrontal cortex. Two groups of rats received either ethanol or saline in the resting state. A third group was immobilization stress and ethanol in the prefrontal cortex. Two groups of rats received either ethanol or saline in the resting state. A third group was immobilization Saline-treated animals showed essentially no changes in levels of DA or DOPAC. Ethanol had no effect on DA overflow in resting animals and caused only a small increase in DOPAC levels. Immobilization caused marked increases in DA levels and smaller increases in DOPAC. Ethanol pretreatment strongly reduced and antagonized the stress-induced increases in DA. However, ethanol potentiated the stress-induced increase in extracellular DOPAC. The authors data add biochemical evidence to the tension-reduction hypothesis of ethanol by perhaps implicating a reduction in the DA stress response by ethanol as a contributing factor in the development of alcoholism.

  3. Dopaminergic Receptors on CD4+ T Naive and Memory Lymphocytes Correlate with Motor Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kustrimovic, Natasa; Rasini, Emanuela; Legnaro, Massimiliano; Bombelli, Raffaella; Aleksic, Iva; Blandini, Fabio; Comi, Cristoforo; Mauri, Marco; Minafra, Brigida; Riboldazzi, Giulio; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich intraneuronal inclusions (Lewy bodies), and microglial activation. Emerging evidence suggests that CD4+ T lymphocytes contribute to neuroinflammation in PD. Since the mainstay of PD treatment is dopaminergic substitution therapy and dopamine is an established transmitter connecting nervous and immune systems, we examined CD4+ T naive and memory lymphocytes in PD patients and in healthy subjects (HS), with specific regard to dopaminergic receptor (DR) expression. In addition, the in vitro effects of α-syn were assessed on CD4+ T naive and memory cells. Results showed extensive association between DR expression in T lymphocytes and motor dysfunction, as assessed by UPDRS Part III score. In total and CD4+ T naive cells expression of D1-like DR decrease, while in T memory cells D2-like DR increase with increasing score. In vitro, α-syn increased CD4+ T memory cells, possibly to a different extent in PD patients and in HS, and affected DR expression with cell subset-specific patterns. The present results support the involvement of peripheral adaptive immunity in PD, and may contribute to develop novel immunotherapies for PD, as well as to better use of current dopaminergic antiparkinson drugs. PMID:27652978

  4. The Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Influences Axonal Projections and Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease.…

  5. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie A.; Syed, Emilie C. J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Magill, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson’s disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  6. A mutation in cnot8, component of the Ccr4-not complex regulating transcript stability, affects expression levels of developmental regulators and reveals a role of Fgf3 in development of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  7. A Mutation in cnot8, Component of the Ccr4-Not Complex Regulating Transcript Stability, Affects Expression Levels of Developmental Regulators and Reveals a Role of Fgf3 in Development of Caudal Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  8. Paradoxical Abatement of Striatal Dopaminergic Transmission by Cocaine and Methylphenidate*

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Mauro; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Ledonne, Ada; Rizzo, Francesca R.; Feligioni, Marco; Sulzer, Dave; Dunn, Matthew; Sames, Dalibor; Gu, Howard; Nisticò, Robert; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Mercuri, Nicola B.

    2014-01-01

    We combined in vitro amperometric, optical analysis of fluorescent false neurotransmitters and microdialysis techniques to unveil that cocaine and methylphenidate induced a marked depression of the synaptic release of dopamine (DA) in mouse striatum. In contrast to the classical dopamine transporter (DAT)-dependent enhancement of the dopaminergic signal observed at concentrations of cocaine lower than 3 μm, the inhibitory effect of cocaine was found at concentrations higher than 3 μm. The paradoxical inhibitory effect of cocaine and methylphenidate was associated with a decrease in synapsin phosphorylation. Interestingly, a cocaine-induced depression of DA release was only present in cocaine-insensitive animals (DAT-CI). Similar effects of cocaine were produced by methylphenidate in both wild-type and DAT-CI mice. On the other hand, nomifensine only enhanced the dopaminergic signal either in wild-type or in DAT-CI mice. Overall, these results indicate that cocaine and methylphenidate can increase or decrease DA neurotransmission by blocking reuptake and reducing the exocytotic release, respectively. The biphasic reshaping of DA neurotransmission could contribute to different behavioral effects of psychostimulants, including the calming ones, in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24280216

  9. Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed

    Mena, Auxiliadora; De la Casa, Luis G

    2013-09-01

    When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs.

  10. Dopaminergic influence on disturbed spatial discrimination in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Sohn, Young H

    2005-12-01

    Various sensory symptoms and disturbed sensory perception are often observed in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The basis of sensory disturbance in PD is unknown but possibly reflects a role for the basal ganglia in sensory processing. To investigate the relationship between the sensory dysfunction and dopaminergic deficiency in PD, we measured spatial discrimination using the Grating Orientation Task in 21 drug-naive patients with PD, before and after long-term antiparkinson therapy, and 25 age-matched healthy controls. The grating orientation threshold was significantly higher in patients (3.03 +/- 0.84) than controls (2.03 +/- 0.79). After 3 to 10 months of antiparkinson therapy, the grating orientation threshold was significantly lowered (2.66 +/- 0.84), although it was still higher than that in controls. Improvement in the patients' sensory function was significantly correlated with motor improvement (r = 0.44). These results suggest that sensory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is related at least in part to the dopaminergic deficit.

  11. Advances in non-dopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Stayte, Sandy; Vissel, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960's treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) have traditionally been directed to restore or replace dopamine, with L-Dopa being the gold standard. However, chronic L-Dopa use is associated with debilitating dyskinesias, limiting its effectiveness. This has resulted in extensive efforts to develop new therapies that work in ways other than restoring or replacing dopamine. Here we describe newly emerging non-dopaminergic therapeutic strategies for PD, including drugs targeting adenosine, glutamate, adrenergic, and serotonin receptors, as well as GLP-1 agonists, calcium channel blockers, iron chelators, anti-inflammatories, neurotrophic factors, and gene therapies. We provide a detailed account of their success in animal models and their translation to human clinical trials. We then consider how advances in understanding the mechanisms of PD, genetics, the possibility that PD may consist of multiple disease states, understanding of the etiology of PD in non-dopaminergic regions as well as advances in clinical trial design will be essential for ongoing advances. We conclude that despite the challenges ahead, patients have much cause for optimism that novel therapeutics that offer better disease management and/or which slow disease progression are inevitable. PMID:24904259

  12. ETHANOL ACTION ON DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN THE VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA: INTERACTION WITH INTRINSIC ION CHANNELS AND NEUROTRANSMITTER INPUTS

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Hitoshi; Morrisett, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The dopaminergic system originating in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been extensively studied over the past decades as a critical neural substrate involved in the development of alcoholism and addiction to other drugs of abuse. Accumulating evidence indicates that ethanol modulates the functional output of this system by directly affecting the firing activity of VTA dopamine neurons, whereas withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure leads to a reduction in the functional output of these neurons. This chapter will provide an update on the mechanistic investigations of the acute ethanol action on dopamine neuron activity and the neuroadaptations/plasticities in the VTA produced by previous ethanol experience. PMID:20813245

  13. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  14. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, S; Palmery, M; Romanelli, L; Cheng, C Y; Silvestrini, B

    1998-01-01

    The hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have mainly been attributed to the interaction of this drug with the serotoninergic system, but it seems more likely that they are the result of the complex interactions of the drug with both the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin secretion by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells as a model. LSD produced a dose-dependent inhibition of prolactin secretion in vitro with an IC50 at 1.7x10(-9) M. This action was antagonized by spiperone